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Sample records for learn aggressive cognitions

  1. Aggressive priming online: Facebook adverts can prime aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Through the process of priming, incidental stimuli in our environments can influence our thoughts, feelings and behavior. This may be true of incidental stimuli in online environments, such as adverts on websites. Two experiments (N=325, N=331) showed that the mere presence of advertisements with violent content on a simulated Facebook page induced higher levels of aggression-related cognition in comparison to non-violent adverts (d=0.56 , d=0.71). In a subsequent word recognition task, parti...

  2. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Jane Louise; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and Social Cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (PUZZLE Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current b...

  3. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.; Schumann, T.; Dambacher, F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a

  4. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  5. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  6. Social Learning Theory of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that violent activities occur not because of reduced self-control, but because cognitive skills and self-control are used through moral justifications and self-exonerative devices in the service of destructive causes. Threats to human welfare are generally brought about by deliberate acts of principle rather than by unrestrained acts of…

  7. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  8. Learning and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…

  9. Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Abigail A; Silver, Shari H; Veague, Heather B

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls, and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. A finding of relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated with increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are less sensitive to relational aggression. © 2010 Psychology Press

  10. Effects of Cognitive Behaviour and Social Learning Therapies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Social Learning ... After exposure to intervention therapies, the results showed that there was significant difference in the post-test aggression scores of participants.

  11. Emotion and aggressive intergroup cognitions: The ANCODI hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C; Frank, Mark G

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested an important role for the emotion of hatred in intergroup aggression. Recent theoretical and empirical work has strongly suggested that the combination of anger, contempt, and disgust (ANCODI) comprise the basic elements of hatred, and are the key emotions associated with intergroup aggression. No study, however, has provided evidence that these emotions cause hostile cognitions about specific groups. We report two studies that provide initial evidence. In both, participants were members of ideologically motivated groups and were primed with ANCODI. In Study 1 participants primed with ANCODI produced more aggressive cognitions relative to their opponent outgroup than a neutral outgroup; this effect did not occur for participants primed with fear-sadness. In Study 2 participants primed with ANCODI engaged in more competitive decision making against their opponent outgroups than a neutral outgroup; this effect did not occur for participants primed with disgust only. These findings contribute to the literature on the role of emotion in intergroup aggression and hostility, and provide a more nuanced view of the role of emotions in intergroup relations, possibly identifying the basic emotional elements of hatred. Aggr. Behav. 43:93-107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.

  13. The role of self-serving cognitive distortions in reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostermeijer, Sanne; Smeets, Kirsten C; Jansen, Lucres M C; Jambroes, Tijs; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Scheepers, Floor E; Buitelaar, Jan K; Popma, Arne

    2017-12-01

    Aggression is often divided into reactive and proactive forms. Reactive aggression is typically thought to encompass 'blaming others' and 'assuming the worst', while proactive aggression relates to 'self-centeredness' and 'minimising/mislabelling'. Our aim was to evaluate relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and cognitive distortions and to test whether changes in these cognitions relate to changes in aggression. A total of 151 adolescents (60% boys; mean age 15.05 years, standard deviation 1.28) were enrolled in an evidence-based intervention to reduce aggression. Due to attrition and anomalous responses, the post-intervention sample involved 80 adolescents. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and aggression. Blaming others was related to reactive aggression before the intervention, while all cognitive distortions were related to proactive aggression both pre- and post-intervention. Changes in reactive aggression were uniquely predicted by blaming others, while changes in proactive aggression were predicted by changes in cognitive distortions overall. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show a relationship between changes in cognitive distortions and changes in aggression. Treatment of reactive aggression may benefit from focusing primarily on reducing cognitive distortions involving misattribution of blame to others. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Individual Differences in the Extent and Development of Aggressive Cognitive-Associative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.

    1996-01-01

    Extends L. Berkowitz's neoassociationist aggression model by considering the role of personality variables. Experiment one tested the hypothesis that high-trait-aggressive individuals have more developed aggressive cognitive-associative networks than low-trait-aggressive individuals. In experiment two, participants rated the stimulus words used in…

  15. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  16. Learning: from association to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R

    2010-01-01

    Since the very earliest experimental investigations of learning, tension has existed between association-based and cognitive theories. Associationism accounts for the phenomena of both conditioning and "higher" forms of learning via concepts such as excitation, inhibition, and reinforcement, whereas cognitive theories assume that learning depends on hypothesis testing, cognitive models, and propositional reasoning. Cognitive theories have received considerable impetus in regard to both human and animal learning from recent research suggesting that the key illustration of cue selection in learning, blocking, often arises from inferential reasoning. At the same time, a dichotomous view that separates noncognitive, unconscious (implicit) learning from cognitive, conscious (explicit) learning has gained favor. This review selectively describes key findings from this research, evaluates evidence for and against associative and cognitive explanatory constructs, and critically examines both the dichotomous view of learning as well as the claim that learning can occur unconsciously.

  17. Cognitive and Affective Empathy as Predictors of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…

  18. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2005-11-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking.

  19. Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, F.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aggression, violence and deviant behavior are terms frequently used interchangeable, but relate to different theoretical concepts. Therefore, this chapter starts with a definition of aggression. Furthermore, several theories regarding the development of aggression will be presented. According to

  20. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  1. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) ...

  2. Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stephen K.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

  3. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others.

  4. Learning Potential and Cognitive Modifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between thinking and learning constitutes one of the fundamental problems of cognitive psychology. Though there is an obvious overlap between the domains of thinking and learning, it seems more productive to consider learning as being predominantly acquisition while considering thinking as the application of the existent concepts…

  5. Predicting Parent-Child Aggression Risk: Cognitive Factors and Their Interaction With Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Several cognitive elements have previously been proposed to elevate risk for physical child abuse. To predict parent-child aggression risk, the current study evaluated the role of approval of parent-child aggression, perceptions of children as poorly behaved, and discipline attributions. Several dimensions of attributions specifically tied to parents' discipline practices were targeted. In addition, anger experienced during discipline episodes was considered a potential moderator of these cognitive processes. Using a largely multiple-indicator approach, a sample of 110 mothers reported on these cognitive and affective aspects that may occur when disciplining their children as well as responding to measures of parent-child aggression risk. Findings suggest that greater approval of parent-child aggression, negative perceptions of their child's behavior, and discipline attributions independently predicted parent-child aggression risk, with anger significantly interacting with mothers' perception of their child as more poorly behaved to exacerbate their parent-child aggression risk. Of the discipline attribution dimensions evaluated, mothers' sense of external locus of control and believing their child deserved their discipline were related to increase parent-child aggression risk. Future work is encouraged to comprehensively evaluate how cognitive and affective components contribute and interact to increase risk for parent-child aggression.

  6. Associative learning and animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-10-05

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.

  7. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchert, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140) were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007).

  8. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96 using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140 were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007.

  9. Effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on reducing aggression in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Faramarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Students’ aggression at schoolshas attracted the attention of many professionals and researchers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the reduction of male secondary students' aggression in Kermanshah. Methods: In this experimental study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used. A total of 400 students were randomly selected from among the high school male students in Kermanshah using multistage sampling. Of these, 40 students who had a higher mean score were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy once a week for eight sessions. The subjects completed Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992 twice, one before treatment and another after treatment. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that after removing the effect of pretest, the experimental group indicated a significant reduction compared to the control group in the total aggression scale (F=1059.531; P<0.001. Also, after removing the effect of the pretest, the experimental group experienced a significant decrease compared to the control group at the micro scales of aggressive feeling (F=639.936; P<0.001, the subscales of aggressive thoughts (F=154.240; P<0.001, and aggressive behaviors (F=502.836; P<0.001,. Conclusion: This study showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduced aggression in all three components of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings in the students.

  10. Aggressions, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camodeca, M.; Goossens, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate children's social information processing (SIP) and emotions in the bullying situation, taking into account reactive and proactive aggression. More specifically, we investigated the way in which children interpret social information, which goals they

  11. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  12. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  13. Aggression, emotional self-regulation, attentional bias, and cognitive inhibition predict risky driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Compare to Campaign Advertisement Programs in Reducing Aggressive Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Saraswati; Dyah T Indirasari; Dewi Maulina; Guritnaningsih A Santoso

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three intervention programs, i.e. CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy), humor appeal advertisements (positive ads), and fear appeal advertisements (negative ads) in reducing aggressive driving behavior. 196 young adults age between 18–35 years old, who are considered to be at risk in performing aggressive driving behavior had completed four self report inventories. The four inventories measures perception on traffic conditions, degree of fr...

  15. Cognitive Synergy in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daesang; Kim, Dong-Joong; Whang, Woo-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of our study was to investigate multimedia effects that had different results from the findings of existing multimedia learning studies. First, we describe and summarize three experimental studies we conducted from 2006 to 2010. Then we analyze our findings to explore learner characteristics that may impact the cognitive processes…

  16. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

  17. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling on Anxiety and Aggression Women with Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nemati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: According to the American Psychiatric Association female sexual dysfunction are classified in four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal, orgasm and pain. Having chronic Sexual dysfunction can lead to anxiety, depression, aggression and create problems in other aspects of life. The aim of this study was to Investigate the effect of cognitive-behavior counseling on anxiety and aggression in women with sexual dysfunction. Methods: In this clinical trial, 20 women were referred to Taleghani Hospital in Tehran with anxiety and aggression of sexual problems selected to measure sexual satisfaction. Glombok Rust questionnaire was used to measured the sexual satisfaction and Spielberger Questionnaire 40-item for Anxiety and Buss and Mark Perry questionnaire for aggression. Data were statistically analyzed by t test. Results: in general, the mean total of sexual satisfaction decreased from 79.05 at pretest to 7.35 at posttest p <0.05. the mean pretest of physical aggression from 28.2 and verbal aggression from 17.3 and nervous aggression from 28.95 followed by the aggression of the enemy from 29.95, have declined in post test to 12. 55 , 7.8, 12.3, and 3/12 respectively ( p <0.05. the results of Spielberger questionnaire showed that the mean pre-test state and trait anxiety were decreased from 63 and 62.5 to 35.1 and 34.15 respectively (p <0.05. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral counseling may not only have a significant effect in reducing sexual dysfunction in women, but also a significant role in reducing anxiety and aggression as reactions with this disorder. Key words: Sexual Dysfunction, Anxiety, Aggression, Women

  18. Influence of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on derelict children’s aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Khazaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.

  19. Evolution, learning, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Y. C

    1988-01-01

    ... networks suitable for practical real world applications, and the realization, by researchers in artificial intelligent systems, of the need to incorporate automatic learning capability into knowledge-based systems in order to deal with the inherent imprecise, incomplete, and ever-changing nature of the real world knowledge base. The publication of this ...

  20. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  1. Evaluating a cognitive/ecological program for the prevention of aggression among urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L R; Maxwell, C D; Eron, L; Dahlberg, L L; Guerra, N G; Tolan, P H; VanAcker, R; Henry, D

    1996-01-01

    The Metropolitan Area Child Study (MACS) is a multifaceted school- and family-based intervention and evaluation study designed to prevent and understand the development of aggressive behavior. The multifaceted interventions are grounded in combined social-cognitive and ecologic theories. Social-cognitive theories contend that cognitive scripts, attributions, and beliefs acquired early in life mediate the effects of ecological factors that influence the development of antisocial behavior. Prevention programs aimed at these cognitions must address multiple dimensions of the child's environment including family, peer, school, and community. The program has three levels of intervention delivered in two-year segments: (1) Level 1: a general enhancement classroom intervention that stresses culturally sensitive student and teacher interaction involving instructional and classroom management strategies and a social-cognitive curriculum that mitigates aggressive development; (2) Level 2: intensive small-group sessions designed to change children's cognitions and enhance peer relationship skills for at-risk children added to the general classroom enhancement program; and (3) Level 3: a one-year family relationship intervention that stresses parenting skill building and emotional responsiveness in family interactions added to the general enhancement and small-group training conditions. Sixteen Chicago-area schools are randomly assigned (four each) to a control group or one of the three intervention levels. Individual child assessment, peer assessments, classroom behavioral observations, and archival data are collected before the interventions begin, during the interventions, at the end of each intervention, and at a follow-up point. The pretests indicate that the children on average have higher levels of aggression than found nationally and elevated clinical levels of other psychopathologies. Across the four intervention levels there are no significant differences in ethnic

  2. Aggressive and prosocial behavior: community violence, cognitive, and behavioral predictors among urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema

    2013-06-01

    We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.

  3. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  4. The General Aggression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Johnie J; Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-02-01

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures. Distal processes of GAM detail how biological and persistent environmental factors can influence personality through changes in knowledge structures. GAM has been applied to understand aggression in many contexts including media violence effects, domestic violence, intergroup violence, temperature effects, pain effects, and the effects of global climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  6. Social cognition and aggression in methamphetamine dependence with and without a history of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Anne; Ipser, Jonathan C; Wilson, Don; Stein, Dan J

    2018-04-01

    In substance use and psychotic disorders, socially problematic behaviours, such as high aggression may, in part, be explained by deficits in social cognition skills, like the detection of emotions or intentions in others. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of social cognition impairment and its association with aggression in individuals with methamphetamine (MA) dependence, methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP), and healthy controls (CTRL). A total of 20 MAP participants, 21 MA-dependent participants without psychosis, and 21 CTRL participants performed a facial morphing emotion recognition task (ERT) across four basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness and sadness) and the reading the mind in the eyes task (RMET), and completed the aggression questionnaire. Both MA-dependent groups showed impairment in social cognition in terms of lower RMET scores relative to CTRL participants (MA; p = .047; MAP: p MAP (p = .040), compared to MA-dependent participants. While deficits in recognising emotional expressions were restricted to anger in the MA group (p = .020), a generalized impairment across all four emotions was observed in MAP (all p ≤ .001). Additionally, both patient groups demonstrated higher levels of aggression than CTRLs, yet no association was found with social cognition. This study supported the notion of deficits in recognising facial emotional expressions and inferring mental states of others in MA dependence, with additional impairments in MAP. Failure to detect an association between social cognitive impairment and aggressive behaviour may implicate independent disturbances of the two phenomena in MA dependence.

  7. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Aggression in Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmood najafy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available : This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on aggression among addicts. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pre-posttest stages, control group, and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. The number of 24 addicts referring to rehabilitation clinics in Tehran was selected as the sample size of this study via convenience sampling method in accordance with the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: Data analysis showed that group cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. However, this therapy only led to the reduction of verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. Conclusion: Since aggression has a high comorbidity with substance abuse, this factor can be as an obstacle to withdrawal. Therefore, it must be considered in addiction treatment.

  8. A Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Practices and Psychodrama on Adolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Gokcakan, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate whether cognitive-behavioral group practices and psychodrama decrease adolescent aggression. This is a quasi-experimental, pre-post and follow up study with two experiments and one control group. The Aggression Scale (Buss & Warren, 2000) adapted to Turkish by Can (2002) was administered as a pretest…

  9. The Effects of Television Violence and Early Harsh Discipline on Children's Social Cognitions and Peer-Directed Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L.; And Others

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of television viewing and harsh, physical discipline on children's social information processing and subsequent aggression; and the effects of heavy viewing versus permission to view violent content on children's social cognitions and aggression. Participating were 535 children and their…

  10. COGNITIVE FATIGUE FACILITATES PROCEDURAL SEQUENCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eBorragán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive fatigue, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, twenty-three young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT following the induction of high or low levels of cognitive fatigue, in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive fatigue was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual's optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement showed more of a benefit from the sequential components than from motor. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of cognitive fatigue on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Social cognitions, distress, and leadership self-efficacy: associations with aggression for high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baker, Courtney N; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Bevans, Katherine B; Thomas, Nicole A; Guerra, Terry; Hausman, Alice J; Monopoli, W John

    2014-08-01

    Urban ethnic minority youth are often exposed to high levels of aggression and violence. As such, many aggression intervention programs that have been designed with suburban nonethnic minority youth have been used or slightly adapted in order to try and meet the needs of high-risk urban youth. The current study contributes to the literature base by examining how well a range of social-cognitive, emotional distress and victimization, and prosocial factors are related to youth aggression in a sample of urban youth. This study utilized data gathered from 109 9- to 15-year-old youth (36.7% male; 84.4% African American) and their parents or caregivers. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were fit predicting youth aggression from social-cognitive variables, victimization and distress, and prosocial variables, controlling for youth gender and age. Each set of variables explained a significant and unique amount of the variance in youth aggressive behavior. The full model including all predictors accounted for 41% of the variance in aggression. Models suggest that youth with stronger beliefs supportive of violence, youth who experience more overt victimization, and youth who experience greater distress in overtly aggressive situations are likely to be more aggressive. In contrast, youth with higher self-esteem and youth who endorse greater leadership efficacy are likely to be less aggressive. Contrary to hypotheses, hostile attributional bias and knowledge of social information processing, experience of relational victimization, distress in relationally aggressive situations, and community engagement were not associated with aggression. Our study is one of the first to address these important questions for low-income, predominately ethnic minority urban youth, and it has clear implications for adapting aggression prevention programs to be culturally sensitive for urban African American youth.

  13. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  14. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skulmowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  15. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  16. The Learning Way: Meta-Cognitive Aspects of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Alice Y.; Kolb, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary research on meta-cognition has reintroduced conscious experience into psychological research on learning and stimulated a fresh look at classical experiential learning scholars who gave experience a central role in the learning process--William James, John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Carl Rogers, and Paulo Freire. In particular James's…

  17. Proneness to aggression and its inhibition in schizophrenia: Interconnections between personality traits, cognitive function and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Menahem I; Czobor, Pal

    2017-06-01

    Research on aggression in schizophrenia has focused on narrowly defined deficits, while ignoring interconnections among these impairments which provide better explanatory power. Our goal was to investigate interrelations among impairments in important domains related to aggression: personality traits, including psychopathy and impulsivity, cognition and processing of emotions. 34 healthy controls, 37 high aggression (HAG) and 31 low aggression (LAG) patients with schizophrenia participated. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Psychopathy Checklist, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Emotion Recognition Test were administered. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) was performed to determine how these measures distinguish among the groups and to identify underlying symptom profiles. CDA revealed two statistically significant profiles of deficits which differentiated the groups. The first comprises impulsivity, psychopathy, and impairments in cognition and fear recognition. It indicates proneness to aggression. The second consists of WCST perseverative errors and facial affect processing impairment; it has an inverse relationship with aggression. These profiles are linked to different psychiatric symptoms in the schizophrenic patients: The first to excitement and poor impulse control; the second to blunted affect and motor retardation. HAG's manifested primarily the first; LAG's had a moderate score on the first and a high score on the second. Proneness to aggression in schizophrenia is characterized by a multivariate confluence of impulsivity, psychopathy, cognitive difficulties and impairment in fear recognition. There exists, however, a second pattern of psychopathology that may suppress expression of aggression. These opposing patterns have important implications for integrated treatments of aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  19. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  20. Cognitive Tempo, Violent Video Games, and Aggressive Behavior in Young Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, A. Roland; Gross, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses interpersonal aggression and aggression toward inanimate objects in a free-play setting where children played video games. Results indicated that subjects who played video games with aggressive content exhibited more object aggression during free-play and more interpersonal aggression during the frustrating situation than youngsters who…

  1. Use of cognitive artifacts in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengin, Ilker

    In everyday life, we interact with cognitive artifacts to receive and/or manipulate information so as to alter our thinking processes. CHEM/TEAC 869Q is a distance course that includes extensive explicit instruction in the use of a cognitive artifact. This study investigates issues related to the design of that online artifact. In order to understand design implications and how cognitive artifacts contribute to students' thinking and learning, a qualitative research methodology was engaged that utilized think aloud sessions. Participants' described constrained and structured cognitive models while using the artifact. The study also was informed by interviews and researcher's field notes. A purposeful sampling method led to the selection of participants, four males and two females, who had no prior history of using a course from the 869 series but who had experienced the scientific content covered by the CHEM869Q course. Analysis of the results showed both that a cognitive artifact may lead users' minds in decision making, and that problem solving processes were affected by cognitive artifact's design. When there is no design flaw, users generally thought that the cognitive artifact was helpful by simplifying steps, overcoming other limitations, and reducing errors in a reliable, effective, and easy to use way. Moreover, results showed that successful implementation of cognitive artifacts into teaching --learning practices depended on user willingness to transfer a task to the artifact. While users may like the idea of benefiting from a cognitive artifact, nevertheless, they may tend to limit their usage. They sometimes think that delegating a task to a cognitive artifact makes them dependent, and that they may not learn how to perform the tasks by themselves. They appear more willing to use a cognitive artifact after they have done the task by themselves.

  2. Cognitive Clusters in Specific Learning Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Carretta, Elisa; Bonvicini, Laura; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo

    The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The introduction of the single overarching diagnostic category of specific learning disorder (SLD) could underemphasize interindividual clinical differences regarding intracategory cognitive functioning and learning proficiency, according to current models of multiple cognitive deficits at the basis of neurodevelopmental disorders. The characterization of specific cognitive profiles associated with an already manifest SLD could help identify possible early cognitive markers of SLD risk and distinct trajectories of atypical cognitive development leading to SLD. In this perspective, we applied a cluster analysis to identify groups of children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-based diagnosis of SLD with similar cognitive profiles and to describe the association between clusters and SLD subtypes. A sample of 205 children with a diagnosis of SLD were enrolled. Cluster analyses (agglomerative hierarchical and nonhierarchical iterative clustering technique) were used successively on 10 core subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition. The 4-cluster solution was adopted, and external validation found differences in terms of SLD subtype frequencies and learning proficiency among clusters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, tracing directions for further studies.

  3. Learning Science: Some Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.

    Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.

  4. Associative Cognitive CREED for Successful Grammar Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias Tri Susanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research article reports a qualitative study which was conducted to investigate ways successful EFL learners learned English grammar. The subjects of this research were eight successful EFL learners from six different countries in Asia: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data was collected by interviewing each subject in person individually at an agreed time and place. The result showed that all the grammar learning processes described by the subjects were closely linked to the framework of Associative Cognitive CREED. There were also some contributing factors that could be integrally combined salient to the overall grammar learning process. However, interestingly, each subject emphasized different aspects of learning.

  5. A comparison of age, cognitive, hormonal, symptomatic and mood correlates of Aggression towards Others in boys with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L; Arnold, Wayne M

    2017-07-01

    Aggression is a major problem in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but little is known about the possible contributors to this behaviour. To determine the relative strength of the relationships between developmental, cognitive, symptomatic, hormonal and mood factors and 'Aggression towards Others' in boys with ASD. Predictors of Aggression towards Others were investigated in a sample of 136 boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (M age=11.3yr, SD=3.2yr, range=6yr to 17yr). Data were collected from the boys themselves and their parents (14 fathers, 122 mothers). Results indicated that age and Low Registration on the Sensory Profile were the only significant correlates of this form of aggression. Importantly, testosterone levels did not account for level of social aggression. These data suggest that these boys may have learnt more effective methods of dealing with their frustration as they grew older or benefitted from cognitive maturation, and that having a high neurological threshold may be a source of frustration for these boys. The relationship between Aggression towards Others and Low Registration is discussed and clinical implications of the findings explicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  7. The General Aggression Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Johnie J.; Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence

  8. Aggression in Children in the Light of the Socio-Cognitive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Alicja Fronczak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article includes information on the types and forms of aggressive behavior and mechanisms of aggression in children. In addition, there are presented the assumptions of sociocognitive model of work with aggressive children. The paper is mainly addressed to people working with children, concerned about their aggressive behavior and aware the hitherto methods are not sufficiently effective.

  9. Narcissism, Perceived Social Status, and Social Cognition and Their Influence on Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, Thomas P.; Wiesenthal, Vered; Söderberg, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    This study had three primary goals: to explore the relationship between narcissism, participant roles, and aggression; to examine the role of gender as a moderating influence on narcissism-based aggression; and to examine how these variables work together to influence aggressive outcomes in a sample of aggressive middle and high school students.…

  10. Autonomic reactivity and romantic relational aggression among female emerging adults: moderating roles of social and cognitive risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the association between autonomic arousal in response to a relational stressor and the perpetration of relational aggression against romantic partners. In addition, the moderating role of social risk (relational victimization by a romantic partner) and cognitive risk (hostile attribution biases) was explored. Skin conductance, heart rate, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during an experience of exclusion were assessed in a sample of female emerging adults (N=131). Participants provided self-reports of romantic relational aggression, romantic relational victimization, and hostile attribution biases. Results indicated that both heightened and blunted reactivity served as risk factors for the perpetration of romantic relational aggression depending on women's social and contextual risks. Implications for understanding the development of intimate aggression are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Cognitive Training Improves Emotional Processing and Reduces Aggressive Attitudes in Ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Sandra; Trujillo, Natalia; Lopez, Jose D.; Gomez, Diana; Valencia, Stella; Rendon, Jorge; Pineda, David A.; Parra, Mario A.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills. A group of 31 ex-combatants (mean age of 37.2, 29 men) from Colombian illegal armed groups were recruited into this study. Of these, 16 were invited to take part in a SCT and the other continued with the conventional reintegration intervention. Both groups underwent 12 training sessions in a period 12–14 weeks. They were assessed with a comprehensive protocol which included Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Emotion Processing instruments. The scores on these instruments prior to and after the intervention were compared within and between groups. Both groups were matched at baseline. Ex-combatants receiving the SCT experienced significant improvements in EP and a reduction in aggressive attitudes, effects not observed in those continuing the conventional reintegration intervention. This is the first study that achieves such outcomes in such a population using SCT intervention. We discuss the implications of such results toward better social reintegration strategies. PMID:28428767

  12. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  13. Memory and cognitive control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V

    2016-01-01

    Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal-frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal-frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Memory and cognitive control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal–frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal–frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. PMID:27339012

  15. Exploration and Learning for Cognitive Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudinac, M.

    2013-01-01

    Before a future with household robots is really feasible, those robots need to be easily adaptable to novel environments and users, be able to apply previously acquired knowledge, and able to learn from perceiving and interacting with the world and users around them. This thesis proposes a cognitive

  16. Neurochemical Correlates of Accumbal Dopamine D2 and Amygdaloid 5-HT1B Receptor Densities on Observational Learning of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Lucas, Louis R.

    2015-01-01

    Social learning theory postulates that individuals learn to engage in aggressive behavior through observing an aggressive social model. Prior studies have shown that repeatedly observing aggression, also called “chronic passive exposure to aggression,” changes accumbal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and amygdaloid 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) densities in observers. But, the association between these outcomes remains unknown. Thus, our study used a rat paradigm to comprehensively examine the linkage between aggression, D2R density in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), and 5-HT1BR density in the medial (MeA), basomedial (BMA), and basolateral (BLA) amygdala following chronic passive exposure to aggression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 72) were passively exposed to either aggression or non-aggression acutely (1 day) or chronically (23 days). When observer rats were exposed to aggression chronically, they showed increased aggressive behavior and reduced D2R density in the bilateral AcbSh. On the other hand, exposure to aggression, regardless of exposure length, increased 5-HT1BR density in the bilateral BLA. Finally, low D2R in the AcbSh significantly interacted with high 5-HT1BR density in the BLA in predicting high levels of aggression in observer rats. Our results advance our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms for observational learning of aggression, highlighting that dopamine-serotonin interaction, or AcbSh-BLA interaction, may contribute to a risk factor for aggression in observers who chronically witness aggressive interactions. PMID:25650085

  17. Effects of Comorbid ADHD with Learning Disabilities on Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Baker, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and learning disabilities (LD) frequently coexist and there are indications that comorbidity may increase the risk of psychopathology. Method: The current study examined the gender distribution and frequency of comorbidity and its impact on the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and aggression in a clinic sample of 80…

  18. Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Modeling of Sequential Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    learning during declarative control. 8. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory , and Cognition . 9. Crossley, M. J., Ashby, F. G., & Maddox...learning: Sensitivity to feedback timing. Frontiers in Psychology – Cognitive Science, 5, article 643, 1-9. 15. Worthy, D.A. & Maddox, W.T. (2014). A...Learning, Memory , and Cognition . Crossley, M. J., Ashby, F. G., & Maddox, W. T. (2014). Context-dependent savings in procedural category learning

  19. THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING STYLES IN ELT CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted. Games on cognitive learning styles will be explained. Sample classroom activities will be shared. Useful books, videos and websites on cognitive learni...

  20. Complex Mobile Learning That Adapts to Learners' Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning is cognitively demanding and frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where these fields interact and presents an…

  1. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  2. Embodied Language Learning and Cognitive Bootstrapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, C.E.; Nehaniv, C. L.; Saunders, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction mutually scaffold and support each other within a virtuous feedback cycle in the development of human language in children. Within this framework, the purpose of this article is to bring together diverse but complementary accounts...... of research methods that jointly contribute to our understanding of cognitive development and in particular, language acquisition in robots. Thus, we include research pertaining to developmental robotics, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics and neuroscience, as well as practical computer science...... the humanoid robot iCub are reported, while human learning relevant to developmental robotics has also contributed useful results. Disparate approaches are brought together via common underlying design principles. Without claiming to model human language acquisition directly, we are nonetheless inspired...

  3. The participant's perspective: learning from an aggression management training course for nurses. Insights from a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckemann, Birgit; Breimaier, Helga Elisabeth; Halfens, Ruud J G; Schols, Jos M G A; Hahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Aggression management training for nurses is an important part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce patient and visitor aggression in healthcare. Although training is commonplace, few scientific studies examine its benefits. To explore and describe, from a nurse's perspective, the learning gained from attending aggression management training. This was a descriptive qualitative interview study. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with seven nurses before (September/October 2012) and after they attended aggression management training (January/February 2013). Interview transcripts were content-analysed qualitatively. The study plan was reviewed by the responsible ethics committees. Participants gave written informed consent. Aggression management training did not change nurses' attitude. Coping emotionally with the management of patient and visitor aggression remained a challenge. Nurses' theoretical knowledge increased, but they did not necessarily acquire new strategies for managing patient/visitor aggression. Instead, the course refreshed or activated existing knowledge of prevention, intervention and de-escalation strategies. The training increased nurses' environmental and situational awareness for early signs of patient and visitor. They also acquired some strategies for emotional self-management. Nurses became more confident in dealing with (potentially) aggressive situations. While the training influenced nurses' individual clinical practice, learning was rarely shared within teams. Aggression management training increases skills, knowledge and confidence in dealing with patient or visitor aggression, but the emotional management remains a challenge. Future research should investigate how aggression management training courses can strengthen nurses' ability to emotionally cope with patient and visitor aggression. More knowledge is needed on how the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from the training may be disseminated more effectively

  4. Immune Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Cognitive Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chun-mei; HE Yue; TANG Bing-yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid methodology of automatically constructing fuzzy cognitive map (FCM). The method uses immune genetic algorithm to learn the connection matrix of FCM. In the algorithm, the DNA coding method is used and an immune operator based on immune mechanism is constructed. The characteristics of the system and the experts' knowledge are abstracted as vaccine for restraining the degenerative phenomena during evolution so as to improve the algorithmic efficiency. Finally, an illustrative example is provided, and its results suggest that the method is capable of automatically generating FCM model.

  5. Cognitive Models for Learning to Control Dynamic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eberhart, Russ; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Yaobin

    2008-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for topic "Cognitive models for learning to control dynamic systems" demonstrated a swarm intelligence learning algorithm and its application in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission planning...

  6. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... the cognitive learning abilities (i.e. mathematical thinking, r = 0.62 and ...... exercise was efficient both in the promotion of learning English .... Ishigawara K, Ishizuka H. Effects of Brain Activation through Physical Exercise.

  7. Physical-Verbal Aggression and Depression in Adolescents: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies / Agresión físico-verbal y depresión en adolescentes: el papel de las estrategias cognitivas de regulación emocional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Rey Peña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, physical-verbal aggression and depression in a sample of 248 adolescents. Specific emotion regulation strategies such as acceptance, rumination and catastrophizing explained significant variancein depression in adolescents. With respect to physical-verbal aggression, our results showed that the use of self-blame and rumination only predicted levels of aggression in boys but not girls. Regarding gender differences, girls tend to ruminate and to report more catastrophic thoughts than boys. Our findings suggest a profile of cognitive emotion regulation strategies related to physical-verbal aggression and depressive symptoms which might be taken into account in future socio-emotional learning programs for adolescents.

  8. The Positive Effects of Cognitive Learning Styles in ELT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagcioglu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted.…

  9. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  10. COGNITIVE SKILLS: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Sundar SETHY

    2012-01-01

    Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills play significant role for apprehending a concept and comprehending a discussion. In the context of distance education (DE), learning never restrains to...

  11. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural differences as…

  12. EFFICIENT SPECTRUM UTILIZATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO THROUGH REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning schemes can be employed in cognitive radio systems to intelligently locate the spectrum holes with some knowledge about the operating environment. In this paper, we formulate a variation of Actor Critic Learning algorithm known as Continuous Actor Critic Learning Automaton (CACLA and compare this scheme with Actor Critic Learning scheme and existing Q–learning scheme. Simulation results show that our CACLA scheme has lesser execution time and achieves higher throughput compared to other two schemes.

  13. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuromorphic cognitive systems a learning and memory centered approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jun; Tan Chen, Kay

    2017-01-01

    This book presents neuromorphic cognitive systems from a learning and memory-centered perspective. It illustrates how to build a system network of neurons to perform spike-based information processing, computing, and high-level cognitive tasks. It is beneficial to a wide spectrum of readers, including undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers who are interested in neuromorphic computing and neuromorphic engineering, as well as engineers and professionals in industry who are involved in the design and applications of neuromorphic cognitive systems, neuromorphic sensors and processors, and cognitive robotics. The book formulates a systematic framework, from the basic mathematical and computational methods in spike-based neural encoding, learning in both single and multi-layered networks, to a near cognitive level composed of memory and cognition. Since the mechanisms for integrating spiking neurons integrate to formulate cognitive functions as in the brain are little understood, studies of neuromo...

  15. Mathematics Intervention Utilizing Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor® and Compass Learning's Odyssey Math®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Carnegie Learning's Cognitive Tutor®The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test achievement scores when Compass Learning's Odyssey Math® is used together with Carnegie Learning's Math Cognitive Tutor® in a mathematics intervention program at ABC Middle School. The…

  16. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  17. Reggio Emilia Inspired Learning Groups: Relationships, Communication, Cognition, and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong Bock; Shaffer, LaShorage; Han, Jisu

    2017-01-01

    A key aspect of the Reggio Emilia inspired curriculum is a learning group approach that fosters social and cognitive development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Reggio Emilia inspired learning group approach works for children with and without disabilities. This study gives insight into how to form an appropriate learning group…

  18. Effects of social isolation, re-socialization and age on cognitive and aggressive behaviors of Kunming mice and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Chen, Wei; Yu, De-Qin; Wang, Shi-Wei; Yu, Wei-Zhi; Xu, Hong; Wang, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jun-Cheng; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Yin, Sheng-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Both Kunming (KM) mice and BALB/c mice have been widely used as rodent models to investigate stress-associated mental diseases. However, little is known about the different behaviors of KM mice and BALB/c mice after social isolation, particularly cognitive and aggressive behaviors. In this study, the behaviors of KM and BALB/c mice isolated for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and age-matched controls were evaluated using object recognition, object location and resident-intruder tests. The recovery of behavioral deficits by re-socialization was also examined for the isolated mice in adolescence. Our study showed that isolation for 2, 4 and 8 weeks led to cognitive deficits and increased aggressiveness for both KM and BALB/c mice. An important finding is that re-socialization could completely recover spatial/non-spatial cognitive deficits resulted from social isolation for both KM and BALB/c mice. In addition, age only impacted aggressiveness of KM mice. Moreover, isolation duration showed different impacts on cognitive and aggressive behaviors for both KM and BALB/c mice. Furthermore, BALB/c mice showed weak spatial/non-spatial memory and low aggressiveness when they were at the same age and isolation duration, compared to KM mice. In conclusion, KM mice and BALB/c mice behaved characteristically under physiology and isolation conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Constructivism, the so-called semantic learning theories, and situated cognition versus the psychological learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Juan José; Rodríguez Moneo, María

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the perspective of situated cognition, which gave rise both to the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning and has probably become the most representative standpoint of constructivism, is examined. We consider the claim of situated cognition to provide alternative explanations of the learning phenomenon to those of psychology and, especially, to those of the symbolic perspective, currently predominant in cognitive psychology. The level of analysis of situated cognition (i.e., global interactive systems) is considered an inappropriate approach to the problem of learning. From our analysis, it is concluded that the pragmatic theories and the so-called semantic theories of learning which originated in situated cognition can hardly be considered alternatives to the psychological learning theories, and they are unlikely to add anything of interest to the learning theory or to contribute to the improvement of our knowledge about the learning phenomenon.

  1. Cognitive-Linguistic Functioning and Learning to Read in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David M.

    1976-01-01

    The major results partially confirm the hypothesis of a reciprocal relationship between the experience of learning to read and the cognitive-linguistic skills which undergo development between the ages of five and seven. (RC)

  2. The effects of autonomous learning on cognitive load and learning results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Chantal; Kester, Liesbeth; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, C. J. J., Kester, L., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Martens, R. L. (2011, August). The Effects of Autonomous Learning on Cognitive Load and Learning Results. Presentation at the EARLI conference. Exeter, UK.

  3. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  4. Cognitive Play and Mathematical Learning in Computer Microworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffe, Leslie P.; Wiegel, Heide G.

    1994-01-01

    Uses the constructivist principle of active learning to explore the possibly essential elements in transforming a cognitive play activity into mathematical activity. Suggests that for such transformation to occur, cognitive play activity must involve operations of intelligence that, yield situations of mathematical schemes. Illustrates the…

  5. Organizational Change, Leadership and Learning: Culture as Cognitive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    Examines the claim that it is necessary to change an organization's culture in order to bring about organizational change. Considers the purported causal relationship between the role of the leader and organizational learning and develops the notion of culture as cognitive process based on research in cultural anthropology and cognitive science.…

  6. Situating cognitive/socio-cognitive approaches to student learning in genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    2009-03-01

    In this volume, Furberg and Arnseth report on a study of genetics learning from a socio-cultural perspective, focusing on students' meaning making as they engage in collaborative problem solving. Throughout the paper, they criticize research on student understanding and conceptual change conducted from a cognitive/socio-cognitive perspective on several reasonable grounds. However, their characterization of work undertaken from this perspective sometimes borders on caricature, failing to acknowledge the complexities of the research and the contexts within which it has been carried out. In this commentary, I expand their characterization of the cognitive/socio-cognitive perspective in general and situate my own work on genetics learning so as to provide a richer view of the enterprise. From this richer, more situated view, I conclude that research from both perspectives and collaboration between those looking at learning from different perspectives will ultimately provide a more complete picture of science learning.

  7. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  8. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Example-based learning: Integrating cognitive and social-cognitive research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); N. Rummel (Nikol)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExample-based learning has been studied from different perspectives. Cognitive research has mainly focused on worked examples, which typically provide students with a written worked-out didactical solution to a problem to study. Social-cognitive research has mostly focused on modeling

  10. Empirical Comparison of Three Treatments for Adolescent Males with Physical and Sexual Aggression: Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2005-01-01

    This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…

  11. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  12. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tomec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.

  13. Cognitive Learning Styles: Can You Engineer a "Perfect" Match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuzzan, Sharifah Mazlina Syed; Goulding, Jack Steven

    2016-01-01

    Education and training is widely acknowledged as being one of the key factors for leveraging organisational success. However, it is equally acknowledged that skills development and the acquisition of learning through managed cognitive approaches has yet to provide a "perfect" match. Whilst it is argued that an ideal learning scenario…

  14. Emerging Technologies as Cognitive Tools for Authentic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Jan; Parker, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Employing emerging technologies in learning is becoming increasingly important as a means to support the development of digital media literacy. Using a theoretical framework of authentic learning and technology as cognitive tools, this paper examined student responses to the infusion of emerging technologies in a large first year teacher education…

  15. Cognitive and Social Aspects of Engagement in Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Milo

    2017-01-01

    This article reports analysis of students' written reflections as to what helps them learn in an active learning environment. Eight hundred and twenty seven responses from 403 students in four different studio courses over two years were analyzed. An emergent coding scheme identified 55% of the responses as associated with cognitive processes…

  16. Assessing Student Learning in Academic Advising Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning apply to academic advising for measuring student learning outcomes. Community college students (N = 120) participated in an individual academic-advising session. We assessed students' post-intervention self-efficacy in academic planning and…

  17. The Influence of Cognitive Learning Style and Learning Independence on the Students' Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2018-01-01

    Students of Open University are strongly required to be able to study independently. They rely heavily on the cognitive learning styles that they have in attempt to get maximum scores in every final exam. The participants of this research were students in the Physics Education program taking Thermodynamic subject course. The research analysis…

  18. Ontology Update in the Cognitive Model of Ontology Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontology has been used in many hot-spot fields, but most ontology construction methods are semiautomatic, and the construction process of ontology is still a tedious and painstaking task. In this paper, a kind of cognitive models is presented for ontology learning which can simulate human being’s learning from world. In this model, the cognitive strategies are applied with the constrained axioms. Ontology update is a key step when the new knowledge adds into the existing ontology and conflict with old knowledge in the process of ontology learning. This proposal designs and validates the method of ontology update based on the axiomatic cognitive model, which include the ontology update postulates, axioms and operations of the learning model. It is proved that these operators subject to the established axiom system.

  19. Digital Learning As Enhanced Learning Processing? Cognitive Evidence for New insight of Smart Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; Ranieri, Jessica; Lacasa, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Large use of technology improved quality of life across aging and favoring the development of digital skills. Digital skills can be considered an enhancing to human cognitive activities. New research trend is about the impact of the technology in the elaboration information processing of the children. We wanted to analyze the influence of technology in early age evaluating the impact on cognition. We investigated the performance of a sample composed of n. 191 children in school age distributed in two groups as users: high digital users and low digital users. We measured the verbal and visuoperceptual cognitive performance of children by n. 8 standardized psychological tests and ad hoc self-report questionnaire. Results have evidenced the influence of digital exposition on cognitive development: the cognitive performance is looked enhanced and better developed: high digital users performed better in naming, semantic, visual memory and logical reasoning tasks. Our finding confirms the data present in literature and suggests the strong impact of the technology using not only in the social, educational and quality of life of the people, but also it outlines the functionality and the effect of the digital exposition in early age; increased cognitive abilities of the children tailor digital skilled generation with enhanced cognitive processing toward to smart learning.

  20. Cognitive Learning Theory Takes a Backseat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby-Jensen, Cecilie K.

    This paper describes the consequences of a cognitive management development program for middle managers in a public organization. The objective was to teach transformational leadership and teamwork but it occasioned a very limited improved articulation of transformational leadership and teamwork...

  1. Classifying cognitive profiles using machine learning with privileged information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Hamdan Alahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a ``Learning with privileged information'' approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants.MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls based on the learning performance and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on the learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1 when overall fMRI signal for structured stimuli is

  2. Technology-supported environments for learning through cognitive conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McDougall

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ways in which the idea of cognitive conflict is used to facilitate learning, looking at the design and use of learning environments for this purpose. Drawing on previous work in science education and educational computing, three approaches to the design of learning environments utilizing cognitive conflict are introduced. These approaches are described as confrontational, guiding and explanatory, based on the level of the designer's concern with learners' pre-existing understanding, the extent of modification to the learner's conceptual structures intended by the designer, and the directness of steering the learner to the desired understanding. The examples used to illustrate the three approaches are taken from science education, specifically software for learning about Newtonian physics; it is contended however that the argument of the paper applies more broadly, to learning environments for many curriculum areas for school levels and in higher education.

  3. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira; Francisco Dyonisio C. Mendes; Leonardo Conceição Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exp...

  4. Relational Analysis of High School Students' Cognitive Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Conceptions of Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between students' cognitive learning strategies and conceptions of learning biology. The two scales, "Cognitive Learning Strategies" and "Conceptions of Learning Biology", were revised and adapted to biology in order to measure the students' learning strategies and…

  5. Mirror Neurons, Embodied Cognitive Agents and Imitation Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a relatively recent discovery; it has been conjectured that these neurons play an important role in imitation learning and other cognitive phenomena. We will study a possible place and role of mirror neurons in the neural architecture of embodied cognitive agents. We will formulate and investigate the hypothesis that mirror neurons serve as a mechanism which coordinates the multimodal (i.e., motor, perceptional and proprioceptive) information and completes it so that the ag...

  6. Cognitive components underpinning the development of model-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Declarative and Procedural Knowledge via Video Lectures: Cognitive Load and Learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jianzhong; Pi, Zhongling; Yang, Jiumin

    2018-01-01

    Video lectures are being widely used in online and blended learning classes worldwide, and their learning effectiveness is becoming a focus of many educators and researchers. This study examined the cognitive load and learning effectiveness of video lectures in terms of the type of knowledge being taught (declarative or procedural) and instructor…

  8. Effect of Mastery Learning on Senior Secondary School Students' Cognitive Learning Outcome in Quantitative Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitee, Telimoye Leesi; Obaitan, Georgina N.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive learning outcome of Senior Secondary School chemistry students has been poor over the years in Nigeria. Poor mathematical skills and inefficient teaching methods have been identified as some of the major reasons for this. Bloom's theory of school learning and philosophy of mastery learning assert that virtually all students are…

  9. Examining Hypermedia Learning: The Role of Cognitive Load and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Distinct theoretical perspectives, Cognitive Load Theory and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) theory, have been used to examine individual differences the challenges faced with hypermedia learning. However, research has tended to use these theories independently, resulting in less robust explanations of hypermedia learning. This study examined the…

  10. Effects of the Physical Environment on Cognitive Load and Learning: Towards a New Model of Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Hee; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Although the theoretical framework of cognitive load theory has acknowledged a role for the learning environment, the specific characteristics of the physical learning environment that could affect cognitive load have never been considered, neither theoretically nor empirically. In this article, we argue that the physical learning environment, and…

  11. Evolving autonomous learning in cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheneman, Leigh; Hintze, Arend

    2017-12-01

    There are two common approaches for optimizing the performance of a machine: genetic algorithms and machine learning. A genetic algorithm is applied over many generations whereas machine learning works by applying feedback until the system meets a performance threshold. These methods have been previously combined, particularly in artificial neural networks using an external objective feedback mechanism. We adapt this approach to Markov Brains, which are evolvable networks of probabilistic and deterministic logic gates. Prior to this work MB could only adapt from one generation to the other, so we introduce feedback gates which augment their ability to learn during their lifetime. We show that Markov Brains can incorporate these feedback gates in such a way that they do not rely on an external objective feedback signal, but instead can generate internal feedback that is then used to learn. This results in a more biologically accurate model of the evolution of learning, which will enable us to study the interplay between evolution and learning and could be another step towards autonomously learning machines.

  12. Associationism and cognition: human contingency learning at 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R

    2007-03-01

    A major topic within human learning, the field of contingency judgement, began to emerge about 25 years ago following publication of an article on depressive realism by Alloy and Abramson (1979). Subsequently, associationism has been the dominant theoretical framework for understanding contingency learning but this has been challenged in recent years by an alternative cognitive or inferential approach. This article outlines the key conceptual differences between these approaches and summarizes some of the main methods that have been employed to distinguish between them.

  13. Interdisciplinary project-based learning: technology for improving student cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Stozhko; Boris Bortnik; Ludmila Mironova; Albina Tchernysheva; Ekaterina Podshivalova

    2015-01-01

    The article studies a way of enhancing student cognition by using interdisciplinary project-based learning (IPBL) in a higher education institution. IPBL is a creative pedagogic approach allowing students of one area of specialisation to develop projects for students with different academic profiles. The application of this approach in the Ural State University of Economics resulted in a computer-assisted learning system (CALS) designed by IT students. The CALS was used in an analytical chemi...

  14. Virtually justifiable homicide: the effects of prosocial contexts on the link between violent video games, aggression, and prosocial and hostile cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitter, Seth A; Ewell, Patrick J; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stillman, Tyler F; Baumeister, Roy F

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has shown that playing violent video games can stimulate aggression toward others. The current research has identified a potential exception. Participants who played a violent game in which the violence had an explicitly prosocial motive (i.e., protecting a friend and furthering his nonviolent goals) were found to show lower short-term aggression (Study 1) and show higher levels of prosocial cognition (Study 2) than individuals who played a violent game in which the violence was motivated by more morally ambiguous motives. Thus, violent video games that are framed in an explicitly prosocial context may evoke more prosocial sentiments and thereby mitigate some of the short-term effects on aggression observed in previous research. While these findings are promising regarding the potential aggression-reducing effects of prosocial context, caution is still warranted as a small effect size difference (d = .2-.3), although nonsignificant, was still observed between those who played the explicitly prosocial violent game and those who played a nonviolent game; indicating that aggressive behavior was not completely eliminated by the inclusion of a prosocial context for the violence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An Incremental Type-2 Meta-Cognitive Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Mahardhika; Zhang, Guangquan; Er, Meng Joo; Anavatti, Sreenatha

    2017-02-01

    Existing extreme learning algorithm have not taken into account four issues: 1) complexity; 2) uncertainty; 3) concept drift; and 4) high dimensionality. A novel incremental type-2 meta-cognitive extreme learning machine (ELM) called evolving type-2 ELM (eT2ELM) is proposed to cope with the four issues in this paper. The eT2ELM presents three main pillars of human meta-cognition: 1) what-to-learn; 2) how-to-learn; and 3) when-to-learn. The what-to-learn component selects important training samples for model updates by virtue of the online certainty-based active learning method, which renders eT2ELM as a semi-supervised classifier. The how-to-learn element develops a synergy between extreme learning theory and the evolving concept, whereby the hidden nodes can be generated and pruned automatically from data streams with no tuning of hidden nodes. The when-to-learn constituent makes use of the standard sample reserved strategy. A generalized interval type-2 fuzzy neural network is also put forward as a cognitive component, in which a hidden node is built upon the interval type-2 multivariate Gaussian function while exploiting a subset of Chebyshev series in the output node. The efficacy of the proposed eT2ELM is numerically validated in 12 data streams containing various concept drifts. The numerical results are confirmed by thorough statistical tests, where the eT2ELM demonstrates the most encouraging numerical results in delivering reliable prediction, while sustaining low complexity.

  16. The Teacher, Motivation, Acquisition and Cognitive Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dede Wilson

    2006-01-01

    @@ English is a world language spoken by a great number of non-native speakers, the majority of whom learn to speak and communicate in the language in the classroom. Many factors contribute to learning in the language classroom but the key to success lies in the teacher and students' motivation and the use of motivational teaching strategies that maintain motivation and facilitate the process.

  17. Gender, abilities, cognitive style and students' achievement in cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Peklaj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in mathematics and native language and to analyze students' achievement in cooperative learning according to their gender, abilities and cognitive style. Three hundred and seventy three (170 in the experimental and 203 in the control group fifth grade students from nine different primary schools participated in the study. In experimental group, cooperative learning was introduced in one quarter of the hours dedicated to mathematics and Slovene language during the school year. Control group received the traditional way of teaching in both courses. The results were analyzed with ANOVA. Positive effects of cooperative learning were found in both courses. Results in cooperative learning group were further analyzed according to students' gender, abilities and cognitive style. No significant interaction between students' achievement and their gender or abilities were found. Statistically significant interactions between students' cognitive style and achievement were found in both courses. Field-dependent students benefited most from cooperative learning.

  18. Cognitive independence in foreign language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylín Rodríguez Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to describe a didactic strategy to contribute to the development of foreign languages course students’ cognitive independence at Camagüey University. In its theoretical conception it is re-defined the concept “cognitive independence”, springing from the context in which the research is carried out, and the distinguishing features that characterize this capacity in students of foreign languages for pedagogical purposes are determined. The strategy comprises four stages: diagnosis, planning, execution, and evaluation. It is included the exemplification of the actions comprised in each stage, as well as the valuation of its effectiveness by means of experts’ opinions. Theoretical and empirical methods were applied, allowing the identification of the scientific problem and the modeling of its solution.

  19. Brain-Based Aspects of Cognitive Learning Approaches in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza Navid; Araghi, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Language learning process is one of the complicated behaviors of human beings which has called many scholars and experts' attention especially after the middle of last century by the advent of cognitive psychology that later on we see its implication to education. Unlike previous thought of schools, cognitive psychology deals with the way in which…

  20. Reward Learning, Neurocognition, Social Cognition, and Symptomatology in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Whitton, Alexis E; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Norris, Lesley A; Ongur, Dost; Hall, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychosis spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social and neurocognition, as well as hallmark abnormalities in motivation and reward processing. Aspects of reward processing may overlap behaviorally and neurobiologically with some elements of cognitive functioning, and abnormalities in these processes may share partially overlapping etiologies in patients. However, whether reward processing and cognition are associated across the psychoses and linked to state and trait clinical symptomatology is unclear. The present study examined associations between cognitive functioning, reward learning, and clinical symptomatology in a cross-diagnostic sample. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ; n = 37), bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BD; n = 42), and healthy controls (n = 29) were assessed for clinical symptoms (patients only), neurocognitive functioning using the MATRICS Battery (MCCB) and reward learning using the probabilistic reward task (PRT). Groups were compared on neurocognition and PRT response bias, and associations between PRT response bias and neurocognition or clinical symptoms were examined controlling for demographic variables and PRT task difficulty (discriminability). Patients with SZ performed worse than controls on most measures of neurocognition; patients with BD exhibited deficits in some domains between the level of patients with SZ and controls. The SZ - but not BD - group exhibited deficits in social cognition compared to controls. Patients and controls did not differ on PRT response bias, but did differ on PRT discriminability. Better response bias across the sample was associated with poorer social cognition, but not neurocognition; conversely, discriminability was associated with neurocognition but not social cognition. Symptoms of psychosis, particularly negative symptoms, were associated with poorer response bias across patient groups. Reward learning was associated with symptoms of psychosis - in particular negative

  1. Modeling individuals’ cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Activity-based analysis has slowly shifted gear from analysis of daily activity patterns to analysis and modeling of dynamic activity-travel patterns. In this paper, we describe a dynamic model that is concerned with simulating cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior for a

  2. Learning and Optimization of Cognitive Capabilities. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsdaine, A.A.; And Others

    The work of a three-year series of experimental studies of human cognition is summarized in this report. Proglem solving and learning in man-machine interaction was investigated, as well as relevant variables and processes. The work included four separate projects: (1) computer-aided problem solving, (2) computer-aided instruction techniques, (3)…

  3. Patient learning of treatment contents in cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumport, Nicole B; Dong, Lu; Lee, Jason Y; Harvey, Allison G

    2018-03-01

    Research has demonstrated that both memory and learning for treatment contents are poor, and that both are associated with worse treatment outcome. The Memory Support Intervention has been shown to improve memory for treatment, but it has not yet been established if this intervention can also improve learning of treatment contents. This study was designed to document the number of times participants exhibited each of the indices of learning, to examine the indices of learning and their relationship to recall of treatment points, and to investigate the association between the indices of learning and depression outcome. Adults diagnosed with major depressive disorder (N = 48) were randomly assigned to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy-as-usual (CT-as-usual) or cognitive therapy plus the Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support). Measures of learning, memory, and depressive symptomatology were taken at mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Relative to the CT-as-usual group, participants in the CT + Memory Support group reported more accurate thoughts and applications of treatment points at mid-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Patient recall was significantly correlated with application and cognitive generalization. Thoughts and application at mid-treatment were associated with increased odds of treatment response at post-treatment. The learning measure for this study has not yet been psychometrically validated. The results are based on a small sample. Learning during treatment is poor, but modifiable via the Memory Support Intervention. These results provide encouraging data that improving learning of treatment contents can reduce symptoms during and following treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreasing Cognitive Load for Learners: Strategy of Web-Based Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive load is one of the important factors that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of web-based foreign language learning. Cognitive load theory assumes that human's cognitive capacity in working memory is limited and if it overloads, learning will be hampered, so that high level of cognitive load can affect the performance of learning…

  5. A Relationship Study of Student Satisfaction with Learning Online and Cognitive Load: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, George R.

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to explore if a relationship exists between cognitive load and student satisfaction with learning online. The study separates academic performance (a.k.a., "learning") from cognitive load and satisfaction to better distinguish influences on cognition (from cognitive load) and motivation (from satisfaction). Considerations that…

  6. The Spiral and the Lattice: Changes in Cognitive Learning Theory with Implications for Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur D.

    1995-01-01

    Contrasts recent views of learning and cognition with cognitive learning theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Maintains that Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum approach, still valuable, is not sufficient to explain cognitive development. Proposes a lattice-like cognitive development structure, inviting differing paths of exploration. (CFR)

  7. Investigating the Ketogenic Diet As Treatment for Primary Aggressive Brain Cancer: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Schwartz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8–15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Of the 15 enrolled, 10 completed the protocol. This perspective describes the challenges and lessons learned during this clinical trial and discusses the critical elements that are essential for investigating treatment with a KD. We also reviewed and compared various types of KDs. We believe that the diet selected should be standardized within individual clinical trials, and more importantly, the patients’ blood should be monitored for glucose and ketones twice daily so that the supervising dietitian can work with the patient and their caregivers to make appropriate changes in the diet. Compliance with the diet is best in highly motivated patients who have excellent home support from a family member or a friend who can help to overcome administrative, physical, and cognition deficiencies associated with the disease. Treatment of GBM using a KD represents a reasonable investigative approach. This perspective summarizes the challenges and lessons learned implementing and continuing KD therapy while the patients are concurrently being treated with radiation and chemotherapy.

  8. A machine learning model with human cognitive biases capable of learning from small and biased datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hidetaka; Sato, Hiroshi; Shirakawa, Tomohiro

    2018-05-09

    Human learners can generalize a new concept from a small number of samples. In contrast, conventional machine learning methods require large amounts of data to address the same types of problems. Humans have cognitive biases that promote fast learning. Here, we developed a method to reduce the gap between human beings and machines in this type of inference by utilizing cognitive biases. We implemented a human cognitive model into machine learning algorithms and compared their performance with the currently most popular methods, naïve Bayes, support vector machine, neural networks, logistic regression and random forests. We focused on the task of spam classification, which has been studied for a long time in the field of machine learning and often requires a large amount of data to obtain high accuracy. Our models achieved superior performance with small and biased samples in comparison with other representative machine learning methods.

  9. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  10. Social cognitive theory, metacognition, and simulation learning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine

    2012-10-01

    Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Social Cognition as Reinforcement Learning: Feedback Modulates Emotion Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Jamil; Kallman, Seth; Wimmer, G Elliott; Ochsner, Kevin; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-09-01

    Neuroscientific studies of social cognition typically employ paradigms in which perceivers draw single-shot inferences about the internal states of strangers. Real-world social inference features much different parameters: People often encounter and learn about particular social targets (e.g., friends) over time and receive feedback about whether their inferences are correct or incorrect. Here, we examined this process and, more broadly, the intersection between social cognition and reinforcement learning. Perceivers were scanned using fMRI while repeatedly encountering three social targets who produced conflicting visual and verbal emotional cues. Perceivers guessed how targets felt and received feedback about whether they had guessed correctly. Visual cues reliably predicted one target's emotion, verbal cues predicted a second target's emotion, and neither reliably predicted the third target's emotion. Perceivers successfully used this information to update their judgments over time. Furthermore, trial-by-trial learning signals-estimated using two reinforcement learning models-tracked activity in ventral striatum and ventromedial pFC, structures associated with reinforcement learning, and regions associated with updating social impressions, including TPJ. These data suggest that learning about others' emotions, like other forms of feedback learning, relies on domain-general reinforcement mechanisms as well as domain-specific social information processing.

  12. Cognitive Clusters in Specific Learning Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Carretta, Elisa; Bonvicini, Laura; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The heterogeneity among children with learning disabilities still represents a barrier and a challenge in their conceptualization. Although a dimensional approach has been gaining support, the categorical approach is still the most adopted, as in the recent fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders." The…

  13. Operant Learning, Cognitive Development, and Job Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, N. Paul; King, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationship between learning and development in the most general terms, discusses the developmental distinction between concrete and formal operational thought as manifested in adult behavior, and considers the implications of the concrete-formal dichotomy for the design and use of job aids. Notes and a bibliography are provided.…

  14. Children's exposure to violent political conflict stimulates aggression at peers by increasing emotional distress, aggressive script rehearsal, and normative beliefs favoring aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil

    2017-02-01

    We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.

  15. Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Dynamic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiuser independent Q-learning method which does not need information interaction is proposed for multiuser dynamic spectrum accessing in cognitive radios. The method adopts self-learning paradigm, in which each CR user performs reinforcement learning only through observing individual performance reward without spending communication resource on information interaction with others. The reward is defined suitably to present channel quality and channel conflict status. The learning strategy of sufficient exploration, preference for good channel, and punishment for channel conflict is designed to implement multiuser dynamic spectrum accessing. In two users two channels scenario, a fast learning algorithm is proposed and the convergence to maximal whole reward is proved. The simulation results show that, with the proposed method, the CR system can obtain convergence of Nash equilibrium with large probability and achieve great performance of whole reward.

  16. Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Sweller, J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by

  17. The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

  18. Developing nursing and midwifery students' capacity for coping with bullying and aggression in clinical settings: Students' evaluation of a learning resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Rosemarie; Orr, Fiona; Fox, Deborah; Cummins, Allison; Foureur, Maralyn

    2018-03-01

    An innovative blended learning resource for undergraduate nursing and midwifery students was developed in a large urban Australian university, following a number of concerning reports by students on their experiences of bullying and aggression in clinical settings. The blended learning resource included interactive online learning modules, comprising film clips of realistic clinical scenarios, related readings, and reflective questions, followed by in-class role-play practice of effective responses to bullying and aggression. On completion of the blended learning resource 210 participants completed an anonymous survey (65.2% response rate). Qualitative data was collected and a thematic analysis of the participants' responses revealed the following themes: 'Engaging with the blended learning resource'; 'Responding to bullying' and 'Responding to aggression'. We assert that developing nursing and midwifery students' capacity to effectively respond to aggression and bullying, using a self-paced blended learning resource, provides a solution to managing some of the demands of the clinical setting. The blended learning resource, whereby nursing and midwifery students were introduced to realistic portrayals of bullying and aggression in clinical settings, developed their repertoire of effective responding and coping skills for use in their professional practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive aspects in games workshops for learning a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ferrareto Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to analyze the cognitive aspects related to learning English as a foreign language, by means of games workshops with students of the 6th grade of elementary school from a state school in Londrina. The paper is grounded on Piagetian theory and is descriptive-interpretative study with a qualitative perspective. Two guiding questions motivate the study: what is the role of games workshops for learning English as a foreign language? In what way the cognitive processes are held in the games workshops for learning English? To meet the proposed goals, workshops were implemented with games containing the linguistic contents studied in English classes. The games workshops enabled the observation and analysis of the cognitive aspects involved in learning a foreign language. Results show that the games workshops promote the participation of the students motivating action and output, evidencing gaps on the knowledge and providing equilibration processes. Subjects are asked to produce outputs via games demands, thus evoking knowhow, as well as the thinking about their own products, suggesting a conscious-awareness process.

  20. Superior cognitive mapping through single landmark-related learning than through boundary-related learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruojing; Mou, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive mapping is assumed to be through hippocampus-dependent place learning rather than striatum-dependent response learning. However, we proposed that either type of spatial learning, as long as it involves encoding metric relations between locations and reference points, could lead to a cognitive map. Furthermore, the fewer reference points to specify individual locations, the more accurate a cognitive map of these locations will be. We demonstrated that participants have more accurate representations of vectors between 2 locations and of configurations among 3 locations when locations are individually encoded in terms of a single landmark than when locations are encoded in terms of a boundary. Previous findings have shown that learning locations relative to a boundary involve stronger place learning and higher hippocampal activation whereas learning relative to a single landmark involves stronger response learning and higher striatal activation. Recognizing this, we have provided evidence challenging the cognitive map theory but favoring our proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Managing Cognitive Load in Adaptive ICT-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Kalyuga

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of technological innovations in education has many examples of failed high expectations. To avoid becoming another one, current multimedia ICT tools need to be designed in accordance with how the human mind works. There are well established characteristics of its architecture that should be taken into account when evaluating, selecting, and using educational technology. This paper starts with a review of the most important features of human cognitive architecture and their implications for ICT-based learning. Expertise reversal effect relates to the interactions between levels of learner prior knowledge and effectiveness of different instructional techniques and procedures. Designs and techniques that are effective with low-knowledge learners can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences for more proficient learners. The paper describes recent empirical findings associated with the expertise reversal effect in multimedia and hypermedia learning environments, their interpretation within a cognitive load framework, and implications for the design of learner-tailored multimedia.

  2. Cognitive learning during surgical residency. A model for curriculum evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R S; Wile, M Z; Persons, M L; Shuck, J M

    1987-02-01

    The program summary of the American Board of Surgery In-Service Training Exam (ABSITE) can be used to quantitate cognitive learning during a surgical residency and to identify areas of curricular weakness in a residency program. Knowledge on each question is categorized as high (known) or low (unknown) depending on the percentage of residents who answered correctly. Knowledge of Level 1 (entry) residents is then compared with Level 5 (exit) residents. Each ABSITE question can thus be categorized on entry versus exit as known-known, unknown-unknown, unknown-known, and known-unknown. Only about half of unknown knowledge on entry appears to become known on exit. Very little knowledge known on entry becomes unknown on exit. Weaknesses in specific subject areas can be readily identified by ranking questions according to the number of exiting residents who answer incorrectly. Use of this technique to quantitate cognitive learning in a residency program may allow objective assessment of changes in curriculum.

  3. A cognitive learning model of clinical nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Jacinthe; Dubois, Sylvie; Girard, Francine; Tardif, Jacques; Ha, Laurence

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive modeling of competencies is important to facilitate learning and evaluation. Clinical nursing leadership is considered a competency, as it is a "complex know-act" that students and nurses develop for the quality of care of patients and their families. Previous research on clinical leadership describes the attributes and characteristics of leaders and leadership, but, to our knowledge, a cognitive learning model (CLM) has yet to be developed. The purpose of our research was to develop a CLM of the clinical nursing leadership competency, from the beginning of a nursing program to expertise. An interpretative phenomenological study design was used 1) to document the experience of learning and practicing clinical leadership, and 2) to identify critical-learning turning points. Data was gathered from interviews with 32 baccalaureate students and 21 nurses from two clinical settings. An inductive analysis of data was conducted to determine the learning stages experienced: awareness of clinical leadership in nursing; integration of clinical leadership in actions; active leadership with patient/family; active leadership with the team; and, embedded clinical leadership extended to organizational level and beyond. The resulting CLM could have significant impact on both basic and continuing nursing education. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mirror Neurons, Embodied Cognitive Agents and Imitation Learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2003), s. 545-559 ISSN 1335-9150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : complete agents * mirror neurons * embodied cognition * imitation learning * sensorimotor control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2003 http://www.cai.sk/ojs/index.php/cai/article/view/468

  5. When cognitive exertion does not yield cognitive gain: toward an informational explanation of learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedek, G; Kofta, M

    1990-04-01

    This study tested a new information-processing explanation of learned helplessness that proposes that an uncontrollable situation produces helplessness symptoms because it is a source of inconsistent, self-contradictory task information during problem-solving attempts. The flow of such information makes hypothesis-testing activity futile. Prolonged and inefficient activity of this kind leads in turn to the emergence of a state of cognitive exhaustion, with accompanying performance deficits. In 3 experiments, Ss underwent informational helplessness training (IHT): They were sequentially exposed to inconsistent task information during discrimination problems. As predicted, IHT was associated with subjective symptoms of irreducible uncertainty and resulted in (a) performance deterioration on subsequent avoidance learning, (b) heightened negative mood, and (c) subjective symptoms of cognitive exhaustion.

  6. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  7. Mobile Learning Application Interfaces: First Steps to a Cognitive Load Aware System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning is a cognitively demanding application and more frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the nature of this use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where…

  8. Episodic memory deficits slow down the dynamics of cognitive procedural learning in normal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaunieux, Hélène; Hubert, Valérie; Pitel, Anne Lise; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive procedural learning is characterized by three phases, each involving distinct processes. Considering the implication of the episodic memory in the first cognitive stage, the impairment of this memory system might be responsible for a slowing down of the cognitive procedural learning dynamics in the course of aging. Performances of massed cognitive procedural learning were evaluated in older and younger participants using the Tower of Toronto task. Nonverbal intelligence and psychomotor abilities were used to analyze procedural dynamics, while episodic memory and working memory were assessed to measure their respective contributions to learning strategies. This experiment showed that older participants did not spontaneously invoke episodic memory and presented a slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning associated with a late involvement of working memory. These findings suggest that the slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning may be linked with the implementation of different learning strategies less involving episodic memory in older subjects. PMID:18654928

  9. Emotion, cognitive load and learning outcomes during simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Teteris, Elise; Baxter, Heather; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Simulation training has emerged as an effective way to complement clinical training of medical students. Yet outcomes from simulation training must be considered suboptimal when 25-30% of students fail to recognise a cardiac murmur on which they were trained 1 hour previously. There are several possible explanations for failure to improve following simulation training, which include the impact of heightened emotions on learning and cognitive overload caused by interactivity with high-fidelity simulators. This study was conducted to assess emotion during simulation training and to explore the relationships between emotion and cognitive load, and diagnostic performance. We trained 84 Year 1 medical students on a scenario of chest pain caused by symptomatic aortic stenosis. After training, students were asked to rate their emotional state and cognitive load. We then provided training on a dyspnoea scenario before asking participants to diagnose the murmur in which they had been trained (aortic stenosis) and a novel murmur (mitral regurgitation). We used factor analysis to identify the principal components of emotion, and then studied the associations between these components of emotion and cognitive load and diagnostic performance. We identified two principal components of emotion, which we felt represented invigoration and tranquillity. Both of these were associated with cognitive load with adjusted regression coefficients of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.99; p = 0.001) and - 0.44 (95% CI - 0.77 to - 0.10; p = 0.009), respectively. We found a significant negative association between cognitive load and the odds of subsequently identifying the trained murmur (odds ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67; p = 0.004). We found that increased invigoration and reduced tranquillity during simulation training were associated with increased cognitive load, and that the likelihood of correctly identifying a trained murmur declined with increasing cognitive load. Further

  10. Topological schemas of cognitive maps and spatial learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey eBabichev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment---a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment---the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level.

  11. Topological Schemas of Cognitive Maps and Spatial Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Andrey; Cheng, Sen; Dabaghian, Yuri A

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment-a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment-the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level.

  12. Media Multitasking and Cognitive, Psychological, Neural, and Learning Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; Lin, Lin; Rosen, Larry D; Kirkorian, Heather L; Baron, Naomi S; Bailey, Kira; Cantor, Joanne; Strayer, David L; Parsons, Thomas D; Wagner, Anthony D

    2017-11-01

    American youth spend more time with media than any other waking activity: an average of 7.5 hours per day, every day. On average, 29% of that time is spent juggling multiple media streams simultaneously (ie, media multitasking). This phenomenon is not limited to American youth but is paralleled across the globe. Given that a large number of media multitaskers (MMTs) are children and young adults whose brains are still developing, there is great urgency to understand the neurocognitive profiles of MMTs. It is critical to understand the relation between the relevant cognitive domains and underlying neural structure and function. Of equal importance is understanding the types of information processing that are necessary in 21st century learning environments. The present review surveys the growing body of evidence demonstrating that heavy MMTs show differences in cognition (eg, poorer memory), psychosocial behavior (eg, increased impulsivity), and neural structure (eg, reduced volume in anterior cingulate cortex). Furthermore, research indicates that multitasking with media during learning (in class or at home) can negatively affect academic outcomes. Until the direction of causality is understood (whether media multitasking causes such behavioral and neural differences or whether individuals with such differences tend to multitask with media more often), the data suggest that engagement with concurrent media streams should be thoughtfully considered. Findings from such research promise to inform policy and practice on an increasingly urgent societal issue while significantly advancing our understanding of the intersections between cognitive, psychosocial, neural, and academic factors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

  14. Instructed fear learning, extinction, and recall: additive effects of cognitive information on emotional learning of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash; Duval, Elizabeth R; Cisneros, Maria E; Taylor, Stephan F; Kessler, Daniel; Liberzon, Israel

    2017-08-01

    The effects of instruction on learning of fear and safety are rarely studied. We aimed to examine the effects of cognitive information and experience on fear learning. Fourty healthy participants, randomly assigned to three groups, went through fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall with two conditioned stimuli (CS+). Information was presented about the presence or absence of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingency at different stages of the experiment. Information about the CS-US contingency prior to fear conditioning enhanced fear response and reduced extinction recall. Information about the absence of CS-US contingency promoted extinction learning and recall, while omission of this information prior to recall resulted in fear renewal. These findings indicate that contingency information can facilitate fear expression during fear learning, and can facilitate extinction learning and recall. Information seems to function as an element of the larger context in which conditioning occurs.

  15. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Instructional Design Principles, and Students with Learning Disabilities in Computer-Based and Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…

  16. Charging Neutral Cues with Aggressive Meaning through Violent Video Game Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Krahé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When playing violent video games, aggressive actions are performed against the background of an originally neutral environment, and associations are formed between cues related to violence and contextual features. This experiment examined the hypothesis that neutral contextual features of a virtual environment become associated with aggressive meaning and acquire the function of primes for aggressive cognitions. Seventy-six participants were assigned to one of two violent video game conditions that varied in context (ship vs. city environment or a control condition. Afterwards, they completed a Lexical Decision Task to measure the accessibility of aggressive cognitions in which they were primed either with ship-related or city-related words. As predicted, participants who had played the violent game in the ship environment had shorter reaction times for aggressive words following the ship primes than the city primes, whereas participants in the city condition responded faster to the aggressive words following the city primes compared to the ship primes. No parallel effect was observed for the non-aggressive targets. The findings indicate that the associations between violent and neutral cognitions learned during violent game play facilitate the accessibility of aggressive cognitions.

  17. A Comparison of Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Existential Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Dræby

    of the outcome of psychotherapy through qualitative research. The precise aim is to draw attention to the special characteristics of this outcome in terms of learning outcome. This regards both existential therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy and to clarify the possible differences and similarities between...... the lived experience of the learning outcomes of these approaches. The study also clarifies the differences between existential psychotherapy as an art of learning directed at existential learning of authenticity and cognitive- behavioural therapy as a learning-based medical treatment technology directed...... at behavioural and cognitive learning of adaptive and functional responses that alleviates pathological symptoms....

  18. A re-view of cognitive mediators in learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennen, H

    1982-12-01

    The findings of Oakes and Curtis (1982), Tennen, Drum, Gillen, and Stanton (1982), and Tennen, Gillen, and Drum (1982) provide a challenge to learned helplessness theory's focus on cognitive mediators of the helplessness phenomenon. In response to these findings, Alloy (1982) argues that these studies do not challenge helplessness theory because they do not measure expected control and because they confuse necessary and sufficient causes of learned helplessness. Silver, Wortman, and Klos (1982) contend that these studies provide an inadequate test of the model because subjects are confronted with experiences which are unlike those in their natural environment. The present article argues that by Alloy's (1982) criteria, an adequate test of the learned helplessness model has not yet been conducted. Previous studies which measured expected control have not supported the model's predictions. Moreover, if perceived response-outcome independence is a sufficient, but not a necessary cause of learned helplessness, the model loses much of its heuristic value. In response to the argument that these studies lack ecological validity, this article clarifies the distinction between experimental realism and mundane realism. While real-world studies have discovered intriguing relations between perceptions of control, attributions, and coping with illness or victimization, they have not tested predictions of the learned helplessness model.

  19. The Neural Circuitry of Expertise: Perceptual Learning and Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is likely a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviourally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations. Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and

  20. Cognitive Radio Transceivers: RF, Spectrum Sensing, and Learning Algorithms Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Safatly

    2014-01-01

    reconfigurable radio frequency (RF parts, enhanced spectrum sensing algorithms, and sophisticated machine learning techniques. In this paper, we present a review of the recent advances in CR transceivers hardware design and algorithms. For the RF part, three types of antennas are presented: UWB antennas, frequency-reconfigurable/tunable antennas, and UWB antennas with reconfigurable band notches. The main challenges faced by the design of the other RF blocks are also discussed. Sophisticated spectrum sensing algorithms that overcome main sensing challenges such as model uncertainty, hardware impairments, and wideband sensing are highlighted. The cognitive engine features are discussed. Moreover, we study unsupervised classification algorithms and a reinforcement learning (RL algorithm that has been proposed to perform decision-making in CR networks.

  1. Black swans, cognition, and the power of learning from failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Allison S; Redford, Kent; Margoluis, Richard; Knight, Andrew T

    2018-06-01

    Failure carries undeniable stigma and is difficult to confront for individuals, teams, and organizations. Disciplines such as commercial and military aviation, medicine, and business have long histories of grappling with it, beginning with the recognition that failure is inevitable in every human endeavor. Although conservation may arguably be more complex, conservation professionals can draw on the research and experience of these other disciplines to institutionalize activities and attitudes that foster learning from failure, whether they are minor setbacks or major disasters. Understanding the role of individual cognitive biases, team psychological safety, and organizational willingness to support critical self-examination all contribute to creating a cultural shift in conservation to one that is open to the learning opportunity that failure provides. This new approach to managing failure is a necessary next step in the evolution of conservation effectiveness. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Machine learning based Intelligent cognitive network using fog computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyang; Li, Lun; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) based on artificial intelligence is proposed to distribute the limited radio spectrum resources more efficiently. The CRN framework can analyze the time-sensitive signal data close to the signal source using fog computing with different types of machine learning techniques. Depending on the computational capabilities of the fog nodes, different features and machine learning techniques are chosen to optimize spectrum allocation. Also, the computing nodes send the periodic signal summary which is much smaller than the original signal to the cloud so that the overall system spectrum source allocation strategies are dynamically updated. Applying fog computing, the system is more adaptive to the local environment and robust to spectrum changes. As most of the signal data is processed at the fog level, it further strengthens the system security by reducing the communication burden of the communications network.

  3. Reinforcement Learning for Routing in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. A. Al-Rawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs. Reinforcement learning (RL is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs’ network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs’ network performance, specifically SUs’ interference to PUs.

  4. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  5. Are Moral Disengagement, Neutralization Techniques, and Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions the Same? Developing a Unified Scale of Moral Neutralization of Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Ribeaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Can the three concepts of Neutralization Techniques, Moral Disengagement, and Secondary Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions be conceived theoretically and empirically
    as capturing the same cognitive processes and thus be measured with one single scale of Moral Neutralization? First, we show how the different approaches overlap conceptually. Second, in Study 1, we verify that four scales derived from the three conceptions of Moral Neutralization are correlated in such a way that they can be conceived as measuring the same phenomenon. Third, building on the results of Study 1, we derive a unified scale of Moral Neutralization which specifically focuses on the neutralization of aggression and test it in a large general population sample of preadolescents (Study 2. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest a good internal consistency and acceptable cross-gender factorial invariance. Correlation analyses with related behavioral and cognitive constructs corroborate the scale’s criterion and convergent validity. In the final section we present a possible integration of Moral Neutralization in a broader framework of crime causation.

  6. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Academic Advising to Assess Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Review of social cognitive theory constructs of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning is applied to academic advising for the purposes of assessing student learning. A brief overview of the history of student learning outcomes in higher education is followed by an explanation of self-efficacy and self-regulated learning constructs and how they…

  7. An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…

  8. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Ostergaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composi...

  9. Learning a Foreign Language: A New Path to Enhancement of Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi Javan, Sara; Ghonsooly, Behzad

    2018-01-01

    The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive…

  10. Locating Cognition in Second Language Interaction and Learning: Inside the Skull or in Public View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    A key question in the debate on conversation analysis as an approach to SLA concerns the role of cognition in interaction and learning. Where is cognition located, and how is understanding in interaction achieved? For an empirically grounded answer, I will explore the procedural apparatus that sustains socially shared cognition. Following a brief…

  11. The Impact of Cognitive Assessment on the Identity of People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Terence; Smith, Hilary; Burns, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have hypothesised that cognitive assessments have the power to influence the self-identity of people with learning disabilities. This research aimed to explore the experience of a sample of people who had been given a cognitive assessment by a psychologist based in a team for people with learning disabilities. Five…

  12. Comparative Effect of Memory and Cognitive Strategies Training on EFL Intermediate Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisaeid, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effect of memory and cognitive strategies training on vocabulary learning of intermediate proficiency group of Iranian learners of English as a foreign language. It is to check how memory and cognitive strategies training affect word learning of EFL intermediate learners (N = 60) who were homogenized…

  13. Confronting Social Injustice: Cognitive Dissonance and Civic Development in Higher Education Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie Cohen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…

  14. Cognitive Load Imposed by Ultrasound-Facilitated Teaching Does Not Adversely Affect Gross Anatomy Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A.; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using…

  15. Teachers' Awareness of the Semio-Cognitive Dimension of Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, Maura

    2018-01-01

    While many semiotic and cognitive studies on learning mathematics have focused primarily on students, this study focuses mainly on teachers, by seeking to bring to light their awareness of the semiotic and cognitive aspects of learning mathematics. The aim is to highlight the degree of awareness that teachers show about: (1) the distinction…

  16. Non-cognitive characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities : An in-depth systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification

  17. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.J.; Arntz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the

  18. Diving too Deep: How Cognitive Absorption and Group Learning Behavior Affect Individual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Massimo; Paolino, Chiara; Cappetta, Rossella; Proserpio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Since organizations and educational institutions are moving toward a training approach which emphasizes the active involvement of participants, there is growing interest in understanding how individual engagement in the training experience affects practicing managers’ individual learning. We identify cognitive absorption as the construct that better describes the state of full engagement and immersion that new approaches in management training require of learners. While some research has emph...

  19. Optimizing Learning in College: Tips From Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Adam L; Sungkhasettee, Victor W; Roediger, Henry L

    2016-09-01

    Every fall, thousands of college students begin their first college courses, often in large lecture settings. Many students, even those who work hard, flounder. What should students be doing differently? Drawing on research in cognitive psychology and our experience as educators, we provide suggestions about how students should approach taking a course in college. We discuss time management techniques, identify the ineffective study strategies students often use, and suggest more effective strategies based on research in the lab and the classroom. In particular, we advise students to space their study sessions on a topic and to quiz themselves, as well as using other active learning strategies while reading. Our goal was to provide a framework for students to succeed in college classes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Learned helplessness, cognitive errors and perfectionism in depressed and non-depressed chronic pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Clinical Psychology) The increasing interest in cognitive factors both in the literature on pain and in developments in research on depression has led to the present study, where cognitive factors associated with depression were investigated in clinical groups of chroni c pa in patients. The cognitive factors studied were learned helplessness (Seligman, 1975), cognitive errors and distortions (Beck, 1976), perfectionism (Bums, 19800 1980b), as well as hopelessness (Beck, 1974). It wa...

  1. Teacher Verbal Aggressiveness and Credibility Mediate the Relationship between Teacher Technology Policies and Perceived Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…

  2. "Frenemies, Fraitors, and Mean-em-aitors": Priming Effects of Viewing Physical and Relational Aggression in the Media on Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nelson, David A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-01-01

    Past research has shown activation of aggressive cognitions in memory after media violence exposure, but has not examined priming effects of viewing relational aggression in the media. In the current study, 250 women viewed a video clip depicting physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. Subsequent activation of physical and relational aggression cognitions was measured using an emotional Stroop task. Results indicated priming of relational aggression cognitions after viewing the relationally aggressive video clip, and activation of both physical and relational aggression cognitions after viewing the physically aggressive video clip. Results are discussed within the framework of the General Aggression Model. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Approaches to learning, need for cognition, and strategic flexibility among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christina J; Kirby, John R; Fabrigar, Leandre R

    2003-12-01

    Considerable research has described students' deep and surface approaches to learning. Other research has described individuals' self-regulated learning and need for cognition. There is a need for research examining the relationships among these constructs. This study explored relationships among approaches to learning (deep, surface), need for cognition, and three types of control of learning (adaptive, inflexible, irresolute). Theory suggested similarities among the deep approach, need for cognition, and adaptive control (aspects of self-regulated learning); and among surface, inflexible, and irresolute control (aspects of an ineffective approach to learning). One-factor and two-factor models were proposed. Participants were 226 Canadian military college students. Participants completed the following questionnaires: the Study Process Questionnaire (Biggs, 1978), the Need for Cognition Scale (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982), and the Strategic Flexibility Questionnaire (Cantwell & Moore, 1996). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the identification of the six scale factors. Second order confirmatory factor analysis indicated three factors representing constructs underlying these factors. Neither the one- nor two-factor models accounted adequately for the data. Self-regulated learning was defined by measures of the deep approach to learning, need for cognition, and adaptive control of learning. The second factor divided into one factor consisting of irresolute control, the surface approach, and negative need for cognition; and another consisting of inflexible and negative adaptive control. Substantial relationships among scales support the need for further theory development.

  4. Contributions of Cognitive Psychology to the Future of E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aibert, Dietrich; Mori, Toshiaki

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the 215t century strong efforts are made for facilitating e-learning (electronic-based learning and teaching). This development is driven mainly by economical and technological dynamics, however also the contributions of educational and learning sciences are requested by the decision maker. Beside methodological contributions, cognitive psychology is fundamental for individualising e-learning processes. Essential for individualisation is the adaptivity of the e-learning sy...

  5. An Exploration of Students' Science Learning Interest Related to Their Cognitive Anxiety, Cognitive Load, Self-Confidence and Learning Progress Using Inquiry-Based Learning with an iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Tai, Kai-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the cognitive-affective theory, the present study designed a science inquiry learning model, "predict-observe-explain" (POE), and implemented it in an app called "WhyWhy" to examine the effectiveness of students' science inquiry learning practice. To understand how POE can affect the cognitive-affective learning…

  6. Collaborative Learning Using a Project across Multiple Business Courses: A Cognitive Load and Knowledge Convergence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sandeep; Chandra, Aruna; Harper, Jeffrey S.; Sweetin, Vernon

    2015-01-01

    Four business professors at a state university in the Midwestern United States launched a collaborative learning project grounded in cognitive learning theory and knowledge convergence theory with the objective of assessing student learning gains in cross-functional knowledge (CFK), course-related knowledge (CRK), and overall satisfaction with…

  7. Performance, Cognitive Load, and Behaviour of Technology-Assisted English Listening Learning: From CALL to MALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Warden, Clyde A.; Liang, Chaoyun; Chou, Pao-Nan

    2018-01-01

    This study examines differences in English listening comprehension, cognitive load, and learning behaviour between outdoor ubiquitous learning and indoor computer-assisted learning. An experimental design, employing a pretest-posttest control group is employed. Randomly assigned foreign language university majors joined either the experimental…

  8. Cognitive Developmental Level Gender, and the Development of Learned Helplessness on Mathematical Calculation and Reasoning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to test whether a learned helplessness treatment would decrease performance on mathematical tasks and to extend learned helplessness findings to include the cognitive development dimension. Results showed no differential advantages to either sex in resisting effects of learned helplessness or in benefiting from strategy…

  9. Effects of Computer-Based Visual Representation on Mathematics Learning and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hsin I.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Visual representation has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in many learning domains. Based on the assumption that visual representations can support deeper understanding, we examined the effects of visual representations on learning performance and cognitive load in the domain of mathematics. An experimental condition with visual…

  10. The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Cognition and Motivation in Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media framework posits that the multimedia learning process is mediated by the learner's mood. Recent studies have shown that positive mood has a facilitating effect on multimedia learning. Though literature has shown that negative mood encourages an individual to engage in a more systematic,…

  11. Modelization of cognition, activity and motivation as indicators for Interactive Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Darouich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Interactive Learning Environment (ILE, the cognitive activity and behavior of learners are the center of the researchers’ concerns. The improvement of learning through combining these axes as a structure of indicators for well-designed learning environment, encloses the measurement of the educational activity as a part of the learning process. In this paper, we propose a mathematical modeling approach based on learners actions to estimate the cognitive activity, learning behavior and motivation, in accordance with a proposed course content structure. This Cognitive indicator includes the study of knowledge, memory and reasoning. While, activity indicator aims to study effort, resistance and intensity. The results recovered on a sample of students with different levels of education, assume that the proposed approach presents a relation among all these indicators which is relatively reliable in the term of cognitive system.

  12. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  13. NEW SCIENCE OF LEARNING: COGNITION, COMPUTERS AND COLLABORATION IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Onur DONMEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have pervaded and changed much of our lives both on individual and societal scales. PCs, notebooks, tablets, cell phones, RSS feeds, emails, podcasts, tweets, social networks are all technologies we are familiar with and we are intensively using them in our daily lives. It is safe to say that our lives are becoming more and more digitized day by day.We have already invented bunch of terms to refer effects of these technologies on our lives. Digital nomads, grasshopper minds, millennium learners, digital natives, information age, knowledge building, knowledge society, network society are all terms invented to refer societal changes motivated by ICTs. New opportunities provided by ICTs are also shaping skill and quality demands of the next age. Individuals have to match these qualities if they want to earn their rightful places in tomorrow‘s world. Education is of course the sole light to guide them in their transformation to tomorrow‘s individual. One question arises however: ―are today‘s educational paradigms and practices ready to confront such a challenge?‖ There is a coherent and strong opinion among educators that the answer is ―NO‖. ―Today‘s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors‖(Prensky, 2001. And education has to keep pace with these students and their needs. But how? Khine & Saleh managed to gather distinguished colleagues around this question within their book titled ―New Science of Learning: Cognition, Computers and Collaboration‖. The book is composed of 29 chapters within three major topics which are: cognition, computers and collaboration.

  14. The nature of human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making.

  15. The cognitive impact of interactive design features for learning complex materials in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyuksoon S; Pusic, Martin; Nick, Michael W; Sarpel, Umut; Plass, Jan L; Kalet, Adina L

    2014-02-01

    To identify the most effective way for medical students to interact with a browser-based learning module on the symptoms and neurological underpinnings of stroke syndromes, this study manipulated the way in which subjects interacted with a graphical model of the brain and examined the impact of functional changes on learning outcomes. It was hypothesized that behavioral interactions that were behaviorally more engaging and which required deeper consideration of the model would result in heightened cognitive interaction and better learning than those whose manipulation required less deliberate behavioral and cognitive processing. One hundred forty four students were randomly assigned to four conditions whose model controls incorporated features that required different levels of behavioral and cognitive interaction: Movie (low behavioral/low cognitive, n = 40), Slider (high behavioral/low cognitive, n = 36), Click (low behavioral/high cognitive, n = 30), and Drag (high behavioral/high cognitive, n = 38). Analysis of Covariates (ANCOVA) showed that students who received the treatments associated with lower cognitive interactivity (Movie and Slider) performed better on a transfer task than those receiving the module associated with high cognitive interactivity (Click and Drag, partial eta squared = .03). In addition, the students in the high cognitive interactivity conditions spent significantly more time on the stroke locator activity than other conditions (partial eta squared = .36). The results suggest that interaction with controls that were tightly coupled with the model and whose manipulation required deliberate consideration of the model's features may have overtaxed subjects' cognitive resources. Cognitive effort that facilitated manipulation of content, though directed at the model, may have resulted in extraneous cognitive load, impeding subjects in recognizing the deeper, global relationships in the materials. Instructional designers must, therefore, keep in

  16. A Cognitive Skill Classification Based On Multi Objective Optimization Using Learning Vector Quantization for Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Aries Syufagi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games and game technology are poised to transform the way of educating and training students at all levels. However, pedagogical value in games do not help novice students learn, too many memorizing and reduce learning process due to no information of player’s ability. To asses the cognitive level of player ability, we propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. CSG is using teacher’s data to obtain the neuron vector of cognitive skill pattern supervise. Three clusters multi objective target will be classified as; trial and error, carefully and, expert cognitive skill. In the game play experiments using 33 respondent players demonstrates that 61% of players have high trial and error cognitive skill, 21% have high carefully cognitive skill, and 18% have high expert cognitive skill. CSG may provide information to game engine when a player needs help or when wanting a formidable challenge. The game engine will provide the appropriate tasks according to players’ ability. CSG will help balance the emotions of players, so players do not get bored and frustrated. Players have a high interest to finish the game if the player is emotionally stable. Interests in the players strongly support the procedural learning in a serious game.

  17. Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChristian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common wisdom that practice makes perfect; but why do some adults learn better than others? Here, we investigate individuals’ cognitive and social profiles to test which variables account for variability in learning ability across the lifespan. In particular, we focused on visual learning using tasks that test the ability to inhibit distractors and select task-relevant features. We tested the ability of young and older adults to improve through training in the discrimination of visual global forms embedded in a cluttered background. Further, we used a battery of cognitive tasks and psycho-social measures to examine which of these variables predict training-induced improvement in perceptual tasks and may account for individual variability in learning ability. Using partial least squares regression modelling, we show that visual learning is influenced by cognitive (i.e. cognitive inhibition, attention and social (strategic and deep learning factors rather than an individual’s age alone. Further, our results show that independent of age, strong learners rely on cognitive factors such as attention, while weaker learners use more general cognitive strategies. Our findings suggest an important role for higher-cognitive circuits involving executive functions that contribute to our ability to improve in perceptual tasks after training across the lifespan.

  18. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 ± 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning

  19. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 {+-} 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning.

  20. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching ...

  1. Can We See It? Can We Stop It? Lessons Learned from Community-University Research Collaborations about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    The collection of articles in this special issue on relational aggression gives a glimpse into the complex social networks, first, of children's relational aggression and, second, of the collaborators who develop and validate children's prevention programs. The programs described in this special section are among the first to address relational…

  2. Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Searcy, William A; Peters, Susan; Hughes, Melissa; DuBois, Adrienne L; Nowicki, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Learned aspects of song have been hypothesized to signal cognitive ability in songbirds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-reared song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) that were tutored with playback of adult songs during the critical period for song learning. The songs developed by the 19 male subjects were compared to the model songs to produce two measures of song learning: the proportion of notes copied from models and the average spectrogram cross-correlation between copied notes and model notes. Song repertoire size, which reflects song complexity, was also measured. At 1 year of age, subjects were given a battery of five cognitive tests that measured speed of learning in the context of a novel foraging task, color association, color reversal, detour-reaching, and spatial learning. Bivariate correlations between the three song measures and the five cognitive measures revealed no significant associations. As in other studies of avian cognition, different cognitive measures were for the most part not correlated with each other, and this result remained true when 22 hand-reared female song sparrows were added to the analysis. General linear mixed models controlling for effects of neophobia and nest of origin indicated that all three song measures were associated with better performance on color reversal and spatial learning but were associated with worse performance on novel foraging and detour-reaching. Overall, the results do not support the hypothesis that learned aspects of song signal cognitive ability.

  3. The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Michael

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low serotonergic (5-HT activity correlates with increased impulsive-aggressive behavior, while the opposite association may apply to cognitive impulsiveness. Both types of impulsivity are associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and genes of functional significance for the 5-HT system are implicated in this disorder. Here we demonstrate the separation of aggressive and cognitive components of impulsivity from symptom ratings and test their association with 5-HT and functionally related genes using a family-based association test (FBAT-PC. Methods Our sample consisted of 1180 offspring from 607 families from the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE study. Impulsive symptoms were assessed using the long forms of the Conners and the Strengths and Difficulties parent and teacher questionnaires. Factor analysis showed that the symptoms aggregated into parent- and teacher-rated behavioral and cognitive impulsivity. We then selected 582 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 14 genes directly or indirectly related to 5-HT function. Associations between these SNPs and the behavioral/cognitive groupings of impulsive symptoms were evaluated using the FBAT-PC approach. Results In the FBAT-PC analysis for cognitive impulsivity 2 SNPs from the gene encoding phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the rate-limiting enzyme for adrenalin synthesis attained corrected gene-wide significance. Nominal significance was shown for 12 SNPs from BDNF, DRD1, HTR1E, HTR2A, HTR3B, DAT1/SLC6A3, and TPH2 genes replicating reported associations with ADHD. For overt aggressive impulsivity nominal significance was shown for 6 SNPs from BDNF, DRD4, HTR1E, PNMT, and TPH2 genes that have also been reported to be associated with ADHD. Associations for cognitive impulsivity with a SERT/SLC6A4 variant (STin2: 12 repeats and aggressive behavioral impulsivity with a DRD4 variant (exon 3: 3 repeats are also described

  4. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  5. SIRT1 Regulates Cognitive Performance and Ability of Learning and Memory in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models. In addition, future research directions in this field are discussed, including therapeutic potential of its activator, resveratrol, and application of other compounds in cognitive improvement. Our findings suggest that SIRT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Non-cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities: An In-depth Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification and intervention issues and, beyond that, the relevance of non-cognitive characteristics is often left unconsidered. Accordingly, this study aims to conduct an in-depth review of the non-cognitive characteristics of these students for identification and intervention purposes. Detailed analysis was performed on 23 publications. High levels of negative emotions, low self-perception, and adverse interpersonal relationships, as well as high levels of motivation, coping skills and perseverance were found among these students. A common characteristic was a high degree of frustration with the academic situation. The study reveals that these students show considerably duality in their non-cognitive characteristics which requires tailored counseling skills to provide effective support for their learning needs.

  7. Effect of Motivational Scaffolding on E-Learning Environments: Self-Efficacy, Learning Achievement, and Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vallejo, Nilson; López-Vargas, Omar; Sanabria-Rodríguez, Luis

    2018-01-01

    The present research studies the effects of motivational scaffolding that favor self-efficacy and improve learning achievement in students with different cognitive styles in the Field Dependence/Independence (FDI) dimension, when they interact in an e-learning environment on mathematics. The research has an experimental design with two groups and…

  8. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-08-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.

  9. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  12. Cognitive-Developmental Learning for a Humanoid Robot: A Caregiver's Gift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arsenio, Artur M

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work is to build a cognitive system for the humanoid robot, Cog, that exploits human caregivers as catalysts to perceive and learn about actions, objects, scenes, people, and the robot itself...

  13. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M. (2015, 20 October). Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance. Presentation given for the inter-faculty Data Science group at the Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  14. Cognitive and motivational variables that shape academic learning: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palos, Ramona

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to capture the relationship between cognitive and motivational variables and the student learning. 102 students from the Psychology specialization, license cycle, took part in the study. The following tools were used: the Rational-Experiential Inventory (Paccini & Epstein, 1999; the Intellectual development level questionnaire (Paloş, 2009, the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Rao & Sachs, 1999. The results indicated that the motivational and learning strategies used by students are influenced by their intellectual development level and their information processing style. Knowing the cognitive and motivational variables play an important role in devising the educational experiences and in making learning more efficient.

  15. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  16. Role of state-dependent learning in the cognitive effects of caffeine in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sanday, Leandro [UNIFESP; Zanin, Karina Agustini [UNIFESP; Patti, Camilla de Lima [UNIFESP; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano [UNIFESP; Oliveira, Larissa C. [UNIFESP; Longo, Beatriz Monteiro [UNIFESP; Andersen, Monica Levy [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP; Frussa-Filho, Roberto [UNIFESP

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and it is generally believed that it promotes beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, there is also evidence suggesting that caffeine has inhibitory effects on learning and memory. Considering that caffeine may have anxiogenic effects, thus changing the emotional state of the subjects, state-dependent learning may play a role in caffeine-induced cognitive alterations. Mice were administered 20 mg/kg caffeine be...

  17. Information Memory Processing and Retrieval: Relationships of Concrete Learning and Concrete and Abstract Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bonnie L.

    Reported is a study related to the Project on an Information Memory Model and designed to encompass the claims of Piaget and Inhelder on differences of kinds of cognition and recall done on figural sorting task cognition at the Project on an Information Memory Model. The work of Piaget and Inhelder has defined learning information flow and related…

  18. Designing an Adaptive Web-Based Learning System Based on Students' Cognitive Styles Identified Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chan, Ya-Chen; Yeh, Shiou-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed an adaptive web-based learning system focusing on students' cognitive styles. The system is composed of a student model and an adaptation model. It collected students' browsing behaviors to update the student model for unobtrusively identifying student cognitive styles through a multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFF).…

  19. The Neuroscience of Mathematical Cognition and Learning. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Chung Yen; Thompson, Jacqueline; Krause, Beatrix; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic potential of cognitive neuroscience and education for efficient learning has attracted considerable interest from the general public, teachers, parents, academics and policymakers alike. This review is aimed at providing 1) an accessible and general overview of the research progress made in cognitive neuroscience research in…

  20. Research on Cognitive Load Theory and its Design Implications for E-Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Ayres, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue provides a context for the contributing articles. For readers who are not familiar with Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), it provides a very brief description of assumptions regarding memory systems and learning processes, different types of cognitive load

  1. Instructional Control of Cognitive Load in the Design of Complex Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Kester, L., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Instructional control of cognitive load in the design of complex learning environments. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & Roland Brünken (Eds.), Cognitive Load Theory (pp. 109-130). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  2. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  3. Applying Cognitive Psychology Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, W.; Star, J.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue comprises contributions that address the breadth of current lines of recent research from cognitive psychology that appear promising for positively impacting students' learning of mathematics. More specifically, we included contributions (a) that refer to cognitive psychology based principles and techniques, such as explanatory…

  4. Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigamos a relação entre fatores de aprendizagem social, acessados via questionários, e os comportamentos agressivos e lúdicos de meninos pré-escolares, através de observação direta durante o recreio. Os participantes foram 15 meninos com idades entre quatro e seis anos, da cidade de Goiânia, GO, Brasil. Uma análise multivariada de variância indicou efeitos significativos de modelos de agressividade em casa nas taxas de agressão durante o brincar. Crianças expostas a punições físicas abusivas, brigas entre adultos e programas violentos de TV apresentaram mais agressões reais. Meninos que relataram brincar com armas de brinquedo em casa não apresentaram mais agressões reais do que os que relataram o contrário, mas apresentaram maior proporção de agressões de faz-de-conta. Os resultados também indicaram que quanto mais modelos agressivos em casa, maior a incidência de comportamentos agressivos.We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exposed to abusive physical punishment, adult fighting and violent TV programs engaged in more episodes of aggression during playful breaks. Boys who reported to play with toy guns at home did not engage in aggressive behavior more often than those who did not, but they displayed a higher proportion of pretended aggression. Results also indicated that aggressive behavior becomes more frequent as the number of aggressive models at home increases.

  5. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  6. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  7. Learning to remember: Cognitive training-induced attenuation of age-related memory decline depends on sex and cognitive demand, and can transfer to untrained cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom, Joshua S.; West, Stephen G.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Enders, Craig K.; Crain, Ian; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive changes in learning and memory. A potential approach to attenuate age-related cognitive decline is cognitive training. In this study, adult male and female rats were given either repeated exposure to a T-maze, or no exposure to any maze, and then tested on a final battery of cognitive tasks. Two groups of each sex were tested from 6-18 months old on the same T-maze; one group received a version testing spatial reference memory, and the other group received only the procedural testing components with minimal cognitive demand. Groups three and four of each sex had no maze exposure until the final battery, and were comprised of aged or young rats. The final maze battery included the practiced T-maze plus two novel tasks, one with a similar, and one with a different, memory type to the practice task. The fifth group of each sex was not maze tested, serving as an aged control for the effects of maze testing on neurotrophin protein levels in cognitive brain regions. Results showed that adult intermittent cognitive training enhanced performance on the practice task when aged in both sexes, that cognitive training benefits transferred to novel tasks only in females, and that cognitive demand was necessary for these effects since rats receiving only the procedural testing components showed no improvement on the final maze battery. Further, for both sexes, rats that showed faster learning when young demonstrated better memory when aged. Age-related increases in neurotrophin concentrations in several brain regions were revealed, which was related to performance on the training task only in females. This longitudinal study supports the tenet that cognitive training can help one remember later in life, with broader enhancements and associations with neurotrophins in females. PMID:25104561

  8. The Experimental Research on E-Learning Instructional Design Model Based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

    The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

  9. Impact of Learning Model Based on Cognitive Conflict toward Student’s Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufit, F.; Festiyed, F.; Fauzan, A.; Lufri, L.

    2018-04-01

    The problems that often occur in the learning of physics is a matter of misconception and low understanding of the concept. Misconceptions do not only happen to students, but also happen to college students and teachers. The existing learning model has not had much impact on improving conceptual understanding and remedial efforts of student misconception. This study aims to see the impact of cognitive-based learning model in improving conceptual understanding and remediating student misconceptions. The research method used is Design / Develop Research. The product developed is a cognitive conflict-based learning model along with its components. This article reports on product design results, validity tests, and practicality test. The study resulted in the design of cognitive conflict-based learning model with 4 learning syntaxes, namely (1) preconception activation, (2) presentation of cognitive conflict, (3) discovery of concepts & equations, (4) Reflection. The results of validity tests by some experts on aspects of content, didactic, appearance or language, indicate very valid criteria. Product trial results also show a very practical product to use. Based on pretest and posttest results, cognitive conflict-based learning models have a good impact on improving conceptual understanding and remediating misconceptions, especially in high-ability students.

  10. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  11. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  12. Patients with Parkinson's disease learn to control complex systems-an indication for intact implicit cognitive skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Karsten; Daniels, Christine; Daniel, Victoria; Schmitt-Eliassen, Julia; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther

    2006-01-01

    Implicit memory and learning mechanisms are composed of multiple processes and systems. Previous studies demonstrated a basal ganglia involvement in purely cognitive tasks that form stimulus response habits by reinforcement learning such as implicit classification learning. We will test the basal ganglia influence on two cognitive implicit tasks previously described by Berry and Broadbent, the sugar production task and the personal interaction task. Furthermore, we will investigate the relationship between certain aspects of an executive dysfunction and implicit learning. To this end, we have tested 22 Parkinsonian patients and 22 age-matched controls on two implicit cognitive tasks, in which participants learned to control a complex system. They interacted with the system by choosing an input value and obtaining an output that was related in a complex manner to the input. The objective was to reach and maintain a specific target value across trials (dynamic system learning). The two tasks followed the same underlying complex rule but had different surface appearances. Subsequently, participants performed an executive test battery including the Stroop test, verbal fluency and the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). The results demonstrate intact implicit learning in patients, despite an executive dysfunction in the Parkinsonian group. They lead to the conclusion that the basal ganglia system affected in Parkinson's disease does not contribute to the implicit acquisition of a new cognitive skill. Furthermore, the Parkinsonian patients were able to reach a specific goal in an implicit learning context despite impaired goal directed behaviour in the WCST, a classic test of executive functions. These results demonstrate a functional independence of implicit cognitive skill learning and certain aspects of executive functions.

  13. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  14. Bipolar Disorder: What Can Psychotherapists Learn From the Cognitive Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri; Tran, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials of psychological treatment, principally cognitive therapy, for bipolar disorder have yielded inconsistent results. Given the status of this evidentiary base, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the cognitive profiles associated with bipolar disorder to inform clinical practice. In this practice-friendly review, we consider evidence that both negative and positive cognitive styles are related to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional and prospective evidence sugg...

  15. Cognitive Strategies for Learning from Static and Dynamic Visuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, D.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the effects of including static or dynamic visuals in an expository text on a learning outcome and the use of learning strategies when working with these visuals. Results for 60 undergraduates for both types of illustration indicate different frequencies in the use of learning strategies relevant for the learning outcome. (SLD)

  16. Applications of Stochastic Analyses for Collaborative Learning and Cognitive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soller, Amy; Stevens, Ron

    2007-01-01

    .... Examples ranging from fields as diverse as defense analysis, cognitive science, and instruction are illustrated throughout to demonstrate the variety of applications that benefit from such stochastic...

  17. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  18. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; King, Kelly E; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only 2h of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  20. The relation between Assessment for Learning and elementary students' cognitive and metacognitive strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Diana; Castelijns, Jos; Vermeulen, Marjan; Martens, Rob; Segers, Mien

    2015-03-01

    Assessment for Learning (AfL) is believed to create a rich learning environment in which students develop their cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Monitoring student growth and providing scaffolds that shed light on the next step in the learning process are hypothesized to be essential elements of AfL that enhance cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, empirical evidence for the relation between AfL and students' strategy use is scarce. This study investigates the relation between AfL and elementary school students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The sample comprised 528 grade four to six students (9- to 12-year-olds) from seven Dutch elementary schools. Students' perceptions of AfL and their cognitive and metacognitive strategy use were measured by means of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relations among the variables. The results reveal that monitoring activities that provide students an understanding of where they are in their learning process predict Students' task orientation and planning. Scaffolding activities that support students in taking the next step in their learning are positively related to the use of both surface and deep-level learning strategies and the extent to which they evaluate their learning process after performing tasks. The results underline the importance of assessment practices in ceding responsibility to students in taking control of their own learning. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The Relationship of Scaffolding on Cognitive Load in an Online Self-Regulated Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, Eugene Paul

    2010-01-01

    Scaffolding learners in self-regulated learning environments is a topic of increasing importance as implementation of online learning grows. Since cognitive overload in hypermedia environments can be a problem for some learners, instructional design strategies can be used to decrease extraneous load or encourage germane load in order to help…

  2. Brain 3M--A New Approach to Learning about Brain, Behavior, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Chaby, Lauren E.; Legault, Jennifer; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    By combining emerging technologies with cognitive and education theories, we are capitalizing on recent findings from adaptive exploration and embodied learning research to address significant gaps in the education of brain sciences for school children and college level students. Through the development of virtual learning tools in combination…

  3. Role of Social Presence and Cognitive Absorption in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between social presence, cognitive absorption, interest, and student satisfaction in online learning. A hypothesized structural equation model was developed to study these critical variables that may influence interaction in online learning environments. Contrary to expectations, the study determined…

  4. Deep Unsupervised Learning on a Desktop PC: A Primer for Cognitive Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; De Filippo De Grazia, Michele; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Deep belief networks hold great promise for the simulation of human cognition because they show how structured and abstract representations may emerge from probabilistic unsupervised learning. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. However, learning in deep networks typically requires big datasets and it can involve millions of connection weights, which implies that simulations on standard computers are unfeasible. Developing realistic, medium-to-large-scale learning models of cognition would therefore seem to require expertise in programing parallel-computing hardware, and this might explain why the use of this promising approach is still largely confined to the machine learning community. Here we show how simulations of deep unsupervised learning can be easily performed on a desktop PC by exploiting the processors of low cost graphic cards (graphic processor units) without any specific programing effort, thanks to the use of high-level programming routines (available in MATLAB or Python). We also show that even an entry-level graphic card can outperform a small high-performance computing cluster in terms of learning time and with no loss of learning quality. We therefore conclude that graphic card implementations pave the way for a widespread use of deep learning among cognitive scientists for modeling cognition and behavior.

  5. Deep unsupervised learning on a desktop PC: A primer for cognitive scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eTestolin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep belief networks hold great promise for the simulation of human cognition because they show how structured and abstract representations may emerge from probabilistic unsupervised learning. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. However, learning in deep networks typically requires big datasets and it can involve millions of connection weights, which implies that simulations on standard computers are unfeasible. Developing realistic, medium-to-large-scale learning models of cognition would therefore seem to require expertise in programming parallel-computing hardware, and this might explain why the use of this promising approach is still largely confined to the machine learning community. Here we show how simulations of deep unsupervised learning can be easily performed on a desktop PC by exploiting the processors of low-cost graphic cards (GPUs without any specific programming effort, thanks to the use of high-level programming routines (available in MATLAB or Python. We also show that even an entry-level graphic card can outperform a small high-performance computing cluster in terms of learning time and with no loss of learning quality. We therefore conclude that graphic card implementations pave the way for a widespread use of deep learning among cognitive scientists for modeling cognition and behavior.

  6. From Neurons to Brainpower: Cognitive Neuroscience and Brain-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janet M.

    2005-01-01

    We have learned more about the brain in the past five years than the previous 100. Neuroimaging, lesion studies, and animal studies have revealed the intricate inner workings of the brain and learning. Synaptogenesis, pruning, sensitive periods, and plasticity have all become accepted concepts of cognitive neuroscience that are now being applied…

  7. Factors Contributing to Cognitive Absorption and Grounded Learning Effectiveness in a Competitive Business Marketing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David Scott; Underwood, James, III; Thakur, Ramendra

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a pedagogical positioning of a business marketing simulation as a grounded learning teaching tool and empirically assess the dimensions of cognitive absorption related to grounded learning effectiveness in an iterative business simulation environment. The method/design and sample consisted of a field study survey…

  8. An Investigation of Relationships among Instructor Immediacy and Affective and Cognitive Learning in the Online Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason D.

    2004-01-01

    A significant body of literature has supported the assertion that communication in the classroom is central to the learning process. Prosocial behaviors, such as nonverbal and verbal immediacy, have been found to promote affective and cognitive learning in traditional instructional settings. This study examined the relationships among instructor…

  9. Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor™. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor"®, published by Carnegie Learning, is a secondary math curricula that offers textbooks and interactive software to provide individualized, self-paced instruction based on student needs. The program includes pre-Algebra, Algebra I, Algebra II, and Geometry, as well as a three-course series…

  10. Applying Cognitive Behavioural Methods to Retrain Children's Attributions for Success and Failure in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, John; Boyle, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study involves the use of methods derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to change the attributions for success and failure of school children with regard to learning. Children with learning difficulties and/or motivational and self-esteem difficulties (n = 29) were identified by their schools. The children then took part in twelve…

  11. Experiential learning and cognitive tools: The impact of simulations on conceptual change in continuing healthcare education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, Thomas; Reeves, Patricia; McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Reeves, T. C., Reeves, P. M., & McKenney, S. (2013). Experiential learning and cognitive tools: The impact of simulations on conceptual change in continuing healthcare education. In J. M. Spector, B. B. Lockee, S. E. Smaldino, & M. Herring (eds.), Learning, problem solving, and mindtools: Essays in

  12. Deep Unsupervised Learning on a Desktop PC: A Primer for Cognitive Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin; De Filippo De Grazia, Michele; Zorzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Deep belief networks hold great promise for the simulation of human cognition because they show how structured and abstract representations may emerge from probabilistic unsupervised learning. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. However, learning in deep networks typically requires big datasets and it can involve millions of connection weights, which implies that simulations on standard computers are unfeasible. Developing realistic, medium-to-large-scale learning models of cognition would therefore seem to require expertise in programing parallel-computing hardware, and this might explain why the use of this promising approach is still largely confined to the machine learning community. Here we show how simulations of deep unsupervised learning can be easily performed on a desktop PC by exploiting the processors of low cost graphic cards (graphic processor units) without any specific programing effort, thanks to the use of high-level programming routines (available in MATLAB or Python). We also show that even an entry-level graphic card can outperform a small high-performance computing cluster in terms of learning time and with no loss of learning quality. We therefore conclude that graphic card implementations pave the way for a widespread use of deep learning among cognitive scientists for modeling cognition and behavior. PMID:23653617

  13. Strategic Learning in Youth with Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence for Stall in Higher-Order Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…

  14. Evaluating the relationship between white matter integrity, cognition, and varieties of video game learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nicholas R; O'Connell, Margaret A; Nashiro, Kaoru; Smith, Evan T; Qin, Shuo; Basak, Chandramallika

    2017-01-01

    Many studies are currently researching the effects of video games, particularly in the domain of cognitive training. Great variability exists among video games however, and few studies have attempted to compare different types of video games. Little is known, for instance, about the cognitive processes or brain structures that underlie learning of different genres of video games. To examine the cognitive and neural underpinnings of two different types of game learning in order to evaluate their common and separate correlates, with the hopes of informing future intervention research. Participants (31 younger adults and 31 older adults) completed an extensive cognitive battery and played two different genres of video games, one action game and one strategy game, for 1.5 hours each. DTI scans were acquired for each participant, and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted using the JHU atlas. Behavioral results indicated that better performance on tasks of working memory and perceptual discrimination was related to enhanced learning in both games, even after controlling for age, whereas better performance on a perceptual speed task was uniquely related with enhanced learning of the strategy game. DTI results indicated that white matter FA in the right fornix/stria terminalis was correlated with action game learning, whereas white matter FA in the left cingulum/hippocampus was correlated with strategy game learning, even after controlling for age. Although cognition, to a large extent, was a common predictor of both types of game learning, regional white matter FA could separately predict action and strategy game learning. Given the neural and cognitive correlates of strategy game learning, strategy games may provide a more beneficial training tool for adults suffering from memory-related disorders or declines in processing speed, particularly older adults.

  15. Driving to learn in a powered wheelchair: the process of learning joystick use in people with profound cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.

  16. How Do College/University Teacher Misbehaviors Influence Student Cognitive Learning, Academic Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between teacher misbehaviors and a variety of outcome variables, including cognitive learning, motivation, curiosity, and academic self-efficacy. Research has yet to directly address how teacher misbehaviors affect cognitive learning. It is important to assess actual learning as opposed…

  17. Enhanced Learning through Multimodal Training: Evidence from a Comprehensive Cognitive, Physical Fitness, and Neuroscience Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N; Paul, E; Watson, P; Cooke, G E; Hillman, C H; Cohen, N J; Kramer, A F; Barbey, A K

    2017-07-19

    The potential impact of brain training methods for enhancing human cognition in healthy and clinical populations has motivated increasing public interest and scientific scrutiny. At issue is the merits of intervention modalities, such as computer-based cognitive training, physical exercise training, and non-invasive brain stimulation, and whether such interventions synergistically enhance cognition. To investigate this issue, we conducted a comprehensive 4-month randomized controlled trial in which 318 healthy, young adults were enrolled in one of five interventions: (1) Computer-based cognitive training on six adaptive tests of executive function; (2) Cognitive and physical exercise training; (3) Cognitive training combined with non-invasive brain stimulation and physical exercise training; (4) Active control training in adaptive visual search and change detection tasks; and (5) Passive control. Our findings demonstrate that multimodal training significantly enhanced learning (relative to computer-based cognitive training alone) and provided an effective method to promote skill learning across multiple cognitive domains, spanning executive functions, working memory, and planning and problem solving. These results help to establish the beneficial effects of multimodal intervention and identify key areas for future research in the continued effort to improve human cognition.

  18. A Framework for Re-thinking Learning in Science from Recent Cognitive Science Perspectives

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    Tytler, Russell; Prain, Vaughan

    2010-10-01

    Recent accounts by cognitive scientists of factors affecting cognition imply the need to reconsider current dominant conceptual theories about science learning. These new accounts emphasize the role of context, embodied practices, and narrative-based representation rather than learners' cognitive constructs. In this paper we analyse data from a longitudinal study of primary school children's learning to outline a framework based on these contemporary accounts and to delineate key points of difference from conceptual change perspectives. The findings suggest this framework provides strong theoretical and practical insights into how children learn and the key role of representational negotiation in this learning. We argue that the nature and process of conceptual change can be re-interpreted in terms of the development of students' representational resources.

  19. Stroop-like effects in a new-code learning task: A cognitive load theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan-Liran, Batel; Miller, Paul

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether and how learning is biased by competing task-irrelevant information that creates extraneous cognitive load, we assessed the efficiency of university students with a learning paradigm in two experiments. The paradigm asked participants to learn associations between eight words and eight digits. We manipulated congruity of the digits' ink colour with the words' semantics. In Experiment 1 word stimuli were colour words (e.g., blue, yellow) and in Experiment 2 colour-related word concepts (e.g., sky, banana). Marked benefits and costs on learning due to variation in extraneous cognitive load originating from processing task-irrelevant information were evident. Implications for cognitive load theory and schooling are discussed.

  20. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  1. Effects of Higher-order Cognitive Strategy Training on Gist Reasoning and Fact Learning in Adolescents

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    Jacquelyn F Gamino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students’ native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enrolled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist reasoning and fact learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist

  2. Making Sense of Crisis: Cognitive Barriers of Learning in Critical Situations

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    Ramona PERGHEL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of cognitive issues in learning from crisis situations, in particular the managers’ mental representations of crisis and the relationship of these “maps” with the learning process through “sense-making”, as well as the possible cognitive barriers that might prevent the process of learning from crisis and thus allow the incubation of crises to develop in the company. Reviewing secondary data from the current literature, the paper focuses on the complexity of human “sense-making” and understanding the phenomena of crisis and the meaning people assign to it. Considerable attention and analysis has been done in order to assess the manner in which organizations can effectively learn to prevent crisis situations, addressing the theoretical frameworks that analyse the barriers that might occur in the learning from crisis process at an individual and group level, pointing out the need of recognition and sense-making that sometimes the current state of knowledge is not well. The paper argues that the effective organizational learning from crises requires changes in the core beliefs, values and assumptions of organizational members, which translate into sustained behavioural changes and that these changes are possible through intense cognitive processes, in particular through the way managers make sense of crisis situations.  Keywords: crisis, learning, cognitive barriers, sense-making, managers, literature review

  3. A cognitive perspective on technology enhanced learning in medical training: great opportunities, pitfalls and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel; Schmidt, Pascal; O'connor, Lanty

    2011-01-01

    As new technology becomes available and is used for educational purposes, educators often take existing training and simply transcribe it into the new technological medium. However, when technology drives e-learning rather than the learner and the learning, and when it uses designs and approaches that were not originally built for e-learning, then often technology does not enhance the learning (it may even be detrimental to it). The success of e-learning depends on it being 'brain friendly', on engaging the learners from an understanding of how the cognitive system works. This enables educators to optimize learning by achieving correct mental representations that will be remembered and applied in practice. Such technology enhanced learning (TEL) involves developing and using novel approaches grounded in cognitive neuroscience; for example, gaming and simulations that distort realism rather than emphasizing visual fidelity and realism, making videos interactive, training for 'error recovery' rather than for 'error reduction', and a whole range of practical ways that result in effective TEL. These are a result of e-learning that is built to fit and support the cognitive system, and therefore optimize the learning.

  4. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cognitive load theory: implications of cognitive load theory on the design of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) can provide guidelines to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimise intellectual performance. It is based on a cognitive architecture that consists of a limited working memory, with partly independent

  6. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  7. A Cognitive Skill Classification Based on Multi Objective Optimization Using Learning Vector Quantization for Serious Games

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    Moh. Aries Syufagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games and game technology are poised to transform the way of educating and training students at all levels. However, pedagogical value in games do not help novice students learn, too many memorizing and reduce learning process due to no information of player’s ability. To asses the cognitive level of player ability, we propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. CSG is using teacher’s data to obtain the neuron vector of cognitive skill pattern supervise. Three clusters multi objective XE "multi objective"  target will be classified as; trial and error, carefully and, expert cognitive skill. In the game play experiments employ 33 respondent players demonstrates that 61% of players have high trial and error, 21% have high carefully, and 18% have high expert cognitive skill. CSG may provide information to game engine when a player needs help or when wanting a formidable challenge. The game engine will provide the appropriate tasks according to players’ ability. CSG will help balance the emotions of players, so players do not get bored and frustrated. 

  8. E-learning, dual-task, and cognitive load: The anatomy of a failed experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-01-01

    The rising popularity of commercial anatomy e-learning tools has been sustained, in part, due to increased annual enrollment and a reduction in laboratory hours across educational institutions. While e-learning tools continue to gain popularity, the research methodologies used to investigate their impact on learning remain imprecise. As new user interfaces are introduced, it is critical to understand how functionality can influence the load placed on a student's memory resources, also known as cognitive load. To study cognitive load, a dual-task paradigm wherein a learner performs two tasks simultaneously is often used, however, its application within educational research remains uncommon. Using previous paradigms as a guide, a dual-task methodology was developed to assess the cognitive load imposed by two commercial anatomical e-learning tools. Results indicate that the standard dual-task paradigm, as described in the literature, is insensitive to the cognitive load disparities across e-learning tool interfaces. Confounding variables included automation of responses, task performance tradeoff, and poor understanding of primary task cognitive load requirements, leading to unreliable quantitative results. By modifying the secondary task from a basic visual response to a more cognitively demanding task, such as a modified Stroop test, the automation of secondary task responses can be reduced. Furthermore, by recording baseline measures for the primary task as well as the secondary task, it is possible for task performance tradeoff to be detected. Lastly, it is imperative that the cognitive load of the primary task be designed such that it does not overwhelm the individual's ability to learn new material. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Intraindividual differences in motivation and cognition in students with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintrich, P R; Anderman, E M; Klobucar, C

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that although the students with learning disabilities displayed lower levels of metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension, they did not differ from the students without learning disabilities on self-efficacy, intrinsic orientation, or anxiety. In addition, they did not show any signs of learned helplessness, although they did tend to attribute success and failure to external causes more often than the students without learning disabilities. Using a cluster analysis that grouped individuals, we found that differences in the motivational and cognitive variables cut across a priori categories of children with and without learning disabilities. Three clusters were formed: one with high comprehension, motivation, and metacognition (mostly children without learning disabilities); one with low levels of comprehension and metacognition but high intrinsic motivation (all children with learning disabilities); and one with low intrinsic motivation but average comprehension, metacognition, and attributional style (approximately equal numbers of children with and without learning disabilities). Implications for diagnosis and intervention for students with learning disabilities are discussed.

  10. Cognitive learning and its future in urology: surgical skills teaching and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Somayeh B; Hussein, Ahmed A; Guru, Khurshid A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of novel cognitive training approaches in surgery and to investigate the potential role of cognitive training in surgical education. Kinematics of end-effector trajectories, as well as cognitive state features of surgeon trainees and mentors have recently been studied as modalities to objectively evaluate the expertise level of trainees and to shorten the learning process. Virtual reality and haptics also have shown promising in research results in improving the surgical learning process by providing feedback to the trainee. 'Cognitive training' is a novel approach to enhance training and surgical performance. The utility of cognitive training in improving motor skills in other fields, including sports and rehabilitation, is promising enough to justify its utilization to improve surgical performance. However, some surgical procedures, especially ones performed during human-robot interaction in robot-assisted surgery, are much more complicated than sport and rehabilitation. Cognitive training has shown promising results in surgical skills-acquisition in complicated environments such as surgery. However, these methods are mostly developed in research groups using limited individuals. Transferring this research into the clinical applications is a demanding challenge. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current status of these novel cognitive training approaches in surgery and to investigate the potential role of cognitive training in surgical education.

  11. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cognitive status, lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Learning and memory are two high level cognitive performances in human that hearing loss influences them. In our study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE and Ray auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT was conducted to study cognitive stat us and lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 30 available congenitally deaf adults using sign language in Persian and 46 normal adults aged 19 to 27 years for both sexes, with a minimum of diploma level of education. After mini-mental state examination, Rey auditory-verbal learning test was run through computers to evaluate lexical learning and memory with visual presentation. Results: Mean scores of mini-mental state examination and Rey auditory-verbal learning test in congenitally deaf adults were significantly lower than normal individuals in all scores (p=0.018 except in the two parts of the Rey test. Significant correlation was found between results of two tests just in the normal group (p=0.043. Gender had no effect on test results. Conclusion: Cognitive status and lexical memory and learning in congenitally deaf individuals is weaker than in normal subjects. It seems that using sign language as the main way of communication in deaf people causes poor lexical memory and learning.

  13. Comprehensive Cognitive Assessments are not Necessary for the Identification and Treatment of Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M; Miciak, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    There is considerable controversy about the necessity of cognitive assessment as part of an evaluation for learning and attention problems. The controversy should be adjudicated through an evaluation of empirical research. We review five sources of evidence commonly provided as support for cognitive assessment as part of the learning disability (LD) identification process, highlighting significant gaps in empirical research and where existing evidence is insufficient to establish the reliability and validity of cognitive assessments used in this way. We conclude that current evidence does not justify routine cognitive assessment for LD identification. As an alternative, we offer an instructional conceptualization of LD: a hybrid model that directly informs intervention and is based on documenting low academic achievement, inadequate response to intensive interventions, and a consideration of exclusionary factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. COGNITIVE LOAD MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE RESEARCH OF EFFICIENT USAGE OF LEARNING SOFTWARE

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    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of cognitive load measurement are described within the research of efficient usage of learning Software. Their classification is given, main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed, as well as area of use of these methods is defined. The article presents an overview of modern Software and Hardware that can be used for cognitive load measurement while studying with information technologies and practical examples of such methods. The use of the secondary task method is reasoned to be the most optimal for cognitive load measurement as well as for detection of optimal conditions for student work with different learning materials. This method allows to receive objective quantification of cognitive load and to investigate its dynamics accurately.

  15. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Roes, Meighen M; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-06-13

    Sex differences in neurological disease exist in incidence, severity, progression, and symptoms and may ultimately influence treatment. Cognitive disturbances are frequent in neuropsychiatric disease with men showing greater cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, but women showing more severe dementia and cognitive decline with Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no overall differences in intelligence between the sexes, men, and women demonstrate slight but consistent differences in a number of cognitive domains. These include a male advantage, on average, in some types of spatial abilities and a female advantage on some measures of verbal fluency and memory. Sex differences in traits or behaviors generally indicate the involvement of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens. We review the literature on whether adult levels of testosterone and estradiol influence spatial ability in both males and females from rodent models to humans. We also include information on estrogens and their ability to modulate verbal memory in men and women. Estrone and progestins are common components of hormone therapies, and we also review the existing literature concerning their effects on cognition. We also review the sex differences in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as they relate to cognitive performance in both rodents and humans. There has been greater recognition in the scientific literature that it is important to study both sexes and also to analyze study findings with sex as a variable. Only by examining these sex differences can we progress to finding treatments that will improve the cognitive health of both men and women. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1295-1337, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Humanoid Cognitive Robots That Learn by Imitating: Implications for Consciousness Studies

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    James A. Reggia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of a conscious machine is intriguing, producing such a machine remains controversial and challenging. Here, we describe how our work on creating a humanoid cognitive robot that learns to perform tasks via imitation learning relates to this issue. Our discussion is divided into three parts. First, we summarize our previous framework for advancing the understanding of the nature of phenomenal consciousness. This framework is based on identifying computational correlates of consciousness. Second, we describe a cognitive robotic system that we recently developed that learns to perform tasks by imitating human-provided demonstrations. This humanoid robot uses cause–effect reasoning to infer a demonstrator’s intentions in performing a task, rather than just imitating the observed actions verbatim. In particular, its cognitive components center on top-down control of a working memory that retains the explanatory interpretations that the robot constructs during learning. Finally, we describe our ongoing work that is focused on converting our robot’s imitation learning cognitive system into purely neurocomputational form, including both its low-level cognitive neuromotor components, its use of working memory, and its causal reasoning mechanisms. Based on our initial results, we argue that the top-down cognitive control of working memory, and in particular its gating mechanisms, is an important potential computational correlate of consciousness in humanoid robots. We conclude that developing high-level neurocognitive control systems for cognitive robots and using them to search for computational correlates of consciousness provides an important approach to advancing our understanding of consciousness, and that it provides a credible and achievable route to ultimately developing a phenomenally conscious machine.

  17. Collaborative use of virtual patients after a lecture enhances learning with minimal investment of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hesham F; Donkers, Jeroen; Al-Eraky, Mohamed M; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G

    2018-05-25

    The use of virtual patients (VPs), due to their high complexity and/or inappropriate sequencing with other instructional methods, might cause a high cognitive load, which hampers learning. To investigate the efficiency of instructional methods that involved three different applications of VPs combined with lectures. From two consecutive batches, 171 out of 183 students have participated in lecture and VPs sessions. One group received a lecture session followed by a collaborative VPs learning activity (collaborative deductive). The other two groups received a lecture session and an independent VP learning activity, which either followed the lecture session (independent deductive) or preceded it (independent inductive). All groups were administrated written knowledge acquisition and retention tests as well as transfer tests using two new VPs. All participants completed a cognitive load questionnaire, which measured intrinsic, extraneous and germane load. Mixed effect analysis of cognitive load and efficiency using the R statistical program was performed. The highest intrinsic and extraneous load was found in the independent inductive group, while the lowest intrinsic and extraneous load was seen in the collaborative deductive group. Furthermore, comparisons showed a significantly higher efficiency, that is, higher performance in combination with lower cognitive load, for the collaborative deductive group than for the other two groups. Collaborative use of VPs after a lecture is the most efficient instructional method, of those tested, as it leads to better learning and transfer combined with lower cognitive load, when compared with independent use of VPs, either before or after the lecture.

  18. Patterns of interactions at grade 5 classroom in learning the topic of statistics viewed from cognitive load theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setianingsih, R.

    2018-01-01

    The nature of interactions that occurs among teacher, students, learning sources, and learning environment creates different settings to enhance learning. Any setting created by a teacher is affected by 3 (three) types of cognitive load: intrinsic cognitive load, extraneous cognitive load, and germane cognitive load. This study is qualitative in nature, aims to analyse the patterns of interaction that are constituted in mathematics instructions by taking into account the cognitive load theory. The subjects of this study are 21 fifth-grade students who learn mathematics in small groups and whole-class interactive lessons. The data were collected through classroom observations which were videotaped, while field notes were also taken. The data analysis revealed that students engaged in productive interaction and inquiry while they were learning mathematics in small groups or in whole class setting, in which there was a different type of cognitive load that dominantly affecting the learning processes at each setting. During learning mathematics in whole class setting, the most frequently found interaction patterns were to discuss and compare solution based on self-developed models, followed by expressing opinions. This is consistent with the principles of mathematics learning, which gives students wide opportunities to construct mathematical knowledge through individual learning, learning in small groups as well as learning in whole class settings. It means that by participating in interactive learning, the students are habitually engaged in productive interactions and high level of mathematical thinking.

  19. Cognitive load imposed by ultrasound-facilitated teaching does not adversely affect gross anatomy learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamniczky, Heather A; Cotton, Darrel; Paget, Michael; Ramji, Qahir; Lenz, Ryan; McLaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Ma, Irene W Y

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonography is increasingly used in medical education, but its impact on learning outcomes is unclear. Adding ultrasound may facilitate learning, but may also potentially overwhelm novice learners. Based upon the framework of cognitive load theory, this study seeks to evaluate the relationship between cognitive load associated with using ultrasound and learning outcomes. The use of ultrasound was hypothesized to facilitate learning in anatomy for 161 novice first-year medical students. Using linear regression analyses, the relationship between reported cognitive load on using ultrasound and learning outcomes as measured by anatomy laboratory examination scores four weeks after ultrasound-guided anatomy training was evaluated in consenting students. Second anatomy examination scores of students who were taught anatomy with ultrasound were compared with historical controls (those not taught with ultrasound). Ultrasound's perceived utility for learning was measured on a five-point scale. Cognitive load on using ultrasound was measured on a nine-point scale. Primary outcome was the laboratory examination score (60 questions). Learners found ultrasound useful for learning. Weighted factor score on "image interpretation" was negatively, but insignificantly, associated with examination scores [F (1,135) = 0.28, beta = -0.22; P = 0.61]. Weighted factor score on "basic knobology" was positively and insignificantly associated with scores; [F (1,138) = 0.27, beta = 0.42; P = 0.60]. Cohorts exposed to ultrasound had significantly higher scores than historical controls (82.4% ± SD 8.6% vs. 78.8% ± 8.5%, Cohen's d = 0.41, P learning and may improve learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 10: 144-151. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. A comparative analysis of three metaheuristic methods applied to fuzzy cognitive maps learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Angélico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the performance of three different population-based metaheuristic approaches applied to Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM learning in qualitative control of processes. Fuzzy cognitive maps permit to include the previous specialist knowledge in the control rule. Particularly, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Genetic Algorithm (GA and an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO are considered for obtaining appropriate weight matrices for learning the FCM. A statistical convergence analysis within 10000 simulations of each algorithm is presented. In order to validate the proposed approach, two industrial control process problems previously described in the literature are considered in this work.

  1. The Impact of Cognitive Dissonance on Learning Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechawatanapaisal, Decha; Siengthai, Sununta

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research proposes a framework, which identifies the underlying factors that shape learning behavior in the workplace. It takes organizational members' perspectives into consideration to gain better understanding on managing people and their behavior in the organizational learning process. Design/methodology/approach: Primary data…

  2. Literacy processes cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Reading and writing instruction require individuals--both students and teachers--to flexibly process many kinds of information, from a variety of sources. This is the first book to provide an in-depth examination of cognitive flexibility: how it develops across the lifespan; its role in specific literacy processes, such as phonemic awareness, word recognition, and comprehension; and implications for improving literacy instruction and teacher education. The contributors include leading researchers in literacy, psychology, and cognitive development, who summarize the current state of the science

  3. Situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship: a model for teaching and learning clinical skills in a technologically rich and authentic learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Norman N; Jarvis, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The acquisition of a range of diverse clinical skills is a central feature of the pre-registration nursing curriculum. Prior to exposure to clinical practice, it is essential that learners have the opportunity to practise and develop such skills in a safe and controlled environment under the direction and supervision of clinical experts. However, the competing demands of the HE nursing curriculum coupled with an increased number of learners have resulted in a reduced emphasis on traditional apprenticeship learning. This paper presents an alternative model for clinical skills teaching that draws upon the principles of cognitive apprenticeship [Collins, A., Brown, J.S., Newman, S., 1989. Cognitive Apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing and mathematics. In: Resnick, L.B. (Ed.) Knowing. Learning and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, pp. 453-494] and situated cognition within a technologically rich and authentic learning environment. It will show how high quality DVD materials illustrating clinical skills performed by expert practitioners have been produced and used in conjunction with CCTV and digital recording technologies to support learning within a pedagogic framework appropriate to skills acquisition. It is argued that this model not only better prepares the student for the time they will spend in the practice setting, but also lays the foundation for the development of a clinically competent practitioner with the requisite physical and cognitive skills who is fit for purpose [UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice: The UKCC Commission for Nursing and Midwifery Education. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, London].

  4. COMMUNITY VIOLENCE AND REACTIVE AND PROACTIVE AGGRESSION: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL VARIABLES/ VIOLENCIA COMUNITARIA Y AGRESIÓN REACTIVA Y PROACTIVA: EL PAPEL MEDIACIONAL DE LAS VARIABLES COGNITIVAS Y EMOCIONALES/ VIOLÊNCIA COMUNITÁRIA E AGRESSÃO REATIVA E PROATIVA: O PAPEL MEDIACIONAL DAS VARIÁVEIS COGNITIVAS E EMOCIONAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rincón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to higher levels of violence tend to be more aggressive. Specific mechanisms explaining this relationship are still being uncovered. This study sought to identify the relationship between exposure to community violence and reactive and proactive aggression, as well as cognitive and emotional variables mediating this relationship. Participants were 1,235 students (from fifth to ninth grade from localities of Bogotá, Colombia, with varying levels of community violence. Analyses of self-reported measures confirmed significant associations between exposure to community violence and both reactive and proactive aggression. Normative beliefs supporting aggression, hostile attribution of intent, positive expectations for aggression, and lack of guilt after aggression, partially mediated these relationships, suggesting strategies for prevention.

  5. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  6. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M; Grotzer, Tina A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. A significant improvement was found in students' learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students' report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction.

  7. Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: Effects on achievement and cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Sevda; Kapakin, Samet; Göktaş, Yüksel

    2016-10-01

    Augmented reality (AR), a new generation of technology, has attracted the attention of educators in recent years. In this study, a MagicBook was developed for a neuroanatomy topic by using mobile augmented reality (mAR) technology. This technology integrates virtual learning objects into the real world and allow users to interact with the environment using mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning anatomy via mAR on medical students' academic achievement and cognitive load. The mixed method was applied in the study. The random sample consisted of 70 second-year undergraduate medical students: 34 in an experimental group and 36 in a control group. Academic achievement test and cognitive load scale were used as data collection tool. A one-way MANOVA test was used for analysis. The experimental group, which used mAR applications, reported higher achievement and lower cognitive load. The use of mAR applications in anatomy education contributed to the formation of an effective and productive learning environment. Student cognitive load decreased as abstract information became concrete in printed books via multimedia materials in mAR applications. Additionally, students were able to access the materials in the MagicBook anytime and anywhere they wanted. The mobile learning approach helped students learn better by exerting less cognitive effort. Moreover, the sensory experience and real time interaction with environment may provide learning satisfaction and enable students to structure their knowledge to complete the learning tasks. Anat Sci Educ 9: 411-421. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods: Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results: A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions: The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge

  9. Influence of learning style on instructional multimedia effects on graduate student cognitive and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William

    2006-01-01

    Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.

  10. Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the scholarship in introductory psychology textbooks in relation to the topic of latent learning. A review of the treatment of latent learning in 48 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1948 and 2004, with 21 of these texts published since 1999, reveals that the scholarship on the topic of latent learning demonstrated in introductory textbooks warrants improvement. Errors that persist in textbooks include the assertion that the latent learning experiments demonstrate unequivocally that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur, that behavioral theories could not account for the results of the latent learning experiments, that B. F. Skinner was an S-R association behaviorist who argued that reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur, and that because behavioral theories (including that of B. F. Skinner) were unable explain the results of the latent learning experiments the cognitive map invoked by Edward Tolman is the only explanation for latent learning. Finally, the validity of the cognitive map is typically accepted without question. Implications of the presence of these errors for students and the discipline are considered. Lastly, remedies are offered to improve the scholarship found in introductory psychology textbooks.

  11. Aggression and violence and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of aggression and violence among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which aggression and violence adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. Recent national data indicate that among students aged 12-18, approximately 628,200 violent crimes and 868,100 thefts occurred. Physical fighting was more commonly reported by Blacks and Hispanics (44.7% and 40.4%, respectively) than Whites (31.7%). In-school threats and injuries were nearly twice as prevalent in cities as in suburbs and towns or rural areas (10% vs 6% and 5%, respectively). Associations between exposure to and exhibition of aggression and violence and unfavorable educational outcomes are well documented. Causal pathways through which aggression and violence impede learning include cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism. Disruptive classroom behavior is a well-recognized and significant impediment to teaching and learning. Compelling research has shown that various school-based programs can significantly reduce the nature and extent of aggressive and violent behaviors. Violence and aggressive behavior are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement by adversely affecting cognition, school connectedness, and absenteeism, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Once the domain of criminal justice, aggression and violence are now recognized as an appropriate and important focus of the education and public health systems. Implementing evidence-based school policies and programs to reduce aggression and violence must be a high priority to help close the achievement gap. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  12. Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava; Singh, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional framework of cognitive load theory, it is assumed that the acquisition of domain-specific knowledge structures (or schemas) is the only instructional goal, and therefore, the theory is applicable to any instructional task. Accordingly, the basic concepts of intrinsic (productive) and extraneous (unproductive) types of cognitive…

  13. Dyslexia and Dyscalculia: Two Learning Disorders with Different Cognitive Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26…

  14. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  15. Modeling Language and Cognition with Deep Unsupervised Learning:A Tutorial Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eZorzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981 is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  16. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition. PMID:23970869

  17. A SOCIO-COGNITIVE APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION THROUGH BLENDED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Kocaturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an educational research project that was undertaken by the School of Architecture, at the University of Liverpool funded by the Higher Education Academy in UK. The research explored technology driven shifts in architectural design studio education, identified their cognitive effects on design learning and developed an innovative blended learning approach that was implemented at a masters level digital design studio. The contribution of the research and the proposed approach to the existing knowledge and practice are twofold. Firstly, it offers a new pedagogical framework which integrates social, technical and cognitive dimensions of knowledge construction. And secondly, it offers a unique operational model through the integration of both mediational and instrumental use of digital media. The proposed model provides a useful basis for the effective mobilization of next generation learning technologies which can effectively respond to the learning challenges specific to architectural design knowledge and its means of creation.

  18. Sound as Affective Design Feature in Multimedia Learning--Benefits and Drawbacks from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königschulte, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates the potential effects of including non-speech audio such as sound effects into multimedia-based instruction taking into account Sweller's cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2005) and applied frameworks such as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2005) and the cognitive affective theory of…

  19. An Exploration of Students' Science Learning Interest Related to Their Cognitive Anxiety, Cognitive Load, Self-Confidence and Learning Progress Using Inquiry-Based Learning With an iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Tai, Kai-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2017-12-01

    Based on the cognitive-affective theory, the present study designed a science inquiry learning model, predict-observe-explain (POE), and implemented it in an app called "WhyWhy" to examine the effectiveness of students' science inquiry learning practice. To understand how POE can affect the cognitive-affective learning process, as well as the learning progress, a pretest and a posttest were given to 152 grade 5 elementary school students. The students practiced WhyWhy during six sessions over 6 weeks, and data related to interest in learning science (ILS), cognitive anxiety (CA), and extraneous cognitive load (ECL) were collected and analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis with structure equation modeling. The results showed that students with high ILS have low CA and ECL. In addition, the results also indicated that students with a high level of self-confidence enhancement showed significant improvement in the posttest. The implications of this study suggest that by using technology-enhanced science learning, the POE model is a practical approach to motivate students to learn.

  20. Situated Cognition and Learning Environments: Implications for Teachers On- and Offline in the New Digital Media Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley; Lee, Ung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    John Seely Brown suggested that learning environments should be spaces in which all work is public, is subject to iterative critique by instructors and peers, and in which social interaction is primary. In such spaces, students and teachers engage in a situated cognition approach to teaching and learning where "cognitive accomplishments rely…

  1. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  2. A Commentary on Parent-Child Cognitive Interaction Research: What Have we Learned From Two Decades of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Renee Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the suggestions on next steps for conducting parent child cognitive learning interaction research in the future.

  3. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual ...

  4. Neuroanatomical and cognitive mediators of age-related differences in perceptual priming and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Head, Denise; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess age differences in perceptual repetition priming and perceptual skill learning, and to determine whether they are mediated by cognitive resources and regional cerebral volume differences. Fragmented picture identification paradigm allows the study of both priming and learning within the same task. We presented this task to 169 adults (ages 18–80), assessed working memory and fluid intelligence, and measured brain volumes of regions that were deemed relevant to th...

  5. Effect of Neuroscience-Based Cognitive Skill Training on Growth of Cognitive Deficits Associated with Learning Disabilities in Children Grades 2-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtzon, Sarah Abitbol

    2012-01-01

    Working memory, executive functions, and cognitive processes associated with specific academic areas, are empirically identified as being the core underlying cognitive deficits in students with specific learning disabilities. Using Hebb's theory of neuroplasticity and the principle of automaticity as theoretical bases, this experimental study…

  6. Parent-child mediated learning interactions as determinants of cognitive modifiability: recent research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, D

    1999-05-01

    The main objectives of this article are to describe the effects of mediated learning experience (MLE) strategies in mother-child interactions on the child's cognitive modifiability, the effects of distal factors (e.g., socioeconomic status, mother's intelligence, child's personality) on MLE interactions, and the effects of situational variables on MLE processes. Methodological aspects of measurement of MLE interactions and of cognitive modifiability, using a dynamic assessment approach, are discussed. Studies with infants showed that the quality of mother-infant MLE interactions predict later cognitive functioning and that MLE patterns and children's cognitive performance change as a result of intervention programs. Studies with preschool and school-aged children showed that MLE interactions predict cognitive modifiability and that distal factors predict MLE interactions but not the child's cognitive modifiability. The child's cognitive modifiability was predicted by MLE interactions in a structured but not in a free-play situation. Mediation for transcendence (e.g., teaching rules and generalizations) appeared to be the strongest predictor of children's cognitive modifiability. Discussion of future research includes the consideration of a holistic transactional approach, which refers to MLE processes, personality, and motivational-affective factors, the cultural context of mediation, perception of the whole family as a mediational unit, and the "mediational normative scripts."

  7. Effect of episodic and working memory impairments on semantic and cognitive procedural learning at alcohol treatment entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Witkowski, Thomas; Vabret, François; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2007-02-01

    Chronic alcoholism is known to impair the functioning of episodic and working memory, which may consequently reduce the ability to learn complex novel information. Nevertheless, semantic and cognitive procedural learning have not been properly explored at alcohol treatment entry, despite its potential clinical relevance. The goal of the present study was therefore to determine whether alcoholic patients, immediately after the weaning phase, are cognitively able to acquire complex new knowledge, given their episodic and working memory deficits. Twenty alcoholic inpatients with episodic memory and working memory deficits at alcohol treatment entry and a control group of 20 healthy subjects underwent a protocol of semantic acquisition and cognitive procedural learning. The semantic learning task consisted of the acquisition of 10 novel concepts, while subjects were administered the Tower of Toronto task to measure cognitive procedural learning. Analyses showed that although alcoholic subjects were able to acquire the category and features of the semantic concepts, albeit slowly, they presented impaired label learning. In the control group, executive functions and episodic memory predicted semantic learning in the first and second halves of the protocol, respectively. In addition to the cognitive processes involved in the learning strategies invoked by controls, alcoholic subjects seem to attempt to compensate for their impaired cognitive functions, invoking capacities of short-term passive storage. Regarding cognitive procedural learning, although the patients eventually achieved the same results as the controls, they failed to automate the procedure. Contrary to the control group, the alcoholic groups' learning performance was predicted by controlled cognitive functions throughout the protocol. At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients with neuropsychological deficits have difficulty acquiring novel semantic and cognitive procedural knowledge. Compared with

  8. Effect of Cognitive Style on Learning and Retrieval of Navigational Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Boccia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field independence (FI has been found to correlate with a wide range of cognitive processes requiring cognitive restructuring. Cognitive restructuring, that is going beyond the information given by the setting, is pivotal in creating stable mental representations of the environment, the so-called “cognitive maps,” and it affects visuo-spatial abilities underpinning environmental navigation. Here we evaluated whether FI, by fostering cognitive restructuring of environmental cues on the basis of an internal frame of reference, affects the learning and retrieval of a novel environment. Fifty-four participants were submitted to the Embedded Figure Test (EFT for assessing their Cognitive Style (CS and to the Perspective Taking/Spatial Orientation Test (PTSOT and the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSOD for assessing their spatial perspective taking and orientation skills. They were also required to learn a path in a novel, real environment (route learning, RL, to recognize landmarks of this path among distracters (landmark recognition, LR, to order them (landmark ordering, LO and to draw the learned path on a map (map drawing, MD. Retrieval tasks were performed both immediately after learning (immediate-retrieval and the day after (24 h-retrieval. Performances on EFT significantly correlated with the time needed to learn the path, with MD (both in the immediate- and in the 24 h- retrievals, results on LR (in 24-retrieval and performances on PTSOT. Interestingly, we found that gender interacted with CS on RL (time of learning and MD. Females performed significantly worse than males only if they were classified as FD, but did not differ from males if they were classified as FI. These results suggest that CS affects learning and retrieval of navigational environment, especially when a map-like representation is required. We propose that CS may be pivotal in forming the cognitive map of the environment, likely due to the higher ability of FI

  9. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  10. Online Dictionary Learning Aided Target Recognition In Cognitive GPR

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanneschi, Fabio; Mishra, Kumar Vijay; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria Antonia; Eldar, Yonina C.; Ender, Joachim H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse decomposition of ground penetration radar (GPR) signals facilitates the use of compressed sensing techniques for faster data acquisition and enhanced feature extraction for target classification. In this paper, we investigate the application of an online dictionary learning (ODL) technique in the context of GPR to bring down the learning time as well as improve identification of abandoned anti-personnel landmines. Our experimental results using real data from an L-band GPR for PMN/PMA2...

  11. The role of socio-cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in smart schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Firoozi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of Socio-Cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in Smart Schools. The population was all the primary school students studying in smart schools in the city of Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. The sample, randomly chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling, was 383 primary school students studying in smart schools in Shiraz. The instruments were the Computer Self-Efficiency Questionnaire developed by Torkzadeh (2003, Performance Expectation Questionnaire developed by Compeau and Higgins (1995, System Functionality and Content Feature Questionnaire developed by Pituch and Lee (2006, Interaction Questionnaire developed by Johnston, Killion and Oomen (2005, Learning Climate Questionnaire developed by Chou` and Liu (2005 and Learning Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Chou and Liu (2005. In order to determine the possible relationship between variables and to predict the changes in the degree of satisfaction, we made use of correlational procedures and step-wise regression analysis. The results indicated that all the socio-cognitive variables have a positive and significant correlation with learning satisfaction. Out of the socio-cognitive variables in question, Computer Self-Efficiency, Performance Expectation and Learning Climate significantly explained 53% of the variance of learning satisfaction.

  12. The Role of Socio-Cognitive Variables in Predicting Learning Satisfaction in Smart Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza FIROOZI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of Socio-Cognitive variables in predicting learning satisfaction in Smart Schools. The population was all the primary school students studying in smart schools in the city of Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. The sample, randomly chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling, was 383 primary school students studying in smart schools in Shiraz. The instruments were the Computer Self-Efficiency Questionnaire developed by Torkzadeh (2003, Performance Expectation Questionnaire developed by Compeau and Higgins (1995, System Functionality and Content Feature Questionnaire developed by Pituch and Lee (2006, Interaction Questionnaire developed by Johnston, Killion and Oomen (2005, Learning Climate Questionnaire developed by Chou` and Liu (2005 and Learning Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Chou and Liu (2005. In order to determine the possible relationship between variables and to predict the changes in the degree of satisfaction, we made use of correlational procedures and step-wise regression analysis. The results indicated that all the socio-cognitive variables have a positive and significant correlation with learning satisfaction. Out of the socio-cognitive variables in question, Computer Self-Efficiency, Performance Expectation and Learning Climate significantly explained 53% of the variance of learning satisfaction.

  13. Effectiveness of Memantine in Improvement of Cognitive Deficits in Specific Learning Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ahmadi Zahrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Specific learning disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in learning academic skills in reading, written expression, or mathematics. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of memantine in the relief of cognitive deficits (selective attention, sustained attention, and working memory in specific learning disorder. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial. Of all children 8-12 years referred to Amir Kabir Hospital 94 patients diagnosed with specific learning disorder based on DSMV diagnostic interview referred by specialist and randomly divided by two groups, memantine and placebo. Cognitive deficits before and after treatment were measured with continuous performance test, Stroop test and Wechsler Digit Span forward and reverse and Corsi test. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant difference in error when answering, omission answer and corrected answer in continuous performance test, but this difference is not significant in response time. Difference in forward, reverse and collected auditory was significant and not significant in the auditory span. In active visual working memory at corsi cube test, difference was significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that memantine in improvement of sustained attention, auditory working memory and visual working memory, is effective, while in selective attention is not effective and according to similarities of learning disorder and Attention deficit / Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and the effectiveness of memantine in improvement of symptoms of ADHD, we can also use this drug in improvement of cognitive deficits of specific learning disorder.

  14. Influence of Learning Strategy of Cognitive Conflict on Student Misconception in Computational Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmam, A.; Anshari, R.; Amir, H.; Jalinus, N.; Amran, A.

    2018-04-01

    Misconception is one of the factors causing students are not suitable in to choose a method for problem solving. Computational Physics course is a major subject in the Department of Physics FMIPA UNP Padang. The problem in Computational Physics learning lately is that students have difficulties in constructing knowledge. The indication of this problem was the student learning outcomes do not achieve mastery learning. The root of the problem is the ability of students to think critically weak. Student critical thinking can be improved using cognitive by conflict learning strategies. The research aims to determine the effect of cognitive conflict learning strategy to student misconception on the subject of Computational Physics Course at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Padang. The experimental research design conducted after-before design cycles with a sample of 60 students by cluster random sampling. Data were analyzed using repeated Anova measurements. The cognitive conflict learning strategy has a significant effect on student misconception in the subject of Computational Physics Course.

  15. The effects of mother-child mediated learning strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shomron, Vered

    2018-06-01

    The theoretical framework of the current study is based on mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which is similar to the scaffolding concept. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). Secondary questions were to what extent the home environment, severity of boy's LD, and mother's attitude towards her child's LD affect her MLE strategies and consequently the child's psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. The main objectives of this study were the following: (a) to investigate the effects of mother-child MLE strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability among 7- to 10-year-old boys with LD, (b) to study the causal effects of distal factors (i.e., socio-economic status [SES], home environment, severity of child's LD, mother's attitude towards LD) and proximal factors (i.e., MLE strategies) on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. A sample of mother-child dyads (n = 100) were videotaped during a short teaching interaction. All children were boys diagnosed as children with LD. The interaction was analysed for MLE strategies by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. Children were administered psychological resilience tests and their cognitive modifiability was measured by dynamic assessment using the Analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery. Home environment was rated by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and mothers answered a questionnaire of attitudes towards child's LD. The findings showed that mother-child MLE strategies, HOME, and socio-economic level contributed significantly to prediction of psychological resilience (78%) and cognitive modifiability (51%). Psychological resilience was positively correlated with cognitive modifiability (Rc = 0.67). Structural equation modelling analysis supported, in general

  16. Aggression in adolescents: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.

  17. Measuring Cognitive Load and Cognition: Metrics for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This critical and reflective literature review examines international research published over the last decade to summarise the different kinds of measures that have been used to explore cognitive load and critiques the strengths and limitations of those focussed on the development of direct empirical approaches. Over the last 40 years, cognitive…

  18. Multiagent -Learning for Aloha-Like Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Husheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An Aloha-like spectrum access scheme without negotiation is considered for multiuser and multichannel cognitive radio systems. To avoid collisions incurred by the lack of coordination, each secondary user learns how to select channels according to its experience. Multiagent reinforcement leaning (MARL is applied for the secondary users to learn good strategies of channel selection. Specifically, the framework of -learning is extended from single user case to multiagent case by considering other secondary users as a part of the environment. The dynamics of the -learning are illustrated using a Metrick-Polak plot, which shows the traces of -values in the two-user case. For both complete and partial observation cases, rigorous proofs of the convergence of multiagent -learning without communications, under certain conditions, are provided using the Robins-Monro algorithm and contraction mapping, respectively. The learning performance (speed and gain in utility is evaluated by numerical simulations.

  19. Preexposure effects in spatial learning: From gestaltic to associative and attentional cognitive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Redhead

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a series of studies and theoretical proposals about how preexposure to environmental cues affects subsequent spatial learning are reviewed. Traditionally, spatial learning had been thought to depend on gestaltic non-associative processes, and well established phenomena such as latent learning or instantaneous transfer have been taken to provide evidence for this sort of cognitive mapping. However, reviewing the literature examining these effects reveals that there is no need to advocate for gestaltic processes since standard associative learning theory provides an adequate framework for accounting for navigation skills. Recent studies reveal that attentional processes play a role in spatial learning. The need for an integrated attentional and associative approach to explain spatial learning is discussed.

  20. The effect of cognitive aging on implicit sequence learning and dual tasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eVandenbossche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of attentional demands on sequence-specific learning by means of the serial reaction time (SRT task (Nissen & Bullemer, 1987 in young (age 18-25 and aged (age 55-75 adults. Participants had to respond as fast as possible to a stimulus presented in one of four horizontal locations by pressing a key corresponding to the spatial position of the stimulus. During the training phase sequential blocks were accompanied by (1 no secondary task (single, (2 a secondary tone counting task (dual tone, or (3 a secondary shape counting task (dual shape. Both secondary tasks were administered to investigate whether low and high interference tasks interact with implicit learning and age. The testing phase, under baseline single condition, was implemented to assess differences in sequence-specific learning between young and aged adults. Results indicate that (1 aged subjects show less sequence learning compared to young adults, (2 young participants show similar implicit learning effects under both single and dual task conditions when we account for explicit awareness, and (3 aged adults demonstrate reduced learning when the primary task is accompanied with a secondary task, even when explicit awareness is included as a covariate in the analysis. These findings point to implicit learning deficits under dual task conditions that can be related to cognitive aging, demonstrating the need for sufficient cognitive resources while performing a sequence learning task.

  1. EFFECT OF FLIPPED LEARNING ON COGNITIVE LOAD: A HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Karaca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the flipped learning method on the cognitive load of the students. The study was conducted with a sample of 160 people who were trained in Department of Mechanical Engineering for algorithms and programming courses at a higher education level. The study, which lasted for 8 weeks, has a semi-experimental design. A 9-point scale developed by Paas and Van Merrienboer (1993 was used for cognitive load measurements. At the end of the weekly courses, the scale was filled by the experimental and control groups. Independent sample t test was applied through SPSS 24 program to the obtained data. In both instances, the cognitive load in the experimental group in which the flipped learning method was applied was found to be lower than the cognitive load in the control group in which traditional face-to-face training was applied. As a result, it can be said that flipped learning, if well structured, is a method reducing cognitive load.

  2. Effectiveness of Game-Based Learning: Influence of Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Miloš; Minović, Miroslav; Kovačević, Ivana; Minović, Jelena; Starčević, Dušan

    Today students have grown up using devices like computers, mobile phones, and video consoles for almost any activity; from studies and work to entertainment or communication. Motivating them with traditional teaching methods such as lectures and written materials becomes more difficult daily. That is why digital games are becoming more and more considered to have a promising role in education process. We decided to conduct a study among university students. Purpose of that study was to try to find some empirical evidence to support the claim that educational games can be used as an effective form of teaching. We also invested an effort to measure effects of different teaching approaches with the respect of individual differences in cognitive styles. Initial results provide a good argument for use of educational games in teaching. In addition, we reported some influence of cognitive style on effectiveness of using educational games.

  3. A consideration of cognitive factors in the learning and education of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Prem S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the unique cognitive and intellectual factors that influence the learning and education of older adults. With this objective in mind, the paper reviews the empirical literature on patterns of intellectual and cognitive aging, and ends by discussing the implications and applications of these patterns for the practical and effective education of our elderly citizenry. When we consider the aging of intellectual abilities we are concerned with studying the development of fluid, crystallized and practical intelligence and variations in these abilities from adulthood into advanced old age. We are also concerned with looking at changes in cognitive functions such as attention, memory, information retrieval and tolerance for interference in learning capacity. Much recent work has been successful in showing that intellectual and cognitive decline in old age is not necessarily irreversible. While many elderly persons are very able learners, are highly self-directed, and have ample educational and intellectual resources available, others may benefit from assistance or suggestions about how to compensate for some of the cognitive declines in old age. With this objective the implications are discussed for educators and practitioners who must formulate cognitive training programs for older adults.

  4. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  5. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  6. Effects of Peer-Tutor Competences on Learner Cognitive Load and Learning Performance during Knowledge Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Ping; Brouns, Francis; van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    In Learning Networks, learners need to share knowledge with others to build knowledge. In particular, when working on complex tasks, they often need to acquire extra cognitive resources from others to process a high task load. However, without support high task load and organizing knowledge sharing themselves might easily overload learners'…

  7. The Roles of Working Memory and Cognitive Load in Geoscience Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Allison J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Reynolds, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive system that allows for the simultaneous storage and processing of active information. While working memory has been implicated as an important element for success in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, its specific role in geoscience learning is not fully understood. The major goal of…

  8. Tagclouds and Group Cognition: Effect of Tagging Support on Students' Reflective Learning in Team Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Lin, Shu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of supported tagging (a prompting mechanism for students to stop and think about their writing) for team blogging on undergraduate students' reflective learning and the relationship between tagclouds and group cognition. Thirty-nine students were randomly assigned to six groups and blogged for 5 weeks. Three groups were…

  9. Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tamer G.; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of "International Journal of Science Education" is based on the theme "Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning." The idea for this issue grew out of a symposium organized on this topic at the conference of the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) in September 2013.…

  10. A Robot-Partner for Preschool Children Learning English Using Socio-Cognitive Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elvis; Benvenuti, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study in which a humanoid robot (MecWilly) acted as a partner to preschool children, helping them to learn English words. In order to use the Socio-Cognitive Conflict paradigm to induce the knowledge acquisition process, we designed a playful activity in which children worked in pairs with another child or with…

  11. Some Technical Implications of Distributed Cognition on the Design on Interactive Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that diagnosis, explanation, and tutoring, the functions of an interactive learning environment, are collaborative processes. Examines how human-computer interaction can be improved using a distributed cognition framework. Discusses situational and distributed knowledge theories and provides a model on how they can be used to redesign…

  12. The price of learning good from bad: motivational costs and benefits in cognition and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, S.A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875642

    2012-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis addressed the interactions between motivation, emotion, and cognition. The starting point for the research in this thesis was the question how inter-individual neurophysiological differences can be related to reward- and threat-related learning processes. Central

  13. An Integrated Theory of Prospective Time Interval Estimation: The Role of Cognition, Attention, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval estimation and bisection and impact of secondary…

  14. Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor[R] Software. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The combination of "Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor[R] Software" merges algebra textbooks with interactive software developed around an artificial intelligence model that identifies strengths and weaknesses in an individual student's mastery of mathematical concepts. The software customizes prompts to focus on areas in…

  15. The potential relevance of cognitive neuroscience for the development and use of technology-enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience and Mathematics Learning: How Far Have We Come? Where Do We Need to Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel; Lyons, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary on the ZDM special issue: "Cognitive neuroscience and mathematics learning--revisited after 5 years," we explore the progress that has been made since ZDM published a similar special issue in 2010. We consider the extent to which future frontiers and methodological concerns raised in the commentary on the 2010 issue by…

  17. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  18. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  19. Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impelluso, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…

  20. Optimizing Cognitive Load for Learning from Computer-Based Science Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjeong; Plass, Jan L.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    How can cognitive load in visual displays of computer simulations be optimized? Middle-school chemistry students (N = 257) learned with a simulation of the ideal gas law. Visual complexity was manipulated by separating the display of the simulations in two screens (low complexity) or presenting all information on one screen (high complexity). The…

  1. Effects of Presentation Modes on Mobile-Assisted Vocabulary Learning and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Yu, Ya-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of multimedia presentations have determined the effects of the combination of text and pictures on vocabulary learning, but not those of the sound of new words. This study was intended to confirm those previous findings from the integration of mobile technologies and the approach of cognitive load. It adopted a within-subjects…

  2. The Beast of Aggregating Cognitive Load Measures in Technology-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Jimmie; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing part of cognitive load research in technology-based learning includes a component of repeated measurements, that is: participants are measured two or more times on the same performance, mental effort or other variable of interest. In many cases, researchers aggregate scores obtained from repeated measurements to one single sum or…

  3. Cognitive Load Theory: A Broader View on the Role of Memory in Learning and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paas, Fred; Ayres, Paul

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive load theory (CLT), the limitations of working memory (WM) in the learning of new tasks together with its ability to cooperate with an unlimited long-term memory (LTM) for familiar tasks enable human beings to deal effectively with complex problems and acquire highly complex knowledge and skills. With regard to WM, CLT has…

  4. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

  5. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  6. An integrated theory of prospective time interval estimation : The role of cognition, attention, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval

  7. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  8. Example-Based Learning in Heuristic Domains: A Cognitive Load Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Hilbert, Tatjana; Schworm, Silke

    2009-01-01

    One classical instructional effect of cognitive load theory (CLT) is the worked-example effect. Although the vast majority of studies have focused on well-structured and algorithmic sub-domains of mathematics or physics, more recent studies have also analyzed learning with examples from complex domains in which only heuristic solution strategies…

  9. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  10. Bridging Cognitive And Neural Aspects Of Classroom Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.

    2009-11-01

    A major achievement of the first twenty years of neuroimaging is to reveal the brain networks that underlie fundamental aspects of attention, memory and expertise. We examine some principles underlying the activation of these networks. These networks represent key constraints for the design of teaching. Individual differences in these networks reflect a combination of genes and experiences. While acquiring expertise is easier for some than others the importance of effort in its acquisition is a basic principle. Networks are strengthened through exercise, but maintaining interest that produces sustained attention is key to making exercises successful. The state of the brain prior to learning may also represent an important constraint on successful learning and some interventions designed to investigate the role of attention state in learning are discussed. Teaching remains a creative act between instructor and student, but an understanding of brain mechanisms might improve opportunity for success for both participants.

  11. Does higher education hone cognitive functioning and learning efficacy? Findings from a large and diverse sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Carrillo, Belén; Katovich, Kiefer

    2017-01-01

    Attending school is a multifaceted experience. Students are not only exposed to new knowledge but are also immersed in a structured environment in which they need to respond flexibly in accordance with changing task goals, keep relevant information in mind, and constantly tackle novel problems. To quantify the cumulative effect of this experience, we examined retrospectively and prospectively, the relationships between educational attainment and both cognitive performance and learning. We analyzed data from 196,388 subscribers to an online cognitive training program. These subscribers, ages 15–60, had completed eight behavioral assessments of executive functioning and reasoning at least once. Controlling for multiple demographic and engagement variables, we found that higher levels of education predicted better performance across the full age range, and modulated performance in some cognitive domains more than others (e.g., reasoning vs. processing speed). Differences were moderate for Bachelor’s degree vs. High School (d = 0.51), and large between Ph.D. vs. Some High School (d = 0.80). Further, the ages of peak cognitive performance for each educational category closely followed the typical range of ages at graduation. This result is consistent with a cumulative effect of recent educational experiences, as well as a decrement in performance as completion of schooling becomes more distant. To begin to characterize the directionality of the relationship between educational attainment and cognitive performance, we conducted a prospective longitudinal analysis. For a subset of 69,202 subscribers who had completed 100 days of cognitive training, we tested whether the degree of novel learning was associated with their level of education. Higher educational attainment predicted bigger gains, but the differences were small (d = 0.04–0.37). Altogether, these results point to the long-lasting trace of an effect of prior cognitive challenges but suggest that new

  12. Does higher education hone cognitive functioning and learning efficacy? Findings from a large and diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Carrillo, Belén; Katovich, Kiefer; Bunge, Silvia A

    2017-01-01

    Attending school is a multifaceted experience. Students are not only exposed to new knowledge but are also immersed in a structured environment in which they need to respond flexibly in accordance with changing task goals, keep relevant information in mind, and constantly tackle novel problems. To quantify the cumulative effect of this experience, we examined retrospectively and prospectively, the relationships between educational attainment and both cognitive performance and learning. We analyzed data from 196,388 subscribers to an online cognitive training program. These subscribers, ages 15-60, had completed eight behavioral assessments of executive functioning and reasoning at least once. Controlling for multiple demographic and engagement variables, we found that higher levels of education predicted better performance across the full age range, and modulated performance in some cognitive domains more than others (e.g., reasoning vs. processing speed). Differences were moderate for Bachelor's degree vs. High School (d = 0.51), and large between Ph.D. vs. Some High School (d = 0.80). Further, the ages of peak cognitive performance for each educational category closely followed the typical range of ages at graduation. This result is consistent with a cumulative effect of recent educational experiences, as well as a decrement in performance as completion of schooling becomes more distant. To begin to characterize the directionality of the relationship between educational attainment and cognitive performance, we conducted a prospective longitudinal analysis. For a subset of 69,202 subscribers who had completed 100 days of cognitive training, we tested whether the degree of novel learning was associated with their level of education. Higher educational attainment predicted bigger gains, but the differences were small (d = 0.04-0.37). Altogether, these results point to the long-lasting trace of an effect of prior cognitive challenges but suggest that new learning

  13. Exploring Learning Outcomes in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Existential Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Dræby

    This is a presentation of a research project, which explores lived experience of psychotherapy in terms of learning outcomes. This includes both Existential therapy (ET) and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and their possible differences and similarities. I can describe learning as any...... experiential change that occurs in the participants understanding as result of the therapy in which they participate. Learning outcomes are concerned with the achievements of the learner rather than the intentions of the educator, as expressed in the objectives of an educational effort. This research points...

  14. COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ON NOUN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shierly Novalita Yappy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning English for non-English department students is not as easy as it seems. Besides, as much as it is necessary to know how successful learners learn, not less important is to know how less successful learners learn. Using think aloud method, this study aims at finding out the cognitive strategies used by the engineering department students in answering incorrectly problems on TOEFL noun structure-the grammar point in which students made the most errors. Findings uncover the students' strategies and reasoning upon which pedagogical implications can be put forth so that more effective and fruitful instruction can be tailored.

  15. Learning a Foreign Language: A New Path to Enhancement of Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi Javan, Sara; Ghonsooly, Behzad

    2018-02-01

    The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive functions; however, the way acquired (secondary) bilingualism manipulates executive functions is poorly understood. To fill this gap, controlling for age, gender, IQ, and socio-economic status, the researchers compared 60 advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to 60 beginners on measures of executive functions involving Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Wechsler's digit span tasks. The results suggested that mastering English as a foreign language causes considerable enhancement in two components of executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility and working memory. However, no significant difference was observed in inhibitory control between the advanced EFL learners and beginners.

  16. Cognitive communication and cooperative hetnet coexistence selected advances on spectrum sensing, learning, and security approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Faouzi

    2014-01-01

    This book, written by experts from universities and major industrial research laboratories, is devoted to the very hot topic of cognitive radio and networking for cooperative coexistence of heterogeneous wireless networks. Selected highly relevant advanced research is presented on spectrum sensing and progress toward the realization of accurate radio environment mapping, biomimetic learning for self-organizing networks, security threats (with a special focus on primary user emulation attack), and cognition as a tool for green next-generation networks. The research activities covered include work undertaken within the framework of the European COST Action IC0902, which is geared towards the definition of a European platform for cognitive radio and networks. Communications engineers, R&D engineers, researchers, and students will all benefit from this complete reference on recent advances in wireless communications and the design and implementation of cognitive radio systems and networks.

  17. The cognitive and academic profiles of reading and mathematics learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Lambert, Warren; Hamlett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and academic profiles associated with learning disability (LD) in reading comprehension, word reading, applied problems, and calculations. The goal was to assess the specificity hypothesis, in which unexpected underachievement associated with LD is represented in terms of distinctive patterns of cognitive and academic strengths and weaknesses. At the start of 3rd grade, the authors assessed 684 students on five cognitive dimensions (nonverbal problem solving, processing speed, concept formation, language, and working memory), and across Grades 3 through 5, the authors assessed performance in each academic area three to four times. Based on final intercept, the authors classified students as LD or not LD in each of the four academic areas. For each of these four LD variables, they conducted multivariate cognitive profile analysis and academic profile analysis. Results, which generally supported the specificity hypothesis, are discussed in terms of the potential connections between reading and mathematics LD.

  18. Implicit perceptual-motor skill learning in mild cognitive impairment and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobel, Eric W; Blomeke, Kelsey; Zadikoff, Cindy; Simuni, Tanya; Weintraub, Sandra; Reber, Paul J

    2013-05-01

    Implicit skill learning is hypothesized to depend on nondeclarative memory that operates independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system and instead depends on cortico striatal circuits between the basal ganglia and cortical areas supporting motor function and planning. Research with the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task suggests that patients with memory disorders due to MTL damage exhibit normal implicit sequence learning. However, reports of intact learning rely on observations of no group differences, leading to speculation as to whether implicit sequence learning is fully intact in these patients. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often exhibit impaired sequence learning, but this impairment is not universally observed. Implicit perceptual-motor sequence learning was examined using the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI; n = 11) and patients with PD (n = 15). Sequence learning in SISL is resistant to explicit learning and individually adapted task difficulty controls for baseline performance differences. Patients with MCI exhibited robust sequence learning, equivalent to healthy older adults (n = 20), supporting the hypothesis that the MTL does not contribute to learning in this task. In contrast, the majority of patients with PD exhibited no sequence-specific learning in spite of matched overall task performance. Two patients with PD exhibited performance indicative of an explicit compensatory strategy suggesting that impaired implicit learning may lead to greater reliance on explicit memory in some individuals. The differences in learning between patient groups provides strong evidence in favor of implicit sequence learning depending solely on intact basal ganglia function with no contribution from the MTL memory system.

  19. Constrained Bayesian Active Learning of Interference Channels in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmalis, Anestis; Chatzinotas, Symeon; Ottersten, Bjorn

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a sequential probing method for interference constraint learning is proposed to allow a centralized Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) accessing the frequency band of a Primary User (PU) in an underlay cognitive scenario with a designed PU protection specification. The main idea is that the CRN probes the PU and subsequently eavesdrops the reverse PU link to acquire the binary ACK/NACK packet. This feedback indicates whether the probing-induced interference is harmful or not and can be used to learn the PU interference constraint. The cognitive part of this sequential probing process is the selection of the power levels of the Secondary Users (SUs) which aims to learn the PU interference constraint with a minimum number of probing attempts while setting a limit on the number of harmful probing-induced interference events or equivalently of NACK packet observations over a time window. This constrained design problem is studied within the Active Learning (AL) framework and an optimal solution is derived and implemented with a sophisticated, accurate and fast Bayesian Learning method, the Expectation Propagation (EP). The performance of this solution is also demonstrated through numerical simulations and compared with modified versions of AL techniques we developed in earlier work.

  20. Role of state-dependent learning in the cognitive effects of caffeine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanday, Leandro; Zanin, Karina A; Patti, Camilla L; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Oliveira, Larissa C; Longo, Beatriz M; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and it is generally believed that it promotes beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, there is also evidence suggesting that caffeine has inhibitory effects on learning and memory. Considering that caffeine may have anxiogenic effects, thus changing the emotional state of the subjects, state-dependent learning may play a role in caffeine-induced cognitive alterations. Mice were administered 20 mg/kg caffeine before training and/or before testing both in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (an animal model that concomitantly evaluates learning, memory, anxiety-like behaviour and general activity) and in the inhibitory avoidance task, a classic paradigm for evaluating memory in rodents. Pre-training caffeine administration did not modify learning, but produced an anxiogenic effect and impaired memory retention. While pre-test administration of caffeine did not modify retrieval on its own, the pre-test administration counteracted the memory deficit induced by the pre-training caffeine injection in both the plus-maze discriminative and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Our data demonstrate that caffeine-induced memory deficits are critically related to state-dependent learning, reinforcing the importance of considering the participation of state-dependency on the interpretation of the cognitive effects of caffeine. The possible participation of caffeine-induced anxiety alterations in state-dependent memory deficits is discussed.

  1. The Cognitive Science of Learning: Concepts and Strategies for the Educator and Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Joseph; Baker, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Education is the fundamental process used to develop and maintain the professional skills of physicians. Medical students, residents, and fellows are expected to learn considerable amounts of information as they progress toward board certification. Established practitioners must continue to learn in an effort to remain up-to-date in their clinical realm. Those responsible for educating these populations endeavor to teach in a manner that is effective, efficient, and durable. The study of learning and performance is a subdivision of the field of cognitive science that focuses on how people interpret and process information and how they eventually develop mastery. A deeper understanding of how individuals learn can empower both educators and learners to be more effective in their endeavors. In this article, we review a number of concepts found in the literature on learning and performance. We address both the theoretical principles and the practical applications of each concept. Cognitive load theory, constructivism, and analogical transfer are concepts particularly beneficial to educators. An understanding of goal orientation, metacognition, retrieval, spaced learning, and deliberate practice will primarily benefit the learner. When these concepts are understood and incorporated into education and study, the effectiveness of learning is significantly improved.

  2. Science Achievement in TIMSS Cognitive Domains Based on Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects. Understanding how different learning styles might influence science achievement may guide educators in their efforts to raise achievement. This study is an attempt to examine…

  3. Accelerating Leadership Development via Immersive Learning and Cognitive Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Clark; Keegan, Kevin; Gluck, Charles; Gulick, Lisa M. V.

    2010-01-01

    The authors put forward an approach to leadership development that builds on the principle of accelerated learning. They argue that leadership development, particularly in a period of recession or slow economic growth, needs to deliver results more quickly and with fewer resources. Indeed, they raise the question of whether or not this is what is…

  4. “Bear-ly” learning: Limits of abstraction in black bear cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We presented two American black bears (Ursus americanus with a serial list learning memory task, and one of the bears with a matching-to-sample task. After extended training, both bears demonstrated some success with the memory task but failed to generalize the overarching rule of the task to novel stimuli. Matching to sample proved even more difficult for our bear to learn. We conclude that, despite previous success in training bears to respond to natural categories, quantity discriminations, and other related tasks, that bears may possess a cognitive limitation with regards to learning abstract rules. Future tests using different procedures are necessary to determine whether this is a limit of bears’ cognitive capacities, or a limitation of the current tasks as presented. Future tests should present a larger number of varying stimuli. Ideally, bears of various species should be tested on these tasks to demonstrate species as well as individual differences.

  5. Selectivity in associative learning: A cognitive stage framework for blocking and cue competition phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick eBoddez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blocking is the most important phenomenon in the history of associative learning theory: For over 40 years, blocking has inspired a whole generation of learning models. Blocking is part of a family of effects that are typically termed cue competition effects. Common amongst all cue competition effects is that a cue-outcome relation is poorly learned or poorly expressed because the cue is trained in the presence of an alternative predictor or cause of the outcome. We provide an overview of the cognitive processes involved in cue competition effects in humans and propose a stage framework that brings these processes together. The framework contends that the behavioral display of cue competition is cognitively construed following three stages that include (1 an encoding stage, (2 a retention stage, and (3 a performance stage. We argue that the stage framework supports a comprehensive understanding of cue competition effects.

  6. Role of cognitive theory in the study of learning disability in mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2005-01-01

    Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this issue) provide the beginnings of an essential bridge between basic research on mathematical disabilities (MD) in young children and the application of this research for the early identification and remediation of these forms of learning disability. As they acknowledge, the field of MD is in the early stages of development, and thus recommendations regarding identification measures and remedial techniques must be considered preliminary. I discuss the importance of maintaining a tight link between theoretical and empirical research on children's developing numerical, arithmetical, and mathematical competencies and future research on learning disabilities in mathematics. This link will provide the foundation for transforming experimental procedures into assessment measures, understanding the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of children with these forms of learning disability, and developing remedial approaches based on the pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses for individual children.

  7. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  8. Perceptual category learning and visual processing: An exercise in computational cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, George; Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2017-05-01

    The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning. Using bitmap images as inputs and by adjusting only a couple of learning-rate parameters, the new HMAX/COVIS model provides impressively good fits to human category-learning data from two qualitatively different experiments that used different types of category structures and different types of visual stimuli. Overall, the model provides a comprehensive neural and behavioral account of basal ganglia-mediated learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning and Cognition - The interplay between the Subject and the Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak; Fast, Alf Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between learning, epistemology and intersubjectivity in the context of problem-based learning and project-oriented work at a university level. It aims to show how the collaboration of students in a group over a longer period of time can put...... emphasis on the knowledge - practice discussion, and thereby on some of the values required to progress in science as a field and to develop knowledge. This article focuses on how to describe the dialectical interplay between the individual’s learning and the groups’ learning process, in the development...... of a project in a field. This process of a dialectical interplay is a matter of cognition and development of the self, and the development of competencies and knowledge. Learning is a process based on the involvement of the self, engaging in the interaction with a problem and with others. The process...

  10. Self-Regulated Learning from Illustrated Text: Eye Movement Modelling to Support Use and Regulation of Cognitive Processes during Learning from Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Katharina; Schubert, Carina; Schüler, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background: When learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school…

  11. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  12. Not worth the fuss after all? cross-sectional and prospective data on violent video game influences on aggression, visuospatial cognition and mathematics ability in a sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica; Ramos, Raul; Galindo, Mariza

    2013-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court's recent decision relating to violent video games revealed divisions within the scientific community about the potential for negative effects of such games as well as the need for more, higher quality research. Scholars also have debated the potential for violent games to have positive effects such as on visuospatial cognition or math ability. The current study sought to extend previous literature by using well-validated clinical outcome measures for relevant constructs, which have generally been lacking in past research. Cross-section data on aggression, visuospatial cognition, and math achievement were available for a sample of 333 (51.7 % female) mostly Hispanic youth (mean age = 12.76). Prospective 1-year data on aggression and school GPA were available for 143 (46.2 % female) of those youth. Results from both sets of analysis revealed that exposure to violent game had neither short-term nor long-term predictive influences on either positive or negative outcomes. A developmental analysis of the cross-sectional data revealed that results did not differ across age categories of older children, preadolescents or adolescents. Analysis of effect sizes largely ruled out Type II error as a possible explanation for null results. Suggestions for new directions in the field of video game research are proffered.

  13. The impact of service-learning on cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Bozeman, Marci L

    1996-01-01

    Providing students with service opportunities as an instructional tool has recently gained the attention of educators and legislative policy-makers. Participation in service activity has been positively correlated with attitudinal outcomes and the development of a responsible citizenry. While many philosophical and political proposals have been offered for why service-learning initiatives are important to higher education, this study attempted to gain insight into how service-learnin...

  14. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual Learning Simulations in High School: Effects on Cognitive and Non-cognitive Outcomes and Implications on the Development of STEM Academic and Career Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increas...

  16. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest

  17. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Wright, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest gains. PMID:29326636

  18. Effects of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on Cognitive Effort and Outcomes during Collaborative Learning within a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahai, Surinder; Jestire, Rebecca; Huang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning is a common e-learning activity. Instructors have to create appropriate social and instructional interventions in order to promote effective learning. We performed a study that examined the effects of two popular leadership interventions, transformational and transactional, on cognitive effort and outcomes…

  19. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F B Murphy

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up" and cognitive ("top-down" processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG, memory group (MG, auditory sensory group (SG, placebo group (PG; drawing, painting, and a control, untrained group (CG. Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest, most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness, as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further

  20. Generalization of Auditory Sensory and Cognitive Learning in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Moore, David R; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-established involvement of both sensory ("bottom-up") and cognitive ("top-down") processes in literacy, the extent to which auditory or cognitive (memory or attention) learning transfers to phonological and reading skills remains unclear. Most research has demonstrated learning of the trained task or even learning transfer to a closely related task. However, few studies have reported "far-transfer" to a different domain, such as the improvement of phonological and reading skills following auditory or cognitive training. This study assessed the effectiveness of auditory, memory or attention training on far-transfer measures involving phonological and reading skills in typically developing children. Mid-transfer was also assessed through untrained auditory, attention and memory tasks. Sixty 5- to 8-year-old children with normal hearing were quasi-randomly assigned to one of five training groups: attention group (AG), memory group (MG), auditory sensory group (SG), placebo group (PG; drawing, painting), and a control, untrained group (CG). Compliance, mid-transfer and far-transfer measures were evaluated before and after training. All trained groups received 12 x 45-min training sessions over 12 weeks. The CG did not receive any intervention. All trained groups, especially older children, exhibited significant learning of the trained task. On pre- to post-training measures (test-retest), most groups exhibited improvements on most tasks. There was significant mid-transfer for a visual digit span task, with highest span in the MG, relative to other groups. These results show that both sensory and cognitive (memory or attention) training can lead to learning in the trained task and to mid-transfer learning on a task (visual digit span) within the same domain as the trained tasks. However, learning did not transfer to measures of language (reading and phonological awareness), as the PG and CG improved as much as the other trained groups. Further research

  1. Learner differences and learning outcomes in an introductory biochemistry class: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Cultivating lived-body consciousness: Enhancing cognition and emotion through outdoor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorburn Malcolm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through using school-based outdoor learning as the research context, the paper analyses the connections between bodily experiences and the embodied mind. Recent theorizing in outdoor learning, in reflecting phenomenology and Deweyian influences, has teased out how the relationships between the self, others and nature (environment can be extended to include embodied experiences. This would, it is argued, add something extra to either the intrinsic pursuit of enjoying practical experiences or the instrumental quest for subject knowledge gains via cognitive- informed analytical cycles of action and reflection. While generally sympathetic to this critique, we consider there is a cognitive and emotional need for embodied experiences to demonstrate that they can be suitably contemplative as well. Through drawing upon Tiberius (2008 naturalist-informed theorizing, the paper reviews the part bodily experiences in outdoor learning can play in cultivating stable values and in developing reasoning practices that provide insights into how personal responsibility can be exercised in relation to how we live. Through referencing the Scottish policy context, the paper exemplifies how learning outdoors can flourish on the basis of a joint body-mind focus; where pupils review their relations with others and nature, as well as valuing times when they are absorbed in experiences which fully engage their personal interests, skills and capacities. To enhance the prospects of these learning gains occurring we provide a self-check set of questions for teachers to review to as part of appraisal of learning and teaching outdoors

  3. Introduction: digital games as a context for cognitive development, learning, and developmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Fran C; Fisch, Shalom M

    2013-01-01

    The authors present reasons why developmental psychologists should care about children's and adolescents' digital game play. These reasons may be identified as: a) digital game play is an integral aspect of children's and adolescents' lives; b) digital game play contributes to learning and cognitive development; and c) developmental research has the potential to contribute to effective educational game design. The authors expand on these reasons with the goal of introducing or reintroducing to developmental psychologists a rich and very relevant context in which to examine children's and adolescents' applied cognitive development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Physical aggressive resident behavior during hygienic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell Miller, M

    1997-05-01

    Management of aggressive behavior has been identified as a concern for nursing staff who provide institutional care for cognitively impaired elderly. The Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA '87) mandates a trial reduction in the use of chemical and physical restraints, and the development of nursing interventions for the management of behavioral disorders of institutionalized cognitively impaired elderly. Most skilled nursing facilities, however, are limited in their ability to provide environmental and behavioral programs to manage aggressive patient behavior. For the purposes of this study, physically aggressive behavior was identified as threatened or actual aggressive patient contact which has taken place between a patient and a member of the nursing staff. This study explored the nursing staff's responses to patient physical aggression and the effects that physical aggression had on them and on nursing practice from the perspective of the nursing staff. Nursing staff employed on one Dementia Special Care Unit (DSCU) were invited to participate. Interviews with nursing staff were analyzed using qualitative descriptive methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Nursing staff reported that they were subjected to aggressive patient behaviors ranging from verbal threats to actual physical violence. Nursing staff reported that showering a resident was the activity of daily living most likely to provoke patient to staff physical aggression. The findings revealed geropsychiatric nursing practices for the management of physically aggressive residents, and offered recommendations for improving the safety of nursing staff and residents on a secured DSCU.

  5. Stereotype Threat Effects on Learning From a Cognitively Demanding Mathematics Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Emily McLaughlin; Simms, Nina; Begolli, Kreshnik N; Richland, Lindsey E

    2018-03-01

    Stereotype threat-a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype-is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability (see Schmader & Beilock, ). We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction. Predominantly African American fifth-grade students provided either their race or the date before a videotaped, conceptually demanding mathematics lesson. Students who gave their race retained less learning over time, enjoyed the lesson less, reported a diminished desire to learn more, and were less likely to choose to engage in an optional math activity. The detrimental impact was greatest among students with high baseline cognitive resources. While stereotype threat has been well documented to harm test performance, the finding that effects extend to initial learning suggests that stereotype threat's contribution to achievement gaps may be greatly underestimated. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Learning to predict is spared in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-10-01

    Learning the statistics of the environment is critical for predicting upcoming events. However, little is known about how we translate previous knowledge about scene regularities to sensory predictions. Here, we ask whether patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) that are known to have spared implicit but impaired explicit recognition memory are able to learn temporal regularities and predict upcoming events. We tested the ability of MCI-AD patients and age-matched controls to predict the orientation of a test stimulus following exposure to sequences of leftwards or rightwards oriented gratings. Our results demonstrate that exposure to temporal sequences without feedback facilitates the ability to predict an upcoming stimulus in both MCI-AD patients and controls. Further, we show that executive cognitive control may account for individual variability in predictive learning. That is, we observed significant positive correlations of performance in attentional and working memory tasks with post-training performance in the prediction task. Taken together, these results suggest a mediating role of circuits involved in cognitive control (i.e. frontal circuits) that may support the ability for predictive learning in MCI-AD.

  7. Comparing the neural basis of monetary reward and cognitive feedback during information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Reka; Pollmann, Stefan

    2010-01-06

    The dopaminergic system is known to play a central role in reward-based learning (Schultz, 2006), yet it was also observed to be involved when only cognitive feedback is given (Aron et al., 2004). Within the domain of information-integration category learning, in which information from several stimulus dimensions has to be integrated predecisionally (Ashby and Maddox, 2005), the importance of contingent feedback is well established (Maddox et al., 2003). We examined the common neural correlates of reward anticipation and prediction error in this task. Sixteen subjects performed two parallel information-integration tasks within a single event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging session but received a monetary reward only for one of them. Similar functional areas including basal ganglia structures were activated in both task versions. In contrast, a single structure, the nucleus accumbens, showed higher activation during monetary reward anticipation compared with the anticipation of cognitive feedback in information-integration learning. Additionally, this activation was predicted by measures of intrinsic motivation in the cognitive feedback task and by measures of extrinsic motivation in the rewarded task. Our results indicate that, although all other structures implicated in category learning are not significantly affected by altering the type of reward, the nucleus accumbens responds to the positive incentive properties of an expected reward depending on the specific type of the reward.

  8. SAIDO learning as a cognitive intervention for dementia care: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Ryuta; Hiller, Deborah Lewis; Sereda, Sheryl L; Antonczak, Michelle; Serger, Kara; Gannon, Denise; Ito, Shinji; Otake, Hiroshi; Yunomae, Daisaku; Kobayashi, Akihito; Muller, Christopher; Murata, Hiroyuki; FallCreek, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects on cognitive function by a cognitive intervention program designed for dementia care called Learning Therapy in Japan and SAIDO Learning in the United States (hereinafter "SAIDO Learning," as appropriate). SAIDO Learning is a working memory training program that uses systematized basic problems in arithmetic and language, including reading aloud, as well as writing. Twenty-three nursing home residents with dementia were assigned as an intervention group, and another 24 people with dementia at another nursing home were assigned as a control group. Both nursing homes were operated by the same organization, and residents of both nursing homes received essentially the same nursing care. Thirteen and 6 subjects of the intervention and control groups, respectively, were clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer disease (AD). After the 6-month intervention, the participants with AD of the intervention group showed statistically significant improvement in cognitive function, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) compared with the control participants. In addition, post hoc analysis revealed that the Frontal Assessment Battery at Bedside (FAB) scores of the intervention group tended to improve after 6-month intervention. Based on MDS scores, improvements in total mood severity scores also were observed, but only in the intervention group of the participants with AD. These results suggest that SAIDO Learning is an effective cognitive intervention and is useful for dementia care. An additional outcome of this intervention, which has not yet been evaluated in detail, appears to be that it promotes greater positive engagement of a diversity of nursing home staff in the residents' individual progress and care needs. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaric, Martin; Boutis, Kathy; Beckstead, Jason; Pusic, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online. To illustrate the big data component, they highlight the data available in a digital environment (time-stamped, click-level process data). Learning analytics were illustrated using algorithmic computer-enabled approaches to process-level feedback.For each phase, the authors were able to identify examples of potentially useful BD/LA measures. For orientation, the trackable behavior of re-reviewing the clinical history was associated with increased diagnostic accuracy. For searching/scanning, evidence of skipping views was associated with an increased false-negative rate. For feature detection, heat maps overlaid on the radiograph can provide a metacognitive visualization of common novice errors. For decision making, the measured influence of sequence effects can reflect susceptibility to bias, whereas computer-generated path maps can provide insights into learners' diagnostic strategies.In conclusion, the augmented collection and dynamic analysis of learning process data within a cognitive simulation can improve feedback and prompt more precise reflection on a novice clinician's skill development.

  10. Cognitive learning is associated with gray matter changes in healthy human individuals: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Antonia; Rocca, Maria Assunta; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2009-11-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated morphological changes in cortical structures following motor and cognitive learning. In this study, we applied, for the first time, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess the short-term structural brain gray matter (GM) changes associated with cognitive learning in healthy subjects. Using a 3 T scanner, a 3D T1-weighted sequence was acquired from 32 students at baseline and after two weeks. Students were separated into two groups: 13 defined as "students in cognitive training", who underwent a two-week cognitive learning period, and 19 "students not in cognitive training", who were not involved in any teaching activity. GM changes were assessed using TBM and statistical parametric mapping. Baseline regional GM volume did not differ between the two groups. At follow up, compared to "students not in cognitive training", the "students in cognitive training" had a significant GM volume increase in the dorsomedial frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the precuneus (p<0.001). These results suggest that cognitive learning results in short-term structural GM changes of neuronal networks of the human brain, which are known to be involved in cognition. This may have important implications for the development of rehabilitation strategies in patients with neurological diseases.

  11. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  12. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is always more effective to positively reinforce desired behaviors and to teach children alternative behaviors rather ... he is angry, but instead to express his feelings through words. It’s important for him to learn ...

  13. Verbal learning in schizopsychotic outpatients and healthy volunteers as a function of cognitive performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karilampi, Ulla; Helldin, Lars; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Norlander, Torsten; Archer, Trevor

    2007-02-01

    The aim was to analyze and compare neurocognitive test profiles related to different levels of verbal learning performance among schizopsychotic patients and healthy volunteers. A single-center patient cohort of 196 participants was compared with an equal-sized volunteer group to form three cognitive subgroups based on the shared verbal learning performance. 43.9% of the patients had normal learning ability. Despite this, all patients underperformed the volunteers on all subtests with the exception of working memory, and, for those with high learning ability, even verbal facility. All patients also presented equally poor visuomotor processing speed/efficacy. A global neurocognitive retardation of speed-related processing in schizophrenia is suggested.

  14. Triangular relationship between sleep spindle activity, general cognitive ability and the efficiency of declarative learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lustenberger

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.

  15. Food2Learn: Randomized control trial investigating influence of krill oil supplementation on learning, cognition, and behaviour in healthy adolescents. Design presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; Von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Food2Learn is a double blind randomized controlled trial which looks at the influence of Krill oil (rich in LCPUFA) on the cognitive performance, academic performance and mental well-being of student of lower vocational schools.

  16. A synthesis of mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no LD. Overall results revealed that students with mathematics LD exhibited higher word problem-solving abilities and no significant group differences on working memory, long-term memory, and metacognition measures compared to students with LD in mathematics and reading. Findings also revealed students with mathematics LD demonstrated significantly lower performance compared to age- or grade-matched students with no LD on both mathematical and cognitive measures. Comparison between students with mathematics LD and younger students with no LD revealed mixed outcomes on mathematical measures and generally no significant group differences on cognitive measures. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  17. Cognitive, academic, and attitudinal predictors of the grade point averages of college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Wren, Carol T

    2003-01-01

    This study examined cognitive, academic, and attitudinal predictors of college grade point average (GPA) among college students with learning disabilities (LD). The study population included 84 youth who attended a large private university in the midwestern United States. Measures of cognitive and academic functioning, along with a self-report measure of study habits and study attitudes, were used to predict college GPA. The results indicated that Full Scale IQ and one factor on the self-reported study habits scale accounted for a significant amount of variance in students' college GPA. These findings suggest that variables other than traditional cognitive and academic skills are important for determining the performance of youth with LD during college. The implications of these findings for future research efforts and practice are discussed.

  18. Optimizing physicians' instruction of PACS through e-learning: cognitive load theory applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, P; Pynoo, B; Voet, T; Adang, L; Vercruysse, J; Duyck, P

    2009-03-01

    This article outlines the strategy used by our hospital to maximize the knowledge transfer to referring physicians on using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). We developed an e-learning platform underpinned by the cognitive load theory (CLT) so that in depth knowledge of PACS' abilities becomes attainable regardless of the user's prior experience with computers. The application of the techniques proposed by CLT optimizes the learning of the new actions necessary to obtain and manipulate radiological images. The application of cognitive load reducing techniques is explained with several examples. We discuss the need to safeguard the physicians' main mental processes to keep the patient's interests in focus. A holistic adoption of CLT techniques both in teaching and in configuration of information systems could be adopted to attain this goal. An overview of the advantages of this instruction method is given both on the individual and organizational level.

  19. Thinking about online sources: Exploring students' epistemic cognition in internet-based chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting

    This dissertation investigated the relation between epistemic cognition---epistemic aims and source beliefs---and learning outcome in an Internet--based research context. Based on a framework of epistemic cognition (Chinn, Buckland, & Samarapungavan, 2011), a context--specific epistemic aims and source beliefs questionnaire (CEASBQ) was developed and administered to 354 students from college--level introductory chemistry courses. A series of multitrait--multimethod model comparisons provided evidence for construct convergent and discriminant validity for three epistemic aims--- true beliefs, justified beliefs, explanatory connection, which were all distinguished from, yet correlated with, mastery goals. Students' epistemic aims were specific to the chemistry topics in research. Multidimensional scaling results indicated that students' source evaluation was based on two dimensions--- professional expertise and first--hand knowledge, suggesting a multidimensional structure of source beliefs. Most importantly, online learning outcome was found to be significantly associated with two epistemic aims---justified beliefs and explanatory connection: The more students sought justifications in the online research, the lower they tended to score on the learning outcome measure, whereas the more students sought explanatory connections between information, the higher they scored on the outcome measure. There was a significant but small positive association between source beliefs and learning outcome. The influences of epistemic aims and source beliefs on learning outcome were found to be above and beyond the effects of a number of covariates, including prior knowledge and perceived ability with online sources.

  20. Cognition and learning in horses (Equus caballus): What we know and why we should ask more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Lauren; Udell, Monique A R

    2016-05-01

    Horses (Equus caballus) have a rich history in their relationship with humans. Across different cultures and eras they have been utilized for work, show, cultural rituals, consumption, therapy, and companionship and continue to serve in many of these roles today. As one of the most commonly trained domestic animals, understanding how horses learn and how their relationship with humans and other horses impacts their ability to learn has implications for horse welfare, training, husbandry and management. Given that unlike dogs and cats, domesticated horses have evolved from prey animals, the horse-human relationship poses interesting and unique scientific questions of theoretical value. There is still much to be learned about the cognition and behaviour of horses from a scientific perspective. This review explores current research within three related areas of horse cognition: human-horse interactions, social learning and independent learning in horses. Research on these topics is summarized and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z; Khalid, M N

    2014-01-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  2. Reduction of cognitive conflict and learning style impact towards student-teacher's misconception load

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'yun, Kurroti; Suyono, Poedjiastoeti, Sri; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial issue in education is a misconception that is caused by the misconception of the students themselves. Therefore, this study provided the solution to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in the schools through the remediation of misconceptions to the chemistry teacher candidates. This study employed a mixed method approach using concurrent embedded designs where it tended more to the qualitative research, but it still relied on the quantitative research in the assessment of the learning impact. The results of this study were the students with higher levels of cognitive conflict still have high loads of misconceptions (MC), it possibly due to the type of students' learning styles that is the sequential-global balanced. To facilitate the cognitive conflict character and the learning style of sequential-global balanced, the researchers created an integrated worksheet conceptual change with peer learning (WCCPL). The peer learning undertaken in the last stages of conceptual change of WCCPL can increase the resistance of students' concept in a category of knowing the concept significantly, but it should be examined in an in-depth study related to the long-term memory.

  3. Statistical learning and probabilistic prediction in music cognition: mechanisms of stylistic enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus T

    2018-05-11

    Music perception depends on internal psychological models derived through exposure to a musical culture. It is hypothesized that this musical enculturation depends on two cognitive processes: (1) statistical learning, in which listeners acquire internal cognitive models of statistical regularities present in the music to which they are exposed; and (2) probabilistic prediction based on these learned models that enables listeners to organize and process their mental representations of music. To corroborate these hypotheses, I review research that uses a computational model of probabilistic prediction based on statistical learning (the information dynamics of music (IDyOM) model) to simulate data from empirical studies of human listeners. The results show that a broad range of psychological processes involved in music perception-expectation, emotion, memory, similarity, segmentation, and meter-can be understood in terms of a single, underlying process of probabilistic prediction using learned statistical models. Furthermore, IDyOM simulations of listeners from different musical cultures demonstrate that statistical learning can plausibly predict causal effects of differential cultural exposure to musical styles, providing a quantitative model of cultural distance. Understanding the neural basis of musical enculturation will benefit from close coordination between empirical neuroimaging and computational modeling of underlying mechanisms, as outlined here. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Implicit learning deficit in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Evidence for a cerebellar cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Stefano; Piccini, Giorgia; Mercuri, Eugenio; Battini, Roberta; Chieffo, Daniela; Bulgheroni, Sara; Pecini, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Lenzi, Sara; Moriconi, Federica; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Astrea, Guja; Baranello, Giovanni; Riva, Daria; Cioni, Giovanni; Alfieri, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing implicit sequence learning in individuals affected by Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy without intellectual disability and age-matched typically developing children. A modified version of the Serial Reaction Time task was administered to 32 Duchenne children and 37 controls of comparable chronological age. The Duchenne group showed a reduced rate of implicit learning even if in the absence of global intellectual disability. This finding provides further evidence of the involvement of specific aspects of cognitive function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and on its possible neurobiological substrate.

  5. A New Fuzzy Cognitive Map Learning Algorithm for Speech Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xueying; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate recognition method is crucial in speech emotion recognition applications. However, the current methods do not consider the relationship between emotions. Thus, in this study, a speech emotion recognition system based on the fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) approach is constructed. Moreover, a new FCM learning algorithm for speech emotion recognition is proposed. This algorithm includes the use of the pleasure-arousal-dominance emotion scale to calculate the weights between e...

  6. Consequences of Learned Helplessness and Recognition of the State of Cognitive Exhaustion in Persons with Mild Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Michał; Smoleń, Tomasz; Pilecka, Władysława

    2017-01-01

    Persons with intellectual disability are a group at risk of being exposed to overly demanding problem-solving situations, which may produce learned helplessness . The research was based on the informational model of learned helplessness. The consequences of exposure to an unsolvable task and the ability to recognize the symptoms of cognitive exhaustion were tested in 120 students with mild intellectual disability. After the exposure to the unsolvable task, persons in the experimental group obtained lower results than the control group in the escape/avoidance learning task, but a similar result was found in the divergent thinking fluency task. Also, participants in the experimental group had difficulties recognizing the symptoms of the cognitive exhaustion state. After a week's time, the difference in escape/avoidance learning performance was still observed. The results indicate that exposure to unsolvable tasks may negatively influence the cognitive performance in persons with intellectual disability, although those persons may not identify the cognitive state related to lowered performance.

  7. Blending technological, cognitive and social enablers to develop an immersive virtual learning environment for construction engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keenaghan, G.N.

    2018-01-01

    The conceptual framework of the proposed novel system was to provide a stimulating learning experience for dislocated digital learners, who are seen as individuals with different perceptions and expectations. In addition to functionally integrate technological, cognitive and social enablers, the

  8. Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., & Kirschner, P. (2007). Effect of problem solving support and cognitive style on idea generation: Implications for Technology-Enhanced-Learning. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 49-63.

  9. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-09-18

    The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled study. Fourteen schools from all five regions in Denmark participated. All students from 6th and 7th grades were invited to participate (n = 869) and consent was obtained for 87% (n = 759). Baseline measurements were obtained in November/December 2013 and follow-up measurements in May/June 2014. The intervention lasted five months and consisted of a "package" of three main components: PA during academic lessons, PA during recess and PA homework. Furthermore a cycling campaign was conducted during the intervention period. Intervention schools should endeavor to ensure that students were physically active for at least 60 min every school day. Cognitive function was measured by a modified Eriksen flanker task and academic skills by a custom made mathematics test. PA was objectively measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph, GT3X and GT3X+) and aerobic fitness assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (the Andersen intermittent running test). Furthermore, compliance with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade students. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012881 (10/10/2013).

  10. An approach to children's smoking behavior using social cognitive learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.

  11. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  12. Accent detection and social cognition: evidence of protracted learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C

    2018-03-01

    How and when do children become aware that speakers have different accents? While adults readily make a variety of subtle social inferences based on speakers' accents, findings from children are more mixed: while one line of research suggests that even infants may be acutely sensitive to accent unfamiliarity, other studies suggest that 5-year-olds have difficulty identifying accents as different from their own. In an attempt to resolve this paradox, the current study assesses American children's sensitivity to American vs. Dutch accents in two situations. First, in an eye-tracked sentence processing paradigm where children have previously shown sensitivity to a salient social distinction (gender) from voice cues, 3-5-year-old children showed no sensitivity to accent differences. Second, in a social decision-making task where accent sensitivity has been found in 5-year-olds, an age gradient appeared, suggesting that familiar accent preferences emerge slowly between 3 and 7 years. Counter to claims that accent is an early, salient signal of social group, results are more consistent with a protracted learning hypothesis that children need extended exposure to native-language sound patterns in order to detect that an accent deviates from their own. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQAgy3IFYXA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Social Constructivism: Does It Succeed in Reconciling Individual Cognition with Social Teaching and Learning Practices in Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the literature associated with social constructivism. It discusses whether social constructivism succeeds in reconciling individual cognition with social teaching and learning practices. After reviewing the meaning of individual cognition and social constructivism, two views--Piaget and Vygotsky's--accounting for learning…

  14. Dissecting Sequences of Regulation and Cognition: Statistical Discourse Analysis of Primary School Children's Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Extending past research showing that regulative activities (metacognitive and relational) can aid learning, this study tests whether sequences of cognitive, metacognitive and relational activities affect subsequent cognition. Scaffolded by a computer avatar, 54 primary school students (working in 18 groups of 3) discussed writing a report about a…

  15. The Effects of Social Cue Principles on Cognitive Load, Situational Interest, Motivation, and Achievement in Pedagogical Agent Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents have become popular in multimedia learning with combined delivery of verbal and non-verbal forms of information. In order to reduce unnecessary cognitive load caused by such multiple forms of information and also to foster generative cognitive processing, multimedia design principles with social cues are suggested…

  16. Reading Subtitles and Taking Enotes While Learning Scientific Materials in a Multimedia Environment: Cognitive Load Perspectives on EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John J. H.; Lee, Yuan-Husan; Wang, Dai-Yi; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of providing subtitles and taking enotes on cognitive load and performance. A total of 73 English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) undergraduates learned brain anatomy and cognitive functions through multimedia programs. We used a 2 (subtitle/no) x 2 (taking enotes/no) factorial design to test the following:…

  17. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning : Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to

  18. Factor Analytic Study of Cognitive Processing and Self Perception of Learning Disabilities among the Elementary Inclusive School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to explore the underlying construct of cognitive processing and self-perception of learning disabilities in elementary inclusive school children. A cognitive assessment test battery and self-perception of disabilities inventory was developed by the investigator and administered to 100 elementary sixth and…

  19. The Influence of E-learning Use to Student Cognitive Performance and Motivation in Digital Simulation Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigowati Tigowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the technology is growing and sophisticated. Technological advances have also entered the world of education. One of them their is  online learning. Examples of learning that utilizes technology that is using Schoology and Edmodo. By using Schoology and Edmodo is expected to increase student motivation and learning outcomes. This study investigates whether the use of different learning management would affect (1 the student’s cognitive achievement (2 student’s motivation (3 the level motivation. This research method using mixed methods. The data collection technique using the test method to determine the cognitive performance. Questionnaires and interviews to find the motivation. The analysis of quantitative data using normality test, homogeneity test, tests of balance and hypothesis testing using independent t test, while the analysis of qualitative data using interactive models. Based on the results of the study (1 there are differences in the cognitive performance between classes that use e-learning based Schoology and e-learning based Edmodo. The cognitive performance classes that use Schoology better than the class that uses Edmodo, because schoology easiness to acces, the students has a target value, better understand the lesson and more active in study this may have an effect on cognitive performance.(2 there is a difference in motivation between classes that use e-learning based Schoology and e-learning based Edmodo. Motivation class with Schoology based e-learning is better than classes with e-learning based Edmodo, because schoology can interested in simulation course, more passion, make happy, easier to learn anywhere and more motivated to learn. (3 the level of motivation of students using e-learning based Schoology and Edmodo included in the medium category

  20. Combining brain stimulation and video game to promote long-term transfer of learning and cognitive enhancement.

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    Looi, Chung Yen; Duta, Mihaela; Brem, Anna-Katharine; Huber, Stefan; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2016-02-23

    Cognitive training offers the potential for individualised learning, prevention of cognitive decline, and rehabilitation. However, key research challenges include ecological validity (training design), transfer of learning and long-term effects. Given that cognitive training and neuromodulation affect neuroplasticity, their combination could promote greater, synergistic effects. We investigated whether combining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with cognitive training could further enhance cognitive performance compared to training alone, and promote transfer within a short period of time. Healthy adults received real or sham tDCS over their dorsolateral prefrontal cortices during two 30-minute mathematics training sessions involving body movements. To examine the role of training, an active control group received tDCS during a non-mathematical task. Those who received real tDCS performed significantly better in the game than the sham group, and showed transfer effects to working memory, a related but non-numerical cognitive domain. This transfer effect was absent in active and sham control groups. Furthermore, training gains were more pronounced amongst those with lower baseline cognitive abilities, suggesting the potential for reducing cognitive inequalities. All effects associated with real tDCS remained 2 months post-training. Our study demonstrates the potential benefit of this approach for long-term enhancement of human learning and cognition.

  1. Instructional methods and cognitive and learning styles in web-based learning: report of two randomised trials.

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    Cook, David A; Gelula, Mark H; Dupras, Denise M; Schwartz, Alan

    2007-09-01

    Adapting web-based (WB) instruction to learners' individual differences may enhance learning. Objectives This study aimed to investigate aptitude-treatment interactions between learning and cognitive styles and WB instructional methods. We carried out a factorial, randomised, controlled, crossover, post-test-only trial involving 89 internal medicine residents, family practice residents and medical students at 2 US medical schools. Parallel versions of a WB course in complementary medicine used either active or reflective questions and different end-of-module review activities ('create and study a summary table' or 'study an instructor-created table'). Participants were matched or mismatched to question type based on active or reflective learning style. Participants used each review activity for 1 course module (crossover design). Outcome measurements included the Index of Learning Styles, the Cognitive Styles Analysis test, knowledge post-test, course rating and preference. Post-test scores were similar for matched (mean +/- standard error of the mean 77.4 +/- 1.7) and mismatched (76.9 +/- 1.7) learners (95% confidence interval [CI] for difference - 4.3 to 5.2l, P = 0.84), as were course ratings (P = 0.16). Post-test scores did not differ between active-type questions (77.1 +/- 2.1) and reflective-type questions (77.2 +/- 1.4; P = 0.97). Post-test scores correlated with course ratings (r = 0.45). There was no difference in post-test subscores for modules completed using the 'construct table' format (78.1 +/- 1.4) or the 'table provided' format (76.1 +/- 1.4; CI - 1.1 to 5.0, P = 0.21), and wholist and analytic styles had no interaction (P = 0.75) or main effect (P = 0.18). There was no association between activity preference and wholist or analytic scores (P = 0.37). Cognitive and learning styles had no apparent influence on learning outcomes. There were no differences in outcome between these instructional methods.

  2. Psychological, clinical and social characteristics of patients implementing different types of aggression in the hospital (gender aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the comparative analysis of clinical, social and psycho-pathological predictors of violations of the regime requirements, physical and verbal aggression among mentally ill women and men during the compulsory treatment are presented. It is revealed that the type of aggression in women sample significantly more frequently associated with clinical and social and pathopsychological characteristics: emotional unstable stew, learned in childhood and adolescence behavioral model of aggression and the severity of hostility and suspicion; the inertia of mental processes combined with low level of the cognitive functioning and a violation of insight in a broad sense. Among men – with the emotional and personal deformation, which were revealed before the beginning of illness, the decline in cognitive functioning and undeveloped links in the regulation of behavior, high level of aggressiveness in communication, internal conflict combined with the rigidity of self-concept. The authors concluded that assessment of risk factors from hospital-acquired aggression is an independent psycho-diagnostic work that needs to be provided with special tools, aimed whilst on the study of individual psychological characteristics of the regulation of behavior, strategies coping, communication installations and the treats of the aggression, as well as subjective ratings of social functioning in the hospital.

  3. On-campus or online: examining self-regulation and cognitive transfer skills in different learning settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Barak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was set to identify self-regulation skills required for online learning and to characterize cognitive transfer of on-campus and online students. The study included two groups of undergraduate students who studied the same course, but in different settings: online and on-campus. Data collected via an online survey and semi-structured interviews indicated that cognitive strategies and regulation of cognition are significant for successful online learning. Findings also indicated that the online students were more aware of mastery learning and information processing strategies than the on-campus peers. The online students specified the importance of planning, controlling, and evaluation skills for meaningful learning; whereas the on-campus students asserted lack of self-discipline and limited communication skills as barriers for distance learning. Near- and far-transfer components were identified, showing a significant positive correlation with self-regulation skills for both groups of learners.

  4. Physics students' approaches to learning and cognitive processes in solving physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Josee

    This study examined traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to teaching and the extent to which they foster the development of desirable cognitive processes, including metacognition, critical thinking, physical intuition, and problem solving among undergraduate physics students. The study also examined students' approaches to learning and their perceived role as physics students. The research took place in the context of advanced courses of electromagnetism at a Canadian research university. The cognitive science, expertise, physics and science education, instructional psychology, and discourse processes literature provided the framework and background to conceptualize and structure this study. A within-stage mixed-model design was used and a number of instruments, including a survey, observation grids, and problem sets were developed specifically for this study. A special one-week long problem-based learning (PBL) intervention was also designed. Interviews with the instructors participating in the study provided complementary data. Findings include evidence that students in general engage in metacognitive processes in the organization of their personal study time. However, this potential, including the development of other cognitive processes, might not be stimulated as much as it could in the traditional lecture instructional context. The PBL approach was deemed as more empowering for the students. An unexpected finding came from the realisation that a simple exposure to a structured exercise of problem-solving (pre-test) was sufficient to produce superior planning and solving strategies on a second exposure (post-test) even for the students who had not been exposed to any special treatment. Maturation was ruled out as a potential threat to the validity of this finding. Another promising finding appears to be that the problem-based learning (PBL) intervention tends to foster the development of cognitive competencies, particularly

  5. The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.

  6. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change. PMID:26483739

  7. Cognitive foundations of organizational learning: re-introducing the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kump, Barbara; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research into socio-cognitive foundations of organizational learning tends to disregard the distinction between declarative and non-declarative knowledge. By reviewing the literature from organizational learning research and cognitive psychology we explain that this distinction is crucial. We describe the foundations of organizational learning by referring to models that consider the interplay between individual and collective knowledge-related processes in organizations. We highlight the existence of a research gap resulting from the finding that these approaches have widely neglected the existence of different types of knowledge. We then elaborate on characteristics of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in general, consider organizations as structures of distributed cognition, and discuss the relationship between organizational knowledge and practice. Subsequently, we examine the role of declarative and non-declarative knowledge in the context of organizational learning. Here, we analyze (1) the cognitive and social mechanisms underlying the development of declarative and non-declarative knowledge within structures of distributed cognition; and (2) the relationship between alterations in declarative and non-declarative types of knowledge on the one hand and changes in organizational practice on the other. Concluding, we discuss implications of our analysis for organizational learning research. We explain how our integrative perspective may offer starting points for a refined understanding of the sub-processes involved in organizational learning and unlearning and may support a better understanding of practical problems related to organizational learning and change.

  8. Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre, Ed.

    Intended to illustrate the benefits of collaboration between scientists from psychology and computer science, namely machine learning, this book contains the following chapters, most of which are co-authored by scholars from both sides: (1) "Introduction: What Do You Mean by 'Collaborative Learning'?" (Pierre Dillenbourg); (2)…

  9. Cognitive Strategy in Learning Chemistry: How Chunking and Learning Get Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lah, Norma Che; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Hassan, Ruhaya

    2014-01-01

    The study explores chunking strategies applied in Short Term Memory (STM) by upper secondary students of mixed chemistry learning abilities. The aim of the study is to observe variations in chunking strategies utilized by these students when learning the Periodic Table of Elements in the Form Four Chemistry syllabus. Findings show that students…

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy in 22q11.2 microdeletion with psychotic symptoms: What do we learn from schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demily, Caroline; Franck, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes, with a widely underestimated prevalence between 1 per 2000 and 1 per 6000. Since childhood, patients with 22q11.2DS are described as having difficulties to initiate and maintain peer relationships. This lack of social skills has been linked to attention deficits/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression. A high incidence of psychosis and positive symptoms is observed in patients with 22q11.2DS and remains correlated with poor social functioning, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Because 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia share several major clinical features, 22q11.2DS is sometimes considered as a genetic model for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, almost no study suggests the use of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) in this indication. We reviewed what should be learned from schizophrenia to develop specific intervention for 22q11.2DS. In our opinion, the first step of CBT approach in 22q11.2DS with psychotic symptoms is to identify precisely which tools can be used among the already available ones. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targets integrated disorders, i.e. reasoning biases and behavior disorders. In 22q11.2DS, CBT-targeted behavior disorders may take the form of social avoidance and withdrawal or, in the contrary, a more unusual disinhibition and aggressiveness. In our experience, other negative symptoms observed in 22q11.2DS, such as motivation deficit or anhedonia, may also be reduced by CBT. Controlled trials have been studying the benefits of CBT in schizophrenia and several meta-analyses proved its effectiveness. Therefore, it is legitimate to propose this tool in 22q11.2DS, considering symptoms similarities. Overall, CBT is the most effective psychosocial intervention on psychotic symptoms and remains a relevant complement to pharmacological treatments such as antipsychotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. [Motives and interpersonal functions of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, K

    1987-06-01

    In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts

  13. The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alison Saricks

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the

  14. On the Role of Cognitive Abilities in Second Language Vowel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarvand Mokari, Payam; Werner, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gains from training in the discrimination of L2 vowel pairs. However, there were no significant correlations between attention control, AM, PSTM, and gains from training. These findings suggest the potential role of inhibitory control in L2 phonological learning. We suggest that inhibitory control facilitates the processing of L2 sounds by allowing learners to ignore the interfering information from L1 during training, leading to better L2 segmental learning.

  15. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  16. Cognitive Bias for Learning Speech Sounds From a Continuous Signal Space Seems Nonlinguistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine van der Ham

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When learning language, humans have a tendency to produce more extreme distributions of speech sounds than those observed most frequently: In rapid, casual speech, vowel sounds are centralized, yet cross-linguistically, peripheral vowels occur almost universally. We investigate whether adults’ generalization behavior reveals selective pressure for communication when they learn skewed distributions of speech-like sounds from a continuous signal space. The domain-specific hypothesis predicts that the emergence of sound categories is driven by a cognitive bias to make these categories maximally distinct, resulting in more skewed distributions in participants’ reproductions. However, our participants showed more centered distributions, which goes against this hypothesis, indicating that there are no strong innate linguistic biases that affect learning these speech-like sounds. The centralization behavior can be explained by a lack of communicative pressure to maintain categories.

  17. Learning and CRF-Induced Indecision during Escape and Submission in Rainbow Trout during Socially Aggressive Interactions in the Stress-Alternatives Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangi R. Summers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Socially stressful environments induce a phenotypic dichotomy of coping measures for populations in response to a dominant aggressor and given a route of egress. This submission- (Stay or escape-oriented (Escape dichotomy represents individual decision-making under the stressful influence of hostile social environments. We utilized the Stress-Alternatives Model (SAM to explore behavioral factors which might predict behavioral phenotype in rainbow trout. The SAM is a compartmentalized tank, with smaller and larger trout separated by an opaque divider until social interaction, and another divider occluding a safety zone, accessible by way of an escape route only large enough for the smaller fish. We hypothesized that distinctive behavioral responses during the first social interaction would indicate a predisposition for one of the behavioral phenotypes in the subsequent interactions. Surprisingly, increased amount or intensity of aggression received had no significant effect on promoting escape in test fish. In fact, during the first day of interaction, fish that turned toward their larger opponent during attack eventually learned to escape. Escaping fish also learn to monitor the patrolling behavior of aggressors, and eventually escape primarily when they are not being observed. Escape per se, was also predicted in trout exhibiting increased movements directed toward the escape route. By contrast, fish that consistently remained in the tank with the aggressor (Stay showed significantly higher frequency of swimming in subordinate positions, at the top or the bottom of the water column, as well as sitting at the bottom. In addition, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF-induced behavior, snap-shake, was also displayed in untreated fish during aggressive social interaction, and blocked by a CRF1 receptor antagonist. Especially prevalent among the Stay phenotype, snap-shake indicates indecision regarding escape-related behaviors. Snap-shake was also

  18. What Drives Students' Loyalty-Formation in Social Media Learning within a Personal Learning Environment Approach? The Moderating Role of Need for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquero, José L.; del Barrio-García, Salvador; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Our study analyzes an educational experience based on the integrated use of social media within a higher education course under a personal learning environment approach and investigates the factors that determine students' loyalty to social media learning. We examined the moderating role of need for cognition (NFC) in students' formation of…

  19. Partner relations in teaching as a factor encouraging learning and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Branka S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of partner relations established between teacher and student in encouraging learning and cognitive development. Partnership means a relationship where there exists equal mutual respect of partners. Learning is viewed as a construction process not as knowledge transmission and emphasis is placed on the importance of the "zone of subsequent development for asymmetric partner communication in the process of building up knowledge". Attention focuses on two methods of learning in the teaching process: teacher-student cooperative learning and modeling. Several forms of partner communication are analyzed: discussion, conversation in a circle and asking questions on the part of students. The importance of partnership in teaching is illustrated by the results of a host of contemporary investigations in the sphere of teaching and learning. The major implications of those investigations for teaching practice are as follows: creating relaxing and non-hierarchical atmosphere in the process of learning; teacher and student training for communication skills important for partner relations; teacher training for cooperative work with students and application of modeling; developing conditions for the emergence of situational interest in teaching; utilization of techniques for encouraging spontaneous and free students’ questions in teaching.

  20. Learning about cognition risk with the radial-arm maze in the developmental neurotoxicology battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been found in epidemiological studies to be among the most sensitive impairments associated with developmental exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants from heavy metals to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. These chemicals have been also shown to impair cognitive function after developmental exposure in experimental animal models. The radial-arm maze (RAM) has proven to be a sensitive and reliable way to assess both learning and memory in a variety of species, most often in rats and mice. The RAM is a very adaptable test method that takes advantage of rodents' instinct to explore new places in the environment to forage. That is, rodents do not need to be trained to run through the maze; they will normally do this from the initial session of testing. Training with differential reinforcement for arm choices provides a more rigorous test of learning and memory. The RAM is quite adaptable for assessing various aspects of cognition. Although the RAM has been mostly used to assess spatial learning and memory, it can be configured to assess non-spatial memory as well. Both working and reference memory can be easily distinguished. The RAM can be run with both appetitive (food reinforced) and aversive (water escape) motivators. The RAM has been found to be sensitive to a wide variety of developmental toxicants including heavy metals such as mercury and pesticides such as chlorpyrifos. There is an extremely rich literature especially with rats showing the effects of many types of brain lesions and drug effects so that the participation of a wide variety of neural systems in RAM performance is known. These systems, notably the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and acetylcholine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems, are the same neural systems that have been shown in humans to be critical for learning and memory. This considerably aids the interpretation of neurobehavioral toxicity studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Estrogens and cognition: Friends or foes?: An evaluation of the opposing effects of estrogens on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Donna L; Pisani, Samantha L

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estrogens are becoming well known for their robust enhancement on cognition particularly for learning and memory that relies upon functioning of the hippocampus and related neural systems. What is also emerging is that estrogen modulation of cognition is not uniform, at times enhancing yet at other times impairing learning. This review explores the bidirectional effects of estrogens on learning from a multiple memory systems view, focusing on the hippocampus and striatum, whereby modulation by estrogens sorts according to task attributes and neural systems engaged during cognition. We highlight our findings showing that the ability to solve hippocampus-sensitive tasks typically improves under relatively high estrogen status while the ability to solve striatum-sensitive tasks degrades with estrogen exposures. Though constrained by dose and timing of exposure, these opposing enhancements and impairments of cognition can be observed following treatments with different estrogenic compounds including the hormone estradiol, the isoflavone genistein found in soybeans, and agonists that are selective for specific estrogen receptors, suggesting that activation of a single receptor type is sufficient to produce the observed shifts in learning strategies. Using this multi-dimensional framework will allow us to extend our thinking of the relationship between estrogens and cognition to other brain regions and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. YouTube and Skype Modes of Virtual Learning Performance in Relations to Cognitive Styles of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ananta Kumar; Deka, Monisha; Barman, Munmi

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to find out the relationship between cognitive styles, YouTube learning and Skype learning performance of secondary school students. For that purpose, the researchers randomly selected 20 students from two 9th standards of two English medium secondary schools of Silchar Town, Assam, India to conduct the experiment. Quasi…

  3. Media Presentation Mode, English Listening Comprehension and Cognitive Load in Ubiquitous Learning Environments: Modality Effect or Redundancy Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2011-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media presentation modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media presentation mode (sound and text versus sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load.…

  4. Applying Social Tagging to Manage Cognitive Load in a Web 2.0 Self-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Web-based self-learning (WBSL) has received a lot of attention in recent years due to the vast amount of varied materials available in the Web 2.0 environment. However, this large amount of material also has resulted in a serious problem of cognitive overload that degrades the efficacy of learning. In this study, an information graphics method is…

  5. Do English Listening Outcome and Cognitive Load Change for Different Media Delivery Modes in U-Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lei, Hao; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning enhances students' access to learning materials, it is crucial to find out which media delivery modes produce the best results for English listening comprehension. The present study examined the effect of media delivery mode (sound and text vs. sound) on English listening comprehension and cognitive load. Participants…

  6. Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Editor's introduction & Editor's closing thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Young, R.F.; Ortega, L.

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential

  7. The Multimedia-Based Learning System Improved Cognitive Skills and Motivation of Disabled Children with a Very High Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sawsan; Dandashi, Amal; Aljaam, Jihad M.; Saleh, Moataz

    2015-01-01

    A multimedia-based learning system to teach children with intellectual disabilities (ID) the basic living and science concepts is proposed. The tutorials' development is pedagogically based on Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning combined with Skinner's Operant Conditioning Model. Two types of tutorials are proposed. In the first type;…

  8. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  9. Does Staff Development in Cognitively Guided Instructional Theory Change Middle School Teachers' Mental Models about Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Judith R.

    This practicum was designed to increase middle-level teaching teams' understanding of cognitively guided instructional strategies or brain-based learning theories and to promote the incorporation of these strategies into the teaching of cross-curriculum thematic units. Twelve staff development modules based on a new perspective of learning which…

  10. Effects of Cognitive Styles on an MSN Virtual Learning Companion System as an Adjunct to Classroom Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study designed a chatbot system, Confucius, as a MSN virtual learning companion to examine how specific application design variables within educational software affect the learning process of subjects as defined by the cognitive continuum of field-dependent and field-independent learners. 104 college students participated in a 12 week…

  11. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostons, Danny; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004

  12. Learning Classification Models of Cognitive Conditions from Subtle Behaviors in the Digital Clock Drawing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard-Mandar, William; Davis, Randall; Rudin, Cynthia; Au, Rhoda; Libon, David J; Swenson, Rodney; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Penney, Dana L

    2016-03-01

    The Clock Drawing Test - a simple pencil and paper test - has been used for more than 50 years as a screening tool to differentiate normal individuals from those with cognitive impairment, and has proven useful in helping to diagnose cognitive dysfunction associated with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other dementias and conditions. We have been administering the test using a digitizing ballpoint pen that reports its position with considerable spatial and temporal precision, making available far more detailed data about the subject's performance. Using pen stroke data from these drawings categorized by our software, we designed and computed a large collection of features, then explored the tradeoffs in performance and interpretability in classifiers built using a number of different subsets of these features and a variety of different machine learning techniques. We used traditional machine learning methods to build prediction models that achieve high accuracy. We operationalized widely used manual scoring systems so that we could use them as benchmarks for our models. We worked with clinicians to define guidelines for model interpretability, and constructed sparse linear models and rule lists designed to be as easy to use as scoring systems currently used by clinicians, but more accurate. While our models will require additional testing for validation, they offer the possibility of substantial improvement in detecting cognitive impairment earlier than currently possible, a development with considerable potential impact in practice.

  13. Cognitive decision modelling of emotion-based learning impairment in schizophrenia: the role of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Dymond, Simon; Cooper, Andrew; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2012-03-30

    Individuals with schizophrenia often lack insight or awareness. Resulting impairment has been observed in various cognitive domains and, recently, linked to problems in emotion-based learning. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been used to assess emotion-based decision-making in patients with schizophrenia, but results have been inconclusive. The current study further investigates emotion-based decision-making in schizophrenia by elucidating the unique contribution of awareness. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls were assessed with a modified version of the IGT recording awareness at regular intervals. Symptom assessment, medication and medical history were recorded for the clinical group. Patients with schizophrenia underperformed on the IGT compared to controls. Subjective awareness levels were significantly lower in the schizophrenia group and were associated with hallucination severity. Cognitive decision modelling further indicated that patients with schizophrenia had impaired attention to losses, compared to controls. This parameter was positively correlated with awareness. We also found that positive symptoms altered awareness levels and suggest that this disruption may contribute to sub-optimal decision-making. Overall, a lack of awareness may be an important aspect in understanding impaired social cognitive functioning and emotion-based learning observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a Mindfulness Meditation Course on Learning and Cognitive Performance among University Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Hoi Ching

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness training has recently gained much research interest because of its putative benefits for both mental and physical health. However, little is available in its effects on Asian students. Therefore, a quasi-experimental pre/posttest design was used to assess the effects of a one-semester mindfulness meditation course in 152 first-year Taiwanese university students and compared with 130 controls. The Chinese version of the College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI and a computer software program focused on specific cognitive tasks were used for the evaluation. Results from the analysis of covariance revealed that while the score of the full CLEI scale was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control (P=0.022, none of the comparisons between the nine CLEI subscales were significantly different between the two groups. For the computer cognitive tasks, the intervention group exhibited significantly better performance in the accuracy of the digital vigilance task (P=0.048, choice reaction time (P=0.004, spatial working memory (P=0.042, and digital vigilance task reaction time (P=0.004. This study showed that a one-semester mindfulness meditation course was able to improve learning effectiveness and both attention and memory aspects of cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students.

  15. Parent-Child Interaction, Television Violence, and Aggression of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews findings of two longitudinal studies on development of aggression. Observes that the process by which children learn violence from television is circular: i.e., aggressive children are unpopular and consequently spend less time with peers and more time watching television, which in turn, assures them that aggressive behavior is…

  16. Modafinil combined with cognitive training is associated with improved learning in healthy volunteers--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleen, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Reichenberg, A; Drake, R; Wykes, T; Lewis, S W; Kapur, S

    2014-04-01

    Improving cognition in people with neuropsychiatric disorders remains a major clinical target. By themselves pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have shown only modest effects in improving cognition. In the present study we tested a recently-proposed methodology to combine CT with a 'cognitive-enhancing' drug to improve cognitive test scores and expanded on previous approaches by delivering combination drug and CT, over a long intervention of repeated sessions, and used multiple tasks to reveal the cognitive processes being enhanced. We also aimed to determine whether gains from this combination approach generalised to untrained tests. In this proof of principle randomised-controlled trial thirty-three healthy volunteers were randomised to receive either modafinil or placebo combined with daily cognitive training over two weeks. Volunteers were trained on tasks of new-language learning, working memory and verbal learning following 200 mg modafinil or placebo for ten days. Improvements in trained and untrained tasks were measured. Rate of new-language learning was significantly enhanced with modafinil, and effects were greatest over the first five sessions. Modafinil improved within-day learning rather than between-day retention. No enhancement of gains with modafinil was observed in working memory nor rate of verbal learning. Gains in all tasks were retained post drug-administration, but transfer effects to broad cognitive abilities were not seen. This study shows that combining CT with modafinil specifically elevates learning over early training sessions compared to CT with placebo and provides a proof of principle experimental paradigm for pharmacological enhancement of cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Linearized and Kernelized Sparse Multitask Learning for Predicting Cognitive Outcomes in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD has been not only the substantial financial burden to the health care system but also the emotional burden to patients and their families. Predicting cognitive performance of subjects from their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI measures and identifying relevant imaging biomarkers are important research topics in the study of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, the multitask learning (MTL methods with sparsity-inducing norm (e.g., l2,1-norm have been widely studied to select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures. However, these previous works formulate the prediction tasks as a linear regression problem. The major limitation is that they assumed a linear relationship between the MRI features and the cognitive outcomes. Some multikernel-based MTL methods have been proposed and shown better generalization ability due to the nonlinear advantage. We quantify the power of existing linear and nonlinear MTL methods by evaluating their performance on cognitive score prediction of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, we extend the traditional l2,1-norm to a more general lql1-norm (q≥1. Experiments on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database showed that the nonlinear l2,1lq-MKMTL method not only achieved better prediction performance than the state-of-the-art competitive methods but also effectively fused the multimodality data.

  18. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  19. COGNITIVE ARPOACH TO MOTIVATION AND ITS PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATION IN EFL LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanto Ardi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore university students’ motivation from the perspectives of cognitive approach and discuss its pedagogical implication in EFL learning. A questionnaire which consisted of 19 Likert-scale items was distributed to 192 students. The questionnaire was adapted from Language Learning Orientation Scale, which was developed by Noels, Pelletier, Clément, and Vallerand (2000. The language learning orientation scale was developed based on self-determination theory. The items of the instrument sought to explore students’ level of cognitive motivation, which were originally grouped into six aspects, such as external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation-accomplishment, intrinsic motivation-knowledge and intrinsic motivation-stimulation. The results of the research suggested that the students were identified with a high degree of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The pedagogical implications EFL teachersmay provide include authentic materials and communication, students’ engagement and collaboration, as well as feedback and reward. The pedagogical implications are expected to increase students’ current state of motivation.

  20. Understanding negative impacts of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness: a social capital solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a model explaining how social capital helps ease excessively required mental effort. Although organizational researchers have studied both social capital and cognitive load, no prior research has critically examined the role of social capital in improving individuals' mental load and effort and consequently enhancing job learning effectiveness. This study surveys participants made up of professionals in Taiwan's information technology industry. It measures the constructs with the use of 5-point Likert-type scale items modified from existing literature. The survey data were analyzed with the use of structural equation modeling. Job learning effectiveness is negatively influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Time pressure has a positive influence on role ambiguity and role conflict Although the relationship between task complexity and role ambiguity is insignificant, task complexity has a positive influence on role conflict. Because the relationship between network ties and role conflict is insignificant, trust has a negative influence on role conflict. Last, shared vision has a negative influence on role ambiguity. This study provides an example of how social capital can be applied as a useful remedy to ease the negative impact of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness. The negative relationship between shared vision and role ambiguity suggests that a shared vision helps in disseminating organizationally common goals and directions among employees to alleviate individuals' mental efforts in dealing with the ambiguity of their job roles. A firm's management team should take actions to decrease role conflict by strengthening trust among employees.

  1. The Effect of Think-Pair-Share-Write Based on Hybrid Learning on Metakognitive Skills, Creative Thinking and Cognitive Learning at SMA Negeri 3 Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Yulianti Siregar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of biology learning observation show that there are many constraints during the learning process in the class and consultation meeting between teacher and students. The think-pair-share-write based on hybrid learning was conducted to analyze the effect on metacognitive skills, creative thinking and learning outcomes. The research design was quasi experiment with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design. The independent variable is think-pair-share-write based on Hybrid learning model, while the dependent variables are metacognitive skills, creative thinking, and cognitive learning outcomes. Metacognitive skills are measured by using metacognitive rubrics. Creative thinking skills and cognitive learning outcomes are measured by using a description test. The data were taken by conducting pretest and posttest. The hypothesis test used was anakova with level of significance 0,05 (P <0,05, as the test result was significant then the test was continued to LSD. Before the anakova test, normality and homogeneity test were performed. The results showed that think-pair-share-write based on Hybrid Learning significantly affecting: 1 the metacognitive skills with F arithmetic of 183,472 and Sig. 0,000; 2 the creative thinking skill with F value of 325,111 and Sig. 0,000; 3 the cognitive learning outcomes with F arithmetic of 175.068 and Sig. 0,000.

  2. Integrating Emotion and Cognition in Successful Service Learning: A Complex System Approach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, F.

    2010-12-01

    learning, this system requires participants to elaborate and connect the three major components and continually update, modify and build on the learning experience and personal growth. Critical reflection activities are considered to be a powerful tool to bridge community service activities and the educational content. Reflection activities gauge students’ expectations, thoughts and understanding and, by making these evident to the students, can reveal less obvious aspects of the experience and support different interpretations of an event. However, in the form of critical reflection, they tend to exclude the role emotion may play throughout the learning process specifically for one of the three components -Personal Growth. Moreover, in the last decade neuroscience and psychology research shows that emotion is indispensable for conceiving rational thoughts, understanding and memory development and that a purely cognitive view on learning is not working. In our course we strove to design reflections that involve emotion and cognition and their interdependence in connecting the three components of S-L. A complex system approach is fundamental when challenges of integrating emotion and cognition in Service Learning need to be addressed.

  3. Fuzzy cognitive maps for applied sciences and engineering from fundamentals to extensions and learning algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) constitute cognitive models in the form of fuzzy directed graphs consisting of two basic elements: the nodes, which basically correspond to “concepts” bearing different states of activation depending on the knowledge they represent, and the “edges” denoting the causal effects that each source node exercises on the receiving concept expressed through weights. Weights take values in the interval [-1,1], which denotes the positive, negative or neutral causal relationship between two concepts. An FCM can be typically obtained through linguistic terms, inherent to fuzzy systems, but with a structure similar to the neural networks, which facilitates data processing, and has capabilities for training and adaptation. During the last 10 years, an exponential growth of published papers in FCMs was followed showing great impact potential. Different FCM structures and learning schemes have been developed, while numerous studies report their use in many contexts with highly successful m...

  4. Impact of Interactive Video Communication Versus Text-Based Feedback on Teaching, Social, and Cognitive Presence in Online Learning Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckman, Charlotte

    A key element to online learning is the ability to create a sense of presence to improve learning outcomes. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the impact of interactive video communication versus text-based feedback and found a significant difference between the 2 groups related to teaching, social, and cognitive presence. Recommendations to enhance presence should focus on providing timely feedback, interactive learning experiences, and opportunities for students to establish relationships with peers and faculty.

  5. Neuropsychological Test Selection for Cognitive Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis, clinical dementia rating; CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0 – 99.1%), geometric mean (60.9 – 98.1%), sensitivity (44.2 – 100%), and specificity (52.7 – 100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2 – 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. PMID:26332171

  6. Moving Beyond Misconceptions: A New Model for Learning Challenges in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    For over 40 years, the science education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about science, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has persuaded the CAPER Center for Astronomy and Physics Education Research to put forth model that will allow us to operate on students' learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g. spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in the Earth & Space Sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in the geosciences beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  7. Individual personality differences in goats predict their performance in visual learning and non-associative cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Prentice, Pamela M; McElligott, Alan G

    2017-01-01

    Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits ('exploration' and 'sociability') of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent across time and context. Less explorative goats performed better in a non-associative cognitive task, in which subjects had to follow the trajectory of a hidden object (i.e. testing their ability for object permanence). We also found that less sociable subjects performed better compared to more sociable goats in a visual discrimination task. Good visual learning performance was associated with a preference for feature cues, indicating personality-dependent learning strategies in goats. Our results suggest that personality traits predict the outcome in visual discrimination and non-associative cognitive tasks in goats and that impaired performance in a visual discrimination tasks does not necessarily imply impaired learning capacities, but rather can be explained by a varying preference for feature cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual and peer group normative beliefs about relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Hill, Laura G

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational aggression and tested the hypothesis that individual and classroom-level norms predict relational aggression 1 year later. Results showed that the transition to middle school was marked by increased approval of relational aggression, and individual norms predicted future relational aggression. Importantly, a contextual model showed that students in peer groups highly supportive of relational aggression became increasingly aggressive. Findings extend social information processing theories of relational aggression to focus on the role of peer group cognitions.

  9. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanair A. Lett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child’s neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050, isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m3 had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: −2.91, −0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12 had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: −2.30, −0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [−1.48, 95% CI: −2.79, −0.18; −1.05, 95% CI: −2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone

  10. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-26

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a

  11. Enhancing students’ cognitive skill in Nguyen Tat Thanh high school Hanoi Vietnam through scientific learning material of static electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanto, A.; Linuwih, S.; Aji, M. P.; Bich, D. D.

    2018-03-01

    Scientific learning material is still needed by students at Nguyen Tat Thanh High School (NTT), Hanoi Vietnam in order to enhance the students’ cognitive skill. Cognitive skill represents the level of students’ understanding to the particular material. Students’ cognitive skill can be improved by applying the learning material based on scientific approach as a treatment. The enhancement of students’ cognitive skill can be measured by analyzing the students’ test result collected before and after treatment. The analysis is focused to measure the enhancement or the sifted of cognitive aspects including remembering aspect (C1), understanding aspect (C2), applying aspect (C3), analyzing aspect (C4), and evaluating aspect (C5). According to the analysis the enhancement of cognitive aspects are 8.26% of remembering, 3.26% of understanding, 32.94% of applying, 21.74% of analyzing, and 21.74% of evaluating. The major enhancements are occured at applying, analyzing, and evaluating aspects. Therefore it can be concluded that students’ cognitive skill is enhanced by applying scientific learning material of static electricity.

  12. Cognitive Training and Work Therapy for the Treatment of Verbal Learning and Memory Deficits in Veterans With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Vissicchio, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Andrea J

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the efficacy of cognitive training for verbal learning and memory deficits in a population of older veterans with alcohol use disorders. Veterans with alcohol use disorders, who were in outpatient treatment at VA facilities and in early-phase recovery (N = 31), were randomized to receive a three-month trial of daily cognitive training plus work therapy (n = 15) or work therapy alone (n = 16), along with treatment as usual. Participants completed assessments at baseline and at three- and six-month follow-ups; the Hopkins Verbal Learning Task (HVLT) was the primary outcome measure. Participants were primarily male (97%) and in their mid-50s (M = 55.16, SD = 5.16) and had been sober for 1.64 (SD = 2.81) months. Study retention was excellent (91% at three-month follow-up) and adherence to treatment in both conditions was very good. On average, participants in the cognitive training condition had more than 41 hours of cognitive training, and both conditions had more than 230 hours of productive activity. HVLT results at three-month follow-up revealed significant condition effects favoring cognitive training for verbal learning (HVLT Trial-3 T-score, p cognitive training condition with clinically significant verbal memory deficits (p therapy alone condition and a trend toward significance for verbal learning deficits, which was not sustained at six-month follow-up. This National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded pilot study demonstrates that cognitive training within the context of another activating intervention (work therapy) may have efficacy in remediating verbal learning and memory deficits in patients with alcohol use disorder. Findings indicate a large effect for cognitive training in this pilot study, which suggests that further research is warranted. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 01410110).

  13. Learning in Educational Computer Games for Novices: The Impact of Support Provision Types on Virtual Presence, Cognitive Load, and Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schrader

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Embedding support devices in educational computer games has been asserted to positively affect learning outcomes. However, there is only limited direct empirical evidence on which design variations of support provision influence learning. In order to better understand the impact of support design on novices’ learning, the current study investigates how support devices and their type of provision (intrinsic vs. extrinsic determine games’ effectiveness on learning outcomes. This effectiveness is also related to how the design-type of provision influences learners’ virtual presence and cognitive load. Compared to an educational adventure game without additional support, the results indicate that the game equipped with support devices enhances learning outcomes, although no differences in cognitive load were found. A variation in the design of provision shows no effect. In order to gain a more thorough understanding of support devices and their design for games, additional learner characteristics (e.g., interest should be considered in future research.

  14. Mindfulness, Adult Learning and Therapeutic Education: Integrating the Cognitive and Affective Domains of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Although it has been given qualified approval by a number of philosophers of education, the so-called "therapeutic turn" in education has been the subject of criticism by several commentators on post-compulsory and adult learning over the last few years. A key feature of this alleged development in recent educational policy is said to be the…

  15. Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-09-30

    Competency with numbers is essential in today's society; yet, up to 20% of children exhibit moderate to severe mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Behavioural intervention can be effective, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying successful intervention are unknown. Here we demonstrate that eight weeks of 1:1 cognitive tutoring not only remediates poor performance in children with MLD, but also induces widespread changes in brain activity. Neuroplasticity manifests as normalization of aberrant functional responses in a distributed network of parietal, prefrontal and ventral temporal-occipital areas that support successful numerical problem solving, and is correlated with performance gains. Remarkably, machine learning algorithms show that brain activity patterns in children with MLD are significantly discriminable from neurotypical peers before, but not after, tutoring, suggesting that behavioural gains are not due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study identifies functional brain mechanisms underlying effective intervention in children with MLD and provides novel metrics for assessing response to intervention.

  16. Boys' and girls' use of cognitive strategy when learning to play video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Fran C; Sokol, Lori M

    2004-04-01

    The authors examined gender differences in the cognitive strategies that children use when they learn how to play a video game. They interviewed 2nd- and 5th-grade boys and girls about how often they played video games and what they did "when learning how to play a video game." The children's responses to the latter question were categorized as either internally or externally oriented (i.e., reading a manual vs. asking for help, respectively). The results indicated that more frequent players and older children were more likely to cite internally based strategies. No main effects of gender were found for the proportions of the internally vs. externally based strategies that were cited.

  17. A Study of Cognitive Load for Enhancing Student’s Quantitative Literacy in Inquiry Lab Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahman, T.; Alifiani, D. P.; Khoerunnisa, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Students often find it difficult to appreciate the relevance of the role of quantitative analysis and concept attainment in the science class. This study measured student cognitive load during the inquiry lab of the respiratory system to improve quantitative literacy. Participants in this study were 40 11th graders from senior high school in Indonesia. After students learned, their feelings about the degree of mental effort that it took to complete the learning tasks were measured by 28 self-report on a 4-point Likert scale. The Task Complexity Worksheet were used to asses processing quantitative information and paper based test were applied to assess participants’ concept achievements. The results showed that inquiry instructional induced a relatively low mental effort, high processing information and high concept achievments.

  18. How Environmental Attitudes Interact with Cognitive Learning in a Science Lesson Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane F. Schumm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As cognitive knowledge plays a major role in supporting proenvironmental behavior, identification of individual aspects related to knowledge acquisition is essential. Our study monitored knowledge levels before and after a science-based lesson set in relation to self-reported behavior and attitudinal preferences (attitudes towards environmental Preservation and Utilization of 190 students (Mage  ± SD: 15.96 ± 0.55; 51.1% female. A knowledge questionnaire was completed once before and twice after participation. Additionally, (i the 2-MEV (two Major Environmental Values and (ii the GEB (General Ecological Behavior were applied. Girls showed higher Preservation but lower Utilization attitudes than boys did. Learning success was positively related to Preservation preferences (for girls as well as to behavior-based scores (for girls and boys. For boys, high preferences in Utilization were negatively correlated with learning achievement.

  19. Supporting cognitive engagement in a learning-by-doing learning environment: Case studies of participant engagement and social configurations in Kitchen Science Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christina M.

    Learning-by-doing learning environments support a wealth of physical engagement in activities. However, there is also a lot of variability in what participants learn in each enactment of these types of environments. Therefore, it is not always clear how participants are learning in these environments. In order to design technologies to support learning in these environments, we must have a greater understanding of how participants engage in learning activities, their goals for their engagement, and the types of help they need to cognitively engage in learning activities. To gain a greater understanding of participant engagement and factors and circumstances that promote and inhibit engagement, this dissertation explores and answers several questions: What are the types of interactions and experiences that promote and /or inhibit learning and engagement in learning-by-doing learning environments? What are the types of configurations that afford or inhibit these interactions and experiences in learning-by-doing learning environments? I explore answers to these questions through the context of two enactments of Kitchen Science Investigators (KSI), a learning-by-doing learning environment where middle-school aged children learn science through cooking from customizing recipes to their own taste and texture preferences. In small groups, they investigate effects of ingredients through the design of cooking and science experiments, through which they experience and learn about chemical, biological, and physical science phenomena and concepts (Clegg, Gardner, Williams, & Kolodner, 2006). The research reported in this dissertation sheds light on the different ways participant engagement promotes and/or inhibits cognitive engagement in by learning-by-doing learning environments through two case studies. It also provides detailed descriptions of the circumstances (social, material, and physical configurations) that promote and/or inhibit participant engagement in these

  20. Effects of Weapons on Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, Hostile Appraisals, and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Weapons Effect Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Arlin J; Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-09-01

    Guns are associated with aggression. A landmark 1967 study showed that simply seeing a gun can increase aggression-called the "weapons effect." This meta-analysis integrates the findings of weapons effect studies conducted from 1967 to 2017. It includes 162 effect-size estimates from 78 independent studies involving 7,668 participants. The theoretical framework used to explain the weapons effect was the General Aggression Model (GAM), which proposes three routes to aggression-cognitive, affective, and arousal. The GAM also proposes that hostile appraisals can facilitate aggression. As predicted by the GAM, the mere presence of weapons increased aggressive thoughts, hostile appraisals, and aggression, suggesting a cognitive route from weapons to aggression. Weapons did not significantly increase angry feelings. Only one study tested the effects of weapons on arousal. These findings also contribute to the debate about social priming by showing that incidental exposure to a stimulus (weapon) can affect subsequent related behavior (aggression).