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Sample records for learn chemical facts

  1. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  2. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  3. Chemical Agents: Facts about Sheltering in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place Format: Select ... What “sheltering in place” means Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may make going outdoors dangerous. ...

  4. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on classifying articles under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and determining the applicability of EPA’s articles exclusion policy for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. The primary goal of this document is to help the regulated community comply with the requirements of the CDR rule.

  5. Fast Facts about Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report explores the latest data concerning online and blended learning, enrollment, access, courses, and key policies indicators. It also reviews online learning statistics, trends, policy issues, and iNACOL strategic priorities. This report provides a snapshot view of state funding models for both full-time and supplemental online learning…

  6. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Imported Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance and sample reporting scenarios on the reporting exemption for the import of a chemical substance as part of an article, for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule.

  7. Facts about food irradiation: Chemical changes in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet addresses the safety of irradiated food. The irradiation process produces very little chemical change in food, and laboratory experiments have shown no harmful effects in animals fed with irradiated milk powder. 3 refs

  8. Digital Learning in California's K-12 Schools. Just the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Niu

    2015-01-01

    This fact page briefly discusses the following facts on digital learning in California's K-12: (1) As California implements new tests in its K-12 schools, technology infrastructure is a key concern; (2) Many districts are confident that they had enough bandwidth for online field tests; (3) Digital learning will require significantly greater…

  9. Contribution of Content Knowledge and Learning Ability to the Learning of Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; Hatano, Giyoo

    1991-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 1,598 Japanese college students were examined concerning the learning of facts in 2 content domains, baseball and music. Content knowledge facilitated fact learning only in the relevant domain; learning ability facilitated fact learning in both domains. Effects of content knowledge and learning ability were additive. (SLD)

  10. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemical Substances which are the Subject of Certain TSCA Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance for people who may be subject to the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule on how their requirements for reporting for 2016 may be affected when chemical substances are the subject of certain TSCA actions.

  11. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  12. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  13. Chemicals in food and allergy: fact and fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    be able ta change the balance from tolerance to IgE production; and (iv) they may trigger non-allergic intolerance reactions. With the present knowledge of chemicals in foods, the human exposure to these chemicals, and the described trends in this exposure, there is no supportive evidence confirming......The prevalence of the atopic diseases asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema has increased in the past two to three decades. It is not unusual to read the statement that food additives and other chemicals in food increase the risk of allergy. From a theoretical standpoint chemicals in the diet may...... influence allergic sensitization and elicitation in different ways: (i) they may directly cause allergy because they are allergens or haptens; (ii) they may act as adjuvants facilitating allergy to other (dietary) components; (iii) they may modulate the immune system by direct immunotoxicity and in theory...

  14. Physico-chemical properties of perturbed water: facts and enigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Elia

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of extremely diluted and agitated substances and solutions is strictly linked with the analysis of properties of water perturbed using different systems. This study is about the determination of the physical-chemical parameters of water, after the perturbations described. Methods The perturbed water was obtained using the three different protocols: · EDS (Extremely Diluted Solutions). Obtained through an iterative process of ...

  15. Children with Learning Disabilities. Facts for Families. Number 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Parents are often worried when their child has learning problems in school. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. Children with learning disabilities can have intelligence in the normal range but the specific learning disability may make teachers and parents concerned about their general…

  16. Effects of Higher-order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist Reasoning and Fact Learning in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist

  17. Learning to Predict Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayala, Matthew A.; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles respectively are not high-throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, or lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry dataset consisting of 1630 full multi-step reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval, problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of non-productive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system

  18. Learning to predict chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayala, Matthew A; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H; Baldi, Pierre

    2011-09-26

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles, respectively, are not high throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, and lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry data set consisting of 1630 full multistep reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top-ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of nonproductive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system

  19. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A J

    2016-01-01

    Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition ( n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition ( n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning

  20. Children can learn new facts equally well from interactive media versus face to face instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kwok

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children’s learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children’s rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43 or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43. In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition. In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children’s memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children’s rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results

  1. Retrieval Practice, with or without Mind Mapping, Boosts Fact Learning in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Della Sala, Sergio; McIntosh, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval practice is a method of study in which testing is incorporated into the learning process. This method is known to facilitate recall for facts in adults and in secondary-school-age children, but existing studies in younger children are somewhat limited in their practical applicability. In two studies of primary school-age children of 8–12 years, we tested retrieval practice along with another study technique, mind mapping, which is more widely-used, but less well-evidenced. Children studied novel geographical facts, with or without retrieval practice and with or without mind mapping, in a crossed-factorial between-subjects design. In Experiment 1, children in the retrieval practice condition recalled significantly more facts four days later. In Experiment 2, this benefit was replicated at one and five weeks in a different, larger sample of schoolchildren. No consistent effects of mind mapping were observed. These results underline the effectiveness of retrieval practice for fact learning in young children. PMID:24265738

  2. FACT. Streamed data analysis and online application of machine learning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegge, Kai Arno; Buss, Jens [Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany). Astroteilchenphysik; Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) like FACT produce a continuous flow of data during measurements. Analyzing the data in near real time is essential for monitoring sources. One major task of a monitoring system is to detect changes in the gamma-ray flux of a source, and to alert other experiments if some predefined limit is reached. In order to calculate the flux of an observed source, it is necessary to run an entire data analysis process including calibration, image cleaning, parameterization, signal-background separation and flux estimation. Software built on top of a data streaming framework has been implemented for FACT and generalized to work with the data acquisition framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We present how the streams-framework is used to apply supervised machine learning models to an online data stream from the telescope.

  3. Chemical Education Research: Improving Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley Herron, J.; Nurrenbern, Susan C.

    1999-10-01

    Chemical education research is the systematic investigation of learning grounded in a theoretical foundation that focuses on understanding and improving learning of chemistry. This article reviews many activities, changes, and accomplishments that have taken place in this area of scholarly activity despite its relatively recent emergence as a research area. The article describes how the two predominant broad perspectives of learning, behaviorism and constructivism, have shaped and influenced chemical education research design, analysis, and interpretation during the 1900s. Selected research studies illustrate the range of research design strategies and results that have contributed to an increased understanding of learning in chemistry. The article also provides a perspective of current and continuing challenges that researchers in this area face as they strive to bridge the gap between chemistry and education - disciplines with differing theoretical bases and research paradigms.

  4. Optimizing Chemical Reactions with Deep Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Li, Xiaocheng; Zare, Richard N

    2017-12-27

    Deep reinforcement learning was employed to optimize chemical reactions. Our model iteratively records the results of a chemical reaction and chooses new experimental conditions to improve the reaction outcome. This model outperformed a state-of-the-art blackbox optimization algorithm by using 71% fewer steps on both simulations and real reactions. Furthermore, we introduced an efficient exploration strategy by drawing the reaction conditions from certain probability distributions, which resulted in an improvement on regret from 0.062 to 0.039 compared with a deterministic policy. Combining the efficient exploration policy with accelerated microdroplet reactions, optimal reaction conditions were determined in 30 min for the four reactions considered, and a better understanding of the factors that control microdroplet reactions was reached. Moreover, our model showed a better performance after training on reactions with similar or even dissimilar underlying mechanisms, which demonstrates its learning ability.

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

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  6. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  7. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children’s learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children’s rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an ad...

  8. Magic Finger Teaching Method in Learning Multiplication Facts among Deaf Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Liong; Yasin, Mohd. Hanafi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students face problems in mastering multiplication facts. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of Magic Finger Teaching Method (MFTM) and students' perception towards MFTM. The research employs a quasi experimental with non-equivalent pre-test and post-test control group design. Pre-test, post-test and questionnaires were used. As…

  9. Drug Facts

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  18. Learning the mechanisms of chemical disequilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Green, Jason R., E-mail: jason.green@umb.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States); Center for Quantum and Nonequilibrium Systems, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    When at equilibrium, large-scale systems obey thermodynamics because they have microscopic configurations that are typical. “Typical” states are a fraction of those possible with the majority of the probability. A more precise definition of typical states underlies the transmission, coding, and compression of information. However, this definition does not apply to natural systems that are transiently away from equilibrium. Here, we introduce a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation. While a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and oxygen combusts, reactant molecules transform through a variety of ephemeral species en route to the product, water. Out of the exponentially growing number of possible sequences of chemical species, we find that greater than 95% of the probability concentrates in less than 1% of the possible sequences. Overall, these results extend the notion of typicality across the nonequilibrium regime and suggest that typical sequences are a route to learning mechanisms from experimental measurements. They also open up the possibility of constructing ensembles for computing the macroscopic observables of systems out of equilibrium.

  19. Learning the mechanisms of chemical disequilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    When at equilibrium, large-scale systems obey thermodynamics because they have microscopic configurations that are typical. “Typical” states are a fraction of those possible with the majority of the probability. A more precise definition of typical states underlies the transmission, coding, and compression of information. However, this definition does not apply to natural systems that are transiently away from equilibrium. Here, we introduce a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation. While a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and oxygen combusts, reactant molecules transform through a variety of ephemeral species en route to the product, water. Out of the exponentially growing number of possible sequences of chemical species, we find that greater than 95% of the probability concentrates in less than 1% of the possible sequences. Overall, these results extend the notion of typicality across the nonequilibrium regime and suggest that typical sequences are a route to learning mechanisms from experimental measurements. They also open up the possibility of constructing ensembles for computing the macroscopic observables of systems out of equilibrium.

  20. Drug Facts

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  3. Teaching and Learning the Concept of Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Nahum, Tami; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical bonding is one of the key and basic concepts in chemistry. The learning of many of the concepts taught in chemistry, in both secondary schools as well as in the colleges, is dependent upon understanding fundamental ideas related to chemical bonding. Nevertheless, the concept is perceived by teachers, as well as by learners, as difficult,…

  4. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Using Deep Learning for Gamma Ray Source Detection at the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Jacob

    2018-06-01

    Finding gamma-ray sources is of paramount importance for Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT). This study looks at using deep neural networks on data from the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) as a proof-of-concept of finding gamma-ray sources with deep learning for the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this study, FACT’s individual photon level observation data from the last 5 years was used with convolutional neural networks to determine if one or more sources were present. The neural networks used various architectures to determine which architectures were most successful in finding sources. Neural networks offer a promising method for finding faint and extended gamma-ray sources for IACTs. With further improvement and modifications, they offer a compelling method for source detection for the next generation of IACTs.

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  8. Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  9. Learning Science Is About Facts and Language Learning Is About Being Discursive”—An Empirical Investigation of Students' Disciplinary Beliefs in the Context of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Patricia; Hecht, Martin; Scherer, Ronny; Schwanewedel, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Argumentation is considered crucial in numerous disciplines in schools and universities because it constitutes an important proficiency in peoples' daily and professional lives. However, it is unclear whether argumentation is understood and practiced in comparable ways across disciplines. This study consequently examined empirically how students perceive argumentation in science and (first) language lessons. Specifically, we investigated students' beliefs about the relevance of discourse and the role of facts. Data from 3,258 high school students from 85 German secondary schools were analyzed with multigroup multilevel structural equation modeling in order to disentangle whether or not differences in argumentation across disciplines exist and the extent to which variation in students' beliefs can be explained by gender and school track. Results showed that students perceived the role of facts as highly relevant for science lessons, whereas discursive characteristics were considered significantly less important. In turn, discourse played a central role in language lessons, which was believed to require less knowledge of facts. These differences were independent of students' gender. In contrast, school track predicted the differences in beliefs significantly. Our findings lend evidence on the existence of disciplinary school cultures in argumentation that may be the result of differences in teachers' school-track-specific classroom practice and education. Implications in terms of a teacher's role in establishing norms for scientific argumentation as well as the impact of students' beliefs on their learning outcomes are discussed. PMID:28642727

  10. Teaching and Learning in Chemical Product Engineering - an Evolving par of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Kiil, Søren; Wesselingh, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade Chemical Product Engineering has evolved as part of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum at several universities in Europe and America. At the DTU Chemical Product Engineering was introduced in 2000. This presentation will report on the experiences gained from teaching classes...... and preparing a text book on the subject. [1] Chemical Product Engineering is solidly based on chemical technical and engineering knowledge. Furthermore, the subject naturally calls for a holistic approach to teaching and learning and introduces elements which target transferable and professional engineering...... skills. Such skills are important in Chemical Product Engineering when dealing with open-ended problems, creative problem solutions, operating in a team working environment and exercising project management. In our course we emphasise team activites, formative feed back to the students as well as helping...

  11. An Educational Card Game for Learning Families of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin Franco; Martinez, Jose Maria Oliva; Marquez, Serafin Bernal

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an educational card game designed to help high school students (grade 10, 15-16 years old) "understand," as opposed to memorize, the periodic table. The game may also be used to identify different chemical elements found in daily life objects. As an additional value, students learn the names and symbols of the displayed…

  12. A New Multimedia Application for Teaching and Learning Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollino, Mario; Aldoney, Jenny; Domínguez, Ana M.; Merino, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a method for teaching the subject of chemical equilibrium in which students engage in self-learning mediated by the use of a new multimedia animation (SEQ-alfa©). This method is presented together with evidence supporting its advantages. At a microscopic level, the simulator shows the mutual transformation of A molecules into B…

  13. Learning of Chemical Equilibrium through Modelling-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Poliana Flavia; Justi, Rosaria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses students' learning process of chemical equilibrium from a modelling-based approach developed from the use of the "Model of Modelling" diagram. The investigation was conducted in a regular classroom (students 14-15 years old) and aimed at discussing how modelling-based teaching can contribute to students…

  14. Silicosis: Learn the Facts!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... assistance. The principal contributors to this brochure were Charles E. Williams, III, Dorothy Tan-Wilhelm, Rene D. ... can you avoid or prevent it? This booklet will give you information about silicosis, what causes it, ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts ... Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page ...

  16. VirSchool: The Effect of Background Music and Immersive Display Systems on Memory for Facts Learned in an Educational Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Eric; Richards, Deborah; Bilgin, Ayse; Thompson, William Forde; Heiden, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Game technology has been widely used for educational applications, however, despite the common use of background music in games, its effect on learning has been largely unexplored. This paper discusses how music played in the background of a computer-animated history lesson affected participants' memory for facts. A virtual history lesson was…

  17. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  19. Silicon nanowire arrays as learning chemical vapour classifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, A O; Colli, A; White, R; Li, H W; Spigone, E; Kivioja, J M

    2011-01-01

    Nanowire field-effect transistors are a promising class of devices for various sensing applications. Apart from detecting individual chemical or biological analytes, it is especially interesting to use multiple selective sensors to look at their collective response in order to perform classification into predetermined categories. We show that non-functionalised silicon nanowire arrays can be used to robustly classify different chemical vapours using simple statistical machine learning methods. We were able to distinguish between acetone, ethanol and water with 100% accuracy while methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol were classified with 96% accuracy in ambient conditions.

  20. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Institute Veterans Administration Special thanks to our corporate sponsor for supporting excellence in transplant education: Learn more about the UNOS Kidney Transplant Learning Center Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to ...

  1. Reptile Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  2. The effects of using flashcards with reading racetrack to teach letter sounds, sight words, and math facts to elementary students with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Erbey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of reading racetrack and flashcards when teaching phonics, sight words, and addition facts. The participants for the sight word and phonics portion of this study were two seven-year-old boys in the second grade. Both participants were diagnosed with a learning disability. The third participant was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by his pediatrician and with a learning disability and traumatic brain injury by his school’s multi-disciplinary team.. The dependent measures were corrects and errors when reading from a first grade level sight word list. Math facts were selected based on a 100 add fact test for the third participant. The study demonstrated that racetracks paired with the flashcard intervention improved the students’ number of corrects for each subject-matter area (phonics, sight words, and math facts. However, the results show that some students had more success with it than others. These outcomes clearly warrant further research.

  3. Less is more: Sampling chemical space with active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S.; Nebgen, Ben; Lubbers, Nicholas; Isayev, Olexandr; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The development of accurate and transferable machine learning (ML) potentials for predicting molecular energetics is a challenging task. The process of data generation to train such ML potentials is a task neither well understood nor researched in detail. In this work, we present a fully automated approach for the generation of datasets with the intent of training universal ML potentials. It is based on the concept of active learning (AL) via Query by Committee (QBC), which uses the disagreement between an ensemble of ML potentials to infer the reliability of the ensemble's prediction. QBC allows the presented AL algorithm to automatically sample regions of chemical space where the ML potential fails to accurately predict the potential energy. AL improves the overall fitness of ANAKIN-ME (ANI) deep learning potentials in rigorous test cases by mitigating human biases in deciding what new training data to use. AL also reduces the training set size to a fraction of the data required when using naive random sampling techniques. To provide validation of our AL approach, we develop the COmprehensive Machine-learning Potential (COMP6) benchmark (publicly available on GitHub) which contains a diverse set of organic molecules. Active learning-based ANI potentials outperform the original random sampled ANI-1 potential with only 10% of the data, while the final active learning-based model vastly outperforms ANI-1 on the COMP6 benchmark after training to only 25% of the data. Finally, we show that our proposed AL technique develops a universal ANI potential (ANI-1x) that provides accurate energy and force predictions on the entire COMP6 benchmark. This universal ML potential achieves a level of accuracy on par with the best ML potentials for single molecules or materials, while remaining applicable to the general class of organic molecules composed of the elements CHNO.

  4. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affiliates JDRF Celebrity Ambassadors JDRF Logo Usage Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing ... US CAREERS NEWSROOM FOR RESEARCHERS © JDRF 2018 • Privacy Policy • ...

  5. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  6. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  7. Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization with Learning Enthusiasm Mechanism and Its Application in Chemical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO is a population-based metaheuristic search algorithm inspired by the teaching and learning process in a classroom. It has been successfully applied to many scientific and engineering applications in the past few years. In the basic TLBO and most of its variants, all the learners have the same probability of getting knowledge from others. However, in the real world, learners are different, and each learner’s learning enthusiasm is not the same, resulting in different probabilities of acquiring knowledge. Motivated by this phenomenon, this study introduces a learning enthusiasm mechanism into the basic TLBO and proposes a learning enthusiasm based TLBO (LebTLBO. In the LebTLBO, learners with good grades have high learning enthusiasm, and they have large probabilities of acquiring knowledge from others; by contrast, learners with bad grades have low learning enthusiasm, and they have relative small probabilities of acquiring knowledge from others. In addition, a poor student tutoring phase is introduced to improve the quality of the poor learners. The proposed method is evaluated on the CEC2014 benchmark functions, and the computational results demonstrate that it offers promising results compared with other efficient TLBO and non-TLBO algorithms. Finally, LebTLBO is applied to solve three optimal control problems in chemical engineering, and the competitive results show its potential for real-world problems.

  8. Machine learning of molecular electronic properties in chemical compound space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, Grégoire; Rupp, Matthias; Gobre, Vivekanand; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Hansen, Katja; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O.

    2013-09-01

    The combination of modern scientific computing with electronic structure theory can lead to an unprecedented amount of data amenable to intelligent data analysis for the identification of meaningful, novel and predictive structure-property relationships. Such relationships enable high-throughput screening for relevant properties in an exponentially growing pool of virtual compounds that are synthetically accessible. Here, we present a machine learning model, trained on a database of ab initio calculation results for thousands of organic molecules, that simultaneously predicts multiple electronic ground- and excited-state properties. The properties include atomization energy, polarizability, frontier orbital eigenvalues, ionization potential, electron affinity and excitation energies. The machine learning model is based on a deep multi-task artificial neural network, exploiting the underlying correlations between various molecular properties. The input is identical to ab initio methods, i.e. nuclear charges and Cartesian coordinates of all atoms. For small organic molecules, the accuracy of such a ‘quantum machine’ is similar, and sometimes superior, to modern quantum-chemical methods—at negligible computational cost.

  9. Machine learning of molecular electronic properties in chemical compound space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montavon, Grégoire; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Rupp, Matthias; Gobre, Vivekanand; Hansen, Katja; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Anatole von Lilienfeld, O

    2013-01-01

    The combination of modern scientific computing with electronic structure theory can lead to an unprecedented amount of data amenable to intelligent data analysis for the identification of meaningful, novel and predictive structure–property relationships. Such relationships enable high-throughput screening for relevant properties in an exponentially growing pool of virtual compounds that are synthetically accessible. Here, we present a machine learning model, trained on a database of ab initio calculation results for thousands of organic molecules, that simultaneously predicts multiple electronic ground- and excited-state properties. The properties include atomization energy, polarizability, frontier orbital eigenvalues, ionization potential, electron affinity and excitation energies. The machine learning model is based on a deep multi-task artificial neural network, exploiting the underlying correlations between various molecular properties. The input is identical to ab initio methods, i.e. nuclear charges and Cartesian coordinates of all atoms. For small organic molecules, the accuracy of such a ‘quantum machine’ is similar, and sometimes superior, to modern quantum-chemical methods—at negligible computational cost. (paper)

  10. Fact Book on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  11. Bias-Free Chemically Diverse Test Sets from Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Ellen T; Fernandez, Michael; Coote, Michelle L; Barnard, Amanda S

    2017-08-14

    Current benchmarking methods in quantum chemistry rely on databases that are built using a chemist's intuition. It is not fully understood how diverse or representative these databases truly are. Multivariate statistical techniques like archetypal analysis and K-means clustering have previously been used to summarize large sets of nanoparticles however molecules are more diverse and not as easily characterized by descriptors. In this work, we compare three sets of descriptors based on the one-, two-, and three-dimensional structure of a molecule. Using data from the NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database and machine learning techniques, we demonstrate the functional relationship between these structural descriptors and the electronic energy of molecules. Archetypes and prototypes found with topological or Coulomb matrix descriptors can be used to identify smaller, statistically significant test sets that better capture the diversity of chemical space. We apply this same method to find a diverse subset of organic molecules to demonstrate how the methods can easily be reapplied to individual research projects. Finally, we use our bias-free test sets to assess the performance of density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo methods.

  12. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Hartmann, Mia; Tapavicza, Enrico; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von

    2015-01-01

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities

  13. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hartmann, Mia; Tapavicza, Enrico, E-mail: Enrico.Tapavicza@csulb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, California 90840 (United States); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von, E-mail: anatole.vonlilienfeld@unibas.ch [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities.

  14. Learning about facts of life: perspective from medical students on sources and preferences about puberty and sex education in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mubeen, Syed Muhammand; Furqan, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Puberty heralds the onset of adulthood, and is fraught with complex physiological and psychological changes and emotions. In this study, we looked at the sources of information about puberty and sex education among males and females, age at which they learned about them, and the opinions on the role of schools and parents in imparting this education among medical students.A cross-sectional pilot study, using convenience sampling was conducted among 153 medical students of the Hamdard College of Medicine and Dentistry (HCM&D) in Karachi. Regarding most common source of information about puberty; 23 (25.3%) males identified friends as the most important source of information. While 31 (50.0%) women identified their mothers as the most important source.Regarding most common source of information about reproductive systems and sex; 17 (27.4%) women identified school teachers as the most common source of information, while 26 (28.6%) men identified books and magazines.

  15. Cheminoes: A Didactic Game to Learn Chemical Relationships between Valence, Atomic Number, and Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis F.; Hincapié, Gina; Alzate, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cheminoes is a didactic game that enables the meaningful learning of some relations between concepts such as chemical element, valence, atomic number, and chemical symbol for the first 36 chemical elements of the periodic system. Among the students who have played the game, their opinions of the activity were positive, considering the game to be a…

  16. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs

  17. The Effects of Smartphone Use on Organic Chemical Compound Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    As a result of rapid technological advances, smartphones have recently enjoyed widespread use. The basic purpose of this study is to examine the effects of smartphones when they are used as educational tools in learning environments. To assess the effects of smartphone use on learning, this study uses smartphones as educational tools in a…

  18. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  19. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  20. KinChem: A Computational Resource for Teaching and Learning Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jose´ Nunes, Jr.; Sousa Lima, Mary Anne; Silva Sousa, Eduardo Henrique; Oliveira Alexandre, Francisco Serra; Melo Leite, Antonio Jose´, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a piece of educational software covering a comprehensive number of topics of chemical kinetics, which is available free of charge in Portuguese and English. The software was developed to support chemistry educators and students in the teaching-learning process of chemical kinetics by using animations, calculations, and…

  1. A Data-Driven Sparse-Learning Approach to Model Reduction in Chemical Reaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Harirchi, Farshad; Khalil, Omar A.; Liu, Sijia; Elvati, Paolo; Violi, Angela; Hero, Alfred O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimization-based sparse learning approach to identify the set of most influential reactions in a chemical reaction network. This reduced set of reactions is then employed to construct a reduced chemical reaction mechanism, which is relevant to chemical interaction network modeling. The problem of identifying influential reactions is first formulated as a mixed-integer quadratic program, and then a relaxation method is leveraged to reduce the computational comple...

  2. Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act: Public Distribution of Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on assessments of increased risk of terrorist/criminal activity, EPA and DOJ have issued a rule that allows public access to OCA information in ways that are designed to minimize likelihood of chemical accidents and public harm.

  3. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  4. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  5. Water: Facts without Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  6. The Effect of Context-Based Chemical Equilibrium on Grade 11 Students' Learning, Motivation and Constructivist Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ilhan, Nail; Yildirim, Ali; Yilmaz, Sibel Sadi

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many countries have adopted a context-based approach for designing science curricula for education at all levels. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Context-Based Chemistry Course (CBCC) as compared with traditional/existing instruction, on 11th grade students' learning about chemical equilibrium,…

  7. The development of learning materials based on core model to improve students’ learning outcomes in topic of Chemical Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avianti, R.; Suyatno; Sugiarto, B.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to create an appropriate learning material based on CORE (Connecting, Organizing, Reflecting, Extending) model to improve students’ learning achievement in Chemical Bonding Topic. This study used 4-D models as research design and one group pretest-posttest as design of the material treatment. The subject of the study was teaching materials based on CORE model, conducted on 30 students of Science class grade 10. The collecting data process involved some techniques such as validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. The findings were that: (1) all the contents were valid, (2) the practicality and the effectiveness of all the contents were good. The conclusion of this research was that the CORE model is appropriate to improve students’ learning outcomes for studying Chemical Bonding.

  8. Chemically intuited, large-scale screening of MOFs by machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borboudakis, Giorgos; Stergiannakos, Taxiarchis; Frysali, Maria; Klontzas, Emmanuel; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Froudakis, George E.

    2017-10-01

    A novel computational methodology for large-scale screening of MOFs is applied to gas storage with the use of machine learning technologies. This approach is a promising trade-off between the accuracy of ab initio methods and the speed of classical approaches, strategically combined with chemical intuition. The results demonstrate that the chemical properties of MOFs are indeed predictable (stochastically, not deterministically) using machine learning methods and automated analysis protocols, with the accuracy of predictions increasing with sample size. Our initial results indicate that this methodology is promising to apply not only to gas storage in MOFs but in many other material science projects.

  9. Is case-based learning an effective teaching strategy to challenge students' alternative conceptions regarding chemical kinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Taştan-Kırık, Özgecan; Boz, Yezdan; Yıldıran, Demet

    2012-07-01

    Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is simply teaching the concept to the students based on the cases. CBL involves a case, which is a scenario based on daily life, and study questions related to the case, which allows students to discuss their ideas. Chemical kinetics is one of the most difficult concepts for students in chemistry. Students have generally low levels of conceptual understanding and many alternative conceptions regarding it. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the effect of CBL on dealing with students' alternative conceptions about chemical kinetics. Sample: The sample consists of 53 high school students from one public high school in Turkey. Design and methods : Nonequivalent pre-test and post-test control group design was used. Reaction Rate Concept Test and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Convenience sampling technique was followed. For data analysis, the independent samples t-test and ANOVA was performed. Results : Both concept test and interview results showed that students instructed with cases had better understanding of core concepts of chemical kinetics and had less alternative conceptions related to the subject matter compared to the control group students, despite the fact that it was impossible to challenge all the alternative conceptions in the experimental group. Conclusions: CBL is an effective teaching method for challenging students' alternative conceptions in the context of chemical kinetics. Since using cases in small groups and whole class discussions has been found to be an effective way to cope with the alternative conceptions, it can be applied to other subjects and grade levels in high schools with a higher sample size. Furthermore, the effect of this method on academic achievement, motivation and critical thinking skills are other variables that can be investigated for future studies in the subject area of chemistry.

  10. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  11. Meningitis Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Infographic Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  12. Facts about Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information » Glaucoma » Facts About Glaucoma Listen Facts About Glaucoma This information was developed by the National Eye ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Glaucoma Defined What is Glaucoma? Glaucoma is a group ...

  13. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  14. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  15. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  16. Early history of chemical exchange isotope enrichment and lessons we learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu; Ono, Yuriko

    2006-01-01

    The chemical exchange isotope enrichment process has an advantage over other isotope separation methods in that it involves two chemicals rather than one and, consequently, relatively large separation factors can be obtained. However, the chemical exchange method requires a chemical conversion of the substance enriched in the target isotope into the second substance. The idiosyncrasies of the isotope separation process by this method are pointed out using McCabe-Thiele diagram and, from them, the difficulties involved in the chemical exchange methods are itemized. Examples of the points being made are taken from the pioneering works of this field carried out by Harold C. Urey, his contemporaries, the students and the students' students. Lessons we learn from these works are discussed. (author)

  17. Implementing an Equilibrium Law Teaching Sequence for Secondary School Students to Learn Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    A didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium law. In this approach, we have avoided the kinetic derivation and the thermodynamic justification of the equilibrium constant. The equilibrium constant expression is established empirically by a trial-and-error approach. Additionally, students learn to use the criterion of…

  18. A Teaching Sequence for Learning the Concept of Chemical Equilibrium in Secondary School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardi, Marco; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Regis, Alberto; Roletto, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    A novel didactic sequence is proposed for the teaching of chemical equilibrium. This teaching sequence takes into account the historical and epistemological evolution of the concept, the alternative conceptions and learning difficulties highlighted by teaching science and research in education, and the need to focus on both the students'…

  19. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  20. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  1. CPR Facts and Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Schools Training Kits RQI AHA Blended Learning & eLearning Guide AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR ... In Schools Training Kits RQI AHA Blended Learning & eLearning Guide AHA Instructors ECC Educational Conferences Programs CPR ...

  2. Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dral, Pavlo O.; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von; Thiel, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempirical OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C 7 H 10 O 2 , for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules

  3. Facts, values, and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Susan

    2017-03-01

    At a time of fake news, hacks, leaks, and unverified reports, many people are unsure whom to believe. How can we communicate in ways that make individuals question their assumptions and learn? My colleagues at The Hastings Center and many journalists and scientists are grappling with this question and have, independently, reached the same first step: recognize that facts can't be fully understood without probing their connection to values. "Explaining the basics is important, of course, but we also need to diversify our approach to the coverage of science-particularly as it intersects with the matrix of cultural, religious, social, and political values of our readers," said an article in Undark, an online magazine of science journalism. An editorial in Nature called for scientists to engage directly with citizens in debates over climate change and genome editing, noting that "the ethical issues can be critically dependent on the science, for example, in understanding where the boundaries between non-heritable and heritable genome modifications might be." We're here to help. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Controlling the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet briefly reviews the procedures that exist to control the process of food irradiation. It also summarizes the difficulties in identifying irradiated food, which stem from the fact that irradiation does not physically change the food or cause significant chemical changes in foods. 4 refs

  5. Incorporating Sustainability into Engineering and Chemical Education Using E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Sanganyado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop e-learning activities that could facilitate the integration of sustainability concepts and practices in engineering and chemical education. Using an online learning management system (LMS, undergraduate students in an applied chemistry program at a public university in Zimbabwe participated in an online discussion on the role of chemical reaction engineering in achieving environmental sustainability goals. In the second activity, the students were instructed to prepare a design report for a cost-effective and innovative wastewater treatment plant for a rural hospital. The design report was evaluated through peer review online. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed on the two online activities to evaluate student engagement, quality of responses and the incorporation of sustainability into their learning. In the online discussion, 97 comments were made averaging 120 words per comment. Furthermore, the students averaged 3.88 comments, with the majority of comments exhibiting simple and complex argumentation, a deep reflection and widespread use of terms associated with sustainability such as recycling, pollution, waste and the environment. Furthermore, the evaluation of peer reviews revealed that participants demonstrated they could identify the strengths and shortcomings in the design reports. Therefore, this study demonstrated that e-learning, particularly peer review and online discussion, could help chemistry and engineering students appreciate the need for chemical and engineering activities that encourage sustainable development.

  6. The Fabulous Fact Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  7. Intellectual skills needed for the effective learning and application of chemical knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Helen P.; Selvaratnam, Mailoo

    2009-01-01

    Many students' difficulties in learning and applying chemical knowledge are associated with their being incompetent in a few widely applicable intellectual skills and strategies. This paper discusses the results of a study that was done to test first year university students' competence in some types of intellectual skills that are important in chemistry. The skills tested include language skills, mathematical skills, graphical skills, three-dimensional visualization skills, information proce...

  8. Virtual Chemical Engineering: Guidelines for E-Learning in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Schofield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced three-dimensional virtual environment technology, similar to that used by the film and computer games industry can allow educational developers to rapidly create realistic three-dimensional, virtual environments. This technology has been used to generate a range of interactive learning environments across a broad spectrum of industries.The paper will discuss the implementation of these systems and extrapolate the lessons learnt into general guidelines to be considered for the development of a range of educational learning resources. These guidelines will then be discussed in the context of the development of ViRILE (Virtual Reality Interactive Learning Environment, software which simulates the configuration and operation of a polymerisation plant. This software package has been developed for use by undergraduate chemical engineers at the University of Nottingham.

  9. In Silico Prediction of Chemicals Binding to Aromatase with Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hanwen; Cai, Yingchun; Yang, Hongbin; Zhang, Hongxiao; Xue, Yuhan; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun; Li, Weihua

    2017-05-15

    Environmental chemicals may affect endocrine systems through multiple mechanisms, one of which is via effects on aromatase (also known as CYP19A1), an enzyme critical for maintaining the normal balance of estrogens and androgens in the body. Therefore, rapid and efficient identification of aromatase-related endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is important for toxicology and environment risk assessment. In this study, on the basis of the Tox21 10K compound library, in silico classification models for predicting aromatase binders/nonbinders were constructed by machine learning methods. To improve the prediction ability of the models, a combined classifier (CC) strategy that combines different independent machine learning methods was adopted. Performances of the models were measured by test and external validation sets containing 1336 and 216 chemicals, respectively. The best model was obtained with the MACCS (Molecular Access System) fingerprint and CC method, which exhibited an accuracy of 0.84 for the test set and 0.91 for the external validation set. Additionally, several representative substructures for characterizing aromatase binders, such as ketone, lactone, and nitrogen-containing derivatives, were identified using information gain and substructure frequency analysis. Our study provided a systematic assessment of chemicals binding to aromatase. The built models can be helpful to rapidly identify potential EDCs targeting aromatase.

  10. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  11. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  12. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... Planner, and tips from experts Let's Be Well: Products to help you thrive with diabetes - lets-be- ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About ...

  16. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  17. Facts about Omphalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Omphalocele Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... hardly ever is open or broken. What is Omphalocele? Omphalocele, also known as exomphalos, is a birth ...

  18. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label> Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  19. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Managing High Cholesterol Cholesterol-lowering Medicine High Cholesterol Statistics and Maps High Cholesterol Facts High Cholesterol Maps ... Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2017 update: a report from the American Heart ...

  20. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  1. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  2. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood ...

  4. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  5. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  6. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  8. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share the facts: Quick Facts Prevalence Mortality Caregivers Cost Special Report Alzheimer's in each state Quick Facts Share the facts: Prevalence The number of Americans living with Alzheimer's is growing — and growing fast. An ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  10. A multidimensional framework of conceptual change for developing chemical equilibrium learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyoo, Wassana; Suwannoi, Paisan; Treagust, David F.

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this research is to investigate the existing chemical equilibrium lessons in Thailand based on the multidimensional framework of conceptual change, to determine how the existing lessons could enhance students' conceptual change. This research was conducted based on qualitative perspective. Document, observations and interviews were used to collect data. To comprehend all students conceptions, diagnostic tests were applied comprised of The Chemical Equilibrium Diagnostic Test (the CEDT) and The Chemical Equilibrium Test for Reveal Conceptual Change (the CETforRCC). In addition, to study students' motivations, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (the MSLQ) and students' task engagement were applied. Following each perspective of conceptual change - ontological, epistemological, and social/affective - the result showed that the existing chemical equilibrium unit did not enhance students' conceptual change, and some issues were found. The problems obstructed students conceptual change should be remedy under the multidimensional framework of conceptual change. Finally, some suggestions were provided to enhance students' conceptual change in chemical equilibrium effectively

  11. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CTL MODEL GUIDED INQUIRI-BASED IN THE TOPIC OF CHEMICALS IN DAILY LIFE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ LEARNING OUTCOMES AND ACTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    N. R. Fitriani; A. Widiyatmoko; M. Khusniati

    2016-01-01

    Science learning in school can be applied by connecting the material in the learning with real life. However in fact science learning process in SMP Negeri 10 Magelang has not emphasized students’ activity to relate science to real life. Learning science using CTL guided inquiry-based model implement the learning in where teacher provides initial questions related issues or events in everyday life, then students do experiments to prove concepts of science guided by teacher.The purpose of this...

  12. Training the Hippocampus and Amygdala of Preschool Children by Means of Priming Tasks: Should Parents Rather Focus on Learning of Facts than Reading Fairytales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, U.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main functions of the human brain is memory, and this forms the basis of learning and is the cornerstone of IQ. One of the important aims for both parents and educators of preschool children is to improve or develop the child's self-application of intelligence in the classroom, which indirectly involves memory capability development.…

  13. In Silico Prediction of Chemical Toxicity for Drug Design Using Machine Learning Methods and Structural Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongbin; Sun, Lixia; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun

    2018-02-01

    For a drug, safety is always the most important issue, including a variety of toxicities and adverse drug effects, which should be evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases. This review article at first simply introduced the computational methods used in prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design, including machine learning methods and structural alerts. Machine learning methods have been widely applied in qualitative classification and quantitative regression studies, while structural alerts can be regarded as a complementary tool for lead optimization. The emphasis of this article was put on the recent progress of predictive models built for various toxicities. Available databases and web servers were also provided. Though the methods and models are very helpful for drug design, there are still some challenges and limitations to be improved for drug safety assessment in the future.

  14. In Silico Prediction of Chemical Toxicity for Drug Design Using Machine Learning Methods and Structural Alerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, safety is always the most important issue, including a variety of toxicities and adverse drug effects, which should be evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases. This review article at first simply introduced the computational methods used in prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design, including machine learning methods and structural alerts. Machine learning methods have been widely applied in qualitative classification and quantitative regression studies, while structural alerts can be regarded as a complementary tool for lead optimization. The emphasis of this article was put on the recent progress of predictive models built for various toxicities. Available databases and web servers were also provided. Though the methods and models are very helpful for drug design, there are still some challenges and limitations to be improved for drug safety assessment in the future.

  15. In Silico Prediction of Chemical Toxicity for Drug Design Using Machine Learning Methods and Structural Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongbin; Sun, Lixia; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Tang, Yun

    2018-01-01

    During drug development, safety is always the most important issue, including a variety of toxicities and adverse drug effects, which should be evaluated in preclinical and clinical trial phases. This review article at first simply introduced the computational methods used in prediction of chemical toxicity for drug design, including machine learning methods and structural alerts. Machine learning methods have been widely applied in qualitative classification and quantitative regression studies, while structural alerts can be regarded as a complementary tool for lead optimization. The emphasis of this article was put on the recent progress of predictive models built for various toxicities. Available databases and web servers were also provided. Though the methods and models are very helpful for drug design, there are still some challenges and limitations to be improved for drug safety assessment in the future.

  16. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  17. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two...... scientific research efforts have taken into account some key lessons learned from past experiences with chemicals at the same time that many key challenges remain to applying these frameworks to ENM. In that setting, two main proposed approaches to use LCA and RA together for ENM are identified: i) LC......-based RA, similar to traditional RA applied in a life cycle perspective, and ii) RA-complemented LCA, similar to conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life cycle steps. This study finds that these two approaches for using LCA and RA together for ENM are similar to those made for chemicals...

  18. Case examples of chemical plant accidents. What we learn from them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    Lessons learned from the JCO Nuclear Criticality Accident of 30 September 1999 in a uranium conversion test plant in Tokai-mura, Japan, are reviewed by referring some pertinent matters from the official report of this accident to remind of the universal characteristics among possible accidents of chemical plants. The paper discusses the responsibility of the establishment or institution to the demand alternation or request change from the client, how to respond to the proposal arising from the factory floor, and the safety control system of every-day maintenance of the factory which are important to prevent accidents in chemical plants. After explaining a background leading to the JCO accident, the author summarizes the lessons as follows: (1) changeable control system, (2) perfect provision of the manual considering the actual condition, and (3) clarification of the roles each played by the managers and the workers are most necessary and important. (S. Ohno)

  19. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: Lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Kytoemaa, H.K.; Smith, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future

  20. Machine learning predictions of molecular properties: Accurate many-body potentials and nonlocality in chemical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Katja; Biegler, Franziska; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Pronobis, Wiktor; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneously accurate and efficient prediction of molecular properties throughout chemical compound space is a critical ingredient toward rational compound design in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Aiming toward this goal, we develop and apply a systematic hierarchy of efficient empirical methods to estimate atomization and total energies of molecules. These methods range from a simple sum over atoms, to addition of bond energies, to pairwise interatomic force fields, reaching to the more sophisticated machine learning approaches that are capable of describing collective interactions between many atoms or bonds. In the case of equilibrium molecular geometries, even simple pairwise force fields demonstrate prediction accuracy comparable to benchmark energies calculated using density functional theory with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals; however, accounting for the collective many-body interactions proves to be essential for approaching the 'holy grail' of chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol for both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium geometries. This remarkable accuracy is achieved by a vectorized representation of molecules (so-called Bag of Bonds model) that exhibits strong nonlocality in chemical space. The same representation allows us to predict accurate electronic properties of molecules, such as their polarizability and molecular frontier orbital energies

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  2. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  3. DER 86: main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the important facts among the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (E.D.F.): new applications of electric power for customers, protection of environment, classical equipments for power plants and nuclear equipments, monitoring and control of power plants, electrical equipments, development and operation of electrical networks, informatics and office automation [fr

  4. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  5. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  6. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  7. Main facts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  9. Facts in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenemann, D.

    1979-07-01

    This compilation of facts has been published on behalf of Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (Society for Nuclear Engineering), as a basis for the discussion between promoters and opponents of nuclear power. It intends to make the nuclear discussion less emotional by providing relevant data material. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Diet myths and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night will make you fat. FACT: People who eat late at night do tend to put on extra weight. One possible reason is that late-night eaters tend to choose high-calorie treats. Some people who snack after dinner do not sleep well, which can lead to ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  13. Homosexuality: Facts for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talking to Your Kids About VirginityTalking to Your Kids About Sex Home Family Health Kids and Teens Homosexuality: Facts ... by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Prevention and Wellness, Sex and Birth Control, Sex and SexualityTags: female, Gay ...

  14. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  15. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  16. Main facts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  17. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  18. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  19. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  20. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  1. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, Renato

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident and its consequences are briefly outlined in order to provide a synthesis of the facts from the most reliable sources. The paper describes in main lines the accident and the measures that were taken to mitigate its effects. The data on the radiation doses received by the population and the effects of the accident on the human health as well as on the environment are summarized. (author) [es

  2. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  3. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staddon, J E R

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is . That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  4. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication ... Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vacation for Donations - ways-to-give-201710-hotelscom.html Ways to Give Vacation for Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back to the Association. Ask the Experts: Learn ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

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  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  18. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  1. Effectiveness of E-learning Compared to Classroom Learning in the Diagnostic Approach to Bioterrorism and Chemical Terrorism for Emergency Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alavi-Moghaddam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Emergency physicians play an important role in the immediate diagnosis of bioterrorism activities. The present study was conducted with the purpose of comparing the effectiveness of e-learning and classroom learning in approach to bioterrorism and chemical terrorism for emergency physicians.Methods: This was a semi-empirical study, which was conducted via testing knowledge before and after the educational intervention in the field of bioterrorism and chemical terrorism on the emergency physicians in Tehran. The external validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by two academic experts in order to determine the ability to detect bioterrorist and chemical terrorist diseases. In this study, education was done in both virtual and classroom forms. The education regarded 6 bioterrorist diseases in group A (anthrax, plague, viral hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, smallpox, and 5 chemical terrorist diseases (nerve gas, mustard, lewisite, phosgene, chlorine.Results: 160 doctors participated in this study. 96 people (60% were men and 64 people (40% were women. The average age of the participants was 36.2±5.5 years. In e-learning method, the pre-test scores average was (30.6%, while the post-test scores average was (81.6% (p=0.001. In classroom learning method, the pre-test scores average was (41.9%, while the post-test scores average was (72.9%, which the pre-test and post-test scores average differences in both cases are significant (p<0.001. In e-learning method, the difference was (51%, and in the classroom method it was (31%, which these two represent a 20% difference between methods. From statistical point of view, this difference indicates that the e-learning method being more effective (p=0.02.Conclusions: Based on the study results, it seems that in comparison to the classroom learning, e-learning method is more effective in helping emergency physicians to diagnose bioterrorism or chemical terrorism factors.Keywords: E-LEARNING

  2. Teaching Science Fact with Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raham, R. Gary

    2004-01-01

    The literature of science fiction packs up the facts and discoveries of science and runs off to futures filled with both wonders and warnings. Kids love to take the journeys it offers for the thrill of the ride, but they can learn as they travel, too. This book will provide the reader with: (1) an overview of the past 500 years of scientific…

  3. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  4. Lessons learned from an installation perspective for chemical demilitarization plant start-up at four operating incineration sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motz, L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2011-02-21

    This study presents the lessons learned by chemical storage installations as they prepared for the start of chemical demilitarization plant operations at the four current chemical incinerator sites in Alabama, Arkansas, Oregon, and Utah. The study included interviews with persons associated with the process and collection of available documents prepared at each site. The goal was to provide useful information for the chemical weapons storage sites in Colorado and Kentucky that will be going through plant start-up in the next few years. The study is not a compendium of what to do and what not to do. The information has been categorized into ten lessons learned; each is discussed individually. Documents that may be useful to the Colorado and Kentucky sites are included in the appendices. This study should be used as a basis for planning and training.

  5. Chernobyl: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbridge, R.; Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In these Search Strategies, searchers from different countries and professions are given a question to answer, a budget of Pounds 50 and a time in which to produce their report. We hope that these blow-by-blow accounts, together with the hints and tips picked up along the way, will help readers to develop their own search strategies. Journalists are more and more coming to use online services and here the author gives a journalist's account of tracking down the elusive facts surrounding the Chernobyl disaster. (author)

  6. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Chat Closed engagement en -- So…Do You Have Prediabetes? - 2017-01-ad-council.html So…Do You ...

  8. Facts about Gastroschisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with gastroschisis. 4,5 CDC continues to study birth defects like gastroschisis in order to learn how to prevent them. If you are pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant, talk with your doctor about ways to ... to check for birth defects and other conditions. Gastroschisis might result in ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ask the Experts: Learn to Live Well with Diabetes - ask-the- ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  13. Facts on Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This folder contains twelve two-page leaflets (fact sheets) which answer questions posed about UK NIREX Ltd, its operations and radioactive waste. NIREX (the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) is the organisation responsible for implementing the British Government's policy for the disposal of most low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste produced in the United Kingdom. The questions posed are; what is NIREX. What is radioactivity. What is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste, what are the options. What is a radioactive waste repository. Some aspects of such a repository are then explained - how engineered barriers work, how geological barriers work, how long can concrete last, how is the radioactive waste transported, how are repository sites identified. The last two leaflets consider why do we need research, and look at radioactive waste management worldwide. The answers are in non-technical language and are short. (UK)

  14. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  15. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  16. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  17. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  18. HYPER-­TVT: Development and Implementation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Students of Chemical and Process Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Marina; Mazzotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-TVT is a computer-aided education system that has been developed at the Institute of Process Engineering at the ETH Zurich. The aim was to create an interactive learning environment for chemical and process engineering students. The topics covered are the most important multistage separation processes, i.e. fundamentals of separation…

  19. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  20. Learning Quantum Chemical Model with Learning Media Concept Map and Power Point Viewed from Memory and Creativity Skills Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.

  1. Prion Disease: Learn the Facts. Avoid Exposure.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-23

    This podcast discusses prion diseases and the risk of exposure associated with some common activities.  Created: 5/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  2. Facts about Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia Listen Facts About Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia This information was developed by the ... is the best person to answer specific questions. Anophthalmia and Microphthalmia Defined What are anophthalmia and microphthalmia? ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  4. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download ... worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease ...

  6. Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download EPA's The Field Audit Checklist Tool (FACT). FACT is intended to help auditors perform field audits, to easily view monitoring plan, quality assurance and emissions data and provides access to data collected under MATS.

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts in Each State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report ... on the impact of this disease in every state across the nation. Click below to see the ...

  8. Combining machine learning, crowdsourcing and expert knowledge to detect chemical-induced diseases in text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Àlex; Li, Tong Shu; Su, Andrew I; Good, Benjamin M; Furlong, Laura I

    2016-01-01

    Drug toxicity is a major concern for both regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. In this context, text-mining methods for the identification of drug side effects from free text are key for the development of up-to-date knowledge sources on drug adverse reactions. We present a new system for identification of drug side effects from the literature that combines three approaches: machine learning, rule- and knowledge-based approaches. This system has been developed to address the Task 3.B of Biocreative V challenge (BC5) dealing with Chemical-induced Disease (CID) relations. The first two approaches focus on identifying relations at the sentence-level, while the knowledge-based approach is applied both at sentence and abstract levels. The machine learning method is based on the BeFree system using two corpora as training data: the annotated data provided by the CID task organizers and a new CID corpus developed by crowdsourcing. Different combinations of results from the three strategies were selected for each run of the challenge. In the final evaluation setting, the system achieved the highest Recall of the challenge (63%). By performing an error analysis, we identified the main causes of misclassifications and areas for improving of our system, and highlighted the need of consistent gold standard data sets for advancing the state of the art in text mining of drug side effects.Database URL: https://zenodo.org/record/29887?ln¼en#.VsL3yDLWR_V. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. ReactionPredictor: prediction of complex chemical reactions at the mechanistic level using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayala, Matthew A; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-10-22

    Proposing reasonable mechanisms and predicting the course of chemical reactions is important to the practice of organic chemistry. Approaches to reaction prediction have historically used obfuscating representations and manually encoded patterns or rules. Here we present ReactionPredictor, a machine learning approach to reaction prediction that models elementary, mechanistic reactions as interactions between approximate molecular orbitals (MOs). A training data set of productive reactions known to occur at reasonable rates and yields and verified by inclusion in the literature or textbooks is derived from an existing rule-based system and expanded upon with manual curation from graduate level textbooks. Using this training data set of complex polar, hypervalent, radical, and pericyclic reactions, a two-stage machine learning prediction framework is trained and validated. In the first stage, filtering models trained at the level of individual MOs are used to reduce the space of possible reactions to consider. In the second stage, ranking models over the filtered space of possible reactions are used to order the reactions such that the productive reactions are the top ranked. The resulting model, ReactionPredictor, perfectly ranks polar reactions 78.1% of the time and recovers all productive reactions 95.7% of the time when allowing for small numbers of errors. Pericyclic and radical reactions are perfectly ranked 85.8% and 77.0% of the time, respectively, rising to >93% recovery for both reaction types with a small number of allowed errors. Decisions about which of the polar, pericyclic, or radical reaction type ranking models to use can be made with >99% accuracy. Finally, for multistep reaction pathways, we implement the first mechanistic pathway predictor using constrained tree-search to discover a set of reasonable mechanistic steps from given reactants to given products. Webserver implementations of both the single step and pathway versions of Reaction

  10. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  11. Implementation of 5E Inquiry Incorporated with Analogy Learning Approach to Enhance Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Reaction Rate for Grade 11 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supasorn, Saksri; Promarak, Vinich

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to enhance student understanding of the scientific concepts of chemical reaction rate. Forty-four grade 11 students were the target group. The treatment tools were seven learning plans of 5E inquiry incorporated with an analogy learning approach during 15 hours of class time. In each learning plan, the students…

  12. Designing Focused Chemical Libraries Enriched in Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  13. Designing focused chemical libraries enriched in protein-protein interaction inhibitors using machine-learning methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Reynès

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific. Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI

  14. Designing focused chemical libraries enriched in protein-protein interaction inhibitors using machine-learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-03-05

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  15. Designing learning curves for carbon capture based on chemical absorption according to the minimum work of separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; Szklo, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This work defines the minimum work of separation (MWS) for a capture process. • Findings of the analysis indicated a MWS of 0.158 GJ/t for post-combustion. • A review of commercially available processes based on chemical absorption was made. • A review of learning models was conducted, with the addition on a novel model. • A learning curve for post-combustion carbon capture was successfully designed. - Abstract: Carbon capture is one of the most important alternatives for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in energy facilities. The post-combustion route based on chemical absorption with amine solvents is the most feasible alternative for the short term. However, this route implies in huge energy penalties, mainly related to the solvent regeneration. By defining the minimum work of separation (MWS), this study estimated the minimum energy required to capture the CO 2 emitted by coal-fired thermal power plants. Then, by evaluating solvents and processes and comparing it to the MWS, it proposes the learning model with the best fit for the post-combustion chemical absorption of CO 2 . Learning models are based on earnings from experience, which can include the intensity of research and development. In this study, three models are tested: Wright, DeJong and D and L. Findings of the thermochemical analysis indicated a MWS of 0.158 GJ/t for post-combustion. Conventional solvents currently present an energy penalty eight times the MWS. By using the MWS as a constraint, this study found that the D and L provided the best fit to the available data of chemical solvents and absorption plants. The learning rate determined through this model is very similar to the ones found in the literature

  16. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  17. Enriching Addition and Subtraction Fact Mastery through Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Kling, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The learning of "basic facts"--single-digit combinations for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division--has long been a focus of elementary school mathematics. Many people remember completing endless worksheets, timed tests, and flash card drills as they attempted to "master" their basic facts as children. However,…

  18. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  19. Safety Culture: Lessons Learned from the US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon, M.

    2016-01-01

    investigate the Macondo incident, it became clear that there were similarities with the BP Texas City situation. In 2014 the CSB released two other investigation reports, Tesoro, Anacortes,WA and Chevron, Richmond, CA, which noted deficient safety cultures as contributing to the incidents. The on-going trend of a great deal of focus on personal safety and a lack of adequate focus on process safety was recently discussed in a DNV-GL report. DNV-GL, an international oil and gas technical consulting group, concluded that personal injury rates in offshore oil and gas operations have shown a ten-fold magnitude of improvement. The report concluded that the available data for looking at process safety in the last five years shows no unified global trend toward improved performance. This presentation will examine the lessons learned from the CSBs investigations regarding safety management systems and safety culture as contributing factors to some major incidents in the oil and gas and chemical industrial sectors. (author)

  20. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  1. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com; Gupta, Shikha

    2014-03-15

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R{sup 2} and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  2. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunwar P.; Gupta, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R 2 ) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R 2 and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  3. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  4. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  5. Reconsidering Learning Difficulties and Misconceptions in Chemistry: Emergence in Chemistry and Its Implications for Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümay, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…

  6. CarcinoPred-EL: Novel models for predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals using molecular fingerprints and ensemble learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Ai, Haixin; Chen, Wen; Yin, Zimo; Hu, Huan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hongsheng

    2017-05-18

    Carcinogenicity refers to a highly toxic end point of certain chemicals, and has become an important issue in the drug development process. In this study, three novel ensemble classification models, namely Ensemble SVM, Ensemble RF, and Ensemble XGBoost, were developed to predict carcinogenicity of chemicals using seven types of molecular fingerprints and three machine learning methods based on a dataset containing 1003 diverse compounds with rat carcinogenicity. Among these three models, Ensemble XGBoost is found to be the best, giving an average accuracy of 70.1 ± 2.9%, sensitivity of 67.0 ± 5.0%, and specificity of 73.1 ± 4.4% in five-fold cross-validation and an accuracy of 70.0%, sensitivity of 65.2%, and specificity of 76.5% in external validation. In comparison with some recent methods, the ensemble models outperform some machine learning-based approaches and yield equal accuracy and higher specificity but lower sensitivity than rule-based expert systems. It is also found that the ensemble models could be further improved if more data were available. As an application, the ensemble models are employed to discover potential carcinogens in the DrugBank database. The results indicate that the proposed models are helpful in predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals. A web server called CarcinoPred-EL has been built for these models ( http://ccsipb.lnu.edu.cn/toxicity/CarcinoPred-EL/ ).

  7. Facts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... it is a target to achieve but, rather, as a journey. Industry, government and academia coming together on policy innovation and standards development. Universities and R&D organizations collaboration for inventing technologies. Power grid and Smart grid is an corodinated effort. Any deficiency may give access to hackers..

  8. A scalable machine-learning approach to recognize chemical names within large text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren Jonathan D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation The use or study of chemical compounds permeates almost every scientific field and in each of them, the amount of textual information is growing rapidly. There is a need to accurately identify chemical names within text for a number of informatics efforts such as database curation, report summarization, tagging of named entities and keywords, or the development/curation of reference databases. Results A first-order Markov Model (MM was evaluated for its ability to distinguish chemical names from words, yielding ~93% recall in recognizing chemical terms and ~99% precision in rejecting non-chemical terms on smaller test sets. However, because total false-positive events increase with the number of words analyzed, the scalability of name recognition was measured by processing 13.1 million MEDLINE records. The method yielded precision ranges from 54.7% to 100%, depending upon the cutoff score used, averaging 82.7% for approximately 1.05 million putative chemical terms extracted. Extracted chemical terms were analyzed to estimate the number of spelling variants per term, which correlated with the total number of times the chemical name appeared in MEDLINE. This variability in term construction was found to affect both information retrieval and term mapping when using PubMed and Ovid.

  9. Management of change: Lessons learned from staff reductions in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Gort, J.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff

  10. 2008 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This Public Transportation Fact Book presents statistics describing the entire United States transit industry for 1995 : through 2006 with additional detail and overview presentations for 2006. Also included are definitions of reported data : items.

  11. 2010 public transportation fact book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Public Transportation Fact Book, published annually, contains national aggregate statistical data covering all aspects of the transit industry in the United States and Canada. Two appendices, also available, provide additional in-depth informatio...

  12. Back Pain Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  13. Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Jaundice & Kernicterus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  14. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  15. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease in every ... with third parties. Please read our security and privacy policy . Plan ahead Get help and support I ...

  16. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  17. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Health THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Kim, diagnosed in 1986 People with a chronic disease may neglect their general health and wellness, research shows. Dental care is no exception. A tendency to focus ...

  18. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health and long-term care costs. worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts ... Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision is a world without Alzheimer's Formed in 1980, ...

  19. Filtering Dialysis Myths from Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to work. Fact: Many dialysis patients continue to work, go to school, or volunteer . Some take time off when they first start dialysis treatment and back to work or school after they have gotten used to ...

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join the Cause alz.org >> Alzheimer's & Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: Download the Infographic: English Spanish Share the ...

  1. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Definition & Facts for Constipation What is constipation? Constipation is ... and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media; 2014. May 2018 Share Previous: Constipation Next: ...

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home care. Take action. Become an advocate SPECIAL REPORT: FINANCIAL AND PERSONAL BENEFITS OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS Early ... State The 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures report contains data on the impact of this disease ...

  3. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 272.3900 Donate Alzheimer's & Dementia What Is Alzheimer's? Brain Tour Younger/Early Onset Risk Factors Genetics Myths ... Dementia Korsakoff Syndrome Related Conditions CTE MCI Traumatic Brain Injury Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dementia >> Home Text size: A A A 2018 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures Download the full report: ... twice as high. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers Eighty-three percent of the help ...

  6. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  7. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  8. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  9. Improved detection of chemical substances from colorimetric sensor data using probabilistic machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Larsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We present a data-driven machine learning approach to detect drug- and explosives-precursors using colorimetric sensor technology for air-sampling. The sensing technology has been developed in the context of the CRIM-TRACK project. At present a fully- integrated portable prototype for air sampling...... of the highly multi-variate data produced from the colorimetric chip a number of machine learning techniques are employed to provide reliable classification of target analytes from confounders found in the air streams. We demonstrate that a data-driven machine learning method using dimensionality reduction...... in combination with a probabilistic classifier makes it possible to produce informative features and a high detection rate of analytes. Furthermore, the probabilistic machine learning approach provides a means of automatically identifying unreliable measurements that could produce false predictions...

  10. Application of Computer-Assisted Learning Methods in the Teaching of Chemical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscough, P. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the application of computer-assisted learning methods to the interpretation of infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra; and outlines extensions into the area of integrated spectroscopy. (Author/CMV)

  11. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products -12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. The most interesting chemical aspect of a molecule is its. reactivHy pattern. NR Krishnaswamy. In this part of the series, dynamic organic chemistry and.

  12. Lessons learned in building a global information network on chemicals (GINC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminuma, Tsuguchika

    2005-01-01

    The Global Information Network on Chemicals (GINC) was a project to construct a worldwide information network linking international, national, and other organizations working for the safe management of chemicals. Proposed in 1993, the project started the next year and lasted almost 10 years. It was begun as a joint project of World Health Organization (WHO), International Labor Organization (ILO), and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and later endorsed by the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Asia, particularly East Asia and the Pacific islands, was chosen as the feasibility study region. The author's group then at the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) of Japan led this initiative and hosted numerous meetings. At these meetings, tutorial sessions for communicating chemical safety expertise and emerging new information technologies relevant to the safe management of chemicals were offered. Our experience with this project, particularly the Web-based system and the tutorial sessions, may be of use to others involved with Web-based instruction and the training of chemical safety specialists from both developed and developing countries

  13. The Effect of Systemic Synthesis Questions [SSynQs] on Students' Performance and Meaningful Learning in Secondary Organic Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrin, Tamara N.; Milenkovic, Dušica D.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies in the field of chemical education have emphasized the fact that students at secondary level have considerable difficulties in mastering organic chemistry contents. As a result, they choose to learn these contents in a "rote" way. Taking this fact into consideration, the first aim of our study was to help students in…

  14. Machine learning for toxicity characterization of organic chemical emissions using USEtox database: Learning the structure of the input space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvuglia, Antonino; Kanevski, Mikhail; Benetto, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    Toxicity characterization of chemical emissions in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a complex task which usually proceeds via multimedia (fate, exposure and effect) models attached to models of dose-response relationships to assess the effects on target. Different models and approaches do exist, but all require a vast amount of data on the properties of the chemical compounds being assessed, which are hard to collect or hardly publicly available (especially for thousands of less common or newly developed chemicals), therefore hampering in practice the assessment in LCA. An example is USEtox, a consensual model for the characterization of human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity. This paper places itself in a line of research aiming at providing a methodology to reduce the number of input parameters necessary to run multimedia fate models, focusing in particular to the application of the USEtox toxicity model. By focusing on USEtox, in this paper two main goals are pursued: 1) performing an extensive exploratory analysis (using dimensionality reduction techniques) of the input space constituted by the substance-specific properties at the aim of detecting particular patterns in the data manifold and estimating the dimension of the subspace in which the data manifold actually lies; and 2) exploring the application of a set of linear models, based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, as well as a nonlinear model (general regression neural network--GRNN) in the seek for an automatic selection strategy of the most informative variables according to the modelled output (USEtox factor). After extensive analysis, the intrinsic dimension of the input manifold has been identified between three and four. The variables selected as most informative may vary according to the output modelled and the model used, but for the toxicity factors modelled in this paper the input variables selected as most informative are coherent with prior expectations based on scientific knowledge

  15. Learning and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List About PPMD Events News Login By Area Learning & Behavior Attention, Listening & Learning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ... Care Guidelines ❯ By Area ❯ Learning & Behavior Share Print Learning & Behavior Facts to Remember People with Duchenne may ...

  16. What can we learn by computing 13Cα chemical shifts for X-ray protein models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnautova, Yelena A.; Vila, Jorge A.; Martin, Osvaldo A.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    The room-temperature X-ray structures of two proteins, solved at 1.8 and 1.9 Å resolution, are used to investigate whether a set of conformations, rather than a single X-ray structure, provides better agreement with both the X-ray data and the observed 13 C α chemical shifts in solution. The room-temperature X-ray structures of ubiquitin and of the RNA-binding domain of nonstructural protein 1 of influenza A virus solved at 1.8 and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively, were used to investigate whether a set of conformations rather than a single X-ray structure provides better agreement with both the X-ray data and the observed 13 C α chemical shifts in solution. For this purpose, a set of new conformations for each of these proteins was generated by fitting them to the experimental X-ray data deposited in the PDB. For each of the generated structures, which show R and R free factors similar to those of the deposited X-ray structure, the 13 C α chemical shifts of all residues in the sequence were computed at the DFT level of theory. The sets of conformations were then evaluated by their ability to reproduce the observed 13 C α chemical shifts by using the conformational average root-mean-square-deviation (ca-r.m.s.d.). For ubiquitin, the computed set of conformations is a better representation of the observed 13 C α chemical shifts in terms of the ca-r.m.s.d. than a single X-ray-derived structure. However, for the RNA-binding domain of nonstructural protein 1 of influenza A virus, consideration of an ensemble of conformations does not improve the agreement with the observed 13 C α chemical shifts. Whether an ensemble of conformations rather than any single structure is a more accurate representation of a protein structure in the crystal as well as of the observed 13 C α chemical shifts is determined by the dispersion of coordinates, in terms of the all-atom r.m.s.d. among the generated models; these generated models satisfy the experimental X-ray data with

  17. Classifying chemical mode of action using gene networks and machine learning: a case study with the herbicide linuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species. © 2013.

  18. The Tapioca Bomb: A Demonstration to Enhance Learning about Combustion and Chemical Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeratichamroen, Wasana; Dechsri, Precharn; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2010-01-01

    In any demonstration to students, producing light and sound usually ensures interest and can enhance understanding and retention of the concepts involved. A guided inquiry (Predict, Observe, Explain: POE) approach was used to involve the students actively in their learning about the explosive combustion of fine flour particles in air in the…

  19. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  20. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get Alzheimer's disease were diagnosed in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage — before dementia — it would collectively save $7 trillion to $7.9 trillion in health and long-term care costs. worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts ...

  1. Facts about Tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Tetralogy of Fallot Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... in the mother’s womb during pregnancy. What is Tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot is made up of the ...

  2. Norms and facts in measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakel, J. van

    1984-01-01

    Publications concerned with the foundations of measurement often accept uncritically the theory/observation and the norm/fact distinction. However, measurement is measurement-in-a-context. This is analysed in the first part of the paper. Important aspects of this context are: the purpose of the

  3. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ID Specialist? Facts about ID Pocketcard Infectious diseases are caused by microscopic organisms that penetrate the body’s natural ... from diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow ... of contaminated food or water, bites from vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes ...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and support I have Alzheimer's I am a caregiver I am a care professional I am a physician I am a researcher Message boards Get the facts 10 warning signs & symptoms What is dementia What is Alzheimer's 7 stages of ...

  5. MIT Lincoln Laboratory Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    creativity . Representative Technical Positions ■■ Aerospace engineer ■■ Applications engineer ■■ Bioengineer ■■ Biologist 16 Facts 2012–2013...schedules, part-time employment, and telecommuting opportunities. Child Care The Technology Children’s Center facility in Lexington (TCC Lincoln

  6. Assessing the FACTS at Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M.; Renz, K.; Unterla, F. (Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    The world's first advanced series compensator with controllable series impedance as a flexible AC transmission (FACTS) device has been introduced at Western Area Power Administration's Kayenta substation in Arizona, USA. The system, which has been in operation for a year, allows existing transmission lines to carry up to 33 per cent more power. (author)

  7. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health and long-term care costs. worried about memory loss? KNOW THE 10 SIGNS Alzheimer's Disease Facts ... is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization. Copyright © 2018 Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our ...

  8. Thorndike Revisited--Some Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinman, J. Jaap

    1971-01-01

    Examines some historical facts surrounding Thorndike's 1917 article, Reading as Reasoning: A Study of Mistakes in Paragraph Reading," (republished in Reading Research Quarterly, 1971, 6, 425-48), in an attempt to put the article in its proper perspective both as a research study and as a contribution to the psychology of reading. (VJ)

  9. In silico prediction of Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity for diverse industrial chemicals with substructure pattern recognition and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Shen, Jie; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing need for the rapid safety assessment of chemicals by both industries and regulatory agencies throughout the world. In silico techniques are practical alternatives in the environmental hazard assessment. It is especially true to address the persistence, bioaccumulative and toxicity potentials of organic chemicals. Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity is often used as a toxic endpoint. In this study, 1571 diverse unique chemicals were collected from the literature and composed of the largest diverse data set for T. pyriformis toxicity. Classification predictive models of T. pyriformis toxicity were developed by substructure pattern recognition and different machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbors and random forest. The results of a 5-fold cross-validation showed that the SVM method performed better than other algorithms. The overall predictive accuracies of the SVM classification model with radial basis functions kernel was 92.2% for the 5-fold cross-validation and 92.6% for the external validation set, respectively. Furthermore, several representative substructure patterns for characterizing T. pyriformis toxicity were also identified via the information gain analysis methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning by Brewing: Beer Production Experiments in the Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin; Kelkile, Esayas; Landry, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the successful creation and implementation of a biotechnology track within the chemical engineering unit operations course. The track focuses on engineering principles relevant to brewing. Following laboratory modules investigating heat transfer processes and yeast fermentation kinetics, student groups design and implement a project to…

  11. The Teaching and Learning of Chemical Kinetics Supported with MS Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Chin, Lee Sui

    2013-01-01

    Students in 12 secondary schools in three states of Malaysia were taught to use worksheets on the chemical kinetics topic which had been pre-created using the MS Excel worksheets. After the teaching, an opinion survey of 612 Form Six students from these schools was conducted. The results showed that almost all the students felt that MS Excel…

  12. In Silico Prediction of Physicochemical Properties of Environmental Chemicals Using Molecular Fingerprints and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are little available toxicity data on the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. High-throughput screening (HTS) studies, such as those being carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program in partnership with the federal Tox21 research progra...

  13. Go Chemistry: A Card Game to Help Students Learn Chemical Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    For beginning chemistry students, the basic tasks of writing chemical formulas and naming covalent and ionic compounds often pose difficulties and are only sufficiently grasped after extensive practice with homework sets. An enjoyable card game that can replace or, at least, complement nomenclature homework sets is described. "Go Chemistry" is…

  14. Exploring the Use of Multiple Analogical Models when Teaching and Learning Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allan G.; De Jong, Onno

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the multiple analogical models used to introduce and teach Grade 12 chemical equilibrium. We examine the teacher's reasons for using models, explain each model's development during the lessons, and analyze the understandings students derived from the models. A case study approach was used and the data were drawn from the…

  15. Improved detection of chemical substances from colorimetric sensor data using probabilistic machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Lasse L.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Babamoradi, Hamid; Thygesen, Ida L.; Laustsen, Milan; Munk, Jens Kristian; Dossi, Eleftheria; O'Keeffe, Caroline; Lässig, Lina; Tatlow, Sol; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.

    2017-05-01

    We present a data-driven machine learning approach to detect drug- and explosives-precursors using colorimetric sensor technology for air-sampling. The sensing technology has been developed in the context of the CRIM-TRACK project. At present a fully- integrated portable prototype for air sampling with disposable sensing chips and automated data acquisition has been developed. The prototype allows for fast, user-friendly sampling, which has made it possible to produce large datasets of colorimetric data for different target analytes in laboratory and simulated real-world application scenarios. To make use of the highly multi-variate data produced from the colorimetric chip a number of machine learning techniques are employed to provide reliable classification of target analytes from confounders found in the air streams. We demonstrate that a data-driven machine learning method using dimensionality reduction in combination with a probabilistic classifier makes it possible to produce informative features and a high detection rate of analytes. Furthermore, the probabilistic machine learning approach provides a means of automatically identifying unreliable measurements that could produce false predictions. The robustness of the colorimetric sensor has been evaluated in a series of experiments focusing on the amphetamine pre-cursor phenylacetone as well as the improvised explosives pre-cursor hydrogen peroxide. The analysis demonstrates that the system is able to detect analytes in clean air and mixed with substances that occur naturally in real-world sampling scenarios. The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK has the potential as an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs, explosive detection, or in other law enforcement applications.

  16. A comparison of machine learning algorithms for chemical toxicity classification using a simulated multi-scale data model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioactivity profiling using high-throughput in vitro assays can reduce the cost and time required for toxicological screening of environmental chemicals and can also reduce the need for animal testing. Several public efforts are aimed at discovering patterns or classifiers in high-dimensional bioactivity space that predict tissue, organ or whole animal toxicological endpoints. Supervised machine learning is a powerful approach to discover combinatorial relationships in complex in vitro/in vivo datasets. We present a novel model to simulate complex chemical-toxicology data sets and use this model to evaluate the relative performance of different machine learning (ML methods. Results The classification performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Naïve Bayes (NB, Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees (RPART, and Support Vector Machines (SVM in the presence and absence of filter-based feature selection was analyzed using K-way cross-validation testing and independent validation on simulated in vitro assay data sets with varying levels of model complexity, number of irrelevant features and measurement noise. While the prediction accuracy of all ML methods decreased as non-causal (irrelevant features were added, some ML methods performed better than others. In the limit of using a large number of features, ANN and SVM were always in the top performing set of methods while RPART and KNN (k = 5 were always in the poorest performing set. The addition of measurement noise and irrelevant features decreased the classification accuracy of all ML methods, with LDA suffering the greatest performance degradation. LDA performance is especially sensitive to the use of feature selection. Filter-based feature selection generally improved performance, most strikingly for LDA. Conclusion We have developed a novel simulation model to evaluate machine learning methods for the

  17. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  18. International waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  19. Transplantation: fantasy, fiction and fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Reginald

    2004-03-01

    Today organ transplantation is considered a routine surgical procedure. The idea of transferring tissues from one person to another has been inspiring to the minds of artists depicting the Saints Cosmos and Damian and also writers such as Mary Shelley. Early attempts at tissue transplantation were unsuccessful but in the last 50 years medical research has brought it into reality. The present paper looks at the subject from the realms of fantasy through the works of fiction and finally into everyday fact.

  20. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants

  1. International waste management fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, J.P.; LaMarche, M.N.; Upton, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs

  2. Five Indisputable Facts on Modern Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Helman, Udi [Helman Analytics; Summers, Kate [Pacific Hydro; Bakke, Jordan [Midcontinent Independent System Operator

    2017-08-01

    This presentation overviews five indisputable facts about modern power systems: Fact one: The grid can handle more renewable generation than previously thought. Fact two: Geographic and resource diversity provide additional reliability to the system. Fact three: Wind and solar forecasting provide significant value. Fact four: Our electric power markets were not originally designed for variable renewables -- but they could be adapted. Fact five: Modern power electronics are creating new sources of essential reliability services.

  3. Lessons learned from major accidents relating to ageing of chemical plants

    OpenAIRE

    GYENES ZSUZSANNA; WOOD Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Major industrial accidents that occurred in the past and even recently, such as the Flixborough, UK in 1974, the ConocoPhillips, UK in 2001 and the Chevron, US in 2012 show that ageing is still a disturbing phenomenon present in chemical process industries. Further to these cases, it is estimated that 30 % of the major accidents reported in the eMARS accident database run by the Major Accident Hazards Bureau of the European Commission are connected to at least one ageing phenomenon. It is som...

  4. Students misconceptions on chemical equilibrium and their consequences to biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that misconceptions onchemical equilibrium (CE are widespread among students in  higher education. Nevertheless CE concept is critical for biochemistry topics development such as buffer solutions, enzymekinetics, allosteric enzymes, metabolic networks, among others. In the present work weperformed tests in order to diagnose howstudents use the concepts of CE acquired inother courses. We tested high school andundergraduate students from two courses intwo institutions, in four moments of their course: a. freshmen; b. after basic general chemistry courses; c. along the biochemistrycourse and d. after physical chemistry courses. The tests dealt with: 1. tasks containing current terms, keywords and concepts about CE; 2. tests that exclusively use symbolic representations of CE and 3. application of elementary concepts of CE in biochemistry. The resultsshow that among thestudents: 1. more than 95% correctly answer questions of group1; 2. more than 50% fail in questions of group 2, and; 3. morethan 50% fail in questions of the group 3. We conclude that students solve tests  on CE without really understand the concepts involved; consequently studentsare unable to work CE concepts without mathematical tools or conventional formulas.Finally, the results show that students are restricted to use CE concept only in the context in which it was learned and this certainly impairs the significant learning of the forthcoming biochemical contents.

  5. Food irradiation: Facts or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is at a political crossroad. In one direction, it is moving forward supported by overwhelming scientific evidence of its safety and benefits to economy and health. In the opposite direction, it threatens to be derailed by misleading claims about its safety and usefulness. Whether people will ultimately benefit from the use of irradiation to help fight serious food problems, or whether they will allow the technology to go to waste, will be determined by how successful people are in separating the facts from the fiction of food irradiation

  6. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  7. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-01-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  8. Effects of Type of Exploratory Strategy and Prior Knowledge on Middle School Students' Learning of Chemical Formulas from a 3D Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Puu; Wong, Yu-Ting; Wang, Li-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the type of exploratory strategy and level of prior knowledge on middle school students' performance and motivation in learning chemical formulas via a 3D role-playing game (RPG). Two types of exploratory strategies-RPG exploratory with worked-example and RPG exploratory without…

  9. Chemicals in food and allergy: fact and fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    influence allergic sensitization and elicitation in different ways: (i) they may directly cause allergy because they are allergens or haptens; (ii) they may act as adjuvants facilitating allergy to other (dietary) components; (iii) they may modulate the immune system by direct immunotoxicity and in theory...

  10. Katyn Massacre – Basic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Komaniecka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Katyn is a symbol of the criminal policy of the Soviet system against the Polish nation. The present study aims to demonstrate the basic facts of Katyn massacre – the execution of almost 22,000 people: Polish prisoners of war in Katyn, Kharkov, Kalinin (Tver and also other Polish prisoners (soldiers and civilians, which took place in the spring of 1940 in different places of the Soviet Ukraine and Belarus republics based on the decision of the Soviet authorities, that is the Political Bureau of All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks of March 5, 1940. This article refers not only to the massacre itself, but also its origin, historical processes and the lies accompanying Katyn massacre.

  11. Facts and figures in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Meuric, L.; Scherrer, S.; Paquel, V.; Louati, S.; Thienard, H.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers a series of articles dedicated to the situation of the energy sector in France at the end of 2004: -) the energy balance sheet, -) the trend concerning energy consumption since 1973, -) the energy bill, -) figures about electrical power, -) figures about natural gas, -) figures about solid fossil fuels, -) figures about oil, and -) figures about renewable energies. The important fact to note is that the energy bill has soared by 24.1% to reach 28.35 milliard euros which represents 1.75% of the gross national product (PIB). The evolution over the year 2004 of the factors that contribute to the level of the energy bill is: - the import-export energy quantity differential: +7.5%, - the import-export energy cost differential (in Usa dollar): +27.1%, and - the fall of the dollar: -9.1%. (A.C.)

  12. Non-covalent interactions across organic and biological subsets of chemical space: Physics-based potentials parametrized from machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereau, Tristan; DiStasio, Robert A.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2018-06-01

    Classical intermolecular potentials typically require an extensive parametrization procedure for any new compound considered. To do away with prior parametrization, we propose a combination of physics-based potentials with machine learning (ML), coined IPML, which is transferable across small neutral organic and biologically relevant molecules. ML models provide on-the-fly predictions for environment-dependent local atomic properties: electrostatic multipole coefficients (significant error reduction compared to previously reported), the population and decay rate of valence atomic densities, and polarizabilities across conformations and chemical compositions of H, C, N, and O atoms. These parameters enable accurate calculations of intermolecular contributions—electrostatics, charge penetration, repulsion, induction/polarization, and many-body dispersion. Unlike other potentials, this model is transferable in its ability to handle new molecules and conformations without explicit prior parametrization: All local atomic properties are predicted from ML, leaving only eight global parameters—optimized once and for all across compounds. We validate IPML on various gas-phase dimers at and away from equilibrium separation, where we obtain mean absolute errors between 0.4 and 0.7 kcal/mol for several chemically and conformationally diverse datasets representative of non-covalent interactions in biologically relevant molecules. We further focus on hydrogen-bonded complexes—essential but challenging due to their directional nature—where datasets of DNA base pairs and amino acids yield an extremely encouraging 1.4 kcal/mol error. Finally, and as a first look, we consider IPML for denser systems: water clusters, supramolecular host-guest complexes, and the benzene crystal.

  13. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  14. Nuclear power - facts, trends, problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickermann, W.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to describe the state-of-the-art of nuclear power utilization, particularly for energy production. On the basis of information obtained from study tours through the USSR a rather comprehensive review of nuclear power plants and research establishments in the Soviet Union, of desalination reactors, ship propulsion reactors and fast breeder reactors is given, including nuclear facilities of other countries, e.g. France, USA, GDR. Heat generation, radiation-induced chemical processes and aspects associated with nuclear energy uses, such as risks, environmental protection or radioactive wastes, are also considered. Moreover, the author attempts to outline the social relevance of nuclear power

  15. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  16. Some basic facts about radioactive radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, J.S.; Tanner, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents some basic facts about 222 Rn. These facts include: half-life; diffusion patterns; how radon enters a house; health risks; and means of definition and estimation of radon hazard potential

  17. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  20. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  1. Effects of Jigsaw Cooperative Learning and Animation Techniques on Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding and Their Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacop, Ataman; Doymus, Kemal

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of jigsaw cooperative learning and computer animation techniques on academic achievements of first year university students attending classes in which the unit of chemical bonding is taught within the general chemistry course and these students' learning of the particulate nature of matter of this unit. The sample of this study consisted of 115 first-year science education students who attended the classes in which the unit of chemical bonding was taught in a university faculty of education during the 2009-2010 academic year. The data collection instruments used were the Test of Scientific Reasoning, the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations, the Chemical Bonding Academic Achievement Test, and the Particulate Nature of Matter Test in Chemical Bonding (CbPNMT). The study was carried out in three different groups. One of the groups was randomly assigned to the jigsaw group, the second was assigned to the animation group (AG), and the third was assigned to the control group, in which the traditional teaching method was applied. The data obtained with the instruments were evaluated using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and MANCOVA. The results indicate that the teaching of chemical bonding via the animation and jigsaw techniques was more effective than the traditional teaching method in increasing academic achievement. In addition, according to findings from the CbPNMT, the students from the AG were more successful in terms of correct understanding of the particulate nature of matter.

  2. Market changes - fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    Key changes that have taken place in the electric market in Alberta in light of the structural changes mandated by the Department of Energy through the restructuring initiative embodied in the Electric Utilities Act of 1996, are described. This historical review is undertaken in an effort to determine the extent of real changes and how much more changes have to occur to consider the market to be fully deregulated and truly competitive. Three questions are used to determine the extent of changes: (1) is there a customer choice of power supplies? (2) is there real opportunity to enter the generation market? (3)are decisions about pricing and investment for generation guided by competitive market forces? The author provides detailed responses to each of his own questions. With regard to consumer choice the answer is a very qualified one, i.e. there is some choice, but the extent is dependent on how much the consumer is prepared to ante up for power, and how long he is prepared to wait. The question of opportunities to enter the generation market is answered by saying that we are not there yet, but getting closer. With regard to pricing and investment in generation, the author's view is that we are still a long way from prices and investment being determined by competitive market forces, notwithstanding the fact that this is one of the principal purposes of the Act. All in all, progress is being made, but only a successful auction of the Power Purchase Arrangements (PPAs) , economic direct access rates at the transmission and distribution levels, and increase in non-utility generation will be acceptable as credible indicators of a truly competitive market

  3. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Diegel, Susan W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Sheila A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts (back to 2009) are archived and still available at: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/current-and-past-years-facts-week. Each Fact of the Week website page includes a link to an Excel file. That file contains the data from the Supporting Information section of the page so that researchers can easily use data from the Fact of the Week in their work. Beginning in August of 2015, a subscription list is available on the DOE website so that those interested can sign up for an email to be sent each Monday which includes the text and graphic from the current week s Fact. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2015. The Facts were created, written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  5. Systematic reviews: Separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Bilotta, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    The volume of scientific literature continues to expand and decision-makers are faced with increasingly unmanageable volumes of evidence to assess. Systematic reviews (SRs) are powerful tools that aim to provide comprehensive, transparent, reproducible and updateable summaries of evidence. SR methods were developed, and have been employed, in healthcare for more than two decades, and they are now widely used across a broad range of topics, including environmental management and social interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare. Despite these successes and the increasing acceptance of SR methods as a 'gold standard' in evidence-informed policy and practice, misconceptions still remain regarding their applicability. The aim of this article is to separate fact from fiction, addressing twelve common misconceptions that can influence the decision as to whether a SR is the most appropriate method for evidence synthesis for a given topic. Through examples, we illustrate the flexibility of SR methods and demonstrate their suitability for addressing issues on environmental health and chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Detailed Research Study of Learning and Teaching Core Chemical Engineering to a High Standard in a Mixed-Ability Small Class in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    A detailed study of learning and teaching (L&T) of chemical engineering distillation to a mixed-ability small class of 13 students who are ordinarily full-time in-house employees in industry is reported. The course consisted of 9 × 2-h lectures (18 hours) and 9 × 2-h tutorials (18 hours). It was delivered over nine business days "in…

  7. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  8. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  9. A detailed research study of learning and teaching core chemical engineering to a high standard in a mixed-ability small class in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Kenneth

    2017-11-01

    A detailed study of learning and teaching (L&T) of chemical engineering distillation to a mixed-ability small class of 13 students who are ordinarily full-time in-house employees in industry is reported. The course consisted of 9 × 2-h lectures (18 hours) and 9 × 2-h tutorials (18 hours). It was delivered over nine business days in situ in an established distillery. The purpose was to (re)learn core distillation of ethanol-water mixes at the level of higher education of a bachelor programme. There was 90% broad agreement that the course encouraged more learning. Students (40%) felt the course was too mathematical, however. Pointedly, there was good agreement (63%) that the course stimulated communication with each other professionally, and customers of the distillery. Results overall provide good evidence that students valued their L&T. The experimental design(s) could be readily applied to a range of fields of knowledge.

  10. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  11. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  12. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  13. The effect of fifth grade science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge on their decision making and student learning outcomes on the concept of chemical change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Glenda Lee

    This study investigated the science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) among teachers as they taught the concept of chemical change to fifth grade students. The purpose was to identify teachers' PCK and its impact in middle grade science classrooms. A second purpose was to investigate the possible relationship of teachers' science PCK to teacher actions and student learning outcomes in the classroom. The instruments used to capture PCK were background and demographic information, Content Representations (CoRe), and Professional and Pedagogical experience Repertoire (PaP-eR). The study investigated CoRe and PaP-eR with seven classroom teachers as they planned and taught chemical change to fifth grade students. Four levels of a Pedagogical Content Knowledge rubric were used to describe varying levels of PCK. The four levels were content knowledge of chemical change; knowledge of students' thinking; knowledge of how to represent chemical change to promote student learning; and professional development, collaboration, and leadership roles in science. The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) described and evaluated science teaching performance levels of the teachers. In this study, 176 students were assessed to determine understanding of chemical change. There was a significant correlation between teachers' PCK scores and student achievement. The study also determined that a significant correlation existed between teachers' PCK scores and their RTOP scores revealing that RTOP scores could be predictors of PCK. Through this approach, understandings of PCK emerged that are of interest to university preservice preparation programs, research in understanding effective teachers and teaching, and the planning and implementation of professional development for teachers of science with middle grade students.

  14. Open Experimentation on Phenomena of Chemical Reactions via the Learning Company Approach in Early Secondary Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katharina; Witteck, Torsten; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a case study on the implementation of open and inquiry-type experimentation in early German secondary chemistry education. The teaching strategy discussed follows the learning company approach. Originally adopted from vocational education, the learning company method is used to redirect lab-oriented classroom practice towards a more…

  15. Snapple[R] Real Facts Watercolors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that a hummingbird weighs less than a penny? Or that an elephant swims twenty miles a day? These are just two of the many facts that Snapple prints on the lids of their drink bottles. When Snapple first introduced the Snapple Real Facts the author was excited to see that something so trivial was also educational. She asked herself if…

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  18. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  19. 16 CFR 460.13 - Fact sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.13 Fact sheets. If you are a manufacturer, you must give retailers and installers fact... uses. (b) A heading: “This is ____ insulation.” Fill in the blank with the type and form of your... compressed during installation.” (e) After the chart and any statement dealing with the specific type of...

  20. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  1. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  2. The first year pre-service teachers' chemical literacy in individual learning case using the fuel cell technology based-chemical enrichment book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernani, Saefulloh, Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to analyze chemical literacy ability of pre-service teachers based on PISA 2015 scientific competency. This research used descriptive method. Instrument that used in this research is multiple choice question that built based on scientific competency of PISA 2015. The result is grouping by PISA 2015 competency and mapped by high, medium and low GPA classified. This research involves 19 the first year pre-service teachers of 90 population that randomly chosen. According to the result, chemical literacy ability of pre-service described as follows: 1) 35.5% of sample are able to explain phenomena scientifically. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 25.0%, 40.3% and 29.2%; 2) 31.6% of sample are able to evaluate and design scientific enquiry. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 16.7%, 35.4% and 31.3%; 3) 31.6% of sample are able to Interpret data and evidence scientifically. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 50.0%, 25.0% and 37.5%; For the attitude competency, 68.4% of sample able to showing PISA attitude competency that consist of interest in science, environment awareness and Valuing scientific approaches to enquiry attitude. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 77.8%, 63.9% and 75.0%. According to the data, chemical literacy ability of pre-service teachers in average are bellow to 50.0% thereby need to be given special attention while scientific attitude are above to 50.0%.

  3. Arithmetic Facts Storage Deficit: The Hypersensitivity-to-Interference in Memory Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Dyscalculia, or mathematics learning disorders, is currently known to be heterogeneous (Wilson & Dehaene, 2007). While various profiles of dyscalculia coexist, a general and persistent hallmark of this math learning disability is the difficulty in memorizing arithmetic facts (Geary, Hoard & Hamson, 1999; Jordan & Montani, 1997; Slade…

  4. Organizational Learning as a testbed for BPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Leinsdorff, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The fact that a company´s learning ability may prevent strategic drift and the fact that many companies are undertaking BPR projects lead us to inquire into whether all BPR activities promote organizational learning...

  5. A Study on SVM Based on the Weighted Elitist Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Application in the Fault Diagnosis of Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Junxiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO is a new swarm intelligence optimization algorithm that simulates the class learning process. According to such problems of the traditional TLBO as low optimizing efficiency and poor stability, this paper proposes an improved TLBO algorithm mainly by introducing the elite thought in TLBO and adopting different inertia weight decreasing strategies for elite and ordinary individuals of the teacher stage and the student stage. In this paper, the validity of the improved TLBO is verified by the optimizations of several typical test functions and the SVM optimized by the weighted elitist TLBO is used in the diagnosis and classification of common failure data of the TE chemical process. Compared with the SVM combining other traditional optimizing methods, the SVM optimized by the weighted elitist TLBO has a certain improvement in the accuracy of fault diagnosis and classification.

  6. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991.

  7. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  8. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy in Sweden. Facts and Figures 2005 contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years (2003 and 2004). Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts

  9. Learnings from LCA-based methods: should chemicals in food packaging be a priority focus to protect human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Given the scale and variety of human health damage (HHD) caused by food systems, prioritization methods are urgently needed. In this study HHD is estimated for case studies on red meat and sugary sweetened beverages (SSB) packaged in high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) due to various relevant health...... impacts. Specifically, we aim to asses if chemicals in food packaging are important to HHD in a life cycle context. The functional unit is "daily consumption of a packaged food per person in the United States." Method developments focus on human toxicity characterization of chemicals migrating from...... packaging into food. Chemicals and their concentrations in HIPS were identified from regulatory lists. A new high-throughput model estimated migration into food, depending on properties of chemicals, packaging, food, and scenario, and HHD was extrapolated following LCA characterization methods. An LCA...

  10. Catalogue of Energy Efficiency Measures for France: descriptive fact sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    ADEME wished to learn about existing effective energy efficiency measures implemented outside of France, whether cross-sectoral or targeted at a specific sector (industry, transport, buildings or agriculture). The objective of this survey was to determine whether any of these measures could be applied in France, with the goal of holding down the growth of energy consumption. This survey has led to the writing of a catalog of 53 two-page fact sheets describing the measures identified as interesting for France. These measures were analysed via classic criteria of evaluation such as cost-efficiency or impact, allowing to highlight the most successful measures for the French territory

  11. User needs in chemical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Poetzscher, G.; Wilson, A.J.C.

    1990-05-01

    Information has become an absolutely indispensable factor in the modern industrial society. In chemistry, detailed information about all compounds known is required. Learned journals, research and conference reports, publications from universities and learned societies, and dissertations present the progress in research. It is important that all properties of compounds (stereochemistry, physical values, chemical and environmental behaviour, toxicity etc.) reported in these publications be indexed and made available to the users. There is also a need for factual and/or numerical data and reviews concerning general or specific topics. High on the list of desiderata are timeliness, accuracy and completeness of the information. Abstracting and indexing services and database producers have to take in consideration that a high degree of userfriendliness is necessary. In the future, most of the information will be offered in computer readable form (factual and numerical databases, reaction databases, information on CD-ROM etc.), a fact which will require many improvements in the flow of information in order to render possible an easy and direct access to the chemical information worldwide. (author). 15 refs

  12. User needs in chemical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, H; Poetzscher, G [FIZ Chemie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wilson, A J.C. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Crystallographic Data Centre

    1990-05-01

    Information has become an absolutely indispensable factor in the modern industrial society. In chemistry, detailed information about all compounds known is required. Learned journals, research and conference reports, publications from universities and learned societies, and dissertations present the progress in research. It is important that all properties of compounds (stereochemistry, physical values, chemical and environmental behaviour, toxicity etc.) reported in these publications be indexed and made available to the users. There is also a need for factual and/or numerical data and reviews concerning general or specific topics. High on the list of desiderata are timeliness, accuracy and completeness of the information. Abstracting and indexing services and database producers have to take in consideration that a high degree of userfriendliness is necessary. In the future, most of the information will be offered in computer readable form (factual and numerical databases, reaction databases, information on CD-ROM etc.), a fact which will require many improvements in the flow of information in order to render possible an easy and direct access to the chemical information worldwide. (author). 15 refs.

  13. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  14. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  15. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  16. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  17. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  18. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... the flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the ...

  19. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe June 2015 Print this issue HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but ... Biological Blueprints Wise Choices Should You Get an HIV Test? HIV tests involve a simple cheek swab, ...

  20. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  1. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Does Sandia Buy? Opportunities Small Business Procurement Technical Assistance Program (PTAP) Current Technology Partnerships Business, Industry, & Non-Profits Government Universities Center for

  3. CERN Quick Facts 2017 (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma

    2017-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  4. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  5. CERN Quick Facts 2016 (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070305

    2016-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  6. CERN Quick Facts 2017 (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma

    2017-01-01

    Facts about CERN, the contributions of its Member States, its machines and experiments, the number of its employees and users, management structure, etc. Previously called "CERN General Information Sheet"

  7. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  8. Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Related Links CDC Food Safety Adolescent and School Health BAM! Body and Mind Get the Facts: Drinking Water and Intake Recommend ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  10. FACTS device control strategy using PMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tauseef Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The laying and commissioning of new transmission line is very difficult due to socio-economic problems, like environmental clearances, right of way, etc. Therefore, there is an emphasis on better utilization of available transmission infrastructure. FACTS devices can provide reactive power compensation, transmission capability enhancement, and voltage and stability improvement. FACTS devices operate under the command of system operator who analyses its demand by the data acquired through traditional SCADA system, state estimation algorithms and PMUs. SCADA together with PMU give accurate information about the operational state of power system. This paper proposes a scheme to automate the FACTS devices in collaboration with PMUs in a more efficient way. Highly precised data from PMUs can be fed to intelligent controllers for effective analyzing and automating the FACTS device through control command. Thus, this combination can provide real time control of reactive power, together with enhancement of power handling capability and stability improvement.

  11. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... national health issues… Prescription Drugs Waivers Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands Recovery Disparities Policy Search Graphics & Interactives Polls ... Medicare Private Insurance Uninsured Women’s Health Policy Nav Group Polling Perspectives State Health Facts Graphics & Interactives Charts & ...

  12. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  14. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  15. Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth Violence Facts at a Glance 2016 Yout h Vi olence • In 2014, 4,300 young people ages 10 ... in combined medical and work loss costs. 1 Violence-related Behaviors In a 2015 nationally-representative sample ...

  16. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  17. International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1994-05-01

    International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R ampersand D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US, four multinational agencies and 21 nuclear societies. This publication succeeds the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 13 years. While the title is different, there are no substantial changes in the content

  18. What Is Quality Preschool? Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Children need quality early learning programs. This can be a child care center, a preschool or a Head Start program. Not all early learning programs provide the high quality children need. This paper presents questions that should be considered when looking for an early learning program.

  19. Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Laabidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  20. The learning machine in quantitative chemical analysis : Part I. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium, Lead and Thallium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Jasink, G.

    1978-01-01

    The linear learning machine method was applied to the determination of cadmium, lead and thallium down to 10-8 M by anodic stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. With a total of three trained multicategory classifiers, concentrations of Cd, Pb and Tl could be predicted with an

  1. A deep learning approach to estimate chemically-treated collagenous tissue nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain responses from microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Liu, Minliang; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Biological collagenous tissues comprised of networks of collagen fibers are suitable for a broad spectrum of medical applications owing to their attractive mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a noninvasive approach to estimate collagenous tissue elastic properties directly from microscopy images using Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium (GLBP) tissue, widely used in the fabrication of bioprosthetic heart valves and vascular patches, was chosen to develop a representative application. A Deep Learning model was designed and trained to process second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen networks in GLBP tissue samples, and directly predict the tissue elastic mechanical properties. The trained model is capable of identifying the overall tissue stiffness with a classification accuracy of 84%, and predicting the nonlinear anisotropic stress-strain curves with average regression errors of 0.021 and 0.031. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of using the Deep Learning approach for fast and noninvasive assessment of collagenous tissue elastic properties from microstructural images. In this study, we developed, to our best knowledge, the first Deep Learning-based approach to estimate the elastic properties of collagenous tissues directly from noninvasive second harmonic generation images. The success of this study holds promise for the use of Machine Learning techniques to noninvasively and efficiently estimate the mechanical properties of many structure-based biological materials, and it also enables many potential applications such as serving as a quality control tool to select tissue for the manufacturing of medical devices (e.g. bioprosthetic heart valves). Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Room-temperature and temperature-dependent QSRR modelling for predicting the nitrate radical reaction rate constants of organic chemicals using ensemble learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Basant, N; Mohan, D; Singh, K P

    2016-07-01

    Experimental determinations of the rate constants of the reaction of NO3 with a large number of organic chemicals are tedious, and time and resource intensive; and the development of computational methods has widely been advocated. In this study, we have developed room-temperature (298 K) and temperature-dependent quantitative structure-reactivity relationship (QSRR) models based on the ensemble learning approaches (decision tree forest (DTF) and decision treeboost (DTB)) for predicting the rate constant of the reaction of NO3 radicals with diverse organic chemicals, under OECD guidelines. Predictive powers of the developed models were established in terms of statistical coefficients. In the test phase, the QSRR models yielded a correlation (r(2)) of >0.94 between experimental and predicted rate constants. The applicability domains of the constructed models were determined. An attempt has been made to provide the mechanistic interpretation of the selected features for QSRR development. The proposed QSRR models outperformed the previous reports, and the temperature-dependent models offered a much wider applicability domain. This is the first report presenting a temperature-dependent QSRR model for predicting the nitrate radical reaction rate constant at different temperatures. The proposed models can be useful tools in predicting the reactivities of chemicals towards NO3 radicals in the atmosphere, hence, their persistence and exposure risk assessment.

  3. A Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Chemical Toxicity Classification Using a Simulated Multi-Scale Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioactivity profiling using high-throughput in vitro assays can reduce the cost and time required for toxicological screening of environmental chemicals and can also reduce the need for animal testing. Several public efforts are aimed at discovering patterns or classifiers in hig...

  4. Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

  5. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Energy in Sweden 2004: Facts and Figures contains the tabular data for most of the diagrams in the main publication. These data consist primarily of the results of the Agency's processing of basic data from Statistics Sweden. Facts and Figures is available at www.stem.se in pdf- and excel file formats. Since the year 2001 statistics for the period 1983-1998 are revised compared to data for previous editions. With effect from the 2001 edition, statistics are of preliminary character for the two preceding years. Breakdowns into certain types of fuels vary somewhat depending on whether preliminary or final data has been used. Further information about the statistics can be found in Energy in Sweden, chapter 8 Energy Facts.

  6. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R ampersand D programs and key personnel on 23 countries, including the US, four multi-national agencies, and 21 nuclear societies. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries-a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies-a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement and a listing of nuclear societies. Glossary-a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States

  7. FACT. Energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Fabian; Einecke, Sabrina; Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5, Otto-Hahn-Str.4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope which uses silicon photon detectors (G-APDs aka SiPM) as photo sensors. With more than four years of operation, FACT proved an application of SiPMs is suitable for the field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Due to the stable flux at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula is handled as a ''standard candle'' in Cherenkov astronomy. The analysis of its energy spectrum and comparison with other experiments, allows to evaluate the performance of FACT. A modern analysis chain, based on data stream handling and multivariate analysis methods was developed in close cooperation with the department of computer science at the TU Dortmund. In this talk, this analysis chain and its application are presented. Further to this, results, including the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula, measured with FACT, are shown.

  8. International nuclear cycle fact book: Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. The Fact Book contains: national summaries in which a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; and international agencies in which a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement, and a listing of nuclear societies. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States

  9. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  10. Leadership: sad facts and silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T J

    1979-01-01

    The typical CEO has endless interruptions and limited options for action. In addition, he may not even hear about his choices, or any bad news that might require action, until it is almost too late. Finally, any decision he does make will probably require months or years to implement fully. This author suggests that this gloomy picture has another side. In fact, each of these "sad facts" of managerial life can be turned into an opportunity to communicate values and to persuade, and they add up to a new notion of the chief executive's function.

  11. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  12. The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, Henry

    1975-01-01

    Contrasts popular myths about managers' duties with the facts, as indicated by various studies of managers and how they function. The author argues that managers often have distorted views of their role, and that they must first recognize what their job really involves in order to perform it effectively. (JG)

  13. Emotional Disturbance. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #5

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mental health of our children is a natural and important concern for us all. The fact is, many mental disorders have their beginnings in childhood or adolescence, yet may go undiagnosed and untreated for years. "Umbrella" terms such as emotional disturbance, behavioral disorders, or mental illness are used to refer to mental…

  14. International nuclear waste management fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahms, C.W.; Patridge, M.D.; Widrig, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US

  15. Renewable Energy Project Development Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Tribes selected to receive assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy 2013 Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, which provides technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects on tribal lands.

  16. EU AND GLOBALIZATION: SOME STYLIZED FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scamuffa Domenico

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people all over the world claim that globalization is a result of dynamic interactions between economic, technological, social and political factors. The aim of this paper is to document some stylized facts on this phenomenon in order to take

  17. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  18. Mastering Fact Fluency: Are They Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Connie J.; Stone, Jamalee

    2013-01-01

    Math games can be powerful tools in helping students achieve automaticity in basic addition and related subtraction facts if both teachers and students use them purposefully. According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM 2000), developing a solid mathematical foundation is essential for every child in prekindergarten through…

  19. Hippocrates: facts and fiction | Retief | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, is reviewed as a historical person and in terms of his contribution to medicine in order to distinguish fact from fiction. Contemporary and later sources reveal that many (possibly untrue) legends accumulated around this enigmatic figure. The textual tradition and the composition of the ...

  20. Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can make referrals to cleft/craniofacial treatment teams. Cleft Lip & Palate Foundation of Smiles Cleft Lip & Palate Foundation of ...

  1. Main facts 1995; Faits marquants 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations.

  2. D.E.R. 85: main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the important facts among the studies carried out by the ''Direction des Etudes et Recherches'' (E.D.F.): new applications of electric power for customers, protection of environment, classical equipments for power plants and nuclear equipments, monitoring and control of power plants, electrical equipments, development and operation of electrical networks, informatics and office automation [fr

  3. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  4. Facts about food irradiation: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet introduces the concept of irradiating food to reduce post-harvest losses from infestation, contamination and spoilage, to lower the incidence of foodborne diseases and to assist international trade in food products by offering an alternative to fumigation or some other treatments that may not be acceptable to the importing countries

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to ...

  6. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  7. Fishing Facts Unlimited. Enterprise: Man & Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Technical and Industrial Education.

    Fishing Facts Unlimited, a student conducted enterprise in Technical and Industrial Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale has been a very successful operation, both financially and in providing a community service. The service provided by the enterprise was the production and sales of a 48-page fishing guide to Southern Illinois.…

  8. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  9. D.E.R. 91 main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, N.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: New applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  11. International nuclear waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahms, C W; Patridge, M D; Widrig, J E

    1995-11-01

    The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.

  12. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  13. Moving Facts in an Arctic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Kirsten Blinkenberg; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    , and an engagement with other disciplinary practices. The gain of our cross-disciplinary experiment was therefore not only to know more about the makings of a particular landscape in a multi-disciplinary perspective, but also to understand how anthropology makes sense of inherently moving facts....

  14. D.E.R. 92 - Main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  15. Socialization of didactic units for teaching-learning of chemical bond to students of basic course in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Cárdenas-Ojeda

    2016-12-01

    with the complexity this demands. The research is empirical with the constructivist point or view. The test Covalent Bond and its structure was applied as a diagnostic tool to 42 students of Chemistry and Bachelor of Natural Science and Environmental Education of the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, (UPTC the perception of this topic becomes a field that allows to explain the natural phenomena and its accurate explanation allows, on one hand, to avoid the students adapt conceptual mistakes, and on the other, foster meaningful learning in them.

  16. Demonstrating the facticity of facts: university lectures and chemistry as a science in Germany around 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frercks, Jan

    2010-03-01

    In this article, I argue that chemical lectures at universities played a crucial role in the establishment of chemistry as a well-defined science in Germany around 1800. In particular, lecture demonstrations served to secure the facticity of facts. This was important, because the concept of the chemical fact was at the centre of the prevailing epistemology, which itself partly reflected the social order of chemistry as a science in Germany, and partly served to foster it. In the dialectic constellation of research and teaching, professor-chemists took the lead in the social and epistemological definition of chemistry.

  17. Serum levels of chemical elements in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Anyang, China: a case-control study based on machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tong; Liu, Tiebing; Lin, Yucheng; Zhang, Chaoting; Yan, Lailai; Chen, Zhongxue; He, Zhonghu; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-09-24

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant form of esophageal carcinoma with extremely aggressive nature and low survival rate. The risk factors for ESCC in the high-incidence areas of China remain unclear. We used machine learning methods to investigate whether there was an association between the alterations of serum levels of certain chemical elements and ESCC. Primary healthcare unit in Anyang city, Henan Province of China. 100 patients with ESCC and 100 healthy controls matched for age, sex and region were included. Primary outcome was the classification accuracy. Secondary outcome was the p Value of the t-test or rank-sum test. Both traditional statistical methods of t-test and rank-sum test and fashionable machine learning approaches were employed. Random Forest achieves the best accuracy of 98.38% on the original feature vectors (without dimensionality reduction), and support vector machine outperforms other classifiers by yielding accuracy of 96.56% on embedding spaces (with dimensionality reduction). All six classifiers can achieve accuracies more than 90% based on the single most important element Sr. The other two elements with distinctive difference are S and P, providing accuracies around 80%. More than half of chemical elements were found to be significantly different between patients with ESCC and the controls. These results suggest clear differences between patients with ESCC and controls, implying some potential promising applications in diagnosis, prognosis, pharmacy and nutrition of ESCC. However, the results should be interpreted with caution due to the retrospective design nature, limited sample size and the lack of several potential confounding factors (including obesity, nutritional status, and fruit and vegetable consumption and potential regional carcinogen contacts). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  18. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  19. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  20. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  1. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  2. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  3. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  4. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  5. FACT. Multivariate extraction of muon ring images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noethe, Maximilian; Temme, Fabian; Buss, Jens [Experimentelle Physik 5b, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, muon ring images are an important event class for instrument calibration and monitoring of its properties. In this talk, a multivariate approach will be presented, that is well suited for real time extraction of muons from data streams of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT). FACT, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is located on the Canary Island of La Palma and is the first IACT to use Silicon Photomultipliers for detecting the Cherenkov photons of extensive air showers. In case of FACT, the extracted muon events are used to calculate the time resolution of the camera. In addition, the effect of the mirror alignment in May 2014 on properties of detected muons is investigated. Muon candidates are identified with a random forest classification algorithm. The performance of the classifier is evaluated for different sets of image parameters in order to compare the gain in performance with the computational costs of their calculation.

  6. Groups of Fact in Computer Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cereser Pezzella

    2015-12-01

    groups and the fact groups, presenting these as subjects, although without constituting a society. Technological changes led to the formation of so-called cyberspace, which enabled a change in the own way of understanding the reality through faster diffusion of the most varied content information, thus allowing not only a quicker movement of goods and messages, as well as the modification of habits and even the conversion of practically any cultural product in assets to be profitable exploitation, aimed at consumption.

  7. Facts and possibilities for the energy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Bauwesen

    1977-01-01

    After the oil crisis, all countries have become more aware of the energy problem. The economic dictate of OPEC countries must be counteracted at least by a partial self-supply with energy. The article deals with a few selected, realistic developments on the energy sector. Among others, the following facts are discussed: pretroleum reserves in the FRG, coal liquefaction, efficiency of thermal power plants, alternative projects for nuclear energy, reprocessing of nuclear waste, and problems of nuclear waste storage.

  8. Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwani Kumar; Jitender Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) Impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determin...

  9. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  10. Omnichannel Marketing. Facts & Figures. Denmark 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup Kjær, Jan; Kjær Jacobsen, Christine; Bjerre Herdel, Stine

    This NBI Omnichannel Facts and Figures report highlights the central findings from the NBI Omnichannel capability benchmarking tool, based on data collected in 2015 and 2016. The insights shared here provide an understanding of the way companies and marketing departments are working to deliver...... on - and adapt to - the challenges and opportunities related to the customer-centric, omnichannel experience. View this report as a data-freeze and analysis on the status of omnichannel in Denmark as of 2017....

  11. Facts controllers in power transmission and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Padiyar, KR

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: The emerging technology of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) enables planning and operation of power systems at minimum costs, without compromising security. This is based on modern high power electronic systems that provide fast controllability to ensure ''flexible'' operation under changing system conditions. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject by discussing the operating principles, mathematical models, control design and issues that affect the applications. The concepts are explained often with illustrative examples and case studies. In partic

  12. Cost Overrun Optimism: Fact or Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Base, OH. Homgren, C. T. (1990). In G. Foster (Ed.), Cost accounting : A managerial emphasis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Morrison... Accounting Office. Gansler, J. S. (1989). Affording defense. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Heise, S. R. (1991). A review of cost performance index...Image designed by Diane Fleischer Cost Overrun Optimism: FACT or FICTION? Maj David D. Christensen, USAF Program managers are advocates by

  13. Considering FACTS in Optimal Transmission Expansion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Soleimani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power transmission systems is an important part of the expansion of power systems that requires enormous investment costs. Since the construction of new transmission lines is very expensive, it is necessary to choose the most efficient expansion plan that ensures system security with a minimal number of new lines. In this paper, the role of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices in the effective operation and expansion planning of transmission systems is examined. Effort was taken to implement a method based on sensitivity analysis to select the optimal number and location of FACTS devices, lines and other elements of the transmission system. Using this method, the transmission expansion plan for a 9 and a 39 bus power system was performed with and without the presence of FACTS with the use of DPL environment in Digsilent software 15.1. Results show that the use of these devices reduces the need for new transmission lines and minimizes the investment cost.

  14. Facts About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behavior and learning. They might do poorly in school and have difficulties with math, memory, attention, judgment, and poor impulse control. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): People with ARBD might have problems ...

  15. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about Alberta, about its area (661,190 sq.km), capital (Edmonton), population (2.914,918 in 1998) major industries (petroleum and mining, chemical products, agriculture, food, manufacturing, construction), revenue from natural resources (an estimated $ 3.4 billion from oil and natural gas in 1999-2000, or about 15 per cent of total government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in Alberta, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (petroleum and natural gas, manufactured goods, primary agricultural products, chemicals and chemical products), and upstream industry expenditures in the province (about $ 12 billion in 1998). map, pie-chart, figs

  16. Lessons learned from joint working group report on assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of radiological hazards to humans is greatly simplified by the existence of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The average RBE values or radiation weighting factors recommended by the ICRP are based on non-human data. The ICRP has also indicated that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk.' This statement appears to be supported by technical publications from other organizations. Two published objections by AECB staff to the scientific technical background of the ICRP statement do not offer any good reason to reject this ICRP statement. A brief summary is given of the joint working group report on the topic indicated in the title. It is noted that regulators of cancer-causing chemicals have in general paid less attention to natural sources than have the regulators of radiological hazards. Most non-human species are exposed to about 1 millisievert (mSv) equivalent dose of radiation per year from natural sources. Caribou and organisms living underground are noted as examples where radiation exposures from natural sources are considerably higher. The natural biota is in general remarkably resistant, both in the laboratory and in field studies, to the effects of high doses of radiation. A recent review by the International Atomic Agency concluded that dose rates below the equivalent of 400 mSv per year are unlikely to after the survival of non-human species. It is recommended that caution and common sense be applied in any future research on radiological protection of non-human species in the environment in Canada. Many of the proposed U.S. regulations to control chemical and radiation in the environment are not cost-effective. It is to be hoped that efforts to protect non-human species from potential radiological hazards in Canada do not slide into a similar kind of irrational quagmire. (author)

  17. IAEA Sends International Fact-finding Expert Mission to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency will dispatch an international expert fact-finding mission to Japan. Based upon the agreement between the IAEA and the Government of Japan, the mission, comprising nearly 20 international and IAEA experts from a dozen countries, will visit Japan between 24 May and 2 June 2011. Under the leadership of Mr. Mike Weightman, HM Chief Inspector of Nuclear Installations of the United Kingdom, the mission will conduct fact-finding activities at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) site and in other locations. The expert mission will make a preliminary assessment of the safety issues linked with TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. During the mission, areas that need further exploration or assessment based on the IAEA safety standards will also be identified. In the course of the IAEA mission, the international experts will become acquainted with the Japanese lessons learned from the accident and will share their experience and expertise in their fields of competence with the Japanese authorities. Mr. Weightman will present the mission's report at the Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety organised by the IAEA in Vienna from 20 to 24 June 2011, as an important input in the process of reviewing and strengthening the global nuclear safety framework that will be launched by the Conference. (IAEA)

  18. Just the Facts? Introductory Undergraduate Biology Courses Focus on Low-Level Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, Jennifer L.; Long, Tammy M.; Wyse, Sara A.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses.…

  19. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  20. Fact Sheet in English and Spanish: What Residents in Agricultural Communities Should Know About Soil Fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about fumigant gas from treated fields (often covered with plastic tarps), some chemical and trade names of these agricultural products, signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure, and how to avoid or report or treat pesticide illness.

  1. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  2. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  3. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  4. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  5. Facts about food irradiation: Genetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Results published in the mid-1970s from the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in India showed increased numbers of polyploid cells in rats, mice, monkeys and malnourished children fed irradiated wheat products. This fact sheet considers the validity of these results. A large number of independent studies have been subsequently performed, and in none of these have results been obtained that support the NIN findings. The conclusion is that there is no evidence to link the consumption of irradiated food with any mutagenic effect. 3 refs

  6. Facts and values in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Frank B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk, as commonly understood, is a complex melange of facts, values, and fears. While this complexity of public risk perception is now broadly recognized, its implications are insufficiently explored. Public risk perceptions offer p poor guide for public policymaking. Popular assessments of risk are tainted by misinformation and unreliable heuristics. While subjective considerations, often called values, play a role in public perception of risk, those 'values' are often inappropriate for government decisionmaking. Reliance on public perceptions of risk means more premature deaths. Public risk perception also is systematically skewed contrary to the interests of the disadvantaged. Strict probabilistic risk measures generally provide a superior guide for government regulatory policy

  7. Performance of FACTS equipment in Meshed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, E; Povh, D [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Modern power electronic devices such as thyristors and GTOs have made it possible to design controllable network elements, which will play a considerable role in ensuring reliable economic operation of transmission systems as a result of their capability to rapidly change active and reactive power. A number of FACTS elements for high-speed active and reactive power control will be described. Control of power system fluctuations in meshed systems by modulation of active and reactive power will be demonstrated using a number of examples. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Scientific Facts and Methods in Public Reason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin; Kappel, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Should scientific facts and methods have an epistemically privileged status in public reason? In Rawls’s public reason account he asserts what we will label the Scientific Standard Stricture: citizens engaged in public reason must be guided by non-controversial scientific methods, and public reason...... must be in line with non-controversial scientific conclusions. The Scientific Standard Stricture is meant to fulfill important tasks such as enabling the determinateness and publicity of the public reason framework. However, Rawls leaves us without elucidation with regard to when science...

  9. Evaluating bioremediation: distinguishing fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, M J; Unterman, R

    1993-01-01

    Bioremediation options encompass diverse types of biochemical mechanisms that may lead to a target's mineralization, partial transformation, humification, or altered redox state (e.g. for metallic elements). Because these various mechanisms produce alternative fates of the targeted pollutants, it is often necessary to use diverse evaluation criteria to qualify a successful bioremediation. Too often target depletion from a treated matrix can be mistakenly ascribed to biological activity when in fact the depletion is caused by abiotic losses (e.g. volatilization, leaching, and stripping). Thus, effective, and therefore convincing, evaluation requires that experimental and engineering designs anticipate all possible routes of target depletion and that these routes be carefully monitored.

  10. Amazing & extraordinary facts the steam age

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Respected transport author Julian Holland delves into the intriguing world of steam in his latest book, which is full of absorbing facts and figures on subjects ranging from Cornish beam engines, steam railway locomotives, road vehicles and ships through to traction engines, steam rollers and electricity generating stations and the people who designed and built them. Helped along the way by the inventive minds of James Watt, Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson, steam became the powerhouse that drove the Industrial Revolution in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

  11. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  12. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  13. Implications, large and small, from chemical education research for the teaching of chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fensham

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in chemical education pose a communication problem for chemists. Unlike the findings from other specializations in chemistry the findings in chemical education tend to be reported in education journals that are not readily accessible to most chemists or chemistry teachers. This lecture is an attempt to remedy this gap in communication. Research studies fall into three broad categories. (i issues related to the content of chemistry itself, that is, What content to teach? And What meaning of each topic is to be conveyed? (ii issues related to how chemical content is taught, such as, the role of lectures, practical work, particular pedagogies, etc. and (iii issues related to its learning, that is, learning of concepts, conceptual change, motivation, etc. Findings in each of these categories of research over the last twenty years have drawn attention to opportunities for improving the quality of chemical education in each of the levels of formal education where chemistry is taught. Sometimes the research findings seem small since they, in fact, merely diagnose the actual problem in teaching and learning. At other times, the research findings are large because they provide a solution to these problems. What remains to be done is to disseminate the findings so that appropriate teaching occurs more widely, with its consequent gains in the quality of learning. Research findings, of these small and large types will be used to illustrate the potential of research to make the practice of chemical education more effective.

  14. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    Chemical speciation and source apportionment of size fractionated atmospheric aerosols were investigated using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD TOF-MS) and source apportionment was carried out using carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS). Sample collection was carried out using the Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring impact analyzer in Davis, Colfax, and Yosemite, CA. Ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter of 2010/11 and 2011/12 showed a significant difference in the types of compounds found in the small and large sized particles. The difference was due to the increase number of oxidized carbon species that were found in the small particles size ranges, but not in the large particles size ranges. Overall, the ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter in Davis, CA had and average fraction modern of F14C = 0.753 +/- 0.006, indicating that the majority of the size fractionated particles originated from biogenic sources. Samples collected during the King Fire in Colfax, CA were used to determine the contribution of biomass burning (wildfire) aerosols. Factor analysis was used to reduce the ions found in the LD TOF-MS analysis of the King Fire samples. The final factor analysis generated a total of four factors that explained an overall 83% of the variance in the data set. Two of the factors correlated heavily with increased smoke events during the sample period. The increased smoke events produced a large number of highly oxidized organic aerosols (OOA2) and aromatic compounds that are indicative of biomass burning organic aerosols (WBOA). The signal intensities of the factors generated in the King Fire data were investigated in samples collected in Yosemite and Davis, CA to look at the impact of biomass burning on ambient atmospheric aerosols. In both comparison sample collections the OOA2 and WBOA factors both increased during biomass burning events located near the sampling sites. The correlation

  15. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  16. Comparison of Ontology Reasoners: Racer, Pellet, Fact++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Li, W.; Yang, C.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we examine some key aspects of three of the most popular and effective Semantic reasoning engines that have been developed: Pellet, RACER, and Fact++. While these reasonably advanced reasoners share some notable similarities, it is ultimately the creativity and unique nature of these reasoning engines that have resulted in the successes of each of these reasoners. Of the numerous dissimilarities, the most obvious example might be that while Pellet is written in Java, RACER employs the Lisp programming language and Fact++ was developed using C++. From this and many other distinctions in the system architecture, we can understand the benefits of each reasoner and potentially discover certain properties that may contribute to development of an optimal reasoner in the future. The objective of this paper is to establish a solid comparison of the reasoning engines based on their system architectures, features, and overall performances in real world application. In the end, we expect to produce a valid conclusion about the advantages and problems in each reasoner. While there may not be a decisive first place among the three reasoners, the evaluation will also provide some answers as to which of these current reasoning tools will be most effective in common, practical situations.

  17. Workshop Summary for Maintaining Innovation and Security in Biotechnology: Lessons Learned from Nuclear, Chemical, and Informational Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, Paris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-11

    In the fast-paced field of biotechnology where innovation has such far-reaching impacts on human health and the environment, dealing with the implications of possible illicit activities, accidents or unintended research consequences with potential detrimental societal impacts tends to remain in the background. While controls may be inevitable for the biotech industry, workshop attendees agreed that the way in which controls are implemented will play a major role in the agility and innovation of the biotechnology industry. There is little desire to slow down the pace of the gains while dealing with the security issues that arise. As was seen from the brief examinations of the Nuclear, Chemical, and Information Technology sectors explored in this workshop, establishing a regulatory regime needs to be a partnership between the public, corporate interests, scientists, and the government. Regulation is often written to combat perceived risk rather than actual risk—the public’s perceptions (occasionally even fictional portrayals) can spur regulatory efforts. This leads to the need for a thorough and continuing assessment of the risks posed by modern biotechnology. Inadequate or minimal risk assessment might expedite development in the short term but has potential negative long-term security and economic consequences. Industry and the technical community also often have a large role in setting regulatory policy, especially when well-crafted incentives are incorporated into the regulations. Such incentives might actually lead to enhanced innovation while poorly designed incentives can actually reduce safety and security. Any regulations should be as agile and flexible as the technology they regulate and when applied to biotechnologies they will need a new framework for thinking and implementing. The new framework should consider biotechnology as a technology and not simply a science since it is an extremely complex and adaptive system. This suggests the need to invest

  18. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  19. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides.

  20. A Model for Learning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfoil, W. R.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which people perceive learning and the impact of these perceptions on teaching methods within the context of learning development in distance education. The context could, in fact, be any type of teaching and learning environment. The point is to balance approaches to teaching and learning depending on student…

  1. Predictive analysis of the influence of the chemical composition and pre-processing regimen on structural properties of steel alloys using machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Narayanan; Maddali, Siddharth; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Hawk, Jeffrey

    We present some structural properties of multi-component steel alloys as predicted by a random forest machine-learning model. These non-parametric models are trained on high-dimensional data sets defined by features such as chemical composition, pre-processing temperatures and environmental influences, the latter of which are based upon standardized testing procedures for tensile, creep and rupture properties as defined by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). We quantify the goodness of fit of these models as well as the inferred relative importance of each of these features, all with a conveniently defined metric and scale. The models are tested with synthetic data points, generated subject to the appropriate mathematical constraints for the various features. By this we highlight possible trends in the increase or degradation of the structural properties with perturbations in the features of importance. This work is presented as part of the Data Science Initiative at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, directed specifically towards the computational design of steel alloys.

  2. How to Incorporate Technology with Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance the Understanding of Chemical Composition; How to Analyze Unknown Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in teaching offers numerous amounts of possibilities and can be challenging for physics, chemistry and geology content courses. When incorporating technology into a science content lab it is better to be driven by pedagogy than by technology in an inquiry-based lab setting. Students need to be introduced to real-world technology in the beginning of first year chemistry or physics course to ensure real-world technology concepts while assisting with content such as periodic trends on the periodic table. This article will describe the use of technology with Raman Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive XRay Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to research chemical compositions in the real world of unknown samples. Such unknown samples utilized in this lab were clamshell (parts of clams that look like shark teeth versus shark teeth. The data will be shared to show how the students (pre-service teachers and in-service teachers solved the problem using technology while learning important content that will assist in the next level of chemistry, physics and even geology.

  3. Left brain, right brain: facts and fantasies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Corballis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the "norm" of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.

  4. Fact and fictions in FX arbitrage processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod; Kozyakin, Victor

    2015-02-01

    The efficient markets hypothesis implies that arbitrage opportunities in markets such as those for foreign exchange (FX) would be, at most, short-lived. The present paper surveys the fragmented nature of FX markets, revealing that information in these markets is also likely to be fragmented. The "quant" workforce in the hedge fund featured in The Fear Index novel by Robert Harris would have little or no reason for their existence in an EMH world. The four currency combinatorial analysis of arbitrage sequences contained in [1] is then considered. Their results suggest that arbitrage processes, rather than being self-extinguishing, tend to be periodic in nature. This helps explain the fact that arbitrage dealing tends to be endemic in FX markets.

  5. Communicating facts through third-party partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Every day in the United States people are making decisions about the future of nuclear energy, while it continues to be one of our most controversial issues. How these decisions turn out and whether they are based on fact and need or fear and misconceptions will depend in large part on how active a role knowledgeable people choose to play in the public arena. The participation of scientists and engineers, industry employees, and operators is particularly important because of the respect the public has for their knowledge of the issues. There are a number of very successful programs in which individuals participate through meaningful partnerships with larger national public information efforts. This paper reviews two such partnership programs and makes generalized conclusions about their success and their importance

  6. Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy and help parents assist their child in maximizing his or her learning potential. Sometimes individual or ... be included in material presented for sale or profit. All Facts can be viewed and printed from ...

  7. Total fact-book 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    TOTAL S.A., a French society incorporated in France on March 28, 1924, together with its subsidiaries and affiliates, is the fourth largest publicly-traded integrated oil and gas company in the world. This document provides statistical data and information on the corporate (highlights, statements), upstream (production, costs,main producing fields, drilling), upstream maps, downstream (refining, distillation, retail gasoline outlets) and chemicals (sales, specialities). (A.L.B.)

  8. Total fact-book 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    TOTAL S.A., a French society incorporated in France on March 28, 1924, together with its subsidiaries and affiliates, is the fourth largest publicly-traded integrated oil and gas company in the world. This document provides statistical data and information on the corporate (highlights, statements), upstream (production, costs,main producing fields, drilling), upstream maps, downstream (refining, distillation, retail gasoline outlets) and chemicals (sales, specialities). (A.L.B.)

  9. Epilepsy: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 6 = La Epilepsia: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on epilepsy is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that students with epilepsy are eligible for special…

  10. Facts about Volunteers. NCJW Center for the Child Fact Sheet Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY. Center for the Child.

    Volunteering is a vital and widespread activity in the United States; in fact, volunteers perform many essential community functions. Those who believe that most volunteers are women with time on their hands, that volunteers just do "charity work," and that volunteers are a source of cheap labor who can replace paid professionals and…

  11. Autism: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 1 = Autismo: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on autism is offered in both English and Spanish, and is the same in both languages although numbered differently. It provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications. It notes that autism is listed as a separate category under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.…

  12. Food Preparation. I: Food Facts for Home. II: Facts about Foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package is intended for use in home economics classes focusing on nutrition and food preparation and service. The teaching guide is divided into two parts. The first centers on selected first-time facts on nutrition, meal planning, and basic food preparation skills. It includes modules on nutrition, meal management, initial steps in food…

  13. EFFECT OF FEEDBACK IN FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN THE STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES ON CHEMICAL COURSE TO THE FORMATION OF HABITS OF MIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahadi -

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the impact of feedback in formative assessment in the learning process activity and students learning outcomes on learning chemistry. The method used on this study was quasi experiment research with non-equivalent control group design. The result showed that the application of feedback in formative assessment has a positive impact toward students learning process activity. Students become more enthusiastic, motivated, and more active on the learning process. Thus in this study can be conclude that feedback in formative assessment have a positive impact toward the learning process activity to form a habits of mind.

  14. Recall and response time norms for English-Swahili word pairs and facts about Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Ashley S; Heydarian, Nazanin M

    2017-02-01

    In the vast literature exploring learning, many studies have used paired-associate stimuli, despite the fact that real-world learning involves many different types of information. One of the most popular materials used in studies of learning has been a set of Swahili-English word pairs for which Nelson and Dunlosky (Memory 2; 325-335, 1994) published recall norms two decades ago. These norms involved use of the Swahili words as cues to facilitate recall of the English translation. It is unclear whether cueing in the opposite direction (from English to Swahili) would lead to symmetric recall performance. Bilingual research has suggested that translation in these two different directions involves asymmetric links that may differentially impact recall performance, depending on which language is used as the cue (Kroll & Stewart, Journal of Memory and Language 33; 149-174,1994). Moreover, the norms for these and many other learning stimuli have typically been gathered from college students. In the present study, we report recall accuracy and response time norms for Swahili words when they are cued by their English translations. We also report norms for a companion set of fact stimuli that may be used along with the Swahili-English word pairs to assess learning on a broader scale across different stimulus materials. Data were collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk to establish a sample that was diverse in both age and ethnicity. These different, but related, stimulus sets will be applicable to studies of learning, metacognition, and memory in diverse samples.

  15. Energy: facts and figures in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne, R.; Nanot, B.; Scherrer, S.; Paquel, V.; Louati, S.; Thienard, H.

    2007-01-01

    The consumption of final energy in France in 2006 increased slightly on the whole (+0.6%) and in all sectors except the industry (-0.7%). The final energy consumption is defined as the difference between the total consumption of primary energy and the consumption of the energy production sector. The evolution of the consumption of final energy is different according to the type of energy: +4.1% for coal (due to the strong demand in the iron and steel industry), +3.6% for renewable energies (due to specific development programs), +1.5% for electrical power and no change for oil and natural gas. Despite high prices, sales of car fuels rose by 0.4%, this figure hides the fact that the sales of fuels for diesel cars rose by 2.7% (because of the growing population of diesel cars) while those of grade petrol kept on plummeting (-5.9%). It is important to note that the releases of CO 2 due to energy went down by -1.4% in 2006. The energy bill increased by +18.5% to fetch 46.2*10 9 euros despite the decrease of the imported volumes. This articles details the energy figures for France in 2006 and sheds light particularly on 3 aspects: first, the annual trends in energy since 1973, secondly, the energy bill and thirdly the figures for electricity, natural gas, solid mineral fuels, hydrocarbons and renewable sources of energy. (A.C.)

  16. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  17. Knowledge as Fact-Tracking True Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Adams

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drawing inspiration from Fred Dretske, L. S. Carrier, John A. Barker, and Robert Nozick, we develop a tracking analysis of knowing according to which a true belief constitutes knowledge if and only if it is based on reasons that are sensitive to the fact that makes it true, that is, reasons that wouldn’t obtain if the belief weren’t true. We show that our sensitivity analysis handles numerous Gettier-type cases and lottery problems, blocks pathways leading to skepticism, and validates the epistemic closure thesis that correct inferences from known premises yield knowledge of the conclusions. We discuss the plausible views of Ted Warfield and Branden Fitelson regarding cases of knowledge acquired via inference from false premises, and we show how our sensitivity analysis can account for such cases. We present arguments designed to discredit putative counterexamples to sensitivity analyses recently proffered by Tristan Haze, John Williams and Neil Sinhababu, which involve true statements made by untrustworthy informants and strange clocks that sometimes display the correct time while running backwards. Finally, we show that in virtue of employing the paradox-free subjunctive conditionals codified by Relevance Logic theorists instead of the paradox-laden subjunctive conditionals codified by Robert Stalnaker and David Lewis.

  18. Health impacts of coal: facts and fallacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R.B. [University of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Coal has contributed enormously to the advance of civilization by providing an abundant, inexpensive, and convenient source of energy. Concurrent with its contributions, coal has extracted a high cost in terms of environmental damage and human health impacts. Unfortunately, the links between coal use and human health are distorted by a great deal of ignorance and misinformation. This paper discusses the facts and fallacies of the direct health impacts caused by coal. These include health problems caused by arsenic, fluorine, mercury and selenium released in coal use in the residential sector. The trace element iodine however may help prevent iodine deficiency disorder. Lignite in the ground in some Balkan areas has been associated with a urinary tract cancer known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Uncontrolled burning coal seams and coal waste piles contribute to global warming and to respiratory problems. The 10-fold enrichment of trace elements in fly ash and the fine particles released from power plants could present a health threat but where good pollution control technology and disposal practices are applied the health threat is probably minimal. Radioactivity levels in coal are thought to be too low to cause concern. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Neuropathic orofacial pain: Facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Benoliel, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    Definition and taxonomy This review deals with neuropathic pain of traumatic origin affecting the trigeminal nerve, i.e. painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN). Symptomatology The clinical characteristics of PTTN vary considerably, partly due to the type and extent of injury. Symptoms involve combinations of spontaneous and evoked pain and of positive and negative somatosensory signs. These patients are at risk of going through unnecessary dental/surgical procedures in the attempt to eradicate the cause of the pain, due to the fact that most dentists only rarely encounter PTTN. Epidemiology Overall, approximately 3% of patients with trigeminal nerve injuries develop PTTN. Patients are most often female above the age of 45 years, and both physical and psychological comorbidities are common. Pathophysiology PTTN shares many pathophysiological mechanisms with other peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Diagnostic considerations PTTN may be confused with one of the regional neuralgias or other orofacial pain conditions. For intraoral PTTN, early stages are often misdiagnosed as odontogenic pain. Pain management Management of PTTN generally follows recommendations for peripheral neuropathic pain. Expert opinion International consensus on classification and taxonomy is urgently needed in order to advance the field related to this condition.

  20. FACT. Bokeh alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a simple, yet extendable method, to align segmented reflectors using their Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done anytime, even during the day. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflector's Bokeh to a predefined template. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a nearby point like light source in a distance of about ten times the focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and present its use on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on Canary Island La Palma, as well as on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype in Berlin Adlershof.

  1. FACT — STATUS AND FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dorner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available FACT is the first imaging Cherenkov telescope based on a camera using solid state photosensors (Geigermode Avalanche Photodiodes G-APD aka SiPM. Since October 2011, it has been taking data regularly. Apart from commissioning and calibration measurements, it has already started regular operation, where the main goal is to do long-term monitoring of bright TeV blazars. In June 2012, a flare of Mrk 501 was observed. Thanks to the robustness of the G-APDs, observations can be carried out during strong moon light without aging of the sensors. This improves the duty cycle of the instrument and provides better statistics for long-term light curves. The telescope, situated on the Canary Island of La Palma, is operated, already now, remotely from central Europe. For the future, robotic operation is planned. We report on our experiences during the commissioning, and we present first results from the first 1.5 years of observations.

  2. Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, Martinus J G

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the spectacular discovery of the Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons an...

  3. Myths and Facts about SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...

  4. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  5. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  6. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  7. Getting a New Pancreas: Facts about Pancreas Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2003 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... the views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ Getting a New Pancreas Facts About Pancreas Transplants When you get a ...

  8. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  9. Lesson learned case study: What the history of ozone depelting chemical phaseout may teach us about how to approach international climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.E. [Conceptual Engineering Group, Inc., Crofton, MD (United States); Verdonik, D.P. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The world approached the production phaseout of ozone depleting chemicals conservatively under the Vienna Convention. The initial tasks were to recognize the problem within the science field and make political leaders and people aware that the problem existed and was a real threat to environmental stability. Several years later, Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol to Protect the Stratospheric Ozone Layer began occurring regularly. Long term goals on production reduction levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons were set. Rapid acceleration in production phaseout dates were implemented worldwide, impacting industry plans to research, develop, and implement replacements. The impacts were widespread from small cleaning processes to the defense of countries. The trials and tribulations that industries such as the foam, refrigeration, air conditioning, fire protection, and manufacturing industries have gone through to meet the accelerated challenges are great. This fight is not yet over. Alternatives have yet to be fully implemented, long term effects analysis are not yet completed, budgets have not caught up with the rapid phaseout, and supplies of ODCs are dwindling quickly, as well as increasing in cost at a rapid rate. This is being felt from car owner all the way up to the national defense of countries. The paper will briefly describe the historic events and developments that occurred to industry and the users, from a political, environmental, and business perspective. From this, valuable lessons can be learned and we can plan for the future well in advance, in order that we are not caught off guard again. A very real environmental problem exists with global climate change. This is being increasingly recognized by both political leaders and citizens alike. From what we have seen with ODC phaseout, we can potentially project what course the future.

  10. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of Environmental Chemicals by Machine Learning in the Pharmaceutical Space: Applicability Domain and Limits of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores th...

  11. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  12. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects...... of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...... that despite the fact that aquatic primary producers constitute a large and diverse group of organisms that vary in their evolutionary histories, selection for chemical defences to resist or reduce grazing are commonplace across the phylogenetic boundaries....

  13. Just the facts? Introductory undergraduate biology courses focus on low-level cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, Jennifer L; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara A; Ebert-May, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Introductory biology courses are widely criticized for overemphasizing details and rote memorization of facts. Data to support such claims, however, are surprisingly scarce. We sought to determine whether this claim was evidence-based. To do so we quantified the cognitive level of learning targeted by faculty in introductory-level biology courses. We used Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to assign cognitive learning levels to course goals as articulated on syllabi and individual items on high-stakes assessments (i.e., exams and quizzes). Our investigation revealed the following: 1) assessment items overwhelmingly targeted lower cognitive levels, 2) the cognitive level of articulated course goals was not predictive of the cognitive level of assessment items, and 3) there was no influence of course size or institution type on the cognitive levels of assessments. These results support the claim that introductory biology courses emphasize facts more than higher-order thinking.

  14. Chemical Data Reporting: Factors to Consider When Using the Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) database provides non-confidential information on the manufacture, import, processing, and use of chemicals in commerce at national and regional levels. This fact sheet highlights factors to consider.

  15. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  16. Potential health hazards of radiation. Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the federal government developed and operated industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Some of these sites processed uranium and vanadium, and upon closure, left behind millions of cubic yards of mill tailings on the sites and throughout the nearby communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the cleanup of these areas to minimize the risks to the public and environment from exposure to the tailings and the radon gas they produce

  17. Facing the Facts and Living our Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, R.

    2009-05-01

    One of the major challenges for the 21st Century is to establish an energy system that is safe, affordable, sustainable, and environmentally responsible. With current reserves in coal and nonconventional oil, we will not run out of energy in the coming century, but we may pay a price with a climate that heats up with an unprecedented rate of change. Even with current technology, there is a wealth of information and solutions available, and we could benefit much by using this knowledge more effectively than we do now. An example is the McKinsey report on the cost of avoiding CO2 emissions (http://mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/greenhousegas.asp). According to this analysis, the USA can avoid about 40% of its CO2 emissions at zero total cost. About 20% of those emissions can be saved by taking steps that save money and reduce energy consumption. In the process of working on these steps for reducing CO2 emissions, many jobs are created. The energy and climate challenge thus comes with new opportunities. Geoscientists can make a difference by talking about energy and climate, and by helping create awareness for the energy challenge and the associated opportunities. Scientists and engineers are, in general, loath to discuss the issue of values. Yet, despite the logical basis of science, our science and the personal views of scientists can help shape our societal values. This can happen, however, only when scientists articulate their values and stimulate their students and the public to make conscious choices what their values are. Education, whether it is in the classroom, at a community center, church, or service club, can play an important role in making the public aware of the facts that are important for the choices that we need to make at a personal and societal level for our energy use. In order to facilitate this type of communication I have created a public lecture that is available online (http://www.mines.edu/˜rsnieder/Global_Energy.html). As a geoscientist

  18. Market Myths and Facts - the Ontario Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorey, S.

    2007-07-01

    The world has learned much about electricity markets and what they can and can't do over the past few years, but some myths persist. Why they persist is a subject for those who study politics, interests and influence. This paper provides a perspective on myths which have affected the reliable and economic delivery of electricity to customers, particularly with respect to transmission. Hydro One effectively provides the transmission network for the Province of Ontario, Canada. As Hydro One is a wires company, the paper is not intended to address the issues which affect the generation or conservation sectors of the industry, except where they directly relate to the wires. The proposition of this paper is that electricity transmission is best treated as an essential public good. Transmission as a market participant and a traded commodity has generally not worked with respect to assuring that the system continues to be developed to meet the basic need of customers for reliable and affordable electricity. (auth)

  19. The Evolution of Massive Stars: a Selection of Facts and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbeveren, D.

    In the present paper we discuss a selection of facts and questions related to observations and evolutionary calculations of massive single stars and massive stars in interacting binaries. We focus on the surface chemical abundances, the role of stellar winds, the early Be-stars, the high mass X-ray binaries and the effects of rotation on stellar evolution. Finally, we present an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) of WR binaries in dense stellar environments.

  20. Location of facts devices from a dynamic perspective; Ubicacion de dispositivos FACTS desde una perspectiva dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronado Gallegos, Ixtlahuatl

    2001-09-15

    In this work techniques for the location of FACTS devices (Flexible Systems of AC Transmission) in a multi-machine power system in order to improve the electromechanical transient behavior is presented. In the first part, a brief introduction is presented about the FACTS devices, in which are mentioned some of the main characteristics, classification and advantages that their utilization represents. In the next part, the formulation of the matrix of state in the context of machine-infinite bar considering the possibility of including a power system stabilizer is developed. Later the formulation is extended to a multi-machine system. Additionally the form of including a series capacitor controlled by thyristors (TCSC) as well as a unified controller of power flows (UPFC) is analyzed. An analysis of the UPFC is carried out in conditions of stationary and dynamic state in a system machine-infinite bar in order to know its operating characteristics and its capacity for dampening power oscillations through its entrances of control when using local signals. In the last part of the work a methodology is proposed to attack the problem of the location of FACTS devices, which is based in the technique of response to the system frequency. In order to validate this proposal some cases of study are used and the results obtained with the ones provided by other techniques are compared. Also some auxiliary means are proposed for obtaining the feasible locations utilizing other mathematical tools such as the singular values and the sensitivities. Finally, simulations in the time are carried out to corroborate the results obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan tecnicas para la localizacion de dispositivos FACTS (Sistemas Flexibles de Transmision de C.A) en un sistema de potencia multimaquinas a fin de mejorar el comportamiento transitorio electromecanico. En la primera parte se presenta una breve introduccion acerca de los dispositivos FACTS, en la cual se mencionan

  1. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. ... The Series on "learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products". Nature is a remarkable ... skeletal structure to the interior electronic configu- ration ... Among the advantages of this approach are the fact that unlike the.

  2. Computational disease modeling – fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Klaas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical research is changing due to the rapid accumulation of experimental data at an unprecedented scale, revealing increasing degrees of complexity of biological processes. Life Sciences are facing a transition from a descriptive to a mechanistic approach that reveals principles of cells, cellular networks, organs, and their interactions across several spatial and temporal scales. There are two conceptual traditions in biological computational-modeling. The bottom-up approach emphasizes complex intracellular molecular models and is well represented within the systems biology community. On the other hand, the physics-inspired top-down modeling strategy identifies and selects features of (presumably essential relevance to the phenomena of interest and combines available data in models of modest complexity. Results The workshop, "ESF Exploratory Workshop on Computational disease Modeling", examined the challenges that computational modeling faces in contributing to the understanding and treatment of complex multi-factorial diseases. Participants at the meeting agreed on two general conclusions. First, we identified the critical importance of developing analytical tools for dealing with model and parameter uncertainty. Second, the development of predictive hierarchical models spanning several scales beyond intracellular molecular networks was identified as a major objective. This contrasts with the current focus within the systems biology community on complex molecular modeling. Conclusion During the workshop it became obvious that diverse scientific modeling cultures (from computational neuroscience, theory, data-driven machine-learning approaches, agent-based modeling, network modeling and stochastic-molecular simulations would benefit from intense cross-talk on shared theoretical issues in order to make progress on clinically relevant problems.

  3. untangling chemical kinetics through tangible and visual

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    elementary chemical reactions as part of the learning process. Despite employing ... relation between reaction rates of reactants and their products involves the use .... Experiment Journal of Chemical Education, 77, 1013– 1014. 19. Niaz, M. A ...

  4. Extraction of uranium from seawater: a few facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidez Joel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uranium concentration in seawater is only about 3 micrograms per liter, the quantity of uranium dissolved in the world's oceans is estimated to amount to 4.5 billion tonnes of uranium metal (tU. In contrast, the current conventional terrestrial resource is estimated to amount to about 17 million tU. However, for a number of reasons the extraction of significant amounts of uranium from seawater remains today more a dream than a reality. Firstly, pumping the seawater to extract this uranium would need more energy than what could be produced with the recuperated uranium. Then if trying to use existing industrial flow rates, as for example on a nuclear power plant, it appears that the annual possible quantity remains very low. In fact huge quantities of water must be treated. To produce the annual world uranium consumption (around 65,000 tU, it would need at least to extract all uranium of 2 × 1013 tonnes of seawater, the volume equivalent of the entire North Sea. In fact only the great ocean currents are providing without pumping these huge quantities, and the idea is to try to extract even very partially this uranium. For example Japan, which used before the Fukushima accident about 8,000 tU by year, sees about 5.2 million tU passing every year, in the ocean current Kuro Shio in which it lies. A lot of research works have been published on the studies of adsorbents immersed in these currents. Then, after submersion, these adsorbents are chemically treated to recuperate the uranium. Final quantities remain very low in comparison of the complex and costly operations to be done in sea. One kilogram of adsorbent, after one month of submersion, yields about 2 g of uranium and the adsorbent can only be used six times due to decreasing efficiency. The industrial extrapolation exercise made for the extraction of 1,200 tU/year give with these values a very costly installation installed on more than 1000 km2 of sea with a

  5. Extraction of uranium from seawater: a few facts - 5025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Gabriel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although uranium concentration in seawater is only about 3 micrograms/liter, the quantity of uranium dissolved in the world's oceans is estimated to amount to 4.5 billions tonnes of uranium metal (tU). In contrast, the current conventional terrestrial resource is estimated to amount to about 17 million tU. However, for a number of reasons the extraction of significant amounts of uranium from seawater remains today more a dream than a reality. Firstly, pumping the seawater to extract this uranium would need more energy more energy than what could be produced with the recuperated uranium. Then if trying to use existing industrial flow rates, as for example on a nuclear power plant, it appears that the annual possible quantity remains very low. In fact huge quantities of water must be treated. To produce the annual world uranium consumption (around 65.000 tU), it would need at least to extract all uranium of 2*10 13 tonnes of water, the volume equivalent to the entire North Sea. In fact only the great ocean currents are providing without pumping huge quantities of seawater and the idea is to try to extract even very partially this uranium. A lot of research works have been published, on the studies of adsorbents immersed in these currents. Then, after immersion, these adsorbents are chemically treated to recuperate the uranium. Final quantities remain low in comparison of the complex and costly operations to be done in sea. One kilogram of adsorbent, after one month of immersion, yields about 2 g of uranium and the adsorbent can only be used 6 times due to decreasing efficiency. The industrial extrapolation exercise made for the extraction of 1.200 tU/year give with these values a very costly installation installed on more than 1000 km 2 of sea with a lot of boats for transportation and maintenance. The ecological management of this huge installation would present significant challenges. (authors)

  6. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  7. Related Fact Checks: a tool for combating fake news

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Sreya

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of "Fake News" and misinformation via online news and social media has spurred an interest in computational tools to combat this phenomenon. In this paper we present a new "Related Fact Checks" service, which can help a reader critically evaluate an article and make a judgment on its veracity by bringing up fact checks that are relevant to the article. We describe the core technical problems that need to be solved in building a "Related Fact Checks" service, and present results ...

  8. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  9. Binary Classification of a Large Collection of Environmental Chemicals from Estrogen Receptor Assays by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. A promising approach to manage this large universe of untested chemicals is to use a prioritization filter that combines in vitro assays with in silico QSA...

  10. Depth of Information Processing and Memory for Medical Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Peter D.; Onion, Carl W. R.

    1995-01-01

    The current emphasis in medical education is on engaging learners in deep processing of information to achieve better understanding of the subject matter. Traditional approaches aimed for memorization of medical facts; however, a good memory for medical facts is still essential in clinical practice. This study demonstrates that deep information…

  11. 31 CFR 306.95 - Attorneys in fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recognized until the Bureau receives proof of revocation or proof of the grantor's death or incompetency. (b... to by an officer who has access to the records: (1) A copy of the resolution of the governing body... fact, or (3) A copy of the resolution of the governing body directly appointing an attorney in fact. If...

  12. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Magidson, Tali; Gross, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    canonized as fact. Data-dredging, p-hacking, and similar behaviors exacerbate the problem. Should negative results become easier to publish as a claim approaches acceptance as a fact, however, true and false claims would be more readily distinguished. To the degree that the model reflects the real world...

  13. Case Management for Individuals with Mental Retardation. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    A question-and-answer format is used in this fact sheet to provide information on case management for individuals with mental retardation. The fact sheet describes the major components of a case management system, the role of the case manager, the individual's or family's role in case management, providers of case management services and systems…

  14. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 12, Filtering Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Barlow, Stefani

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses filtering practices, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  15. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 10, Dry Swale

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses dry swales, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  16. Best Management Practice Fact Sheet. 11, Wet Swale

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, David; Doumar, Lia

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices. This fact sheet discusses wet swales, what they are, where they are used, how they work, maintenance, limitations, performance, expected costs and includes a glossary of terms.

  17. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Patient Health ... cancer has increased in all races and both sexes. Thyroid cancers account for ... who work in environments with dust, glues, formaldehyde, mustard gas, ...

  18. Darwinism Defined: The Difference Between Fact and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1987-01-01

    Discusses various developments in both science and theology following the work of Charles Darwin on evolution. Differentiates between the facts regarding evolution and the theory of natural selection as a mechanism for evolutionary change. Warns that the differences between facts and theory have not been adequately emphasized by scientists. (TW)

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...