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Sample records for leafy vegetables grown

  1. Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications. ... the leafy vegetables is attributed to plant differences in tolerance to heavy metals. ... Treatment of industrial effluents and phyto-extraction of excess metals from ...

  2. Copper and lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the levels of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), in two popular leafy vegetables grown around Morogoro Municipality in Tanzania. Vegetable samples of Pumpkin leaves ( Cucurbita moschata) and Chinese cabbage ( Brassica chinensis) were collected from three sites and ...

  3. Copper and Lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forming an important source of vitamins and minerals ... and the interaction with other metals (Zurera et al., ... is an essential trace element in the functions of the ... The levels of Lead and Copper varied between the vegetable varieties and from ...

  4. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ M ), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  5. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prerequisite for successful in vitro culture is the establishment of an aseptic technique, thus the experiment was to investigate suitable sterilization regimes for the leaf explants of Gnetum africanum, an endangered green leafy vegetable. Three sterilization regimes were tested to establish the best regime using three to four ...

  6. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Craigon, J.; Young, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal ‘hazard quotient’ (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 ‘site-vegetable’ combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. - Highlights: ► Solubility of toxic metals in soils used for urban agriculture is highly variable. ► Washing leafy vegetables prior to cooking reduces consumption of Cr, Pb, As and Ni. ► Lead (Pb) presents the greatest hazard in produce from agriculture in Kampala City. ► Agriculture in East African cities can be practiced safely with the right choices. ► Soil screening to predict hazard to consumers may be useful in site surveys. - Peri-urban agriculture requires careful consideration of vegetable choice and site characteristics.

  8. in Leafy Vegetable and Pharmaceutical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    successfully employed for the determination of copper (II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. ... Our previous studies of transition metal ions such as zinc, cobalt and ..... A new method for extractive photometric determination of.

  9. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG and in the field (FG. An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH and cellular antioxidant (CAA assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil.

  10. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the Kenyan Context. ... The market share of ALVs vis-à-vis other vegetable species, particularly kales, cabbages and ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum Thonn. ex Hornem and Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.) of Benin, using flow cytometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. K Adéoti, A Rival, A Dansi, S Santoni, S Brown, T Beule, A Nato, Y Henry, R Vodouhe, L Loko, ...

  12. 76 FR 24291 - Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... the hearing indicates that the value of leafy green vegetables grown for the United States fresh and... the 2008 production value, lettuce crops accounted for 79 percent, cabbage accounted for 15 percent... Food Safety Guidelines for Lettuce and Leafy Greens Supply Chain''. These guidelines have not been...

  13. Dry deposition of radionuclides on leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Bunzl, K.; Pliml, A.; Dietl, F.; Keusch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetable was studied in chamber experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the 131 I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134 Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For lodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition velocity could be estimated, in average it was about 8times higher for 131 I than for 134 Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 I and 45% for 134 Cs. (orig.)

  14. Diversity, knowledge and use of leafy vegetables in northern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Vilkamaa, Anna M.; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    More than half of the world’s population is now living in urban areas, yet little is known on the transmission of traditional plant knowledge during urbanisation. This study assesses the diversity of leafy vegetables in urban markets and the current level of knowledge and use in Chiang Mai Province...... of Chiang Mai city. The residents participated in a knowledge test using photographs of six species widely used in dishes and six species specific to traditional homemade dishes. The diversity of leafy vegetables in urban areas of Chiang Mai Province has remained the same in the past decade. Leafy vegetable...

  15. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Despite the availability of many species of amaranth in Kenya, there is inadequate information on their nutritional diversity and how they can be best used in mitigation of malnutrition. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Methodology ...

  16. Pathogens and Heavy Metals Concentration in Green Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metal and bacterial pathogen in randomly collected samples of green leafy from various stations of Bengaluru city was detected. Heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium, nickel and lead were analyzed by tri-acid digestion method. The presence of heavy metals in general was in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb. Trace metal concentration in all green leafy vegetables of stations 1-5 were within permissible limit and it has been exceeded in station 6-10. This indicated high levels of soil contamination pose potential danger for the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Arakere lake, Bannerghatta road, Gottigere lake, Naganaikanakere, Bommasandra lake, Hulimavu lake, Kelaginakere and Amblipura lake. The total bacteria and coliforms were enumerated on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar and VRBA (Violet Red Bile Agar media respectively. The total bacterial count in randomly collected samples of coriander ranged from 296 cfu/g to 8 cfu/g, in palak from 16 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g, whereas in case of cabbage was 104 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g which is an indication of improper pre-harvest and post harvest handling.

  17. Carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mieko; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-04-23

    Because hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common, the carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables commercialized in Campinas, Brazil, was determined. All samples were collected and analyzed in winter. Lactucaxanthin was quantified for the first time and was found to have concentrations similar to that of neoxanthin in the four types of lettuce analyzed. Lutein predominated in cress, chicory, and roquette (75.4 +/- 10.2, 57.0 +/- 10.3, and 52.2 +/- 12.6 microg/g, respectively). In the lactucaxanthin-containing lettuces, beta-carotene and lutein were the principal carotenoids (ranging from 9.9 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g and from 10.2 +/- 1.0 to 22.9 +/- 2.6 microg/g, respectively). Comparison of hydroponic and field-produced curly lettuce, taken from neighboring farms, showed that the hydroponic lettuce had significantly lower lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin contents than the conventionally produced lettuce. Because the hydroponic farm had a polyethylene covering, less exposure to sunlight and lower temperatures may have decreased carotenogenesis.

  18. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria. U. E. Inyang. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria ... Green leafy vegetables as components of traditional foods .... promoting benefits of high fibre diets have made this class.

  19. Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...

  20. African leafy vegetables consumed by households in the Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pureed green leafy vegetables was shown to have a beneficial effect ..... was regarded as very nutritious; “having it is just like having meat”. ...... chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc.

  1. Utilization and Medicinal Value of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me ... A picture guide consisting of all foods available on the Nairobi markets was prepared, and used by the researchers to help the respondents to identify the ... Key words: Indigenous Leafy Vegetables, nutritional, medicinal ...

  2. Phytochemical profile of some green leafy vegetables in South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of eight common green leafy vegetables (GLV) in the raw and cooked forms as natural source of phytochemicals was assessed. The vegetables studied were the common ones found in southeast Nigeria and they included Ugu, Nchanwu, Okazi, Utazi, Oha, Nturukpa, Ahihara, and Onugbo. The vegetables ...

  3. Potential toxicity of some traditional leafy vegetables consumed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional leafy vegetables are those plants whose leaves or aerial parts have been integrated in a community's culture for use as food over a long span of time. These vegetables are highly recommended due to their relatively high nutritional value compared to the introduced varieties, and are also important in food ...

  4. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of four lesser – known leafy vegetable species (Heinsiacrinita, Lasiantheraafricana, Colocasiaesculenta and Ipomeabatatas) used for traditional food preparations by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in Nigeria were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral contents. The leaves were ...

  5. A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species

    OpenAIRE

    Sogbohossou, E.O.D.; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G.; Maundu, Patrick; Solberg, Svein; Deguenon, Edgar M.S.; Mumm, Rita H.; Hale, Iago; Deynze, van, Allen; Schranz, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for partici...

  6. African leafy vegetables in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    some of them grow as weeds, has a long history that has been intimately linked to women and their ..... African smallholders has been rapidly spreading from Vhembe ..... vegetables in household food security: a preliminary case study in.

  7. 8518 CONSUMPTION OF LEAFY VEGETABLES IN RURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... The head of the household was interviewed and question items ... crops which include alfalfa, wheat and barley with edible leaves are known [5]. .... vegetables for minimum loss of water-soluble nutrients, in spite of the high ...

  8. Mineral content of traditional leafy vegetables from western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, F.O.; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Larsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    and diseases. This paper describes the mineral (calcium, iron and zinc) contents in some 54 traditional vegetable species collected from Nyang'oma area of Bondo district, western Kenya. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content. We found that most traditional leafy vegetables......, domesticated and wild, generally contain higher levels of calcium, iron and zinc compared with the introduced varieties such as spinach (Spanacia oleracea), kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). The results of this study could contribute towards identification...

  9. Monitoring leafy vegetables through packaging films with

    OpenAIRE

    Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Lara, M.A.; Molina, Marta; Lleó García, Lourdes; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Artés Hernández, Francisco; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Fresh-cut or minimally processed fruit and vegetables have been physically modified from its original form (by peeling, trimming, washing and cutting) to obtain a 100% edible product that is subsequently packaged (usually under modified atmosphere packaging –MAP) and kept in refrigerated storage. In fresh-cut products, physiological activity and microbiological spoilage, determine their deterioration and shelf-life. The major preservation techniques applied to delay spoilage are chilling s...

  10. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  11. Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D

    1998-01-01

    Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value.

  12. African leafy vegetables in South Africa | Jan van Rensburg | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the term 'African leafy vegetables' was adopted to refer to the collective of plant species which are used as leafy vegetables and which are referred to as morogo or imifino by African people in South Africa. Function is central in this indigenous concept, which is subject to spatial and temporal variability in terms ...

  13. Modularized substrate culture:a new method for green leafy vegetable planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Quanxi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing general situation of green leafy vegetable production and main difficulty,we introduce the characteristics of modularized substrate culture for green leafy vegetable,and point out the important issues of modularized substrate culture which urgently need be solved in the coming future.

  14. Radiation processing of leafy vegetables to ensure their microbial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khade, H.D.; Jain, M.P.; Satyendra, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables which are consumed in raw form such as spinach, coriander and mint were found to be heavily burdened with microbial load including presumptive coliform, an indicator of pathogenic contaminations. Total aerobic plate counts in fresh spinach, coriander and mint samples collected from different location of Mumbai and nearby cities were found to be in the order of ∼ 10 7 to ∼ 10 8 CFU/g. In these samples yeast and mould count was in the order of ∼10 5 CFU/g and presumptive coliform in the order of ∼ 10 4 to ∼10 5 CFU/g. As per USFDA coliform load in the food commodity should be nil. The finding thus indicates that these fresh vegetables are not safe for raw consumption. Hence there is utmost need of process which can ensure the safety by reducing their microbial load below permissible level (<10 4 CFU/gm) and coliform load to nil without affecting the appearance and quality of such produce. In this study gamma radiation was used for hygienization of leafy vegetables. The sample were first cleaned in potable water followed by sodium hypochlorite wash (200 ppm for 20 min), air dried, packed in styrofoam based tray, wrapped with cling film and radiation processed at 1 to 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 and 10℃ . Post irradiation microbiological analysis of radiation processed samples was carried out at in 2 kGy irradiated samples total plate count was below ∼10 3 CFU/g and presumptive coliform count was below detectable level. Yeast and mould count in these samples also reduced to below ∼ 10 3 CFU/g. Based on the study the following combination treatment can be given to raw leafy vegetables, washing with potable water (5 min) → sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm 20 min) wash → Air drying → Packaging in styrofoam based tray and wrapping with cling film → Irradiation at 2 kGy → storage at 4℃ . Besides ensuring safety the treatment also resulted in increased shelf life extension of the commodities up to 20 days. (author)

  15. Vitamin A content of traditional leafy vegetables consumed by the Luo people of western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, Francis O.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Friis, H.

    2011-01-01

    and analyse traditional, leafy vegetables for pro-vitamin A carotenoids and tocopherols. A total of 15 domesticated and 36 wild traditional leafy vegetable species were collected and analysed. The species that contained the highest amounts of -carotene, lutein and -tocopherol was Erythrococca bongensis Pax (5.......3, 60.7 and 220.7 mg/kg DM, respectively). The results showed that wild plant species generally contained higher levels of pro-vitamin A carotenoids than the domesticated vegetable species and varieties. The study concluded that traditional, leafy vegetables (domesticated and wild) have the potential...

  16. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.

  17. Endogenous knowledge of four leafy vegetables used by rural populations in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihotogbe-Sossa, Carole N A; Akissoe, Noël H; Anihouvi, Victor B; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Ahanchede, Adam; Sanni, Ambaliou; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are sources of diet diversification and could contribute to food and nutritional security in African rural areas. However, in some places, little is known about if, how, and why leafy vegetables are consumed. Processing and preservation methods, food forms, and consumption determinants of four leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum, Ceratotheca sesamoïdes, Acmella uliginosa and Justicia tenella), known to contribute to the diet of rural populations in the Center and Northern parts of Benin, were investigated. Three hundred randomly selected households were investigated, using rapid appraisal and quantitative survey methods, descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis. Processing methods to prepare sauces varied depending on sociocultural groups. Cooking of fresh leaves predominated, while sun drying was the usual practice of preserving these leafy vegetables. Consumption frequencies were associated with sociocultural groups, food habits, and availability in living areas.

  18. Differences in the deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Heuberger, H.; Bunzl, K.; Pliml, A.; Dietl, F.; Keusch, M.

    2003-01-01

    To quantify the variability in deposition to several species, the dry deposition of gaseous elemental radio-iodine and particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetables was studied inside a deposition chamber by comparative experiments. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce, curly kale, white cabbage and spinach was performed under homogeneous and controlled conditions ( 131 vertical stroke 2 -portion, particle median, stomata opening, air humidity and temperature). Significant differences were observed for the 131 vertical stroke deposition on spring vegetables: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times that on leaf lettuce, 4times that on endive and 9times that on head lettuce. For 134 Cs, there was no significant difference between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For Iodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3times (6times) that on curly kale and 35times (100times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. For Caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35times (80times) that on white cabbage. The deposition was always the lowest on the closed heads of white cabbage and head lettuce. The many open stomata of spinach increased the efficiency of gaseous deposition. In addition, rough and crimpy leafs increased the particle deposition efficiency. The estimation of the deposition velocity showed that dry deposition was in average about 8times higher for 131 vertical stroke than for 134 Cs. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 10% for 131 vertical stroke and 45% for 134 Cs. (orig.) [de

  19. Differences in the dry deposition of gaseous elemental I-131 to several leafy vegetable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinonaga, T.; Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J.

    2004-01-01

    The height of the dry deposition of gaseous elemental 131 I to leafy vegetable is quite uncertain because of the different habit, surface texture and leaf uptake of the different plant species. There is no comparative data on the deposition to various species, but leafy vegetables are taken as reference plants for the estimation of the height of contamination of vegetable foods after a nuclear accident. Therefore new chamber experiments were performed to determine under homogeneous and controlled conditions the dry deposition of gaseous elemental 131 I on mature leafy vegetable. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was arranged. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the 131 I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3 times that on leaf lettuce, 4 times that on endive and 9 times that on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For Iodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3 times (6 times) that on curly kale and 35 times (100 times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. Washing by deionised water could reduce the contamination only by about 10% for 131 I. (author)

  20. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus viridis, Coriandrum sativum, and Trigonella foenum graecum in various sites in Raipur city, India. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to estimate the levels of these metals in vegetables. The mean concentration for each heavy metal in the samples was calculated and compared with the permissible levels set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization. The intake of heavy metals in the human diet was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Our findings indicated the presence of heavy metals in vegetables in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb. Based on these findings, we conclude that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption.

  1. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  2. Technogenic contamination of Bulgarian green leafy vegetation and its contribution to public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, P.; Vasilev, G.

    2007-01-01

    Main sources of excessive background ionizing radiation exposure for the Bulgarian public are the following: medical radiation procedures; occupational radiation exposure; enhanced natural radiation exposure (uranium mining and milling, artificial fertilizers, non-radioactive sources of energy, building materials etc.); environmental technogenic radionuclide contamination from global fallouts (1950-1970) and Chernobyl accident depositions (1986-1996 and after). The green leafy vegetation, incl. forage plants used for feeding of farm animals (sheep and cows) as well as leafy vegetables (lettuce, dock, spinach, parsley etc.) are one of the main reservoirs of technogenic radionuclides. Bulgaria is situated in the middle northern latitude zone (40 north - 50 north) where the global radioactive fallout from nuclear experiments (1945-1962) were most intensive. Bulgaria is also one of the countries most affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident on 26 April 1986. Respectively, the Bulgarian population dose burden is high compared with the other European countries (excluding the population near the site, i.e. Ukraine, Russia and Byelorussian). Both the global and Chernobyl fallout (globally distributed) contaminated the green leafy vegetation with technogenic radionuclides of two groups: Short-lived, mainly Iodine-131; Long-lived, mainly Cesium-137 and partially Strontium- 90. The effects on the Bulgarian public from technogenic radionuclide contamination of green leafy vegetation were analyzed. The analyses show the following chain in motion of technogenic radionuclides (Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 are chosen as representative): 1) Iodine-131: (duration of transfer - less than 30 to 60 days since fallout); a) fallout - meadow grass - sheep and cows - milk and dairy products - person; b) fallout - leafy vegetables - person; 2) Cesium-137 (duration of transfer - several days) (based on Chernobyl experience); a) fallout - meadow grass - forage - sheep, cows, etc. - milk and dairy

  3. Evaluation of leafy vegetables as bioindicators of gaseous mercury pollution in sewage-irrigated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Wu, Zeying; Chen, Chun; Liang, Junfeng; Huang, Hongkun; Zheng, Xiangqun

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plant leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to investigate the concentration and accumulation of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in five typical leafy vegetables (Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler), amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.), rape (Brassica campestris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)) grown on sewage-irrigated areas in Tianjin, China. The following three sites were chosen to biomonitor Hg pollution: a paddy field receiving sewage irrigation (industrial and urban sewage effluents) for the last 30 years, a vegetable field receiving sewage irrigation for 15 years, and a grass field which did not receive sewage irrigation in history. Results showed that the total Hg levels in the paddy (0.65 mg kg -1 ) and vegetation fields (0.42 mg kg -1 ) were significantly higher than the local background level (0.073 mg kg -1 ) and the China national soil environment quality standard for Hg in grade I (0.30 mg kg -1 ). The TGM levels in ambient air were significantly higher in the paddy (71.3 ng m -3 ) and vegetable fields (39.2 ng m -3 ) relative to the control (9.4 ng m -3 ) and previously reported levels (1.45 ng m -3 ), indicating severe Hg pollution in the atmospheric environment of the sewage-irrigated areas. Furthermore, gaseous mercury was the dominant form of Hg uptake in the leaves or irreversibly bound to leaves. The comparison of Hg uptake levels among the five vegetables showed that the gradient of Hg accumulation followed the order spinach > red amaranth > Chinese chives > rape > lettuce. These results suggest that gaseous Hg exposure in the sewage-irrigated areas is a dominant Hg uptake route in leafy vegetables and may pose a potential threat to agricultural food safety and human health.

  4. The transfer factors of I, Ba, Sr, Y and Zr from soil to leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Daling; Li Mianfeng; Weng Senhan; Wen Guanghao; Liu Xiaowei; Zhang Cunxiang; Zhang Zeng; Yu Junyue

    1996-01-01

    The transfer factors of I, Ba, Sr, Y and Zr from soil to leafy vegetables have been determined using method of radioisotope tracers and element content analysis. The effects of growth period, size of the vegetables, contents of the isotopes in the soil and other climatic factors on the transfer factors have also been studied

  5. Nitrate in leafy green vegetables and estimated intake | Brkić ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vegetarian diets are rich in vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are foods that contain considerable amounts of nitrate, which can have both positive and negative effects on the human body. Their potential carcinogenicity and toxicity have been proven, particularly after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite itself or ...

  6. Reduction of 131I content in leafy vegetables and seaweed by cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Abe, Touru

    1987-01-01

    Decontamination ratios of 131 I were obtained from leafy vegetables samples and an edible seaweed sample (Papenfussiella kuromo) after cooking. Samples obtained in Akita City were contaminated with fallout 131 I from the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The decontamination ratio of 131 I content in washed spinach samples to that in raw materials was 0.83 ± 0.21. The ratio of 131 I content in leafy vegetables and edible wild grass samples boiled in water to that in washed samples was 0.51 ± 0.19 on an average. The overall decontamination ratio for leafy vegetables was 0.42 ± 0.19, while the decontamination ratio after cooking was 0.68 for the seaweed sample. (author)

  7. Extraction and determination of arsenic species in leafy vegetables: Method development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Kong, Qian; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-15

    Extraction of arsenic (As) species in leafy vegetables was investigated by different combinations of methods and extractants. The extracted As species were separated and determined by HPLC-ICP-MS method. The microwave assisted method using 1% HNO3 as the extractant exhibited satisfactory efficiency (>90%) at 90°C for 1.5h. The proposed method was applied for extracting As species from real leafy vegetables. Thirteen cultivars of leafy vegetables were collected and analyzed. The predominant species in all the investigated vegetable samples were As(III) and As(V). Moreover, both As(III) and As(V) concentrations were positive significant (p<0.01) correlated with total As (tAs) concentration. However, the percentage of As(V) reduced with tAs concentration increasing probably due to the conversion and transformation of As(V) to As(III) after uptake. The hazard quotient results indicated no particular risk to 94.6% of local consumers. Considerably carcinogenic risk by consumption of the leafy vegetables was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on biomethane production and biodegradability of different leafy vegetables in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hu; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Jiafu; Zhang, Ruihong; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2017-12-01

    Enormous amounts of vegetable residues are wasted annually, causing many environmental problems due to their high moisture and organic contents. In this study, the methane production potential of 20 kinds of typical leafy vegetable residues in China were explored using a unified method. A connection between the biochemical components and the methane yields of these vegetables was well established which could be used to predict biogas performance in practice. A high volatile solid/total solid (VS/TS) ratio and hemicellulose content exhibited a positive impact on the biogas yield while lignin had a negative impact. In addition, three kinetic models were used to describe the methane production process of these agro-wastes. The systematic comparison of the methane production potentials of these leafy vegetables shown in this study will not only serve as a reference for basic research on anaerobic digestion but also provide useful data and information for agro-industrial applications of vegetable residues in future work.

  9. Diagnosis of seeds supply of leafy vegetables in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were collected using questionnaires on a sample of 133 traditional leafy vegetable producers of the urban and peri-urban zone of Yaoundé. The data were analyzed using SNAP 9 software. The study showed that the most produced species are amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), nightshade (Solanum scabrum) ...

  10. The Importance of Traditional Leafy Vegetables in South Africa | H J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to enhance the role of African leafy vegetables in the ... rapid and participatory methodologies to collect information from the women. ... In many areas seed systems were poor as the traditional role of keeper of the ...

  11. Guidelines to validate control of cross-contamination during washing of fresh-cut leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires food processors to implement and validate processes that will result in significantly minimizing or preventing the occurrence of hazards that are likely to occur in food production. During production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, microbial contaminati...

  12. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  13. Parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables: a function of the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to determine the degree of contamination of some stable vegetables and their surrounding soils by parasites in Uyo, Nigeria. Out of the 780 leaves from six vegetables and 50 soil samples screened, 498 (63.9%) of vegetables and 36 (72%) of the soil samples were positive for parasite ova, larvae ...

  14. Assessment of nutritional quality of cooked Swazi leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brassica oleracea and Spinacia oleracea were also analysed and compared with other vegetables. Sampled vegetables were divided into two categories. All vegetables in category one were cooked without any additives. In category two Hibiscus escolentus and Corchorius olitorus were cooked with bicarbonate of soda ...

  15. Parameters for modelling the interception and retention of deposits from atmosphere by grain and leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.; Linsley, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Normalised Specific Activity (NSA), a quantity which relates the concentration of a contaminant per unit mass of vegetation to its daily rate of ground deposition, has been used as the basis for determining interception factors and retention half-lives for radioactive contaminants deposited on grain and leafy vegetables. The values are for use in assessing contamination levels on crops at harvest during condition of continuous deposition. The approach implicitly takes account of other processes which influence foliar contamination, namely, translocation and dilution due to plant growth. The respective NSA values for grain and prepared leafy vegetables determined from several separate experimental studies are fairly constant and are of about the same level for fall-out strontium and caesium. There is evidence from previous studies on herbage to suggest that similar NSA values might be expected for other contaminants on grain and leafy vegetables. Plutonium is an exception in that NSA values for grain and prepared leafy vegetables are lower than those for the fission products by factors of between 5 and 10 depending upon the source of the contaminant. Consideration has been given to determining the most appropriate value of the fraction of activity transferred from grain to flour during refining. This is an element dependent parameter and the values estimated for strontium, caesium and plutonium are respectively 0.15, 0.5 and 0.1. The study has indicated the need for data in several areas in order to improve the capability to model interception and retention on field crops in continuous and acute release conditions. (author)

  16. 60Co Transfer Factor From Lutosol Soil To Leafy Vegetable (Ipomea reptans poir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Jumaher; Wahyudi

    2003-01-01

    It has been conducted 60 Co transfer study from Lutosol soil to leafy vegetable plant by using pot treatment system. The aim of the research is to obtain data of the transfer factor of 60 Co from lutosol soil to leafy vegetable plant. Pot experiment was carried out by using the complete random design to evaluate two treatment, namely soil with 60 Co and without 60 Co (as a control). 60 Co concentration was with 6.1371 kBq/pot. Tested plant and control plant amount to 12 pots. Each pot contains 1 kg of soil. After harvesting, the weight of dry plant was determined and was conducted with Spectrometer Gamma to 60 Co concentration in dry plant and dry soil. Transfer factor was found to between 0.02 and 0.68 and the average is 0.2068. (author)

  17. A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species: a case study of Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sogbohossou, E. O. Deedi; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G.; Maundu, Patrick; Solberg, Svein; Deguenon, Edgar M. S.; Mumm, Rita H.; Hale, Iago; Van Deynze, Allen; Schranz, M. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of “orphan” or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for partici...

  18. Indigenous leafy vegetables (imifino, morogo, muhuro) in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for reducing hidden hunger, prevention and control of cancer, hypertension, ... would encourage consumption and industrial production of these vegetables in a bid ... nutritional value, food security, non communicable diseases, South Africa.

  19. Effect of traditional leafy vegetables on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Muhammad Arshad; Baijnath, Himansu; Odhav, Bharti

    2014-12-01

    Traditional leafy vegetables, apart from being a staple in the diet of most of sub-Saharan Africa, are an essential part of traditional medicine and are used daily by traditional healers in the region to treat a wide variety of ailments. In this study, a batch culture technique was used to investigate whether 25 infusions from 22 traditional leafy vegetables stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium longum in pure culture. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the inulin content of the infusions. Sonchus oleraceus stimulated all four strains and Taraxacum officinale stimulated three strains. In total, 18 plants stimulated at least one of the four probiotic strains. The inulin content of the infusions varied between 2.5% and 3.6%, with Asparagus sprengeri containing the highest percentage. These results indicate that traditional leafy vegetables do stimulate the growth of the selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in pure culture and contain inulin. These infusions can now be tested for prebiotic potential using mixed culture systems or human hosts.

  20. Preservation of Postharvest Quality of Leafy Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Vegetables Using Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ambuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are very highly perishable and must be utilized immediately after harvest. Their fast deterioration is attributed to various biological and environmental factors with temperature playing a central role. Evaporative cooling is a low-cost temporary storage technology that offers smallholder vegetable farmers an alternative to expensive cold rooms. The present study sought to determine the effectiveness of evaporative cooling using zero energy brick cooler (ZEBC and evaporative charcoal cooler (ECC, to preserve the postharvest quality of leafy amaranth vegetables. Freshly harvested vegetables were separated into bundles weighing 300 grams and stored under ZEBC, ECC, and ambient room conditions (control. Real time changes in temperature and relative humidity (RH as well as changes in quality attributes (physiological weight loss (PWL, wilting index, hue angle, and vitamin C were determined during the storage period. The temperature difference between the ZEBC and ECC versus the ambient air ranged between 4 and 10°C. Significantly higher RH (80–100% was recorded in both evaporative cooling chambers. At the end of storage, higher PWL (47.6% was recorded at ambient room conditions compared to 10.5 and 6.7% under ZEBC and ECC, respectively. A rapid decline in vitamin C (51% was reported in vegetables stored at ambient room conditions. Overall, there was better vegetable quality preservation under ECC and ZEBC.

  1. Traditional Leafy Vegetables In Senegal: Diversity And Medicinal Uses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke ...

  2. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy

  3. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Unal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of ethanol extracts of some organically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables. Methods: The ethanol extracts of kailan (Brassica alboglabra, bayam (Amaranthus spp. and sawi (Brassica parachinensis were tested for total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total anthocyanin content (TAC and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: In TPC test, sawi extract showed the highest phenolic content while bayam contained the least phenolic content for both organically and conventionally grown types. In TFC test, organically grown sawi extract showed the highest flavonoid content, while organically grown kailan extract showed the least flavonoid content among all types of vegetables. The flavonoid content of the conventionally grown types of vegetable extracts was the highest in kalian and the least in sawi. For 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, the activity increased with the increasing concentration of each extract. All conventionally grown vegetable extracts showed higher antioxidant activity compared to their organically grown counterparts. Extracts of conventionally grown sawi showed the highest percentage inhibition followed by conventionally grown kailan and organically grown sawi. There were no correlation between TPC, TFC, TAC and IC25 of both organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, there was a correlation between TAC and IC25 of conventionally grown vegetable extracts. The results showed relatively similar polyphenol content between organically and conventionally grown vegetable extracts. However, the conventionally grown vegetables extracts generally have higher antioxidant activity compared to the organically grown extracts. Conclusions: These results suggested that the different types of agricultural practice had a significant contribution to the

  4. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  5. Iron bioavailibity from a tropical leafy vegetable in anaemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latunde-Dada Gladys O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Telfairia occidentalis is a vegetable food crop that is indigenous to West Africa. The leaves and seeds are the edible parts of the plant and are used in everyday meals by incorporation into soups and stews. Previous studies have attributed improved haematological indices to the vegetable and have advocated the use of T. occidentalis in the treatment of anemia. This study investigates the ameliorative effects of T. occidentalis when compared to FeSO4 as a reference salt in anaemic mice. It also compares the bioavailability of test iron and hepatic hepcidin expression for the estimation of iron absorption in the mice. Non-haem iron was determined in the liver of mice after the experimental feeding treatments. Hepcidin mRNA expression was carried out by quantitative RT-PCR. Administration of T. occidentalis leaves led to a modest increase in haemoglobin (Hb levels in anaemic mice that were comparable to the Hb repletion in anaemic mice given FeSO4. Hepatic iron increase in the mice given either T. occidentalis or FeSO4 led to a corresponding enhancement of hepcidin mRNA expression. Induced hepcidin mRNA expression was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid to the test dose of iron. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression was found to be responsive to increase in the relative bioavailability of iron from test diets.

  6. Wild leafy vegetables consumed in Buhera District of Zimbabwe and their phenolic compounds content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipurura, Batsirai; Muchuweti, Maud; Kasiyamhuru, Abisha

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to gather information on the wild leafy vegetables consumed. The phenolic concentrations were determined by the vanillin, butanol, and tannin binding assays. Seventy-nine traditional vegetables were mentioned by the respondents and 20 of these were classified according to their species. The contents of flavonoids varied from 1.2 mg/g for Cleome gynandra to 8.0 mg/g for Bidens pilosa. The levels of proanthocyanidins ranged from 1.9 mg/g for lettuce to 11.2 mg/g for Bidens pilosa. The tannin contents of the vegetables ranged from 5.7 mg/g for Cleome gynandra to 8.3 mg/g for Bidens pilosa. The present study showed that these vegetables are valuable sources of phenolic compounds as compared to some exotic species.

  7. Microbiological survey of raw and ready-to-eat leafy green vegetables marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losio, M N; Pavoni, E; Bilei, S; Bertasi, B; Bove, D; Capuano, F; Farneti, S; Blasi, G; Comin, D; Cardamone, C; Decastelli, L; Delibato, E; De Santis, P; Di Pasquale, S; Gattuso, A; Goffredo, E; Fadda, A; Pisanu, M; De Medici, D

    2015-10-01

    The presence of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica and norovirus) in fresh leafy (FL) and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable products, sampled at random on the Italian market, was investigated to evaluate the level of risk to consumers. Nine regional laboratories, representing 18 of the 20 regions of Italy and in which 97.7% of the country's population resides, were involved in this study. All laboratories used the same sampling procedures and analytical methods. The vegetable samples were screened using validated real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods and standardized reference ISO culturing methods. The results show that 3.7% of 1372 fresh leafy vegetable products and 1.8% of 1160 "fresh-cut" or "ready-to-eat" (RTE) vegetable retailed in supermarkets or farm markets, were contaminated with one or more foodborne pathogens harmful to human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercanoglu Taban, Birce; Halkman, A Kadir

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, there is an increasing demand for leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads since people changed their eating habits because of healthier lifestyle interest. Nevertheless fresh leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads are recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks in many parts of the world. However, this increased proportion of outbreaks cannot be completely explained by increased consumption and enhanced surveillance of them. Both in Europe and in the USA, recent foodborne illness outbreaks have revealed links between some pathogens and some leafy green vegetables such as mostly lettuces and spinaches and their RTE salads since fresh leafy green vegetables carry the potential risk of microbiological contamination due to the usage of untreated irrigation water, inappropriate organic fertilizers, wildlife or other sources that can occur anywhere from the farm to the fork such as failure during harvesting, handling, processing and packaging. Among a wide range of pathogens causing foodborne illnesses, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate leafy green vegetables. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised people are the most at risk for developing complications from foodborne illness as a result of eating contaminated leafy greens or their RTE salads. These outbreaks are mostly restaurant associated or they sometimes spread across several countries by international trade routes. This review summarizes current observations concerning the contaminated leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads as important vehicles for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A statistical analysis of the freshness of postharvest leafy vegetables with application of water based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Qiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable freshness is very important for both restaurant and home consumers. In market, sellers frequently apply water to leafy vegetables to make them not lose weight and look fresh; however, these vegetables may not be stored for a long time as they appear. After a time limit, they may be quickly rotten. It is thus meaningful to investigate early and simple detection tools to measure leafy vegetable freshness while they are frequently applied water in selling. In this work, three types of newly harvested leafy vegetables were bought from a local farmer market and stored in the air with room temperature and roots submerging in water. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF from the vegetables was measured each half a day for three days. The obtained ChlF data were analyzed statistically and the correlation of ChlF parameters and vegetable freshness/storage time was obtained. The k-mean classification was also performed. It is found that Fo, Fj, Fm/Fo, and Fv/Fm can be used as an early detection tool to differentiate the freshness of leafy vegetables on which water is constantly applied in storage without visible difference. Keywords: Vegetable freshness, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Food measurement

  10. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  11. Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao KS

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables.

  12. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Young, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl 2 -soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. → Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. → Modelling with dilute CaCl 2 extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl 2 extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  13. Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Trace metal uptake was measured for tropical and temperate leafy vegetables grown on soil from an urban sewage disposal farm in the UK. Twenty-four leafy vegetables from East Africa and the UK were assessed and the five vegetable types that showed the greatest Cd concentrations were grown on eight soils differing in the severity of contamination, pH and other physico-chemical properties. The range of Cd concentrations in the edible shoots was greater for tropical vegetables than for temperate types. Metal uptake was modelled as a function of (i) total soil metal concentration, (ii) CaCl{sub 2}-soluble metal, (iii) soil solution concentration and (iv) the activity of metal ions in soil pore water. Tropical vegetables were not satisfactorily modelled as a single generic 'green vegetable', suggesting that more sophisticated approaches to risk assessment may be required to assess hazard from peri-urban agriculture in developing countries. - Research highlights: Cadmium uptake by tropical green vegetables varies greatly between types. Modelling metal uptake works best for Ni, Cd and Zn but is poor for Cu, Ba and Pb. Modelling with dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction is as good as metal ion activity in pore water. - Trace metal uptake by tropical leaf vegetables can be predicted from dilute CaCl{sub 2} extraction of soil but model parameters are genotype-specific.

  14. A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species: a case study of Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbohossou, E O Deedi; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G; Maundu, Patrick; Solberg, Svein; Deguenon, Edgar M S; Mumm, Rita H; Hale, Iago; Van Deynze, Allen; Schranz, M Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra , a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops. Key steps in genome-enabled orphan leafy vegetables improvement are identified and discussed in the context of Gynandropsis gynandra breeding, including: (1) germplasm collection and management; (2) product target definition and refinement; (3) characterization of the genetic control of key traits; (4) design of the 'process' for cultivar development; (5) integration of genomic data to optimize that 'process'; (6) multi-environmental participatory testing and end-user evaluation; and (7) crop value chain development. The review discusses each step in detail, with emphasis on improving leaf yield, phytonutrient content, organoleptic quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and post-harvest management.

  15. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira ESSACK

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes.

  16. Detection of Minerals in Green Leafy Vegetables Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P.; Kumar, R.; Raib, A. Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of minerals in different green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, chenopodium, chickpea, mustard, and fenugreek, was calculated using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can provide an easy, reliable, efficient, low-cost, and in situ chemical analysis with a reasonable precision. In situ LIBS spectra in the range 200-500 nm were carried out using fresh leaves and leaves in the pellet form. As the spectra suggest, magnesium and calcium are present in each vegetable; however, the amount of them varies. It is observed that the amount of iron is maximal in spinach. The nutrition value of the plants was analyzed, and it was revealed that they are low in calories and fat and high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium, and phytochemicals.

  17. Dry deposition of particulate Cs-134 to several leafy vegetable species and comparison to deposition of gaseous radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Heuberger, H.

    2004-01-01

    The height of the dry deposition of particulate radionuclides to leafy vegetable is quite uncertain because of the different habit, surface texture and leaf uptake of the different species. There is no comparative data on the deposition to various species, but leafy vegetables are taken as reference plants for the estimation of the height of contamination of vegetable foods after a nuclear accident. Therefore new chamber experiments were performed to determine under homogeneous and controlled conditions the dry deposition of particulate radio-caesium on mature leafy vegetable. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was arranged. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. For spring vegetable, there was no significant difference observed in deposition of 134 Cs between spinach and leaf lettuce, about twice the amount was deposited on both species as on endive and 3 times as on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition for Caesium, the deposition to curly kale was highest, about twice that on spinach and 35 times (80 times) that on white cabbage. The normalized deposition velocity could be estimated, in average it was about 8 times lower for 134 Cs than for gaseous elemental 131 I. The influence of the particle size on the deposition velocity was small in the considered size range of 0.58-1.1μm (AMAD) of the monodisperse aerosol. Washing could reduce the contamination by about 45% for 134 Cs. (author)

  18. Sequential determination of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in green leafy vegetables during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J; Mendiola, J A; Oliveira, M B P P; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2012-10-26

    The simultaneous analysis of fat- and water-soluble vitamins from foods is a difficult task considering the wide range of chemical structures involved. In this work, a new procedure based on a sequential extraction and analysis of both types of vitamins is presented. The procedure couples several simple extraction steps to LC-MS/MS and LC-DAD in order to quantify the free vitamins contents in fresh-cut vegetables before and after a 10-days storage period. The developed method allows the correct quantification of vitamins C, B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(9), E and provitamin A in ready-to-eat green leafy vegetable products including green lettuce, ruby red lettuce, watercress, swiss chard, lamb's lettuce, spearmint, spinach, wild rocket, pea leaves, mizuna, garden cress and red mustard. Using this optimized methodology, low LOQs were attained for the analyzed vitamins in less than 100 min, including extraction and vitamin analysis using 2 optimized procedures; good repeatability and linearity was achieved for all vitamins studied, while recoveries ranged from 83% to 105%. The most abundant free vitamins found in leafy vegetable products were vitamin C, provitamin A and vitamin E. The richest sample on vitamin C and provitamin A was pea leaves (154 mg/g fresh weight and 14.4 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively), whereas lamb's lettuce was the vegetable with the highest content on vitamin E (3.1 mg/100 g fresh weight). Generally, some losses of vitamins were detected after storage, although the behavior of each vitamin varied strongly among samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, L-L; Joutsen, S; Lunden, J; Hänninen, M-L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-09-02

    Consumption of packaged fresh leafy vegetables, which are convenient ready-to-eat products, has increased during the last decade. The number of foodborne outbreaks associated with these products has concurrently increased. In our study, (1) label information, (2) O2/CO2 composition, (3) bacterial quality and (4) safety of 100 fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level were studied in Finland during 2013. Bacterial quality was studied using aerobic bacteria (AB) and coliform bacteria (CB) counts, and searching for the presence of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Yersinia. The safety was studied by the presence of Salmonella, ail-positive Yersinia, stx-positive E. coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes using PCR and culturing. Important label information was unavailable on several packages originating from different companies. The packaging date was missing on all packages and the date of durability on 83% of the packages. Storage temperature was declared on 62% of the packages and 73% of the packages contained information about prewashing. The batch/lot number was missing on 29% of the packages. Very low oxygen (O2) (vegetable samples varying between 6.2 and 10.6 and 4.2-8.3logcfu/g, respectively. In most of the samples, the AB and CB counts exceeded 10(8) and 10(6)cfu/g, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between the AB and CB counts. E. coli was isolated from 15% of the samples and Yersinia from 33%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from two samples and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in one. Using PCR, STEC was detected in seven samples, and Salmonella and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in two samples each. The AB and CB mean values of products originating from different companies varied widely. High AB and CB counts and pathogenic bacteria were detected in ready-to-eat products not needing washing before use. Our study shows that the bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables is poor and label information on the packages is

  20. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A. B. H.

    2004-03-01

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  1. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  2. Trichoderma-Based Biostimulants Modulate Rhizosphere Microbial Populations and Improve N Uptake Efficiency, Yield, and Nutritional Quality of Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Fiorentino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants such as Trichoderma-based products are receiving great interest among researchers and agricultural producers for their potential to improve crop productivity, nutritional quality as well as resistance to plant pathogens/pests and numerous environmental stresses. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the effects of Trichoderma-based biostimulants under suboptimal, optimal and supraoptimal levels of nitrogen (N fertilization in two leafy vegetables: Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.. The yield, nutritional characteristics, N uptake and mineral composition were analyzed for each vegetable crop after inoculation with Trichoderma strains T. virens (GV41 or T. harzianum (T22, and results were compared to non-inoculated plants. In addition, the effect of the Trichoderma-based biostimulants on microbes associated with the rhizosphere in terms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic composition and concentration using DGGE was also evaluated. Trichoderma-based biostimulants, in particular GV41, positively increased lettuce and rocket yield in the unfertilized plots. The highest marketable lettuce fresh yield was recorded with either of the biostimulant inoculations when plants were supplied with optimal levels of N. The inoculation of rocket with GV41, and to a lesser degree with T22, elicited an increase in total ascorbic acid under both optimal and high N conditions. T. virens GV41 increased N-use efficiency of lettuce, and favored the uptake of native N present in the soil of both lettuce and rocket. The positive effect of biostimulants on nutrient uptake and crop growth was species-dependent, being more marked with lettuce. The best biostimulation effects from the Trichoderma treatments were observed in both crops when grown under low N availability. The Trichoderma inoculation strongly influenced the composition of eukaryotic populations in the rhizosphere, in particularly exerting different

  3. Wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, Berhane; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Asfaw, Zemede; Sosef, M.S.M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2015-01-01

    We studied wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical methods, including individual and focus group (n = 18) discussions, field observations, and individual interviews (n = 144), were used in

  4. The contribution of soil adhesion to radiocaesium uptake by leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, E.C.S.; Paretzke, H.G.; Campos, M.J.; Pires do Rio, M.A.; Franklin, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Goiania accident, Brazil, was used as an opportunity to quantify the contributions of different mechanisms, in particular mass loading, leading to caesium uptake by leafy vegetables in a semi-urban environment contaminated with 137 Cs. Soil splash contributions of 70-90% were quantified for lettuce and 50-60% for green cole. Soil mass loadings of 130 and 340 mg.g -1 were estimated for lettuce and 120 and 150 mg.g -1 for green cole. The results call attention to the potential significant contribution of the soil splash to radionuclide uptake by plants which have the edible plant parts near the soil surface (within 30-40 cm) and low root uptake factors. For radiological assessment purposes it could also be necessary to consider the contamination of crops by this mechanism. (orig.)

  5. Dry deposition of gaseous radioiodine and particulate radiocaesium onto leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiersch, Jochen; Shinonaga, Taeko; Heuberger, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides released to the atmosphere during dry weather (e.g. after a nuclear accident) may contaminate vegetable foods and cause exposure to humans via the food chain. To obtain experimental data for an appropriate assessment of this exposure path, dry deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables was studied under homogeneous and controlled greenhouse conditions. Gaseous 131 I-tracer in predominant elemental form and particulate 134 Cs-tracer at about 1 μm diameter were used to identify susceptible vegetable species with regard to contamination by these radionuclides. The persistence was examined by washing the harvested product with water. The vegetables tested were spinach (Spinacia oleracea), butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), endive (Cichorium endivia), leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa), curly kale (Brassica oleracea convar. acephala) and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata). The variation of radionuclides deposited onto each vegetable was evaluated statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and the U-test of Mann-Whitney. Significant differences in deposited 131 I and 134 Cs activity concentration were found among the vegetable species. For 131 I, the deposition velocity to spinach normalized to the biomass of the vegetation was 0.5-0.9 cm 3 g -1 s -1 which was the highest among all species. The particulate 134 Cs deposition velocity of 0.09 cm 3 g -1 s -1 was the highest for curly kale, which has rough and structured leaves. The lowest deposition velocity was onto white cabbage: 0.02 cm 3 g -1 s -1 (iodine) and 0.003 cm 3 g -1 s -1 (caesium). For all species, the gaseous iodine deposition was significantly higher compared to the particulate caesium deposition. The deposition depends on the sensitive parameters leaf area, stomatal aperture, and plant morphology. Decontamination by washing with water was very limited for iodine but up to a factor of two for caesium.

  6. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  7. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.D.; Alloway, B.J.; Dourado, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  8. African Leafy Vegetables: A Review of Status, Production and Utilization in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Maseko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available African leafy vegetables (ALVs are mostly gathered from the wild, with few selected species being cultivated, usually as part of a mixed cropping system in home gardens or smallholder plots. They have important advantages over exotic vegetable species, because of their adaptability to marginal agricultural production areas and their ability to provide dietary diversity in poor rural communities. Despite their significance in food and nutrition security, there is limited availability or access to these crops leading to underutilisation. The objective of this review was to document the state of utilisation and production of ALVs in South Africa. A qualitative systematic approach review of online sources, peer reviewed papers published in journals, books and other publications was conducted. There is lack of suitable production systems, innovative processing, and value-adding techniques that promote utilisation of ALVs. Furthermore, there is a perception that ALVs are food for the poor among the youth and urban folks, while, among the affluent, they are highly regarded as being nutritious. To promote ALVs from household consumption and commercialisation, further research on agronomy, post-harvest handling, storage and processing is required in South Africa.

  9. Combination of Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils increased antibacterial activity in leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Nazzaro, Filomena; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. Major constituents of C. citratus were geranial and neral, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide. Cymbopogon citratus and A. cepa EOs inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 2.21 and 5.13 g L -1 respectively), Salmonella Choleraesuis (3.04 and 1.28 g L -1 ), Listeria monocytogenes (1.33 and 2.56 g L -1 ) and Staphylococcus aureus (0.44 and 5.26 g L -1 ). Application of the EO combination to spinach caused a greater reduction in E. coli (2.34 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 ), S. Choleraesuis (2.94 log CFU g -1 ), L. monocytogenes (2.06 log CFU g -1 ) and S. aureus (1.37 log CFU g -1 ) compared with higher doses of individual EOs; a similar effect was observed for romaine lettuce. Individual and combined EOs caused a reduction in flavor acceptability level; however, no significant differences were found among odor acceptability of control vegetables and those treated with the EO combination and C. citratus EO. Leafy vegetables treated with the EO combination showed higher antibacterial protection and odor acceptability compared with individual EO treatments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Fibre and polyphenols of selected fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables used in Serbian diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodevska Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are known as good sources of numerous bioactive compounds among which polyphenols and dietary fibre are considered essential because of their protective health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality of selected plant foods of our region regarding amount of total phenols, fibres and ratio of certain fractions of fibre. Fifteen samples of plant foods (green leafy vegetables, fruits and nuts were evaluated for total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total, soluble and insoluble fibre and fractions of fibre: beta-glucans, arabinoxylan, cellulose and resistant starch. Generally nuts were the richest sources of fibre and total phenols. However, when serving size was taken into consideration, it appeared that raspberry and blackberry were the richest in total, soluble fibre and cellulose. At the same time, almonds and hazelnuts were particulary rich in insoluble fibre, while walnuts had the highest polyphenol content. Analyzed plant foods were poor sources of arabinoxylan and beta-glucan. Data on resistant starch presence in cashew nut is the first confirmation that resistant starch can be found in significant amount in some nuts. The results give rare insight into the quality of selected plant foods regarding dietary fibre and polyphenols from the nutritive point of view. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  11. Detection of heavy metal Cd in polluted fresh leafy vegetables by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingyin; Yang, Hui; Huang, Lin; Chen, Tianbing; Rao, Gangfu; Liu, Muhua

    2017-05-10

    In seeking a novel method with the ability of green analysis in monitoring toxic heavy metals residue in fresh leafy vegetables, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to prove its capability in performing this work. The spectra of fresh vegetable samples polluted in the lab were collected by optimized LIBS experimental setup, and the reference concentrations of cadmium (Cd) from samples were obtained by conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy after wet digestion. The direct calibration employing intensity of single Cd line and Cd concentration exposed the weakness of this calibration method. Furthermore, the accuracy of linear calibration can be improved a little by triple Cd lines as characteristic variables, especially after the spectra were pretreated. However, it is not enough in predicting Cd in samples. Therefore, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was utilized to enhance the robustness of quantitative analysis. The results of the PLSR model showed that the prediction accuracy of the Cd target can meet the requirement of determination in food safety. This investigation presented that LIBS is a promising and emerging method in analyzing toxic compositions in agricultural products, especially combined with suitable chemometrics.

  12. Dry deposition of gaseous radioiodine and particulate radiocaesium onto leafy vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschiersch, Jochen, E-mail: tschiersch@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Shinonaga, Taeko [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heuberger, Heidi [TU Muenchen, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Duernast 2, 85350 Freising (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Radionuclides released to the atmosphere during dry weather (e.g. after a nuclear accident) may contaminate vegetable foods and cause exposure to humans via the food chain. To obtain experimental data for an appropriate assessment of this exposure path, dry deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables was studied under homogeneous and controlled greenhouse conditions. Gaseous {sup 131}I-tracer in predominant elemental form and particulate {sup 134}Cs-tracer at about 1 {mu}m diameter were used to identify susceptible vegetable species with regard to contamination by these radionuclides. The persistence was examined by washing the harvested product with water. The vegetables tested were spinach (Spinacia oleracea), butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), endive (Cichorium endivia), leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa), curly kale (Brassica oleracea convar. acephala) and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata). The variation of radionuclides deposited onto each vegetable was evaluated statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and the U-test of Mann-Whitney. Significant differences in deposited {sup 131}I and {sup 134}Cs activity concentration were found among the vegetable species. For {sup 131}I, the deposition velocity to spinach normalized to the biomass of the vegetation was 0.5-0.9 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} which was the highest among all species. The particulate {sup 134}Cs deposition velocity of 0.09 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} was the highest for curly kale, which has rough and structured leaves. The lowest deposition velocity was onto white cabbage: 0.02 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} (iodine) and 0.003 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} (caesium). For all species, the gaseous iodine deposition was significantly higher compared to the particulate caesium deposition. The deposition depends on the sensitive parameters leaf area, stomatal aperture, and plant morphology. Decontamination by washing with water was very

  13. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  14. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5 leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leafy vegetables (500 g were spread on clean filter paper and kept in a well-ventilated room of the laboratory at 25°C for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results of proximate composition after 15 days of shadow drying were: moisture (15.19 – 20.36%, ash (9.14 -19.54%, crude fiber (11.04 – 27.40%, proteins (11.14 - 17.94%, lipids (2.41 – 5.86% and carbohydrates (16.59 – 45.14%. The concentration of minerals increased with respective values after 15 days of shadow drying: calcium (68.14-408.09 mg/100 g, magnesium (50.62-317.23 mg/100 g, iron (27.52-92.03 mg/100 g and zinc (10.17-16.73 mg/100 g. During shadow drying, vitamin C and carotenoids were subjected to losses estimated to 35.52 – 70.50% and 22.82 – 45.63%, respectively. Contrary to these losses, antioxidant activity increased and ranged from 57.45 to 75.55 % after 15 days of shadow drying. All these results suggest that the considerable nutrient contents of shade dried leafy vegetables make them good source of food supplements in order to meet the nutritional requirements of Ivorian population.

  15. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  16. Influence of Boiling, Steaming and Frying of Selected Leafy Vegetables on the In Vitro Anti-inflammation Associated Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. P. P. Gunathilake

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying on anti-inflammation associated properties in vitro of six popularly consumed green leafy vegetables in Sri Lanka, namely: Centella asiatica, Cassia auriculata, Gymnema lactiferum, Olax zeylanica, Sesbania grnadiflora, and Passiflora edulis. The anti-inflammation associated properties of methanolic extracts of cooked leaves were evaluated using four in vitro biological assays, namely, hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results revealed that the frying of all the tested leafy vegetables had reduced the inhibition abilities of protein denaturation, hemolysis, proteinase, and lipoxygenase activities when compared with other food preparation methods. Steaming significantly increased the protein denaturation and hemolysis inhibition in O. zeylanica and P. edulis. Steaming of leaves increased inhibition activity of protein denaturation in G. lactiferum (by 44.8% and P. edulis (by 44%; hemolysis in C. asiatica, C. auriculata, and S. grandiflora; lipoxygenase inhibition ability in P. edulis (by 50%, C. asiatica (by 400%, and C. auriculata leaves (by 250%; proteinase inhibition in C. auriculata (100% when compared with that of raw leaves. In general, steaming and boiling in contrast to frying protect the health-promoting properties of the leafy vegetables.

  17. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable 26Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.; Spencer, H.; Welsh, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Collards, turnip greens, leaf lettuce, and spinach, grown in nutrient solution so that their Mg content was 80 to 90% 26 Mg, were tested in ambulant male volunteers stabilized on a constant metabolic diet. The freeze-dried vegetables were incorporated in bran muffins in which the vegetables replaced part of the bran. Bran muffins without vegetables were consumed for breakfast each day. They were also used as a standard test meal to which the vegetable muffins were compared. All subjects participated in three consecutive isotope absorption tests: one of the standard test meal and two of the vegetables. The standard test was carried out after at least 30 days on the controlled diet. Subsequent tests of vegetables followed at 4-wk intervals. Each test meal contained 30 microCi 28 MgCl2 and 50 mg stable 26 Mg, the latter either as the intrinsic label of a test vegetable or as 26 MgCl 2 in solution taken with the standard bran muffins. Net absorption of both isotopes was measured to establish exchangeability and to determine relative Mg absorption from the vegetables. Exchangeability was 90% or higher from all meals tested. Relative Mg absorption was highest from collards and least from the standard test meal. Net absorption values ranged from 40 to 60%

  18. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2009-09-01

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe 3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn 2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C dbnd O bonds.

  19. Assessment of wild leafy vegetables traditionally consumed by the ethnic communities of Manipur, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsam, Surjata; Thongam, Biseshwori; Handique, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-29

    The NE region of India falls in the global hotspot of biodiversity. Wild edible plants (WEPs) are widely consumed in the daily diet of the local people. WEPs are critical for the sustenance of ethnic communities and also as a source of income. However, WEPs received a little attention in research activities, economic development, biodiversity conservation and sustainable management. Many are largely ignored and remained unexplored. With a view of reducing the gap in traditional knowledge and tapping the hidden potential resources for proper utilization, exploitation, and sustainable management of WEPs are crucial. Surveys were conducted at 20 major markets in all districts of Manipur throughout different seasons from August 2012 to March 2014. A total of 154 avid plant collectors and sellers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire, formal, informal and extensive interactions to gather detailed information about these species. An integrated assessment of 68 wild leafy vegetables was also carried out to prioritize them for proper exploitation, conservation, and sustainable management. A total of 68 wild edible vegetables belonging to 42 families were documented which are being used by indigenous communities for nutritive and therapeutic purposes. Of these species, 54 are perennial (79 %) while others are annual (19 %). Herbaceous plants make up the highest proportion of edible plants. Leaves are dominant edible part followed by shoot and stem, and most are consumed through cooked food. Further, 57 species (84 %) are commonly available, and 11 (16 %) are rare. According to integrated assessment, 2 species have highest integrated value, 26 species have high value, 31 species have general value and 9 species are of low value. The majority of the species have a high or general value. Manipur has rich wild vegetable resources. However, many of them are seldom collected or cultivated given their importance in sustaining and diversifying diet. A

  20. Yield and Quality of Lettuce and Rocket Grown in Floating Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Alexandros PETROPOULOS; Eleni CHATZIEUSTRATIOU; Eleni CONSTANTOPOULOU; Georgios KAPOTIS

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend towards cultivating leafy vegetables in hydroponic systems. Floating system is an alternative hydroponic system suitable for the production of baby vegetable products, ready-to eat salads and minimally processed leafy vegetables. However, the implementation of this system for the production of fully grown leafy vegetables is not sufficiently studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of floating system as an alternative g...

  1. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  2. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  3. Phytochemical phenolics in organically grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Janice E; Zhao, Xin; Carey, Edward E; Welti, Ruth; Yang, Shie-Shien; Wang, Weiqun

    2005-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with risks for several chronic diseases in humans. Phytochemicals, and in particular, phenolic compounds, present in plant foods may be partly responsible for these health benefits through a variety of mechanisms. Since environmental factors play a role in a plant's production of secondary metabolites, it was hypothesized that an organic agricultural production system would increase phenolic levels. Cultivars of leaf lettuce, collards, and pac choi were grown either on organically certified plots or on adjacent conventional plots. Nine prominent phenolic agents were quantified by HPLC, including phenolic acids (e. g. caffeic acid and gallic acid) and aglycone or glycoside flavonoids (e. g. apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin). Statistically, we did not find significant higher levels of phenolic agents in lettuce and collard samples grown organically. The total phenolic content of organic pac choi samples as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, however, was significantly higher than conventional samples (p lettuce and collards, the organic system provided an increased opportunity for insect attack, resulting in a higher level of total phenolic agents in pac choi.

  4. Monitoring of nitrites and nitrates levels in leafy vegetables (spinach and lettuce): a contribution to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2014-03-15

    Nitrites and nitrates are compounds considered harmful to humans and the major part of the daily intake of nitrates in foodstuffs is related to vegetable consumption. In this work, 150 leafy vegetables samples (75 spinach and 75 lettuce) were analysed in order to assess the levels of nitrites and nitrates. The analyses were carried out by a validated ion chromatography method and the samples with nitrate concentrations higher than legal limits and/or with quantifiable concentrations of nitrites were confirmed by an alternative ion chromatography method. Nitrate levels higher than legal limits were detected both in spinach (four samples) and in lettuce (five samples). Nitrite residues were registered both at low concentrations--lower than 28.5 mg kg⁻¹ (12 spinach samples)--and at high concentrations, up to 197.5 mg kg⁻¹ (three spinach and one lettuce sample). Considering the non-negligible percentage of 'not-compliant' samples for nitrates (6.0%), control is needed. Moreover, it is possible to suggest the introduction in the Communities Regulations of a 'maximum admissible level' for nitrites in leafy vegetables. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Minerals, vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentrations and antioxidant activity levels in 15 leafy Amaranthus species. Across species, the concentration ranges of Ca, K, Mg, P and phenolics, and activity ranges of antioxidants in amaranth leaves were 1....

  6. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  7. Effect of variety mixtures on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jokonya

    AN EVALUATION OF SIX COWPEA VARIETIES GROWN ... provide cheap sources of protein, micronutrients and mineral elements that can ... traditional vegetables is that, these leafy vegetables are present in most home ..... REFERENCES. 1.

  8. From lesser-known to super vegetables: the growing profile of African traditional leafy vegetables in promoting food security and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworh, Ogugua C

    2018-08-01

    There are hundreds of traditional leafy vegetables and wild food plants of horticultural and nutritional significance in Africa. These lesser-known crops and wild food plants that are highly adapted to harsh growing conditions thrive with little care and are available when other sources of food fail or are out of season. They are rich in micronutrients and are often the cheapest sources of many essential vitamins and minerals in many localities. Many of them are very important functional foods in African traditional diets and are rich in nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids and flavonols, that exert demonstrable antioxidant, free radical scavenging and enzyme inhibition activities and have antimicrobial properties that provide scientific justification and possible mechanisms for their use in the management of a wide range of ailments, including diet-related, non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. African traditional leafy vegetables are invaluable in promoting food security and wellness in Africa on account of their availability and affordability, their great nutritional value, chemotherapeutic and health-promoting properties and other unique qualities. Long recognised by the rural populace as quality food items, they are becoming more popular even with the more affluent urban elites. There is the need to develop improved management practices for these super vegetables to promote their cultivation and boost their exploitation for food security and wellness in Africa. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  10. Impacts of climate change on the microbial safety of pre-harvest leafy green vegetables as indicated by Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Hofstra, N.; Franz, E.

    2013-01-01

    The likelihood of leafy green vegetable (LGV) contamination and the associated pathogen growth and survival are strongly related to climatic conditions. Particularly temperature increase and precipitation pattern changes have a close relationship not only with the fate and transport of enteric

  11. Determination of 210Po in leafy vegetables and annual effective dose assessment to the inhabitants of Mumbai city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.S.; Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A.C.; Lenka, P.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Nair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Present study deals with the measurement of activity concentration of 210 Po in leafy vegetable of Mumbai city and corresponding ingestion dose assessment to the population. 210 Po activity levels ranged from 44.5-183.3 with an average value of 81.8 mBq/kg. Minimum activity of 210 Po was found in shepu and maximum in methi. The concentration reported here is slightly more than the UNSCEAR value. The estimated total effective dose was found to vary from 0.3 - 1.4 with an average value of 0.6 μSv/y, which is about 1% of global average total ingestion dose due to 210 Po. (author)

  12. Integrated in vitro approaches to assess the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables and preliminary effects on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Giacomina; Gigante, Isabella; Serio, Francesco; Santamaria, Pietro; Cardinali, Angela; Colucci, Silvia; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2017-03-01

    Food industries are increasingly oriented toward new foods to improve nutritional status and/or to combat nutritional deficiency diseases. In this context, silicon biofortification could be an innovative tool for obtaining new foods with possible positive effects on bone mineralization. In this paper, an alternative and quick in vitro approach was applied in order to evaluate the potential health-promoting effects of five silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, Swiss chard and chicory) on bone mineralization compared with a commercial silicon supplement. The silicon bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the five leafy vegetables (biofortified or not) and of the supplement were assessed by applying a protocol consisting of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion coupled with a Caco-2 cell model. Silicon bioaccessibility ranged from 0.89 to 8.18 mg/L and bioavailability ranged from 111 to 206 μg/L of Si for both vegetables and supplement. Furthermore, the bioavailable fractions were tested on a human osteoblast cell model following the expression of type 1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase. The results obtained highlighted that the bioavailable fraction of biofortified purslane and Swiss chard improved the expression of both osteoblast markers compared with the supplement and other vegetables. These results underline the potentially beneficial effect of biofortified leafy vegetables and also indicate the usefulness of in vitro approaches for selecting the best vegetable with positive bone effects for further in vivo research.

  13. Comparative hypoglycemic potentials and phytochemical profiles of 12 common leafy culinary vegetables consumed in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Patrick Emeka; Udechukwu, Ifeanyi Ronald

    2018-04-11

    Metabolic disease like diabetes mellitus is on the increase in developing countries due to lack of access to orthodox medicine owing to its high cost. Health benefits of culinary vegetables cannot be overemphasized. This study therefore aims to profile the hypoglycaemic potentials of 12 common leafy vegetables consumed in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria and advise diabetic patients accordingly. A total of 75 albino Wistar rats assigned to 15 groups of five rats per group were used for the study. Diabetes was induced in groups 1-14 rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (160 mg/kg), and rats in group 15 were not made diabetic. Groups 1-12 rats were treated with aqueous extracts of the vegetables (200 mg/kg), and group 13 rats received glibenclamide at 2 mg/kg and served as standard control. Rats in groups 14 and 15 received distilled water (10 mL/kg) to serve as negative and normal controls, respectively. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) values of the rats were determined 3, 6 and 24 h post-treatment. Phytochemical studies on the vegetables were also carried out. Results revealed that the hypoglycaemic activities of Gongronema latifolium, Pterocarpus santalinoides, Ocimum gratissimum, Pterocarpus mildbraedii and Vernonia amygdalina were comparable (p>0.05) to that obtained for glibenclamide (standard anti-diabetic drug) while Gnetum africanum and Piper guineense did not show significant hypoglycaemic activities. Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, and terpenes were present in the vegetables. It was concluded that the vegetables possess hypoglycaemic activities at different capacities with G. latifolium being the most potent.

  14. Comparison of concentrations of mercury in ambient air to its accumulation by leafy vegetables: An important step in terrestrial food chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmerman, Ludwig de; Waegeneers, Nadia; Claeys, Natacha; Roekens, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A biomonitoring network with leafy vegetables was established near a chlor-alkali plant in order to compare the accumulation of mercury to the atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentration. Based on data obtained in the reference area the 'normal' mercury concentration in vegetables is between 0.6 and 5.4 μg kg -1 FW. The effect detection limits (EDLs) are between 1.2 and 11.0 μg kg -1 FW and the biological detection limits (BDLs), the lowest [TGM] that can be detected significantly, are between 3 and 4 ng m -3 . The accumulation rate is lowest for lettuce and high for curly kale that proved to be an excellent accumulator and as such it is very useful for biomonitoring purposes. A comparison made in the 1980s between biomonitoring results with grass and the mercury concentration in leafy vegetables from private gardens nearby proved to be valid when applied to the current biomonitoring results with vegetables. - Leafy vegetables are an important component in the transfer of atmospheric mercury through the terrestrial food chain

  15. Comparison of concentrations of mercury in ambient air to its accumulation by leafy vegetables: An important step in terrestrial food chain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, Ludwig de [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium)], E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be; Waegeneers, Nadia [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Claeys, Natacha; Roekens, Edward [Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij, Afdeling Lucht, Milieu en Communicatie, Kronenburgstraat 45, bus3, B-2000 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2009-04-15

    A biomonitoring network with leafy vegetables was established near a chlor-alkali plant in order to compare the accumulation of mercury to the atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentration. Based on data obtained in the reference area the 'normal' mercury concentration in vegetables is between 0.6 and 5.4 {mu}g kg{sup -1} FW. The effect detection limits (EDLs) are between 1.2 and 11.0 {mu}g kg{sup -1} FW and the biological detection limits (BDLs), the lowest [TGM] that can be detected significantly, are between 3 and 4 ng m{sup -3}. The accumulation rate is lowest for lettuce and high for curly kale that proved to be an excellent accumulator and as such it is very useful for biomonitoring purposes. A comparison made in the 1980s between biomonitoring results with grass and the mercury concentration in leafy vegetables from private gardens nearby proved to be valid when applied to the current biomonitoring results with vegetables. - Leafy vegetables are an important component in the transfer of atmospheric mercury through the terrestrial food chain.

  16. A survey on parasitic contamination of leafy vegetables in Ihiala LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables sold in some selected markets in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State Nigeria between January and June 2014. Vegetable samples which includes Amaranthus spp (green leaf), Telfara Occidentalis (pumpkin leaf), Talinium ...

  17. Produce from Africa?s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; G?lvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the A...

  18. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Odunlade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition of vegetable powders significantly increased the protein (9.50 to 13.93%, fibre (1.81 to 4.00%, ash (1.05 to 2.38%, and fat (1.27 to 2.00%. Supplementation with vegetable powder however significantly decreased (p<0.05 the carbohydrate and moisture contents. Significant (p<0.05 increases were recorded for all evaluated minerals as the level of vegetable powder increased. Supplementation with vegetable powder caused significant decrease in total phenolic content, percentage DPPH inhibition, metal chelating ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity. Sensory results showed that there was significant decrease in sensory qualities with increasing supplementation. This therefore suggests that bread supplemented with vegetable powder could have more market penetration if awareness is highly created.

  19. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Ahmad Eraky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6% samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8% followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%, various helminth larvae (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%. The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5% followed by watercress (41.3%, parsley (34.3%, green onion (16.5%, and leek (10.7%. These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P<0.05, with highest prevalence in summer (49% and the lowest in winter (10.8%. These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables.

  20. Effects of drought stress on growth, solute accumulation and membrane stability of leafy vegetable, huckleberry (Solanum scabrum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaha, Dekoum Vincent Marius; Liu, Liyun; Ueda, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the factors implicated in growth impairment of huckleberry (a leafy vegetable) under water stress conditions. To achieve this, seedlings of plant were subjected to control, mild stress and severe stress conditions for 30 days. Plant growth, plant water relation, gas exchange, oxidative stress damage, electrolyte leakage rate, mineral content and osmolyte accumulation were measured. Water deficit markedly decreased leaf, stem and root growth. Leaf photosynthetic rate was tremendously reduced by decrease in stomatal conductance under stress conditions. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content markedly increased under mild (82%) and severe (131%) stress conditions, while electrolyte leakage rate (ELR) increased by 59% under mild stress and 3-fold under severe stress. Mineral content in leafwas high in stressed plants, while proline content markedly increased under mild stress (12-fold) and severe stress (15-fold), with corresponding decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor and an increase in osmotic adjustment. These results suggest that maintenance of high mineral content and osmotic adjustment constitute important adaptations in huckleberry under water deficit conditions and that growth depression under drought stress would be mainly caused by increased electrolyte leakage resulting from membrane damage induced by oxidative stress.

  1. Recipes and nutritional value of dishes prepared from green-leafy vegetables in an urban district of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianatoandro, Verohanitra Annie; Avallone, Sylvie; Picq, Christian; Ralison, Charlotte; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    The recipes of 50 multi-ingredient dishes consumed by the population in an urban district were noted down. The nutritional value was determined as well as the cook value of the dishes in order to evaluate the severity of the thermal treatment. The recipes were simple and involved steps such as boiling, mixing, and cutting. Fibre contents were rather low except when the leaf stems were included. All the dishes had very high beta-carotene content (15.8-25.0 mg/100 g dry matter) and retinol activity equivalent (RAE) (1.3-2.3 mg RAE/100 g dry matter) because of the high proportion of fresh leafy vegetables (from 41.2% to 58.8% of the total dry matter of the ingredients). When meat was added to the preparation, the micronutrient content (iron, zinc, and retinol) was not increased significantly. In three dishes, a positive correlation was found between the thermal treatment severity and the 13-cis-beta-carotene amount.

  2. Understanding African American women's decisions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables: an application of the reasoned action approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ona, Fernando F; Juarez, Paul D; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2013-01-01

    Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Marion County, Indiana. African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leafy amaranthus consumption patterns in Ouagadougou, Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to change mentalities and to fuel a rapid growth of traditional leafy vegetables ... It was found that leafy vegetables are cultivated under both rain-fed and ... Ninety-four per cent of the interviewed people use vegetable Amaranth in sauce.

  4. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88

    OpenAIRE

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 (88Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 (90Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water co...

  5. Quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed leafy vegetables using a combined method based on enrichment and 16S rRNA real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida de Oliveira, Maria; Abeid Ribeiro, Eliana Guimarães; Morato Bergamini, Alzira Maria; Pereira De Martinis, Elaine Cristina

    2010-02-01

    Modern lifestyle markedly changed eating habits worldwide, with an increasing demand for ready-to-eat foods, such as minimally processed fruits and leafy greens. Packaging and storage conditions of those products may favor the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria, including the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In this work, minimally processed leafy vegetables samples (n = 162) from retail market from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for the presence or absence of Listeria spp. by the immunoassay Listeria Rapid Test, Oxoid. Two L. monocytogenes positive and six artificially contaminated samples of minimally processed leafy vegetables were evaluated by the Most Probable Number (MPN) with detection by classical culture method and also culture method combined with real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) for 16S rRNA genes of L. monocytogenes. Positive MPN enrichment tubes were analyzed by RTi-PCR with primers specific for L. monocytogenes using the commercial preparation ABSOLUTE QPCR SYBR Green Mix (ABgene, UK). Real-time PCR assay presented good exclusivity and inclusivity results and no statistical significant difference was found in comparison with the conventional culture method (p < 0.05). Moreover, RTi-PCR was fast and easy to perform, with MPN results obtained in ca. 48 h for RTi-PCR in comparison to 7 days for conventional method.

  6. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant.

  7. Heavy metal absorption by vegetables grown in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, F.; Riolfatti, M.; Ravazzolo, E.; Da Ros, D.; Brigato, L.

    1995-01-01

    The authors study the bibliographic and experimental data on absorption by vegetables of several heavy metals present in the soil or brought to it via fertilizations, especially with the use of compost coming from waste treatment plants. The presence of heavy metals in the soil causes increased levels of these toxic substances in the edible parts of the vegetables grown in that soil. Not to be neglected is also the absorption by the leaf apparatus of airborne particulate containing heavy metals which deposit on the parts of the vegetable exposed to the air. The available data lack homogeneity of investigation as they have been draw from studies which followed different methodologies. Therefore further studies are required in order to: eliminate some of the variables that might affect the absorption of metals from the soil and supply comparable data. Moreover, a greater number of vegetable species and their different edible parts will have to be taken into consideration

  8. Nutritive evaluation of a non-conventional leafy vegetable (Pereskia aculeata Miller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiti, Cristina Y; Antonio, Graziella C; Motta, Eliana M P; Collares-Queiroz, Fernanda P; Park, Kil J

    2009-01-01

    Pereskia aculeata Miller is a native cactus that can be found in Brazil and is called 'ora-pro-nobis' (OPN). Many people from poor communities consume the dark green leaves of OPN as a vegetable. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the nutritional components in terms of proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, protein content and their in vitro protein digestibility. OPN leaves showed remarkable levels of total dietary fiber (39.1% dry basis), minerals (calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc) and vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin C and folic acid). Among amino acids, tryptophan was the most abundant (20.5% of the total amino acids) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed small peptides, inferior to 6.5 kDa, and four major bands (61 kDa, 53 kDa, 33 kDa, and 15 kDa). The protein digestibility corrected amino acid score showed the lowest value of sulfur-amino acids (Met+Cys). OPN leaves could be considered a good source of minerals, vitamins and amino acids, and may serve as a potential functional ingredient.

  9. ESTIMATION OF HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES PURCHASED FROM SUCEAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuța Elena PRISACARU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the levels of five important heavy metals were identified in vegetable samples purchased from Suceava local markets. The concentrations of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Iron (Fe, Zinc (Zn and Copper (Cu were analysed using a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS from the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory within the Faculty of Food Engineering Suceava. The mean levels of heavy metals examined in spinach (Spinacia oleracea, ramsons (Allium ursinum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, orache (Atriplex hortensis and nettle (Urtica dioica were found to be in the order: Fe (13.52 µg/g > Cu (4.83 µg/g > Zn (3.623 µg/g > Cd (1.890 µg/g> Pb (0.290 µg/g. The highest concentration of heavy metal was identified in the case of Fe (51.333 µg/g in ramsons, whereas the lowest amount was identified for Pb (0.227 µg/g orache. The estimated daily intake for Cd is above 60 µg/kg b.w./day. The levels of the other metals are lower than the safe limits predicted by the FAO/WHO.

  10. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ( 88 Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using 88 Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide 90 Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  11. A Daily Snack Containing Leafy Green Vegetables, Fruit, and Milk before and during Pregnancy Prevents Gestational Diabetes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Sirazul A; Potdar, Ramesh D; Gandhi, Meera; Kehoe, Sarah H; Brown, Nick; Sane, Harshad; Coakley, Patsy J; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Chopra, Harsha; Shivshankaran, Devi; Cox, Vanessa A; Jackson, Alan A; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-07-01

    Prospective observational studies suggest that maternal diets rich in leafy green vegetables and fruit may help prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to test whether increasing women's dietary intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before conception and throughout pregnancy reduced their risk of GDM. Project SARAS ("excellent") (2006-2012) was a nonblinded, individually randomized, controlled trial in women living in slums in the city of Mumbai, India. The interventions included a daily snack made from leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk for the treatment group or low-micronutrient vegetables (e.g., potato and onion) for the control group, in addition to the usual diet. Results for the primary outcome, birth weight, have been reported. Women were invited to take an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 wk gestation to screen for GDM (WHO 1999 criteria). The prevalence of GDM was compared between the intervention and control groups, and Kernel density analysis was used to compare distributions of 120-min plasma glucose concentrations between groups. Of 6513 women randomly assigned, 2291 became pregnant; of these, 2028 reached a gestation of 28 wk, 1008 (50%) attended for an OGTT, and 100 (9.9%) had GDM. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the prevalence of GDM was reduced in the treatment group (7.3% compared with 12.4% in controls; OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86; P = 0.008). The reduction in GDM remained significant after adjusting for prepregnancy adiposity and fat or weight gain during pregnancy. Kernel density analysis showed that this was explained by the fact that fewer women in the treatment group had a 2-h glucose concentration in the range 7.5-10.0 mmol/L. In low-income settings, in which women have a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods, improving dietary micronutrient quality by increasing intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and/or milk may have an important protective effect against the development of GDM

  12. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2010-02-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green vegetables in salad from salad bars in The Netherlands. Pathogen growth was modeled in Aladin (Agro Logistics Analysis and Design Instrument) using time-temperature profiles in the chilled supply chain and one particular restaurant with a salad bar. A second-order Monte Carlo risk assessment model was constructed (using @Risk) to estimate the public health effects. The temperature in the studied cold chain was well controlled below 5 degrees C. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was minimal (17 and 15%, respectively). Growth of L. monocytogenes was considerably greater (194%). Based on first-order Monte Carlo simulations, the average number of cases per year in The Netherlands associated the consumption leafy greens in salads from salad bars was 166, 187, and 0.3 for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The ranges of the average number of annual cases as estimated by second-order Monte Carlo simulation (with prevalence and number of visitors as uncertain variables) were 42 to 551 for E. coli O157:H7, 81 to 281 for Salmonella, and 0.1 to 0.9 for L. monocytogenes. This study included an integration of modeling pathogen growth in the supply chain of fresh leafy vegetables destined for restaurant salad bars using software designed to model and design logistics and modeling the public health effects using probabilistic risk assessment software.

  13. Determination of household and industrial chemicals, personal care products and hormones in leafy and root vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Irene; Martín, Julia; Abril, Concepción; Santos, Juan Luis; Alonso, Esteban

    2018-01-19

    A multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants in leafy and root vegetables. Selected compounds were 6 perfluoroalkyl compounds (5 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), 3 non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol and nonylphenolethoxylates), 8 anionic surfactants (4 alkylsulfates and 4 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates), 4 preservatives (parabens), 2 biocides (triclosan and triclocarban), 2 plasticizers (bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 6 UV-filters (benzophenones) and 4 hormones. The method is based on ultrasound-assisted extraction, clean-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Due to the diversity of the physico-chemical properties of the target compounds, and to better evaluate the influence of sample treatment variables in extraction efficiencies, Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize extraction solvent volume, number of extraction cycles and d-SPE sorbent amount. Linearity (R 2 ) higher than 0.992, accuracy (expressed as relative recoveries) in the range from 81 to 126%, precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 19% and limits of detection between 0.025 and 12.5ngg -1 dry weight were achieved. The method was applied to leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach and chard) and root vegetables (carrot, turnip and potato) from a local market. The highest concentrations corresponded to the surfactants reaching levels up to 114ngg -1 (dry weight), in one of the lettuce samples analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. leafy vegetable, Gnetum africanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FPMLABUJA

    Fungal contaminants responsible for in vitro contaminations was also investigated and ... been found to scramble into the crowns of emergent trees. These two species are very .... P<0.05: There was significant difference among the levels of contamination of three sterilization regimes. Table 2. Frequency of occurrence of ...

  15. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Tufts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL, followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL. Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r2=0.7639, P=0.0228. Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  17. Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, A.; Ahmad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Ahmad, R.; Khalid, N.

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) contents of various vegetables (bitter melon, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, cucumber and bell pepper) produced in Rawalpindi, Pakistan was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. All vegetables grown at sewage water by farmers showed the highest contamination of heavy metals, followed by local market, Progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. The concentration ranges in mg/kg were (1.45 -2.55) for Cd, (3.10 to 4.92) Cr, (12.15- 20.50) Cu, (25.00-51.00) for Fe, (7.80 to 15.60) for Mn, (10.16 to 15.42) for Ni, (2.12 to 5.41) Pb and (16.58 to 24.08) for zinc. The contamination was above the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), set out by WHO. Irregular trends in concentration were also observed in vegetables obtained from local market, progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. (author)

  18. Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases. The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years, which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products. Green leafy vegetables (GLVs are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system. Highly selective, susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectrometry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds. The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC–MS has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples. In this review, the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC–MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects. Keywords: Green leafy vegetables, Phenolic acids, Flavonoids, HPLC, ESI-MS

  19. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Environmental surveillance of commonly-grown vegetables for investigating potential lead and chromium contamination intensification in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A M M Maruf; Islam, M Shahidul; Mamun, M Mustafa; Al-Jonaed, H M; Imran, M; Rahman, M Hasibur; Kazi, M Azizul Islam; Elahi, Syed Fazle

    2016-01-01

    With regard to previously reported Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) contamination in egg, a semi-quantitative assessment of the general environment of Bangladesh is carried out through nation-wide sampling of commonly grown and consumed vegetables. Five vegetables, namely, White Potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), Green Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea capitata var. alba L.), Red Spinach ( Amaranthus dubius ), White Radish ( Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus ), and Green Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) were selected for sampling from all 64 Districts of the country as per their availability during the sampling season. This results in a collection of 292 samples. Due to the necessity of incorporating a wide spectrum of vegetable types (e.g. tuber, brassica, leafy, root, and fruiting vegetables) as well as the need for including the geographic expanse of the whole country, replicates were not accommodated in the study, hence, the study being semi-quantitative in nature. The results do not substantiate evidence of public health risk due to Cr yet, with only 0.69 % of the samples found contaminated with Cr. Pb contamination (concentrations above a health-based guidance value) is found in 29.47 % of the samples; and together with the insight of such contamination likely being non-point origin, communicates on potential public health risk due to Pb as residual effects of extensive ambient atmospheric Pb pollution in recent history of the country. For the purpose of comparison, Cadmium (Cd) contents of the samples are also analyzed. Although there is no extensive Cd pollution history/source in the country, the likely point-source nature of Cd contamination found in 17.83 % of the samples indicates the scope of managing any existing contamination source by directing efforts into the potential point-sources.

  1. Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Ramesh

    2017-12-01

    Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases. The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years, which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products. Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system. Highly selective, susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectrometry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds. The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples. In this review, the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC-MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects.

  2. determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obijole, 2000, Osaki et.al, 2003, Ismail and. Ayodele, 2003 and Gwarzo et.al, 2006). There is an increasing awareness of the value of leafy vegetables in contributing to a balanced diet particularly in areas where animal protein is deficient. In addition to their iron content, leafy vegetables contribute significant amount of beta-.

  3. Understanding African American Women’s Decisions to Buy and Eat Dark Green Leafy Vegetables: An Application of the Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Ona, Fernando F.; Juarez, Paul D.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine intentions to buy and eat dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV). Design Cross-sectional survey assessing demographics, behavior, intention, and Reasoned Action Approach constructs (attitude, perceived norm, self-efficacy). Setting Marion County, Indiana. Participants African American women responsible for buying and preparing household food. Main Outcome Measure(s) Reasoned Action Approach constructs explaining intentions to buy and eat DGLV. Analysis Summary statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analyses. Results Among participants (n = 410, mean age = 43 y), 76% and 80%, respectively, reported buying and eating DGLV in the past week. Mean consumption was 1.5 cups in the past 3 days. Intentions to buy (r = 0.20, P Reasoned Action Approach constructs explained 71.2% of the variance in intention to buy, and 60.9% of the variance in intention to eat DGLV. Attitude (β = .63) and self-efficacy (β = .24) related to buying and attitude (β = .60) and self-efficacy (β = .23) related to eating DGLV explained significant amounts of variance in intentions to buy and eat more DGLV. Perceived norm was unrelated to either intention to buy or eat DGLV. Conclusions and Implications Interventions designed for this population of women should aim to improve DGLV-related attitudes and self-efficacy. PMID:24021457

  4. Development of a dynamic growth-death model for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in minimally processed leafy green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Robin C; Delaquis, Pascal

    2011-11-15

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, an occasional contaminant of fresh produce, can present a serious health risk in minimally processed leafy green vegetables. A good predictive model is needed for Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) purposes, which adequately describes the growth or die-off of this pathogen under variable temperature conditions experienced during processing, storage and shipping. Literature data on behaviour of this pathogen on fresh-cut lettuce and spinach was taken from published graphs by digitization, published tables or from personal communications. A three-phase growth function was fitted to the data from 13 studies, and a square root model for growth rate (μ) as a function of temperature was derived: μ=(0.023*(Temperature-1.20))(2). Variability in the published data was incorporated into the growth model by the use of weighted regression and the 95% prediction limits. A log-linear die-off function was fitted to the data from 13 studies, and the resulting rate constants were fitted to a shifted lognormal distribution (Mean: 0.013; Standard Deviation, 0.010; Shift, 0.001). The combined growth-death model successfully predicted pathogen behaviour under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions when compared to new published data. By incorporating variability, the resulting model is an improvement over existing ones, and is suitable for QRA applications. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of washing procedures in reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a raw leafy green vegetable (Eruca vescicaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pezzuto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket (Eruca vescicaria. Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g, suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively. This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens.

  6. Application of HPLC and ESI-MS techniques in the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids from green leafy vegetables (GLVs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesh Kumar Bonta

    2017-01-01

    Diets containing high proportions of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of onset of chronic diseases.The role of herbal medicines in improving human health is gaining popularity over the years,which also increases the need for safety and efficiency of these products.Green leafy vegetables(GLVs)are the richest source of phenolic compounds with excellent antioxidant properties. Increased consumption of diets containing phenolic compounds may give positive and better results to human health and significantly improves the immune system.Highly selective,susceptible and versatile analytical techniques are necessary for extraction,identifica-tion, and quantification of phenolic compounds from plant extracts, which helps to utilize their important biological properties. Recent advances in the pre-treatment procedures, separation techniques and spectro-metry methods are used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds.The online coupling of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry(LC–MS)has become a useful tool in the metabolic profiling of plant samples.In this review,the separation and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids from GLVs by LC–MS have been discussed along with the general extraction procedures and other sources of mass spectrometer used. The review is devoted to the understanding of the structural configuration, nature and accumulation pattern of phenolic acids and flavonoids in plants and to highlighting the recent developments in the chemical investigation of these compounds by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.It concludes with the advantages of the combination of these two methods and prospects.

  7. Effectiveness of Washing Procedures in Reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a Raw Leafy Green Vegetable (Eruca vesicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Belluco, Simone; Losasso, Carmen; Patuzzi, Ilaria; Bordin, Paola; Piovesana, Alessia; Comin, Damiano; Mioni, Renzo; Ricci, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite) and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket ( Eruca vesicaria ). Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L) was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g), suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes , all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively). This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens.

  8. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarani, Gunasekaran; Abirami, Arumugam; Nikitha, Prasad; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3 439-309 549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17 808-53 818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed. PMID:25183131

  9. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Vegetables Grown on the Contaminated Soils in Daye City of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China is an agriculturally-producing country and the safety of its vegetables will have an extensive attention at home and abroad. Recently, contamination of soils and vegetables caused by mining activities is of great social concern because of the potential risk to human health, especially to the residents whom live near metal or metalloid mines. In this study, 18 topsoil and 141 vegetable samples were collected from the contaminated areas in Daye City Hubei Province, China and the concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were analyzed. A self-designed questionnaire was assigned to obtain the exposure scenario and the USEPA health risk assessment model was adopted to assess two type of risks (non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks of vegetables to humans. The results showed that the average contents of metal(loids in soils exceeded the background value of Daye City. The average contents of metal(loids, especially As, Cd, Pb, in three kinds of vegetables were significantly higher than the permissible values based on Chinese national standard. Leafy vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and the transfer factors of As (0.015, Cd (0.080 and Pb (0.003 were comparable to leguminous and fruit vegetables. Leguminous vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of Cu (0.032 and Zn (0.094 than leafy and fruit vegetables. The transfer factors from soil to plants follows a decreasing order as Cd (0.068, Zn (0.047 > Cu (0.023 > As (0.006, Pb (0.002. Furthermore, health risk assessment revealed the following results: the non-carcinogenic risk decreased in the order of children, adult, adolescent, while the carcinogenic risk followed a decreasing order of adult, adolescent, children; the calculated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the metal(loids by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > leguminous vegetables. The relatively

  12. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, toxicity and phytochemical assessment of extracts from Acmella uliginosa, a leafy-vegetable consumed in Bénin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagnika, Latifou; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid O; Adjileye, Rafatou A A; Laleye, Anatole; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2016-01-27

    Acmella uliginosa (Asteraceae) is a flowering plant whose leaves are consumed as a vegetable in Benin. They are also traditionally used as an antibiotic in the treatment of infectious diseases. To evaluate the therapeutic potential and toxicity effect of this leafy-vegetable, the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant activities and, toxicity and phytochemical constituents were investigated. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of Acmella uliginosa were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against six bacterial and six fungi strains. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated by microdilution method and agar diffusion method respectively. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay and phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures. Finally, oral acute toxicity at a dose of 2000 mg/kg was done according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline n° 423. The antibacterial activity was broad spectrum, inhibiting both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.625 to 5 mg/ml. The antifungal evaluation show that all the extracts inhibited mycelial growth and sporulation of fungi with percentages of inhibition ranging from 9.39 to 75.67% and 22.04 to 99.77%, respectively. In DPPH radical scavenging assay, the effect on reducing free radicals increased in a dose dependent manner. The percentage of inhibition of DPPH ranged from 0.94 to 73.07%. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of coumarin, flavonoid, naphtoquinone, anthracene derivative, saponin, lignan, triterpene and tannin. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts showed the best biological activities; they were also shown as the best extraction solvents of phytochemicals. In the acute toxicity evaluation, all animals were physically active and no deaths of rats were observed during the test. However, the aqueous extract promoted biochemical

  13. Contamination level in vegetables grown around Peshawar using sewerage and canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.

    2001-01-01

    The level of contamination in vegetables grown around Peshawar using sewerage/canal water is reported. The vegetable samples were collected from three representative locations. The results indicated that vegetables grown with sewerage water contained higher levels of Cd, Cu and Pb than those with irrigation water. Maximum amount of Cd was in Qulfa (3.68 mu g/ g) followed by sponge gourd leaves (3.38 mu g/ g) the tomato leaves (93.32 mu g/ g). while Pb in tomato leaves (4.88 mu g / g), Cu content ranged between 2.08 and 7.5 mu g/g in these vegetables. In the vegetables grown with canal water the Cd ranged 0.82 - 2.88 mu g/g, Cu 2.38 mu g /g and Pb 0.84 - 1.88 mu g/ g. The concentration of Fe and P in the vegetables of sewerage water ranged 9.0-25.0 and 5.6-14.8 mg/100g respectively while those grown with canal water 9.0-11.0 mg/ 100 g and 8.4-12.8 mg/ 100 g respectively. (author)

  14. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  15. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  16. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  17. Fast determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in leafy vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze-Jun; Cao, Xiao-Lin; Li, Hui; Zhang, Chan; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; Jin, Mao-Jun; Wang, Shan-Shan; She, Yong-Xin; Wang, Jing

    2017-11-24

    In the present study, a quick and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPxEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPxEOs) (x=2-20) in three leafy vegetables, including cabbage, lettuce, and spinach using a modified "QuEChERS" method and ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Under optimized conditions, the 38 target analytes were analyzed within a short period of time (5 min). The linearities of the matrix-matched standard calibrations were satisfactory with coefficients of determination (R 2 )>0.99 and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were in between 0.02-0.27 and 0.18-1.75μgkg -1 , respectively. The recovery of all target analytes spiked at three (low, medium, and high) fortification levels in various leafy vegetables were ranged from 72.8-122.6% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤18.3%. The method was successfully applied to market samples and the target analytes were found in all monitored samples, with total concentrations of 0-8.67μgkg -1 and 15.75-95.75μgkg -1 for OPxEOs and NPxEOs (x=2-20), respectively. In conclusion, the newly developed UHPSFC-ESI-MS/MS method is rapid and versatile and could be extrapolated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of APxEOs in other leafy vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  19. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis techniques for contaminant screening of leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoyoung

    2014-05-01

    The production of contaminant free fresh fruit and vegetables is needed to reduce foodborne illnesses and related costs. Leafy greens grown in the field can be susceptible to fecal matter contamination from uncontrolled livestock and wild animals entering the field. Pathogenic bacteria can be transferred via fecal matter and several outbreaks of E.coli O157:H7 have been associated with the consumption of leafy greens. This study examines the use of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis to detect fecal contamination on Spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea). Hyperspectral fluorescence images from 464 to 800 nm were captured; ultraviolet excitation was supplied by two LED-based line light sources at 370 nm. Key wavelengths and algorithms useful for a contaminant screening optical imaging device were identified and developed, respectively. A non-invasive screening device has the potential to reduce the harmful consequences of foodborne illnesses.

  20. Quality of Organic Vegetables Grown in Two Certified Sites on the Outskirts of Bucharest Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungu Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility properties, irrigation water quality, mineral nutrition, and some vegetables mineral composition were studied in the frame of a project regarding yield quality monitoring in certified organic vegetable farms, in two farms placed on the outskirts of Bucharest Municipality which provide products for the town’s organic market. Chemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the two farms reflects a good fertility, close to the natural one of this region soils, with well-balanced organic matter, total nitrogen, accessible phosphorus and potassium contents. The nitrates contents concord with the plants nutrition demands and don’t present the risk to accumulate in vegetables or to leach into the groundwater. Slightly increased microelements, both total and soluble forms, occur. Soil microbiological properties are favorable for vegetable plants growth. A good biodiversity is noticed. There are differences between soil properties in open field and greenhouses, induced both by the type and degree of mechanical works and materials applied for fertilization and plant protection. Good conditions are generally created for plants mineral nutrition. Mineral nutrition status of the vegetables grown in organic conditions, assessed by the leaves mineral composition, doesn’t differ from the one of the vegetables grown in conventional conditions. The vegetables (fresh material harvested from the two studied farms have good, even high, concentrations of mineral elements important for the yield nutritional quality. The excessive microelements quantities noticed in soil don’t transfer in the yield, so the latter quality and nutritional properties are not altered.

  1. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  3. Biological Control of Diseases of Vegetables Grown Hydroponically in Thailand: Challenge and Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanamaneesathian, Mana

    2015-01-01

    In Thailand, yield loss due to plant diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically is very high as a result of the growers` lack of knowledge for controlling diseases and their un- willingness to invest in setting-up the proper hydroponic system from the beginning. Severe root rot disease caused by Pythium spp. is frequent and can be anticipated in the hot climate in Thailand. This review focuses on the diseases in temperate lettuces which have been produced hydroponically and have been attacked by plant pathogens, particularly Pythium spp. Biological control of vegetable diseases grown hydroponically has been investigated in Thailand. Research is being carried out to identify effective strains of the antagonists, formulating the applicable products and delivering them appropriately to control the disease. Products of Bacillus subtilis, Chaetomium globosom and Trichoderma harzianum have been recommended for use to control diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically. Control efficacy of these products is varied as the biological products have been used by the growers in the paradigm of using chemical fungicide for disease control in hydroponic production system, overlooking the intrinsic characteristics of the biological control products. The recent patent, which minimizes the effects of sunlight and heat on the nutrient solution without the use of an external energy for cooling the nutrient, should be applied in producing hydroponic vegetables to mitigate poor plant growth and root rot disease outbreak in Thailand.

  4. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on Historically Contaminated Orchard Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. McBride

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of Pb and As into vegetables grown on orchard soils historically contaminated by Pb arsenate pesticides was measured in the greenhouse. Lettuce, carrots, green beans, and tomatoes were grown on soils containing a range of total Pb (16.5–915 mg/kg and As (6.9–211 mg/kg concentrations. The vegetables were acid-digested and analyzed for total Pb and As using ICP-mass spectrometry. Vegetable contamination was dependent on soil total Pb and As concentrations, pH, and vegetable species. Arsenic concentrations were the highest in lettuce and green beans, lower in carrots, and much lower in tomato fruit. Transfer of Pb into lettuce and beans was generally lower than that of As, and Pb and As were strongly excluded from tomato fruit. Soil metal concentrations as high as 400 mg/kg Pb and 100 mg/kg As produced vegetables with concentrations of Pb and As below the limits of international health standards.

  5. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Determination of Vitamin C, b-carotene and Riboflavin Contents in Five Green Vegetables Organically and Conventionally Grown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amin; Cheah, Sook Fun

    2003-03-01

    As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse β-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kai-lan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in β -carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.

  7. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Conti, C.C.; Loureiro, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for 226 Ra, 0.55 for 228 Ra and 0.24 for 238 U (Bq kg -1 dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10 -4 to 10 -2 for 238 U and from 10 -2 to 10 -1 for 228 Ra

  8. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Ribeiro, F.C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 200, Cidade Universitaria Recife, PE, CEP 50740-540 (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Loureiro, F.A. [Estacao Experimental de Nova Friburgo, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pesagro (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for {sup 226}Ra, 0.55 for {sup 228}Ra and 0.24 for {sup 238}U (Bq kg{sup -1} dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -2} for {sup 238}U and from 10{sup -2} to 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra.

  9. Lead and nutrient allocation in vegetables grown in soil from a battery site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sousa Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The steady growth of the Brazilian automotive industry and the resulting development of the battery market, which represent a large proportion of the lead (Pb used in the country, have made battery recycling one of the main sources of Pb soil contamination in Brazil. Plants cultivated in Pb-contaminated soil can take up this metal, which can affect the plant’s nutritional metabolism. The Pb can also be transferred into the edible parts of plants, thereby imposing threats to human health. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of Pb in edible parts of vegetables grown on soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. This study also investigated the effects of Pb on nutrient concentrations in plants. Plant species biomass, Pb concentration, and concentrations of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu in plant parts were measured. The results showed that Pb concentrations in the edible parts of vegetables grown in contaminated soil were above the threshold acceptable for human consumption. Among the vegetables evaluated, only lettuce dry matter production was reduced because of the high concentration of Pb in soil. The presence of Pb altered the concentration of micronutrients in the edible parts of kale, carrots, and okra, stimulating higher Mn and Cu concentrations in these plants when cultivated in contaminated soil.

  10. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, D C; Ribeiro, F C A; Conti, C C; Loureiro, F A

    2009-02-01

    Vegetables grown with phosphate fertilizer (conventional management), with bovine manure fertilization (organic management) and in a mineral nutrient solution (hydroponic) were analyzed and the concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra in lettuce, carrots, and beans were compared. Lettuce from hydroponic farming system showed the lowest concentration of radionuclides 0.51 for (226)Ra, 0.55 for (228)Ra and 0.24 for (238)U (Bq kg(-1) dry). Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium. Relationships between uranium content in plants and exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil were found, whereas Ra in vegetables was inversely correlated to the cation exchange capacity of soil, leading to the assumption that by supplying carbonate and cations to soil, liming may cause an increase of U and a decrease of radium uptake by plants. The soil to plant transfer varied from 10(-4) to 10(-2) for (238)U and from 10(-2) to 10(-1) for (228)Ra.

  11. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-02

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of phenol in locally grown fruits and vegetable by spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Farooqui, Z.H.; Ifrahim, A.F.K.

    2005-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method for the determination of phenol in the sample of locally grown fruits apple, pear, sweet orange and vegetable radish of Quetta, Hyderabad and Nawabshah are described juices from these fruits and vegetable were squeezed, filtered and decolorized with charcoal. The antipyrine dye formed by reaction between phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine was analyzed. The calibration graphs were prepared in the range of 0.5 to 4 ppm of phenol. Phenol in apple, pear and sweet orange was found to be in the range of 1-1.2 ppm and in radish was found to be 0.5 ppm. Possible source of organic pollutant were pointed out and were discussed. Limits of detection of the method was investigated and was found to be 0.2 mu g/ml

  13. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 viability on leafy green vegetables by treatment with a bacteriophage mixture and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Akhtar, Mastura; Feirtag, Joellen; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2011-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been recognized as a major foodborne pathogen responsible for frequent gastroenteritis outbreaks. Phages and essential oils can be used as a natural antimicrobial method to reduce bacterial pathogens from the food supply. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a bacteriophage cocktail, BEC8, alone and in combination with the essential oil trans-cinnameldehyde (TC) on the viability of a mixture of EHEC O157:H7 strains applied on whole baby romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. The EHEC O157:H7 strains used were Nal(R) mutants of EK27, ATCC 43895, and 472. Exponentially growing cells from tryptic soy (TS) broth cultures were spot inoculated on leaves and dried. EHEC cells were placed at low, medium, and high inoculum levels (10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively). Appropriate controls, BEC8 (approx. 10(6) PFU/leaf), and TC (0.5% v/v) were applied on treated leaves. The leaves were incubated at 4, 8, 23, and 37 °C in Petri dishes with moistened filter papers. EHEC survival was determined using standard plate count on nalidixic acid (50 μg/mL) Sorbitol MacConkey agar. No survivors were detected when both leaves were treated with BEC8 or TC individually at low inoculum levels after 24 h at 23 and 37 °C. When the EHEC inoculum size increased and/or incubation temperature decreased, the efficacy of BEC8 and TC decreased. However, when the two treatments were combined, no survivors were detected after 10 min at all temperatures and inoculum levels on both leafy greens. These results indicated that the BEC8/TC combination was highly effective against EHEC on both leafy greens. This combination could potentially be used as an antimicrobial to inactivate EHEC O157:H7 and reduce their incidence in the food chain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  15. Plutonium contents of broadleaf vegetable crops grown near a nuclear fuel chemical separations facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K W; Alberts, J J; Adriano, D C; Pinder, III, J E

    1984-02-01

    Among agricultural crops, broadleaf vegetables are particularly prone to intercept and retain aerially released contaminants. The plutonium concentration of four broadleaf crops (broccoli, cabbage, lettuce and turnip greens) was determined, when grown in close proximity to a nuclear-fuel chemical-separations facility. Concentrations varied among species, apparently influenced by the crop morphology, with Pu concentrations increasing in the sequence: cabbage < broccoli < turnip greens < lettuce. Washing of the crops significantly reduced the Pu concentration of lettuce, but had no effect on Pu concentration of broccoli and cabbage. The vast majority of Pu found in the crops was due to direct deposition of recently released Pu and resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles, and was not due to root uptake. Resultant doses from consumption are small relative to the annual background dose.

  16. Assessment of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr in vegetables grown around Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted aimed to assess the potential risk of heavy metals on human health resulting from consumption of vegetables. To this end, the vegetables grown around town and industrial center of Zanjan were sampled randomly. Plant samples were digested using hydrochloric acid (HCL 2 M and concentration of elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr were recorded by atomic absorption. Obtained means of heavy metals in all vegetables (N= 32 for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr is 98.8, 31.9, 19.3, 4.4 and 2.3 mg/kg, respectively. The highest amount of metal pollution index (MPI in the basil and the lowest was observed in the garden cress (respectively 16.46 and 4.88. Daily intake (EDI for zinc, copper and chromium in all age groups was lower than the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI. This amount for nickel was 2, 1.6 and 1.3 %, and for Pb 28.1, 22 and 19 % higher than PTDI in children, adults and seniors, respectively. The potential risk (THQ was calculated in all age groups as Pb>>Cu>Zn>Ni>Cr. The potential risks (THQ of chromium, nickel and zinc were calculated lower than 1, for copper a bit more of 1 and for lead much higher than 1. Health index (HI for children, adults and the elderly was estimated 31.331, 24.58 and 21.14, respectively, with the largest contribution of the lead (89.7%.

  17. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Sirsat, Sujata A.; Neal, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for...

  18. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  19. Lead and cadmium contamination and exposure risk assessment via consumption of vegetables grown in agricultural soils of five-selected regions of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization result in serious contamination of soil with toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), which can lead to deleterious health impacts in the exposed population. This study aimed to investigate Pb and Cd contamination in agricultural soils and vegetables in five different agricultural sites in Pakistan. The metal transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake of metals, and health risk index (HRI) were also characterized. The Pb concentrations for all soils were below the maximum allowable limits (MAL 350 mg kg−1) set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), for soils in China. Conversely, Cd concentrations in the soils exceeded the MAL set by SEPA (0.6 mg kg−) and the European Union (1.5 mg kg−1) by 62-74% and 4-34%, respectively. The mean Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables ranged from 1.8-11 mgkg−1. The Pb concentrations for leafy vegetables were higher than the fruiting and pulpy vegetables. The Pb concentrations exceeded the MAL (0.3 mg kg−1) for leafy vegetables and the MAL for fruity and rooty/tuber vegetables (0.1 mg kg−1) set by FAO/WHO-CODEX.. Likewise, all vegetables except Pisum sativum (0.12 mg kg−1) contained Cd concentrations that exceeded the MAL set by SEPA. The HRI values for Pb and Cd were vegetable species except Luffa acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum, Benincasa hispada, Momordi charantia, Aesculantus malvaceae, Cucumis sativus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Brassica oleracea, and Colocasia esculanta for children. Based on these results, consumption of these Pb and Cd contaminated vegetables poses a potential health risk to the local consumers. PMID:27939659

  20. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  1. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  2. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars, based on modeling supply chain logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; Franz, E

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference between simulating supply chain logistics (MOD) and assuming fixed storage times (FIX) in microbial risk estimation for the supply chain of fresh-cut leafy green vegetables destined for working-canteen salad bars. The results of the FIX model were previously published (E. Franz, S. O. Tromp, H. Rijgersberg, and H. J. van der Fels-Klerx, J. Food Prot. 73:274-285, 2010). Pathogen growth was modeled using stochastic discrete-event simulation of the applied logistics concept. The public health effects were assessed by conducting an exposure assessment and risk characterization. The relative growths of Escherichia coli O157 (17%) and Salmonella enterica (15%) were identical in the MOD and FIX models. In contrast, the relative growth of Listeria monocytogenes was considerably higher in the MOD model (1,156%) than in the FIX model (194%). The probability of L. monocytogenes infection in The Netherlands was higher in the MOD model (5.18×10(-8)) than in the FIX model (1.23×10(-8)). The risk of listeriosis-induced fetal mortality in the perinatal population increased from 1.24×10(-4) (FIX) to 1.66×10(-4) (MOD). Modeling the probabilistic nature of supply chain logistics is of additional value for microbial risk assessments regarding psychrotrophic pathogens in food products for which time and temperature are the postharvest preventive measures in guaranteeing food safety.

  3. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Satnam; Webb, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    The discovery that dietary (inorganic) nitrate has important vascular effects came from the relatively recent realization of the 'nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway'. Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to have a range of beneficial vascular effects, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction, enhancing exercise performance in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral arterial disease. Pre-clinical studies with nitrate or nitrite also show the potential to protect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and reduce arterial stiffness, inflammation and intimal thickness. However, there is a need for good evidence for hard endpoints beyond epidemiological studies. Whilst these suggest reduction in cardiovascular risk with diets high in nitrate-rich vegetables (such as a Mediterranean diet), others have suggested possible small positive and negative associations with dietary nitrate and cancer, but these remain unproven. Interactions with other nutrients, such as vitamin C, polyphenols and fatty acids may enhance or inhibit these effects. In order to provide simple guidance on nitrate intake from different vegetables, we have developed the Nitrate 'Veg-Table' with 'Nitrate Units' [each unit being 1 mmol of nitrate (62 mg)] to achieve a nitrate intake that is likely to be sufficient to derive benefit, but also to minimize the risk of potential side effects from excessive ingestion, given the current available evidence. The lack of data concerning the long term effects of dietary nitrate is a limitation, and this will need to be addressed in future trials. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate‐nitrite‐nitric oxide pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Satnam; Webb, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that dietary (inorganic) nitrate has important vascular effects came from the relatively recent realization of the ‘nitrate‐nitrite‐nitric oxide (NO) pathway’. Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to have a range of beneficial vascular effects, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction, enhancing exercise performance in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral arterial disease. Pre‐clinical studies with nitrate or nitrite also show the potential to protect against ischaemia‐reperfusion injury and reduce arterial stiffness, inflammation and intimal thickness. However, there is a need for good evidence for hard endpoints beyond epidemiological studies. Whilst these suggest reduction in cardiovascular risk with diets high in nitrate‐rich vegetables (such as a Mediterranean diet), others have suggested possible small positive and negative associations with dietary nitrate and cancer, but these remain unproven. Interactions with other nutrients, such as vitamin C, polyphenols and fatty acids may enhance or inhibit these effects. In order to provide simple guidance on nitrate intake from different vegetables, we have developed the Nitrate ‘Veg‐Table’ with ‘Nitrate Units’ [each unit being 1 mmol of nitrate (62 mg)] to achieve a nitrate intake that is likely to be sufficient to derive benefit, but also to minimize the risk of potential side effects from excessive ingestion, given the current available evidence. The lack of data concerning the long term effects of dietary nitrate is a limitation, and this will need to be addressed in future trials. PMID:22882425

  5. Content and in-vitro accessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids from Sri Lankan cooked non-leafy vegetables and their estimated contribution to vitamin A requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B; Chandrika, U G

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Sri Lanka, which affects especially pre-school children. Carrots (Daucus carota), pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima), squashes (Cucurbita moschata) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) of orange, yellow-fleshed varieties are good sources of provitamin A carotenoids, but have not been studied in Sri Lanka in terms of the food as eaten. The content of carotenoids in each preparation method and the in-vitro accessibility of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in-vitro method simulates the conditions in the human intestinal tract. The mean contents in dry weight (DW) in different carrot preparations ranged from 406.7 to 456.3, from 183.7 to 213.5 and from 29.0 to 39.6 microg/g for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lutein, respectively. The content of carotenoids in different pumpkin preparations varied from 282.1 to 294.4 microg/g DW for beta-carotene, from 155.6 to 157.7 microg/g DW for alpha-carotene and from 218.0 to 228.2 microg/g DW for lutein. The squashes preparation had 44.6 and 40.0 microg/g DW for beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, respectively, and in sweet potatoes beta-carotene ranged from 204.3 to 210.3 microg/g DW. The results showed that the contribution to the recommended daily allowance is greater when these vegetables are prepared as a curry with coconut milk. The percentage contribution to recommended daily allowance from each vegetable cooked with coconut milk was 46.7, 21.8, 1.2 and 10.8 for carrots, pumpkins, squashes and sweet potatoes, respectively.

  6. Determination of pesticide residues in leafy vegetables at parts per billion levels by a chemometric study using GC-ECD in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Yang; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Bibi, Nusrat; Khalik, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd

    2017-06-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2 4-1 design and CCD matrices. The method evaluation was done by external standard calibration with linearity range between 0.5 and 3mg/kg, with correlation coefficient 0.99, limit of detection (LOD) ranges between 0.02 and 4.5ng/g, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges between 0.2 and 45ng/g. The average recovery was between 60% and 128%, with RSD 0.2-19.8%. The method was applied on real vegetable samples from Cameron Highlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  8. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  9. The selective uptake of uranium and thorium from the environment by some vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, A.M.; Ghazali, Z.; Abdul-Rahman, S.; Sharif, J.

    1991-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish baseline information on environmental pollution in locally-grown vegetables by uranium and thorium. Lowland and highland species together with soil and fertilizer samples were collected and analyzed using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry and delayed neutron counting techniques. All leafy vegetables observed showed high uranium and thorium uptake especially those grown in the lowlands. Those grown in the highlands reflected no direct relationship in uranium and thorium contents. Several species common in both sampling areas exhibited direct relationship between these two elements making them as potential bio-indicators. Figures calculated for fruit-type and leafy vegetables were not only comparatively low but bore no direct correlation between the two elements. The use of phosphate-based fertilizers on some of the leafy species in the lowlands did not enhance the uptake of these elements in spite of the higher uranium and thorium contents in soil samples from the lowlands, between 20-85 μg/g for uranium and 43-226 μg/g thorium compared to about 13-20 μg/g and 35-55 μg/g respectively for soil samples in the highlands. Statistical analysis was done to substantiate these findings. Climatic conditions were also taken into account as one of the factors affecting selective uptake of these elements in the vegetables

  10. Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce.

  11. Dehydration-induced endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge highlights involvement of MAF3- and RVE1-like homologs, and hormone signaling cross-talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative shoot growth from underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge is critical for survival of this invasive perennial weed after episodes of severe abiotic stress. To determine the impact that dehydration-stress has on molecular mechanisms associated with vegetative reproduction of leafy sp...

  12. Genetic characterization of two traditional leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Adéoti, K.1,2, Rival, A.3, Dansi, A.2*, Santoni, S.4, Brown, S.5, Beule, T.3, Nato, ... ecogeographical origin and the status (cultivated or wild) of the analyzed .... ethanol 96%) were added to 200 µl of DAN solution and incubated.

  13. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown around battery production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery production is one of the main sources of heavy metals that present great harm to human health even in low concentrations. Chromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb were measured in edible portions of vegetables and soils around a battery production area in China, and the potential health risk of heavy metal contamination to the local population via vegetable consumption was evaluated. Their concentrations in edible portions of vegetables were 2.354 (0.078-14.878, 0.035 (0.003-0.230 and 0.039 (0.003-0.178 mg kg-1, respectively. Approximately 3 % of the Cd in the vegetable samples exceeded the maximum concentration allowable by national food safety criteria, although Pb content in all samples were within the criteria. Transfer factors (TF from soils to vegetables were dependent on vegetable species. Leguminous vegetables were more likely to accumulate Cr, while leaf vegetables tended to show higher levels of concentration of Cd and Pb. Melon vegetables demonstrated a relatively low capacity for accumulating the heavy metals studied. TF were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean estimated daily intake of Cr, Cd and Pb via dietary consumption of vegetables was 0.011, 1.65 × 10-4 and 1.84 × 10-4 mg kg-1 of body weight per day, respectively, levels that were much lower than the reference doses recommended by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, indicating that the potential health risk of Cr, Cd and Pb exposure via vegetable consumption to the local population around this battery production area could be negligible.

  14. Quality of Organic Vegetables Grown in Two Certified Sites on the Outskirts of Bucharest Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Lungu Mihaela; Ștefănescu Sorin Liviu; Dumitrașcu Monica

    2017-01-01

    Soil fertility properties, irrigation water quality, mineral nutrition, and some vegetables mineral composition were studied in the frame of a project regarding yield quality monitoring in certified organic vegetable farms, in two farms placed on the outskirts of Bucharest Municipality which provide products for the town’s organic market. Chemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the two farms reflects a good fertility, close to the natural one of this region soils, with well-balan...

  15. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-01-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios 90 Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [fr

  16. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Jiménez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708 and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91% with A. nigricans (AB175651 sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils.

  17. Incorporation of transuranics into vegetable and field crops grown at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Leavitt, V.D.; Beckert, W.F.; McFarlane, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Radish, lettuce, barley, and alfalfa plants were grown from seeds in undisturbed soil in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site to determine the uptake of transuranics under field conditions. The plants were grown in small greenhouses erected over the soil to preclude aerial deposition of resuspended transuranics on the growing plants. The crops were irrigated during the growing season with either distilled water, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in distilled water, fertilizer in distilled water, or a combination of DTPA and fertilizer in distilled water. The plutonium and americium contents of the harvested plants showed differences which are mostly attributable to the effects of the treatments and the resulting changes in soil pH during the experiment

  18. The current and potential contribution of home-grown vegetables to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the current and potential utilisation of crops (bought and home produce) in diets in South Africa is reviewed. Available data shows that at all levels, national, household and individual, the amounts of fruits and vegetables available and consumed are about half the WHO (2003) recommendations of at least 400g ...

  19. Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Khan, Shahid Javid, Atif Muhmood, Tahir Mjeed, Abid Niaz and Abdul Majeed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. For this purpose, during year 2009-10, 25 sewage water, 76 soil, 40 leaf and 30 vegetable samples (tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower were taken from peri-urban area of Lahore district. These samples were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ni contents. The analysis showed that in wastewater concentration of Cu (100 %, Mn (72 %, Ni (32 % and Cd (44% were higher than the safe limits while Zn, Fe and Pb concentration was below permissible limits. In soil DTPA extractable concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cd was in safe limit and ranged between 1.30-8.02, 1.06 -5.42, 8.60-35.03, 8.7-30.07, 2.11-30.86, 0.28-1.76 and 0.05-0.52 mg kg-1 respectively. In vegetable, 100 % leaf and fruit samples were contaminated and accumulation of heavy metals was higher than the WHO/FAO recommended permissible limits.

  20. Proximate composition, minerals and vitamins content of selected vegetables grown in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, J.A.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, F.; Amin-ur-Rrahma; Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ten vegetables namely Pot purslane, Spinach, Turnip, Garlic, Mustard (Sarson), Radish, Bitter gourd, Lady finger, Bath sponge and Brinjal were analyzed for their proximate composition, vitamin and mineral contents to evaluate their importance in human nutrition. The results showed that almost all vegetables contain appreciable amount of essential nutrients. The maximum content of moisture, carbohydrate, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash recorded in these vegetables was (92.50 %, 26.88 %, 5.0%, 0.40%, 1.4% and 1.9%), respectively, with a minimum content (66.80 %, 3.91 %, 0.7%, 0.08%, 0.4% and 0.38%), respectively. Maximum concentration of macro minerals K, Ca, Mg, and Na, observed was (400, 210, 109, and 55) mg/100 g, respectively, with a minimum concentration (26, 15, 17, and 10) mg/100 g, respectively. Maximum concentration of micro minerals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr observed was (29, 0.33, 3.05, 1.70, and 0.36) mg/100 g with a minimum concentration (2, 0.05, 0.43, 0.21, and 0.06) mg/100 g, respectively. Maximum concentration of water soluble vitamins i.e. thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid recorded was (0.280, 0.190, 0.69, and 65) mg/100 g with a minimum concentration (0.011, 0.015, 0.23, and 4.00) mg/100 g, respectively. From this study it can be concluded that consumption of vegetables in different combinations could provide a reasonable daily recommended amount of essential nutrients for the maintenance of healthy life and normal body functioning. (author)

  1. Selected trace metal levels in common vegetables grown in NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, K.; Jaffar, M.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen vegetables procured from local markets of Peshawar and its suburbs were analyzed using wet digestion atomic absorption method for Fe, Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Ni. The families investigated were: Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Cruciferae, Liliaceae, Araceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Umbelliferae and Zingiberaceae. The heavy metal data are reported at 99%(- + 2S) confidence level for triplicate measurements on sub samples of a given sample with an overall reproducibility of 2% compared with standard material samples. Comparison of averages through t-test indicates that each vegetable group is distinctly different from the other in terms of metal content. Maximum iron was present in garlic, at 4.585 mu g/g, dry weight (edible part-stem) of the Liliacease family. Arsenic was found to be below detection limit in all the vegetable groups. Lead levels were quite low, maximum concentration (0.0200 mu g/g, dry weight) was found in karaila (edible part-fruit). Mercury levels were relatively higher, with maximum concentration (2.590 mu g/g, dry weight) in gem (edible part-stem). The levels of nickel were moderately higher, being maximum (2.375 mu g/g dry weight) in karaila. The overall content of trace metals appeared to be within laid down internationally for safe human consumption, with only a few exceptions. (author)

  2. Trace elements analysis of crops and vegetables grown around industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala cities using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Subhan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial effluents pollution is a source of risk to the health of people living in industrial cities of Pakistan. Most of the untreated effluents are discharged to the nearby agricultural fields that pollutes the vegetation grown in such soil. A majority of the industries are not equipped with suitable recycling and effluent treatment plants. Consequently, toxic metals enter our food chain and results in significant health risks and serious diseases. In order to evaluate the concentration of toxic metals (namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se), in crops and vegetable samples collected from the irrigated areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) techniques have been used. All the observed metal concentrations were higher than the reported literature values. Moreover, the highest values of toxic metals of As (0.44 +- .03 mu g/g) and Co (0.5 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Mn (45.3 +- 2.0 mu g/g) and Sb (0.1 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Se (1.28 +- 0.06 mug/g) and Pb (3.84 +- 0.27 mu g/g) were found in tomato, bitter gourd and rice samples respectively. (author)

  3. Field measurements of key parameters associated with nocturnal OBT formation in vegetables grown under Canadian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Workman, W.G.; Korolevych, V.; Davis, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide the parameter values required to model OBT formation in the edible parts of plants following a hypothetical accidental tritium release to the atmosphere at night. The parameters considered were leaf area index, stomatal resistance, photosynthesis rate, the photosynthetic production rate of starch, the nocturnal hydrolysis rate of starch, the fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis that appears in the fruits, and the mass of the fruit. Values of these parameters were obtained in the summer of 2002 for lettuce, radishes and tomatoes grown under typical Canadian environmental conditions. Based on the maximum observed photosynthetic rate and growth rate, the fraction of starch translocated to the fruit was calculated to be 17% for tomato fruit and 14% for radish root. - Highlights: ► Plant physiological parameters affecting nocturnal OBT formation have been investigated. ► The fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis in the leaves that appears in the fruit was calculated. ► Realistic estimates of OBT concentrations following a nighttime accidental HTO release to the atmosphere.

  4. Transfer of radionuclides to vegetable and other crops grown on land reclaimed from the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    An area of reclaimed land on the Lancashire coast has been used to grow a wide range of crops to provide data on transfer parameters of radionuclides in foodchains when the activity is almost entirely of marine origin. Activity concentrations in the foodstuffs were low and not of radiological significance. However, meaningful results could be obtained if large sample sizes were employed. This paper sets out the methodology applied to a substantial field investigation of transfer to vegetable crops. The large sample sizes could be accommodated adequately with only minor modifications to established analytical procedures. The results of the study are discussed briefly. Since the growing conditions were virtually identical for each crop, comparisons of transfer factors between the different crops should therefore be valid. For some radionuclides, notably 239,240 Pu, 241 Am and 99 Tc, the work has added significantly to the data that are presently available. For most of the radionuclides studied, uptake by crops could be adequately predicted using the parameter values currently used in generic assessments, but for 99 Tc, lower values would be more appropriate

  5. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable...... relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables...... with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively...

  6. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intawongse, Marisa; Dean, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables

  7. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intawongse, Marisa [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Dean, John R. [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.dean@unn.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables.

  8. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  10. Extended Low Temperature Impacts Dormancy Status, Flowering Competence, and Transcript Profiles in Crown Buds of Leafy Spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. In this study we report the effects of different growth conditions on vegetative reproduction and flowering competence, and determine molecular mechanisms a...

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  13. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata A. Sirsat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce. Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates (Salmonella and E. coli, spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid significantly reduced Salmonella, E. coli, coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless, it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  14. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Neal, Jack A

    2013-11-11

    Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce). Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates ( Salmonella and E. coli ), spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid) significantly reduced Salmonella , E. coli , coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless), it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  15. ‘I Eat the Vegetables because I Have Grown them with My Own Hands’: Children's Perspectives on School Gardening and Vegetable Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarti, A.; Dijkstra, S.C.; Nury, O.E.; Seidell, J.C.; Dedding, C.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate vegetable consumption is a global public health concern related to numerous health risks. A promising intervention to increase children's vegetable consumption is school gardening, although earlier studies have shown mixed results. This study explores how gardening might contribute to

  16. Estimation of thorium intake due to consumption of vegetables by inhabitants of high background radiation area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Suma Nair; Prabhath, R.K.; Madhu Nair; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the thorium concentration in locally grown vegetables in high background radiation area (HBRA) of southern coastal regions of India. Locally grown vegetables were collected from HBRA of southern coastal regions of India. Thorium concentration was quantified using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at CIRUS reactor and counted using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. The annual intake of thorium was evaluated using the consumption data provided by National Nutrition Monitoring Board. The daily intake of 232 Th from the four food categories (green leafy vegetables, others vegetables, roots and tubers, and fruits) ranged between 0.27 and 5.352 mBq d -1 . The annual internal dose due to ingestion of thorium from these food categories was 46.8 x 10 -8 for female and 58.6 x 10 -8 Sv y -1 for male. (author)

  17. Food Safety and Bioavailability Evaluations of Four Vegetables Grown in the Highly Arsenic-Contaminated Soils on the Guandu Plain of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw-Wei Su

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120–460 mg/kg or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50–170 mg/kg. Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 0.5M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO. Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body.

  18. Food safety and bioavailability evaluations of four vegetables grown in the highly arsenic-contaminated soils on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaw-Wei; Tsui, Chun-Chih; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2014-04-14

    Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120-460 mg/kg) or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50-170 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 0.5M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI) of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body.

  19. Transfer factor for 210Pb from soil to vegetables in the surrounding environment of Kaiga nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Chetan; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed study on site specific soil to vegetable (leafy, fruit and root) transfer factors for 210 Pb for Kaiga region, India where a PHWR, nuclear power plant is in operation. An experimental vegetable field was developed at about 500 m aerial distance from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site at Kaiga to study the site-specific soil to plant transfer factors. Different types of vegetables were grown in the experimental field, during different seasons of the year, using the discharge water from the Kaiga nuclear power plant. The development of the experimental vegetable fields helped in evaluating accurate site-specific data. For a comparative study of the transfer factors obtained for the experimental field, samples cultivated using normal water resources by the local farmers of nearby villages, were also collected and analysed. The soil to leafy vegetable transfer factor of 210 Pb varied in the range of < 1.5 x 10 -2 - 1.6 x 10 -1 with a mean value of 6.0 x 10 -2 . Similarly the soil to fruit vegetable varied in the range of < 1.0 x 10 -2 - 3.4 x 10 -1 and the soil to root vegetable varied in the range of < 1.0 x 10 -2 - 4.0 x 10 -2 with corresponding mean values of 6.0 x 10 -2 and 3.0 x 10 -2 respectively. The annual effective dose due to intake of 210 Pb through leafy vegetables varied in the range of 7.9 - 76.0 μSv a -1 with a mean value of 35.2 ìSv a -1 . And through fruit and root vegetables, it varied in the range of 34.9 - 207 μSv a -1 with a mean value of 119 ìSv a -1 . It was found that radionuclide concentration in plants was not linearly related to soil concentration. (author)

  20. Hazardous impact and translocation of vanadium (V) species from soil to different vegetables and grasses grown in the vicinity of thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kumar, Sham; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of vanadium (V) species in soil (test soil), vegetables and grasses, collected from the vicinity of a thermal power plant has been studied. For comparison purpose soil (control soil), same vegetable and grass samples were collected from agricultural land devoid of any industrial area. A simple and efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction method has been developed for the extraction of V 5+ species from soil, vegetable and grass samples using Na 2 CO 3 in the range of 0.1-0.5 mol/L. For comparison purpose same sub samples were also extracted by conventional heating method. The total and V species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using different modifiers. The validity of V 5+ and V 4+ determination had been confirmed by the spike recovery and total amount of V by the analysis of CRM 1570 (spinach leave) and sub samples of agricultural soil. The concentration of total V was found in the range of 90-215 and 11.4-42.3 μg/g in test and control soil samples, respectively. The contents of V 5+ and total V in vegetables and grasses grown around the thermal power plant were found in the range of 2.9-5.25 and 8.74-14.9 μg/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those values obtained from vegetables and fodders grown in non exposed agricultural site (P 5+ and V 4+ species was not significantly different from total concentration of V in same sub samples of vegetable, grass and soil of both origins, at 95% level of confidence.

  1. Hazardous impact and translocation of vanadium (V) species from soil to different vegetables and grasses grown in the vicinity of thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima, E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kumar, Sham; Shah, Faheem [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    The distribution of vanadium (V) species in soil (test soil), vegetables and grasses, collected from the vicinity of a thermal power plant has been studied. For comparison purpose soil (control soil), same vegetable and grass samples were collected from agricultural land devoid of any industrial area. A simple and efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction method has been developed for the extraction of V{sup 5+} species from soil, vegetable and grass samples using Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the range of 0.1-0.5 mol/L. For comparison purpose same sub samples were also extracted by conventional heating method. The total and V species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using different modifiers. The validity of V{sup 5+} and V{sup 4+} determination had been confirmed by the spike recovery and total amount of V by the analysis of CRM 1570 (spinach leave) and sub samples of agricultural soil. The concentration of total V was found in the range of 90-215 and 11.4-42.3 {mu}g/g in test and control soil samples, respectively. The contents of V{sup 5+} and total V in vegetables and grasses grown around the thermal power plant were found in the range of 2.9-5.25 and 8.74-14.9 {mu}g/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those values obtained from vegetables and fodders grown in non exposed agricultural site (P < 0.01). Statistical evaluations indicate that the sum of concentrations of V{sup 5+} and V{sup 4+} species was not significantly different from total concentration of V in same sub samples of vegetable, grass and soil of both origins, at 95% level of confidence.

  2. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... other nutritional disorders. There is therefore a need to identify nutrient-rich foods that can be produced ... Amaranth is drought tolerant, grows fast and is easily cultivated. This ... deciding its production, consumption and marketing. MATERIALS ..... Strategy for revitalizing Agriculture 2004-. 2014: Ministry of ...

  3. Assessment of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapile, F.A.; Makundi, I.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on determination of concentrations of trace and toxic heavy metals in soil and vegetables grown near of Manyoni uranium deposit. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from five sites namely Mitoo Mbuga, farming area, Miyomboni, Tambukareli and near water pump. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil and edible vegetables samples were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF).All vegetable samples were found to have higher concentrations (in μg/g) of trace elements such as Ni (67.3) in pea leaves, Cu (14.9) in pumpkin leaves, Fe (478.6), (200.5) and (337.1) in pea, pumpkin and spinach leaves respectively, than the maximum tolerable limits recommended by WHO/FAO. Mean concentration of Pb (1.6 μg/g) in pumpkin leaves collected from Miyomboni (area D) were observed to be higher than the safe limit of (0.3μg/g) set by Codex 2006. Toxic elements concentrations (in μg/g) such as Cd (10.4), Pb (23.2),Hg (4.1), Th (31.5) and U (23.9) were observed to be high in soil collected from Mitoo Mbuga and farming area. Therefore, vegetables in the vicinity of Manyoni uranium deposit can expose people to toxic elements which are detrimental to their health.A more detailed study involving other foodstuffs is needed to establish conclusive results.

  4. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  5. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (pcomposition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from

  6. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavaiuolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Nitrates and glucosinolates as strong determinants of the nutritional quality in rocket leafy salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-04-14

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. PMID:24065036

  9. Appraisal of hygiene indicators and farming practices in the production of leafy vegetables by organic small-scale farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-09-13

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  10. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human di...

  11. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  12. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  13. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Allende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  14. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks. PMID:26151764

  15. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-07-03

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  16. A critical review on effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of cadmium in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Rinklebe, Jörg; Tack, Filip M G; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetables is an important environmental issue that threatens human health globally. Understanding the response of vegetables to Cd stress and applying management strategies may help to reduce the Cd uptake by vegetables. The aim of the present review is to summarize the knowledge concerning the uptake and toxic effects of Cd in vegetables and the different management strategies to combat Cd stress in vegetables. Leafy vegetables grown in Cd contaminated soils potentially accumulate higher concentrations of Cd, posing a threat to food commodities. The Cd toxicity decreases seed germination, growth, biomass and quality of vegetables. This reduces the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and alteration in mineral nutrition. Toxicity of Cd toxicity also interferes with vegetable biochemistry causing oxidative stress and resulting in decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. Several management options have been employed for the reduction of Cd uptake and toxicity in vegetables. The exogenous application of plant growth regulators, proper mineral nutrition, and the use of organic and inorganic amendments might be useful for reducing Cd toxicity in vegetables. The use of low Cd accumulating vegetable cultivars in conjunction with insolubilizing amendments and proper agricultural practices might be a useful technique for reducing Cd exposure in the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli Contamination of Root and Leaf Vegetables Grown in Soils with Incorporated Bovine Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvig, Erin E.; Ingham, Steven C.; Ingham, Barbara H.; Cooperband, Leslie R.; Roper, Teryl R.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine manure, with or without added Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (three strains), was incorporated into silty clay loam (SCL) and loamy sand (LS) soil beds (53- by 114-cm surface area, 17.5 cm deep) and maintained in two controlled-environment chambers. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculum was 4 to 5 log CFU/g in manure-fertilized soil. The conditions in the two environmental chambers, each containing inoculated and uninoculated beds of manure-fertilized soil, simulated daily average Madison, Wis., weather conditions (hourly temperatures, rainfall, daylight, and humidity) for a 1 March or a 1 June manure application and subsequent vegetable growing seasons ending 9 August or 28 September, respectively. Core soil samples were taken biweekly from both inoculated and uninoculated soil beds in each chamber. Radishes, arugula, and carrots were planted in soil beds, thinned, and harvested. Soils, thinned vegetables, and harvested vegetables were analyzed for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (indigenous in manure). After the 1 March manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected at low levels in both soils on 31 May, but not on vegetables planted 1 May and harvested 12 July from either soil. After the 1 June manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected in SCL soil on 7 September and on radishes and arugula planted in SCL soil on 15 August and harvested on 27 September. In LS soil, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium died at a similar rate (P ≥ 0.05) after the 1 June manure application and was less often detected on arugula and radishes harvested from this soil compared to the SCL soil. Pathogen levels on vegetables were decreased by washing. Manure application in cool (daily average maximum temperature of vegetables are not contaminated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Manure application under warmer (daily average maximum temperature >20°C) summer conditions is not recommended when

  18. Estimating CO2 gas exchange in mixed age vegetable plant communities grown on soil-like substrates for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    If soil-like substrate (SLS) is to be used in human life support systems with a high degree of mass closure, the rate of its gas exchange as a compartment for mineralization of plant biomass should be understood. The purpose of this study was to compare variations in CO2 gas exchange of vegetable plant communities grown on the soil-like substrate using a number of plant age groups, which determined the so-called conveyor interval. Two experimental plant communities were grown as plant conveyors with different conveyor intervals. The first plant community consisted of conveyors with intervals of 7 days for carrot and beet and 14 days for chufa sedge. The conveyor intervals in the second plant community were 14 days for carrot and beet and 28 days for chufa sedge. This study showed that increasing the number of age groups in the conveyor and, thus, increasing the frequency of adding plant waste to the SLS, decreased the range of variations in CO2 concentration in the "plant-soil-like substrate" system. However, the resultant CO2 gas exchange was shifted towards CO2 release to the atmosphere of the plant community with short conveyor intervals. The duration of the conveyor interval did not significantly affect productivity and mineral composition of plants grown on the SLS.

  19. Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137CS and 40K in edible parts of two types of leafy vegetables cultivated in Tehran province-Iran and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changizi, V.; Jafarpoor, Z.; Naseri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The sources of radioactivity in the environment have natural; terrestrial and extraterrestrial. and anthropogenic origins. Plants may get radioactive nuclides in two ways: (i) by the deposition of radioactive fallout, (ii) by absorption from the soil. Materials and Methods: The Concentrations of the natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K) and the artificial radionuclide ( 137 CS) in leek and parsley in Tehran province-Iran were determined using high-purity Ge detectors. Also the effective dose due to the ingestion of such vegetables by the population of Tehran province was studied. Results: The average value of radionuclide concentrations in parsley samples were measured 177.69 ± 12.47 mBq kg -1 fresh for 226 Ra; 349.62 ± 28.42 mBq kg -1 fresh for 228 Ra; 187364.6 mBq kg 1 fresh for 40 K. The average value of radionuclide concentrations in leek samples were measured 94.31 ± 6.46 mBq kg -1 fresh for 226 Ra; 207.47 ± 19.46 mBq kg -1 fresh for 228 Ra; 174555 ± 1704.21 mBq kg -1 fresh for 40 K. The concentrations of 137 Cs in most of Parsley and Leek samples were below the minimum detectable activity. Conclusion: The Average 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in 29 leek and parsley samples were about 2.63 and 6.78 times the reference values, respectively. The annual effective dose resulting from the studied radionuclides for the adult population in Tehran province were found to be safe in comparison with normal background areas.

  20. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  1. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen

  2. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B; Shaikh, Abdul B; Lokhande, Tukaram N; Kamble, Ganesh S; Anuse, Mansing A; Gaikwad, Shashikant H

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414nm which remains stable for >48h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5μgmL -1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5μgmL -1 to 17.5μgmL -1 . The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813×10 4 Lmol -1 cm -1 , 0.01996μgcm -2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples, leafy

  3. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B.; Shaikh, Abdul B.; Lokhande, Tukaram N.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.; Gaikwad, Shashikant H.

    2018-01-01

    , leafy vegetables, and water samples. The results are compared with those obtained with a reference procedure. Good agreement was attained. All the obtained results are indicative of a convenient, fast method for the extraction and quantification of micro levels of copper(II) from various environmental matrices without use of sophisticated instrumentation and procedure. The method showed a relative standard deviation of 0.42%.

  4. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg -1 , respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in spread of Heterobasidion annosum in clones of Picea abies grown at different vegetation phases under greenhouse conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1996-06-01

    Forty-nine Picea abies (L.) Karst clones were inoculated under greenhouse conditions with a Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. isolate of the S intersterility group. The cuttings were inoculated at the following vegetation stages; bud-flushing stage, vegetative stage and after bud-set. Fungal growth in sapwood and leison length in the inner bark were measured after 34 days. The susceptibility of the various clones to H. annosum was strongly correlated among the three vegetation stages, both in terms of mean growth and mean growth ranking. Partitioning of variance components showed that variation in growth was explained by physiological stages and clone to 4% and 24%, respectively, and for interaction between clone and physiological stage to 9%. Corresponding values for leison length in the inner bark were 3%, 14% and 5%, respectively. Fungal growth in wood and leison length in the inner bark were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.23 and 0.36). When cuttings were inoculated during bud-flushing, leison length and fungal growth in wood were both strongly correlated with bud-flushing index of the cuttings (r{sup 2} = 0.03 and 0.04 respectively) but that was not the case for the other stages. The number of active fine-roots and the degree of wilting of the cuttings were negatively correlated with leison length and fungal growth (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.01 and 0.13). Height and diameter varied greatly between the clones and both were negatively correlated with fungal extension (r{sup 2} ranging between 0.01 and 0.09). 33 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Availability of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc to various vegetables grown in slag-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, K; Trautmannsheimer, M; Schramel, P; Reifenhäuser, W

    2001-01-01

    To anticipate a possible hazard resulting from the plant uptake of metals from slag-contaminated soils, it is useful to study whether vegetables exist that are able to mobilize a given metal in the slag to a larger proportion than in an uncontaminated control soil. For this purpose, we studied the soil to plant transfer of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc by the vegetables bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'dwarf bean Modus'), kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.), mangold (Beta vulgaris var. macrorhiza ), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'American gathering brown'), carrot (Daucus carota L. 'Rotin', 'Sperlings's'), and celery [Apium graveiolus var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.] from a control soil (Ap horizon of a Entisol) and from a contaminated soil (1:1 soil-slag mixtures). Two types of slags were used: an iron-rich residue from pyrite (FeS2) roasting and a residue from coal firing. The metal concentrations in the slags, soils, and plants were used to calculate for each metal and soil-slag mixture the plant-soil fractional concentration ratio (CRfractional,slag), that is, the concentration ratio of the metal that results only from the slag in the soil. With the exception of TI, the resulting values obtained for this quantity for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn and for all vegetables were significantly smaller than the corresponding plant-soil concentration ratios (CRcontrol soil) for the uncontaminated soil. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ability of a plant to accumulate a given metal as observed for a control soil might not exist for a soil-slag mixture, and vice versa.

  7. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.

  8. Evaluation of the potential health-risk from the ingestion of vegetables grown on an exposed 137Cs-contaminated lake bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, J.F.; Whicker, F.W.; Adriano, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of 137 Cs by several crop species grown on contaminated sediments as studied with treatments including the effect of potassium-fertilizer on contaminant transport into crops. The effect of food preparation on Cs 137 concentrations in palatable crop parts and the effect of irrigation using the on-site reservoir versus an off-site ground-water source was also studied. Sediment cores were taken prior to planting and after final harvest and were assayed for nutrients. 137 Cs analysis indicates large differences between fertilizer treatments. Some vegetables showed mean concentrations of 137 Cs up to four times higher in non-potassium fertilized plants versus plants grown with potassium. There was statistically no difference between uncooked and culinarily prepared crop parts. There was no statistical difference between crops irrigated with on-site reservoir water versus off-site ground-water. Cesium-137 soil-to-plant concentration ratios indicate high uptake of radiocesium into plants. Dose evaluations using site-specific data involving a 30-year resident of the area indicates a risk of cancer well with-in EPA Threshold Limits. This study emphasizes the high mobility of 137 Cs in ecosystems developing on sandy, nutrient-deficient substrates low in alkaline clays. Many areas near the Chernobyl nuclear facility contain soils of a similar nature. Thus, this work may be relevant to similar situations in that region

  9. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  10. Production systems of traditional leafy vegetables: Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to access the indigenous or local knowledge associated with the production of these crops. This paper focuses on factors that are unique to TLV production systems. TLV production is dominated by women farmers in an attempt to sustain immediate household food security. The cultural environment within which the women ...

  11. Vitamins and phytochemical contents in four leafy vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vitamins evaluated include vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6 and E while the phytochemicals were alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols, hydrocyanic acid and phytic acid. The results indicated high levels of vitamins and phytochemicals in the leaves. The different processing methods produced diverse effects on the vitamin ...

  12. Supporting Formal and Informal Seed Systems for African Leafy Vegetables

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Fresh weight and leaf area measurements were taken of 12 varieties of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) and nightshade (Solanum spp.) each after field plots were...

  13. A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sogbohossou, E.O.D.; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G.; Maundu, Patrick; Solberg, Svein; Deguenon, Edgar M.S.; Mumm, Rita H.; Hale, Iago; Deynze, van Allen; Schranz, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of

  14. Indigenous leafy vegetables (imifino, morogo, muhuro) in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... consumed to the cities where they are ignored and neglected in favour of exotic western varieties (van. Rensburg et al., 2004; van der Walt et al., 2009). There is therefore the need to collect, preserve and document this knowledge which can be useful for crop improvement and maintenance of local cultures ...

  15. The commodity systems of four indigenous leafy vegetables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... In addition, socio-economic surveys were conducted in two pilot villages. ... Leaves are commonly sold at the field, in the village, in the nearest city and weekly ...

  16. Mineral Composition of Some Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mg was recorded in the range of 0.964 to 1.393mg/g in all the samples analyzed, while Mo ... biodegradable and therefore have potential for ... pieces, washed, and air dried on the laboratory ... filter paper into volumetric flask and made up to.

  17. Nutrient and Phytochemical Composition of Some Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutrient and phytochemical composition of Vernoniaamygdalina, Ocimumgratissimum, Gnetumafricanum and Gongronemalatifolium leaves. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of Vernoniaamygdalina (bitter leaf), Ocimumgratissimum (scent leaf), Gnetumafricanum (okazi leaf) and ...

  18. Nitrogen fixation in seedlings of sabia and leucena grown in the caatinga soils under different vegetation covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Augusto Cesar de Arruda; Nascimento, Luciana Remigio Santos; Silva, Arthur Jorge da; Freitas, Ana Dolores Santiago de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency differences of populations forming bacteria in legume nodules (BNL) in areas under different vegetation cover in semi-arid Pernambuco state, Brazil, using the methodology of the natural abundance of 15 N to estimate the amount of N fixed symbiotically. The highest levels of nitrogen was found in plants of leucena, and the sabia had levels that did not differ from reference species. The analysis by the technique of 15N showed that in all areas the leucena and the sabia showed signs of 15N different of the average signal of the control plants. The largest nitrogen accumulation was observed for leucena in the Caatinga and Capoeira. The sabia got greater accumulation of N from the Caatinga. The areas of Capoeira and Caatinga has showed the native populations of rhizobia with greater ability to fix nitrogen for the leucena

  19. Reproductive parameters of community-dwelling men from 2 regions in flanders are associated with the consumption of self-grown vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooge, Willem; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Comhaire, Frank; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Although regional differences in semen parameters have been described, little is known about the etiologic factors underlying these variations in male fertility status. We previously reported people from a rural area (Peer) in Flanders to have lower sperm parameters and free testosterone than men from the city of Antwerp. In the present study, our objectives were to investigate to what extent these differences were associated with lifestyle or environmental factors. People in Peer were slightly older and had a higher body mass index, factors known to affect testosterone concentrations but not sperm parameters. People consuming locally produced vegetables (n = 37 of 94) but not fruit had significantly lower serum free testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) (both P = .04) and nonsignificantly lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (P = .05). Per unit increase of monthly intake of locally produced vegetables, free testosterone declined by 0.7% (P = .01) and sperm concentration by 2.3% (P = .04) over the whole range of the explanatory variable, whereas LH declined by 3.6% (P = .02), FSH declined by 3.5% (P = .08), and sperm morphology by 7% (P = .002) in the range of 0-10 consumptions per month. No relationship was found with lifelong exposure to cadmium. These results support a hypothesis of impaired gonadotropic signaling causing the regional difference in reproductive parameters. The surprising strong impact of self-grown vegetable consumption did not seem to be related to soil contamination by cadmium. We could not exclude pesticide exposure by inappropriate application or other factors such as nutritional deficiency, physical activity, or stress as contributors to the observed regional differences.

  20. Radium, thorium, and the light rare earth elements in soils and vegetables grown in an area of high natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Franca, E.P.; Sachett, I.

    1987-01-01

    A study is in progress in Brazil to assess the soil-to-plant concentration ratios (CR) of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 230 Th, and 228 Th and the light rare earth elements (REE) La, Ce, and Nd. Thorium serves as an analog for Pu(IV) and La or Nd as analogs for Am and Cm(III). A near-surface deposit of Th (∼30,000 tons) and REE (>100,000 tons) exists at the center of the plateau near the summit of a small hill. No trends have been observed between farm soil concentrations and proximity to the ore body, substantiating earlier conclusions of the relative immobility of these elements from the deposit. New analytical procedures are presented for the sequential determination of isotopic thorium and the light REE in large biological samples. Typical radiochemical yields are 50 to 70% for Th and 80 to 100% for the REE. Preliminary analyses of seven vegetable types indicate that concentrations of Th, La, Nd, Ce, and Sm are quite variable between and among species. Average concentrations in plant tissues generally reflect soil abundances as: Ce > La > Nd > Sm ∼ Th. Mean CRs are 604, 270, 24, 17, 8 and 1 for 228 Ra, 226 Ra, La, Nd, Ce, and Th, respectively. Plant uptake of elements with stable oxidation states of II, III, and IV decreases as Ra(II) > REE(III) > Th(IV), which may reflect the availability of these elements in soil. 33 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  1. Prevalence and characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae on retail vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Veenman, Christiaan; van Overbeek, Wendy M; Lynch, Gretta; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2015-07-02

    In total 1216 vegetables obtained from Dutch stores during 2012 and 2013 were analysed to determine the prevalence of 3rd-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistant bacteria on soil-grown fresh produce possibly consumed raw. Vegetables grown conventionally and organically, from Dutch as well as foreign origin were compared. Included were the following vegetable types; blanched celery (n=192), bunched carrots (n=190), butterhead lettuce (n=137), chicory (n=96), endive (n=188), iceberg lettuce (n=193) and radish (n=120). Overall, 3GC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected on 5.2% of vegetables. Based on primary habitat and mechanism of 3GC-resistance, these bacteria could be divided into four groups: ESBL-producing faecal species (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp.), AmpC-producing faecal species (Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp.), ESBL-producing environmental species (Pantoea spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia fonticola), and AmpC-producing environmental species (Cedecca spp., Hafnia alvei, Pantoea spp., Serratia plymuthica), which were detected on 0.8%, 1.2%, 2.6% and 0.4% of the vegetables analysed, respectively. Contamination with faecal 3GC-resistant bacteria was most frequently observed in root and bulb vegetables (average prevalence 4.4%), and less frequently in stem vegetables (prevalence 1.6%) and leafy greens (average prevalence 0.6%). In Dutch stores, only four of the included vegetable types (blanched celery, bunched carrots, endive, iceberg lettuce) were available in all four possible variants: Dutch/conventional, Dutch/organic, foreign/conventional, foreign/organic. With respect to these vegetable types, no statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of 3GC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae between country of origin or cultivation type (5.2%, 5.7%, 5.7% and 3.3%, respectively). Vegetables consumed raw may be a source of dissemination of 3GC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and their resistance genes to humans. The magnitude of the

  2. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  3. Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Shah, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pesticides residues on edible portions whereas highly significant differences (p<0.001) were observed for the leafy portions. The residual level of cypermethrin was highest (16.2 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd, while Lambdacyhalothrin and Mancozeb residues were detected high (4.50 mg kg/sup -1/, 6.26 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd and Cucumber respectively. Cypermethrin residues were high (1.86 mg kg/sup -1/) in Okra leaves. Mancozeb and Lambdacyhalothrin residual level was high (1.23 mg kg/sup -1/, and 0.0002 mg kg/sup -1/) in chili and tomato leaves. Cypermethrin residues were readily detected in edible and leaf portion of the selected vegetables. (author)

  4. Essential and trace elements in differential pulses, spices and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The amounts of bio-chemically important elements for human bodies such as Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Cu in some widely used pulses and spices in Chittagong were determined by using flame photometry and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Similarly, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in some leafy and non-leafy vegetable in Chittagong were determined by the UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The essential elements such as Na, K, Ca and P were found in mg/kg levels. The amounts of trace metal such as Mg, Fe and Cu in pulses and species were just within the range of human necessity. However, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in leafy and non-leafy vegetables were so negligible that they can not be considered as adequate for health, except their food-values constituted by the higher contents of starch. (author)

  5. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food

  6. The development of a line-scan imaging algorithm for the detection of fecal contamination on leafy geens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chuang, Yung-Kun; Lee, Hoyoung

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the development of a multispectral algorithm, using the line-scan hyperspectral imaging system, to detect fecal contamination on leafy greens. Fresh bovine feces were applied to the surfaces of washed loose baby spinach leaves. A hyperspectral line-scan imaging system was used to acquire hyperspectral fluorescence images of the contaminated leaves. Hyperspectral image analysis resulted in the selection of the 666 nm and 688 nm wavebands for a multispectral algorithm to rapidly detect feces on leafy greens, by use of the ratio of fluorescence intensities measured at those two wavebands (666 nm over 688 nm). The algorithm successfully distinguished most of the lowly diluted fecal spots (0.05 g feces/ml water and 0.025 g feces/ml water) and some of the highly diluted spots (0.0125 g feces/ml water and 0.00625 g feces/ml water) from the clean spinach leaves. The results showed the potential of the multispectral algorithm with line-scan imaging system for application to automated food processing lines for food safety inspection of leafy green vegetables.

  7. Use of an in vitro digestion method to estimate human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables grown in smelter-impacted soils: the influence of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Waterlot, Christophe; Guerin, Annie; Proix, Nicolas; Richard, Antoine; Douay, Francis

    2015-08-01

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown vegetables has caused major concern. Some studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was among the most significant hazards in kitchen garden soils and prolonged exposure to this metal could cause deleterious health effects in humans. In general, most risk assessment procedures are based on total concentrations of metals in vegetables. The present study assesses human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables cultivated in smelter-impacted kitchen garden soils. Seven vegetables (radish, lettuce, French bean, carrot, leek, tomato, and potato) were considered. Using the UBM protocol (unified BARGE bioaccessibility method), the bioaccessibility of Cd was measured in raw/cooked vegetables. A considerable amount of Cd was mobilized from raw vegetables during the digestion process (on average 85% in the gastric phase and 69% in the gastrointestinal phase), which could be attributed to a high uptake of Cd during the growth of the vegetables. Most Cd is accumulated in the vacuoles of plant cells, except what is absorbed by the cell wall, allowing Cd to be released from plant tissues under moderate conditions. Cooking by the steaming process generally increased the bioaccessibility of Cd in French bean, carrot, and leek. For potato, few or no significant differences of Cd bioaccessibility were observed after the steaming process, while the frying process strongly decreased bioaccessibility in both phases. The estimation of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment.

  8. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel an...

  9. Testing an Invasive Weed Prediction Model for Leafy Spurge using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a noxious invasive weed that infests over 1.2 million hectares of land in North America. One of the fundamental needs in leafy spurge management is cost-effective, large-scale, and long-term documentation and monitoring of plant populations. Leafy spurge is a g...

  10. Does gender affect the quality of soil and vegetable amaranth under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of vegetables has been established to prevent cancer, hypertension and many other diseases. Cultivation of vegetables around cities is a lucrative venture and amaranth is fact becoming a leading leafy vegetable for commercial production under peri-urban in Nigeria. The system is a source of economic ...

  11. Studies on the assessment of radio activity in vegetables and fruits grown and consumed by residents of a typical natural high background area of South India and estimation of committed effective ingestion dose for the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Selvan, Esai; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content of vegetables and fruits commonly grown and consumed by residents of a natural High Background Area (NHBRA) has been studied. Of the studied vegetable tapioca and tomato were found to have maximum activity accumulation and Kovai, minimum. Of the fruits studied, banana was found to have maximum activity. The radio activity of the corresponding soil in which they grew, was also estimated. It was found that uptake of the plant increases with the soil concentration. The maximum uptake was by tapioca and the minimum was by coconut kernel. From the gross alpha activity, concentration of Th and U were estimated and the committed effective dose, via ingestion, for general public consuming an average amount of 30 Kg per year veg and fruits, each, was calculated to be about 0.5 mSv. (author)

  12. Bioaccessibility and risk assessment of essential and non-essential elements in vegetables commonly consumed in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnisi, Robert Londi; Ndibewu, Peter P; Mafu, Lihle D; Bwembya, Gabriel C

    2017-10-01

    The green leafy vegetables (Mormodica involucrate, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus spinosus) are economic; seasonal; locally grown and easily available; easy to propagate and store; highly nutritious food substances that form an important component of diets. This study applies a physiology based extraction technique (PBET) to mimic digestion of these vegetables to determine the fraction of essential (Fe and Zn) and non-essential elements (Cd, Cr and Pb) that are made available for absorption after ingestion. Prior to the application of the PBET, the vegetables were cooked adopting indigenous Swazi cooking methods. Cooking mobilized most of the metals out of the vegetable mass, and the final substrate concentrations are: raw > cooked > supernatant for all the metals, and the order of average metal leaching was: Pb (82.2%) >Cr (70.6%) >Zn (67.5%) >Fe (60.2%) >Cd (53.6%). This meant that the bioavailable concentrations are significantly lower than in the original vegetable mass, if only the solid mass is consumed. Bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric tract than in the intestinal phases of the PBET for all the metals in all the vegetables. Risk assessment protocols employed on the non-essential elements (Cr, Cd and Pb) showed that the associated risks of ingesting metal contaminated vegetables are higher for children, than they are for adults, based on the target hazard quotient (THQ) index. However, the overall health risk associated with ingestion of these metals is low, for both children and adults, based on the HR index. Conclusively, this study expounds on the nutritional and risk benefits associated with ingesting naturally grown vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of perchlorate in fertilisers on lettuce and fruit vegetables : Uptake and distribution of perchlorate in greenhouse soil-grown butterhead lettuce and solless-grown cucumber, sweet pepper, round and cherry tomate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Eveleens, B.A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.; Vandevelde, I.; Vis, de R.; Lommel, van J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 traces of perchlorate were detected in fruits and vegetable samples. Because perchlorate (ClO4 -) is part of a group of substances (goitrogens) that may inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, these findings caused commotion in the markets. Fertilizers were named as one of the sources

  14. Dehydration-induced endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge highlights involvement of MAF3- and RVE1-like homologs, and hormone signaling cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğramacı, Münevver; Horvath, David P; Anderson, James V

    2014-11-01

    Vegetative shoot growth from underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge is critical for survival of this invasive perennial weed after episodes of severe abiotic stress. To determine the impact that dehydration-stress has on molecular mechanisms associated with vegetative reproduction of leafy spurge, greenhouse plants were exposed to mild- (3-day), intermediate- (7-day), severe- (14-day) and extended- (21-day) dehydration treatments. Aerial tissues of treated plants were then decapitated and soil was rehydrated to determine the growth potential of underground adventitious buds. Compared to well-watered plants, mild-dehydration accelerated new vegetative shoot growth, whereas intermediate- through extended-dehydration treatments both delayed and reduced shoot growth. Results of vegetative regrowth further confirmed that 14 days of dehydration induced a full-state of endodormancy in crown buds, which was correlated with a significant (P ABA, auxin, ethylene, GA, and JA), response to abiotic stress (DREB1A/2A, RD22) and light (PIF3), phosphorylation (MPK4/6), circadian regulation (CRY2, PHYA), and flowering (AGL20, AP2, FLC). Further, results from this and previous studies highlight homologs most similar to Arabidopsis HY5, MAF3, RVE1 and RD22 as potential molecular markers for endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge. Early response to mild dehydration also highlighted involvement of upstream ethylene and JA-signaling, whereas severe dehydration impacted ABA-signaling. The identification of conserved ABRE- and MYC-consensus, cis-acting elements in the promoter of leafy spurge genomic clones similar to Arabidopsis RVE1 (AT5G17300) implicates a potential role for ABA-signaling in its dehydration-induced expression. Response of these molecular mechanisms to dehydration-stress provides insights on the ability of invasive perennial weeds to adapt and survive under harsh environments, which will be beneficial for addressing future management practices.

  15. Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Yin, Fei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soils and vegetables in a multi-metal mining area, Gejiu, China. Furthermore, three vegetables (water spinach, potato, and summer squash) containing high metal concentrations were selected to further analyze metal speciation. The results showed that the average concentrations of five metals in soil exceeded the limiting values, and their bioavailable concentrations were significantly positively correlated to the total ones. Heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables also exceeded the corresponding standards. The leaves of pakchoi, peppermint, and coriander had a strong metal-accumulative ability and they were not suitable for planting. Except the residue forms, the main forms of metals in the edible parts of three selected vegetables were ethanol-, NaCl-, and HAc-extractable fractions for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively; however, Cu was mainly presented as NaCl-extractable and Zn as HAc-extractable fractions. A high proportion of ethanol-extractable As showed that As bioactivity and toxic effects were the highest. Although the total and bioavailable Cd were high in soil, its speciation in vegetables was mainly presented as HAc-extractable fraction, which has a relatively low bioactivity. Lead and arsenic were imposing a serious threat on the local residents via vegetable consumption.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes - Danger for health safety vegetable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljujev, Igor; Raicevic, Vera; Jovicic-Petrovic, Jelena; Vujovic, Bojana; Mirkovic, Milica; Rothballer, Michael

    2018-04-22

    The microbiologically contaminated vegetables represent a risk for consumers, especially vegetables without thermal processing. It is known that human pathogen bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, could exist on fresh vegetables. The fresh vegetables could become Listeria-contaminated if they come in touch with contaminated soil, manure, irrigation water. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in different kind of vegetables grown in field and greenhouse condition as well as surface and endophytic colonization plant roots of different vegetables species by L. monocytogenes in laboratory conditions. The detection of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in vegetable samples was done using ISO and PCR methods. The investigation of colonization vegetable roots and detection Listeria-cells inside plant root tissue was done using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that 25.58% vegetable samples were positive for Listeria spp. and only one sample (carrot) was positive for L. monocytogenes out of 43 samples in total collected from field and greenhouse. The strain L. monocytogenes EGD-E surface and endophytic colonized carrot root in highest degree while strain L. monocytogenes SV4B was the most represented at leafy vegetable plants, such at lettuce (1.68 × 10 6  cells/mm 3 absolutely dry root) and spinach (1.39 × 10 6  cells/mm 3 absolutely dry root) root surface. The cells of L. monocytogenes SV4B were visible as single cells in interior tissue of plant roots (celery and sweet corn roots) as well as in the interior of the plant root cell at sweet corn root. The cells of L. monocytogenes EGD-E bind to the surface of the plant root and they were less commonly found out on root hair. In the inner layers of the root, those bacterial cells were inhabited intercellular spaces mainly as single cells very close to the

  17. Influence of leafy biomass transfer of agroforestry trees with nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of leguminous tree crops and biomass transfer is the main possibility for soil enrichment with nutrients, especially with nitrogen and play alternative role as source of organic fertilizer. This study investigated the influence of leafy biomass transfer of Albizia lebbeck and Parkia biglobosa leguminous agroforestry ...

  18. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  19. Effect of Heat on Antioxidant Activity of Some Tropical Leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    species (ROS) has been implicated in the ... It has been established that ROS can be both harmful ... structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins ... contain which impacts health beyond ordinary nutrition ... leafy portions were removed from the thick stalks and ..... content of some plant foods and their antioxidant.

  20. The tropical cedar tree (Cedrela fissilis Vell., Meliaceae) homolog of the Arabidopsis LEAFY gene is expressed in reproductive tissues and can complement Arabidopsis leafy mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2006-01-01

    A homolog of FLORICAULA/LEAFY, CfLFY (for Cedrela fissilis LFY), was isolated from tropical cedar. The main stages of the reproductive development in C. fissilis were documented by scanning electron microscopy and the expression patterns of CfLFY were studied during the differentiation of the floral meristems. Furthermore, the biological role of the CfLFY gene was assessed using transgenic Arabidopsis plants. CfLFY showed a high degree of similarity to other plant homologs of FLO/LFY. Southern analysis showed that CfLFY is a single-copy gene in the tropical cedar genome. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization results showed that CfLFY was expressed in the reproductive buds during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, as well as in floral meristems and floral organs but was excluded from the vegetative apex and leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis lfy26 mutant lines expressing the CfLFY coding region, under the control of the LFY promoter, showed restored wild-type phenotype. Taken together, our results suggest that CfLFY is a FLO/LFY homolog probably involved in the control of tropical cedar reproductive development.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsanda Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd, by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS cabbage (40.84% and calcareous soil (CS cabbage (21.54% was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66% than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%. Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2 stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702. Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1 which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  2. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  3. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0–87.6% and 20.1–82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9–71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1–59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co-contaminated fields due to mining activities. PMID:28850097

  4. Effect of some soil herbicides on vegetative habits of almond trees of 'Nonpareil' cultivar grown in a second-year nursery field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tityanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was carried out in the period 2010 – 2012 in a nursery field established on the territory of the Fruit-Growing Institute, Plovdiv. The effect of the combined soil-applied herbicide metolachlor + oxyfluorfen (Metofen and the contact soil herbicide with foliar activity flumioxazine (Pledge 50 WP on the vegetative habits of 'Nonpareil' almond cultivar grafted on almond seedling rootstock was evaluated. In the period 15-25 March, before beginning of vegetation, soil herbicides were applied in the row strip in the second-year nursery field. The following variants were included in the study: 1. Control (untreated, handweeded; 2. Metofen – 120 ml/da; 3. Metofen – 240 ml/da; 4. Pledge 50 WP – 8.0 g/da; 5. Pledge 50 WP – 20.0 g/da. The effect of the herbicides on weed infestation and on the vegetative habits of the cultivar/rootstock combination 'Nonpareil'/almond seedling rootstock was followed up. The results showed that the herbicides applied at the tested rates had a good control on weed infestation and the herbicide activity continued for 3.5-4 months. That makes it possible to eliminate the competitive impact of weeds on the development of the grafted trees for 4-5 months after beginning of vegetation. Visual symptoms of phytotoxicity (chlorosis or necrosis in the leaves and shoots or an obvious suppression of the development of the grafted trees in the treated variants were not established. A depressing effect on growth of the grafted trees was reported after treatment with Metofen. The contact herbicide with soil and foliar activity Pledge 50 WP – 8.0 g/da can be applied for weed control in a second-year nursery field of almond trees grafted on bitter almond seedling rootstock.

  5. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around point sources and human health risk assessment. II: Uptake of arsenic and chromium by vegetables grown near a wood preservation factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Moseholm, Lars; Nielsen, Margot M.

    1992-01-01

    Kale, lettuce, carrots and potatoes were grown in 20 experimental plots surrounding a wood preservation factory, to investigate the amount and pathways for plant uptake of arsenic and chromium. Arsenate used in the wood preservation process is converted to the more toxic arsenite by incineration...... of waste wood and is emitted into the atmosphere. Elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium were found both in the test plants and in the soil around the factory. Multivariate statistical analysis of the results indicated that the dominating pathway of arsenic and chromium from the factory...

  6. Timing of 15N fertiliser application, partitioning to reproductive and vegetative tissue, and nutrient removal by field-grown low-chill peaches in the subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, D.O.; Stewart, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of timing of nitrogen (N) application as 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate (50 kg N/ha) on the growth response and N uptake by vegetative and reproductive tissues was investigated in the low-chill peach cv. Flordagem growing on a krasnozem soil at Alstonville. Nitrogen was applied in late August, late September, late October, mid February, and early May. Tree parts were sampled for 15 N at 4 and 8 weeks after application and after fruit harvest in December the following season. After fruit yield was measured, trees were excavated and divided into parts for dry weight and nutrient concentration determinations, and fertiliser N recovery and to estimate tree nutrient removal. Nitrogen enrichment was detected in all plant parts within 4 weeks of N application, irrespective of timing, and was greatest in rapidly growing tissues such as laterals, leaves, and fruit. The most rapid (P 15 N enrichment in vegetative tissues resulted from September, October, and February N applications and for fruit from a September application. The level of enrichment 4 weeks after fertiliser N application was similar for vegetative and reproductive tissues. The timing of N application in the first season had no effect on fruit yield and vegetative growth the following season. At tree removal, the recovery of fertiliser N in most tree parts increased (P < 0.05) as fertiliser N application was delayed from October to May the previous season. Maximum contribution of absorbed N to whole tree N was 10-11% for laterals, leaf, and fruit. Data from this study indicate that vegetative and reproductive growth have similar demand for absorbed N, and that uptake of fertiliser N is most rapid when an application precedes a period of rapid growth. Over 2 seasons, recovery of applied fertiliser N was 14.9-18.0% in the tree, confirming that stored N and the soil N pool are the dominant sources of tree N. The recovery of fertiliser N from the May application was 18% even though uptake in all tree

  7. DETERMINATION OF LEAD (Pb, IRON (Fe AND MANGANESE (Mn CONCENTRATION IN SEWAGE WATER AND VEGETABLE LEAF SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Hayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of waste water for irrigation purposes has increased over the past years. This waste water contains high amounts of trace elements and heavy metals.Many of these are non-essential and toxic to plants, animals and human beings. The use of polluted water in the immediate surroundings of big cities in Pakistan is a common practice for growing of vegetables. When this water applied for long time in irrigation, these heavy metals may accumulate in soil and that may be toxic to plants and also cause deterioration of soil. The present study revealed that heavy metal content was above the toxicity level in leafy vegetables grown in the area of Lahore. This study showed that among the different tested plant species, the amount of heavy metals was more in leaves than fruits. Plants whose fruits grow below the soil showed higher concentration of heavy metals while other showed less concentration whose edible portion was above the ground level. Leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage, coriander etc showed higher concentration in leaves than in fruits. The concentration of heavy metals in upper layer of soil (0 -15 cm is higher than the lower layer (15-30 cm. The reason behind is that the upper layer was receiving sewage water permanently while the penetration of sewage water below 15 cm was less. The increase in heavy metal accumulation in different plant species and their different parts is not constant and is not in proportion to the increase in heavy metal concentration in soil irrigated with sewage wastewater.

  8. The impacts of key adverse weather events on the field-grown vegetable yield variability in the Czech Republic from 1961 to 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potopová, V.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Štěpánek, Petr; Türkott, L.; Farda, Aleš; Soukup, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2017), s. 1648-1664 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14043 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : vegetable crops * yield losses * dry days * dry spells * extended dry spells * heavy precipitation * heat stress * heat wave * evapotranspiration * drought indices (SPI/SPEI scPDSI/scZ-index) Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  9. Proximate, mineral and vitamin C composition of vegetable Gbolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbolo (Crassocephalum crepidioides and Crassocephalum rubens) is a traditional leafy vegetable highly consumed in southern and central Benin, as well as in some part of northern Benin. The nutritional potential of the two species of Gbolo were evaluated through their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin C ...

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  11. Assessment of the potential health risks associated with the aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead content in selected fruits and vegetables grown in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann M.R. Antoine

    Full Text Available Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops − ackee (Blighia sapida, banana (Musa acuminate, cabbage (Brassica oleracea, carrot (Daucus carota, cassava (Manihot esculenta, coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium, dasheen (Colocasia esculenta, Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum, pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and turnip (Brassica rapa − were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fresh weight mean concentrations in these food crops (4.25–93.12 mg/kg for aluminium; 0.001–0.104 mg/kg for arsenic; 0.015–0.420 mg/kg for cadmium; 0.003–0.100 mg/kg for lead were used to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI, target hazard quotient (THQ, hazard index (HI and target cancer risk (TCR for arsenic, associated with dietary exposure to these potentially toxic elements. Each food type had a THQ and HI < 1 indicating no undue non-carcinogenic risk from exposure to a single or multiple potentially toxic elements from the same food. The TCR for arsenic in these foods were all below 1 × 10−4, the upper limit used for acceptable cancer risk. There is no significant health risk to the consumer associated with the consumption of these Jamaican-grown food crops. Keywords: Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Target hazard quotient, Target cancer risk, Hazard index, Food, Jamaican crops, Estimated daily intake

  12. Improvement of the preparation processes of oligoalginate by irradiation method combining with proper chemical treatment and applying the products on vegetables grown by hydroponics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phuong Uyen; Le Quang Luan; Le Thi Thuy Trang; Nguyen Thi Vang; Vo Thi Thu Ha; To Van Loi; Nguyen Hong An

    2015-01-01

    Degraded alginate extracted from brown seaweed compounds with molecular weights of 14.5 kDa was obtained by the Co-60 gamma ray irradiation at the absorbed dose of 5 kGy in presence of 0.5% H_2O_2. It was observed that the obtained oligo alginate promoted the growth of mustard greens and lettuce at an optimal concentration of 75 ppm and stimulated the plant height, root length, fresh biomass and dried matter content of the tested vegetables. The oligoalginate prepared by the irradiation under the presence of hydrogen peroxide showed growth promotion effects in the same level as the oligoalginate prepared by only irradiation. Note that the oligoalginate exhibited as a potential, safety and high effective product for plant growth promoter. (author)

  13. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  14. LEAFY TURNIP IS A NEW CROP FOR SALAD PRODUCTION LINES

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Stepanov; S. M. Sirota; O. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    The collaborative work on growing of leafy turnip in condition of salad production line was conducted in ООО PKF «AGROTIP». The possibility of obtaining of ecologically safety salad turnip of cv. Selekta, Sapfir, and Biryuza at hydroponic system are shown. Data of yield, productivity, and content of ascorbic acid in green leaf of turnip growing in condition of flow hydroponic system are presented. The possibilities of using of tested turnip varieties in modern agrotechnological systems are di...

  15. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  16. Halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables: Levels, dietary intakes, and health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Chunmei; Jiao, Bining; Li, Qiwan; Su, Hang; Wang, Jing; Jin, Fen

    2018-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) are attracting increasing concern because of their greater toxicity than their corresponding parent PAHs. However, human exposure to HPAHs via food consumption is not fully understood. In this study, daily intake via vegetable ingestion of 11 HPAHs and 16 PAHs and subsequent cancer risk were assessed for population in Beijing. A total of 80 vegetable samples were purchased from markets, including five leafy vegetables and three root vegetables. The concentrations of total HPAHs (∑HPAHs) were 0.357-0.874ng/g in all vegetables, lower than that of total PAHs (∑PAHs, 10.6-47.4ng/g). ∑HPAHs and ∑PAHs concentrations in leafy vegetables were higher than those in root vegetables, suggesting that the atmospheric deposition might be the dominant source of PAHs and HPAHs in leafy vegetables. Among the HPAH congeners, 2-BrFle and 9-ClFle were the predominant compounds and frequently detected in the vegetable samples. HPAHs and PAHs were also found in certificated vegetables at the concentrations of 0.466-0.751ng/g and 10.6-38.9ng/g, respectively, which were lower than those in non-certificated vegetables except for spinach. For leafy vegetables from local farms, the ∑PAHs and ∑HPAHs levels in the rape and Chinese cabbage samples significantly decreased with increasing the distance away from the incineration plant. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of HPAHs were below the acceptable risk level (10 -6 ), suggesting that there might be little or no risk to consumers from these compounds in vegetables. For all population groups, children were the most sensitive population to PAHs and HPAHs, and their health issues should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetic study of phytotoxicity induced by foliar lead uptake for vegetables exposed to fine particles and implications for sustainable urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Austruy, Annabelle; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2016-08-01

    At the global scale, foliar metal transfer occurs for consumed vegetables cultivated in numerous urban or industrial areas with a polluted atmosphere. However, the kinetics of metal uptake, translocation and involved phytotoxicity was never jointly studied with vegetables exposed to micronic and sub-micronic particles (PM). Different leafy vegetables (lettuces and cabbages) cultivated in RHIZOtest® devices were, therefore, exposed in a greenhouse for 5, 10 and 15days to various PbO PM doses. The kinetics of transfer and phytotoxicity was assessed in relation to lead concentration and exposure duration. A significant Pb accumulation in leaves (up to 7392mg/kg dry weight (DW) in lettuce) with translocation to roots was observed. Lead foliar exposure resulted in significant phytotoxicity, lipid composition change, a decrease of plant shoot growth (up to 68.2% in lettuce) and net photosynthesis (up to 58% in lettuce). The phytotoxicity results indicated plant adaptation to Pb and a higher sensitivity of lettuce in comparison with cabbage. Air quality needs, therefore, to be considered for the health and quality of vegetables grown in polluted areas, such as certain megacities (in China, Pakistan, Europe, etc.) and furthermore, to assess the health risks associated with their consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type?2 diabetes: A meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping?Yu; Fang, Jun?Chao; Gao, Zong?Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu?Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta‐analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Meth...

  19. NEW GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGIES FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First decade of XXI century is characterized by significant augmentation in vegetable world’s production. Average annual vegetable production has been 346 million tons, and it has exceeded the average annual potato production (318 million tons. It has occurred due to the use of up-to-date technologies for vegetable production and, particularly, in greenhouses. In Russian Federation, the total production of vegetables was 5 275.6 thousand tons in 2015 that was 13.3% more than in 2014. But the total vegetable production in greenhouses was only 722.8 thousand tons, that was 0.7% less than in 2014 (728.1 thousand tons. It can be explained that the old technologies have been used for many greenhouses around Russia. Up-to-date technologies for greenhouses are described in the article. Small-volume hydroponics. Plants are grown in mineral wadding, packed up in the special chutes. Mineral nutrition and water are supplied through special pipe with many branch pipes toward each plant. Advantage: pH and nutrition are maintained, consumption of water and mineral nutrition are optimized, and that improves plants grow control. Expenditures of labor decreased, quality of fruit became better and the yield increased significantly by 45-50 kg/m2 comparing with growing on the soil (25-30 kg/m2. Hydroponics with flowing water (salad production lines. Conveyor for salad and vegetable growing on horizontal moving chutes with flowing water and nutrition was developed. Advantage: high level of automation and mechanization of all processes of growing increased the effectiveness of the use of greenhouse areas (we can place 30% plants more at the same area. Seedling production lines. Production lines for seedlings enable to grow vegetables and leafy vegetables on stationary benches, being furnished with periodical nutrition and water supply at times. Advantage: 700 seedlings additionally on each m2 a year. Future technologies are

  20. Concentration of natural radionuclides (40K, 228Ra and 226Ra) in vegetables and fruits collected around Kudankulam, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahiban Ross, E.; Feroz Khan, M.; Lenin Raj, Y.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Kumar, M.; Sundar Rajan, P.

    2007-01-01

    Baseline activity concentration of the natural radio nuclides 40 K, 228 Ra and 226 Ra in vegetables and fruits was determined around Kudankulam. In many of the samples, 228 Ra and 226 Ra was below minimum detection limit. 40 K was found to be more in leafy vegetables followed by pods, tubers and fleshy fruits. The highest accumulator among the matrices was the leafy vegetables with the geometric mean of 189.47 Bq.kg -1 fresh for vegetables and fruits with the geometric mean of 128.95 Bq.kg -1 fresh. 228 Ra activity in vegetables and fruits ranged from 0.074 to 1.153 and 0.074 to 0.131 Bq.kg -l fresh respectively. 226 Ra in vegetables and fruits ranged from BDL to 0.07 and BDL-.044 Bq.kg -l fresh respectively. 40 K in vegetables and fruits followed a log normal distribution. (author)

  1. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... different types of vegetables varies considerably and they are not major ... the researchers to help the respondents to identify the vegetables ... subjected to qualitative phytochemical tests for alkaloids (Myers. Reagent) ...

  2. Allelopathy of small everlasting (Antennaria microphylla) : Phytotoxicity to leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M E; Manners, G D

    1990-03-01

    Media and media extracts from callus cultures of small everlasting (Antennaria microphylla) inhibited leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) callus tissue and suspension culture growth (50 and 70% of control, respectively) and were phytotoxic in lettuce and leafy spurge root elongation bioassays (64 and 77% of control, respectively). Hydroquinone, a phytotoxic compound previously isolated from small everlasting, was also biosynthesized by callus and suspension cultures of this species. Exogenously supplied hydroquinone (0.5 mM) was toxic to leafy spurge suspension culture cells and was only partially biotransformed to its nontoxic water-soluble monoglucoside, arbutin, by these cells. This report confirms the chronic involvement of hydroquinone in the allelopathic interaction between small everlasting and leafy spurge.

  3. The use of landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus for mapping leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinich, C.S.; Bustos, M.R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G.L.; Hager, S.

    2006-01-01

    Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.

  4. Lead concentration and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery residues Teores e alocação de chumbo em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de S Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a very stable metal in soil and is highly toxic to humans and animals. Exposure to Pb occurs via inhalation of particles from industry and soil, as well as household dust, water, and contaminated food. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate Pb contents and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery recycling wastes. Eight plant species were studied: tomato, sweet pepper, beet, carrot, cabbage, green collards, eggplant, and okra. The experiment was set up in blocks at random with four replicates. The results showed that carrot, green collards, beet, and okra were the most Pb tolerant species, while the others were very Pb-sensitive, since they did not complete their cycle. The decreasing order for Pb accumulation in the vegetables crops was: carrot > okra > tomato > eggplant > sweet pepper > green collards > cabbage > beet. Taking into account the Pb allocation in plants, the order was: root > stems > leaves > edible parts. Although carrot translocated the lowest Pb amount into the edible part, such level exceeded the legal limit.O chumbo (Pb é um elemento extremamente estável no solo e altamente tóxico para seres humanos e animais. A contaminação com chumbo geralmente ocorre pela exposição decorrente da inalação de partículas oriundas de indústrias ou do solo, ou ainda, pela ingestão de poeira doméstica, água e alimentos de origem animal e vegetal contaminados. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os teores e a alocação de Pb em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado com resíduos de reciclagem de baterias. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam a oito hortaliças: tomate, pimentão, beterraba, cenoura, repolho, couve manteiga, berinjela e quiabo. Os resultados mostraram que as espécies mais tolerantes ao Pb foram cenoura, couve-manteiga, beterraba e

  5. Concentration of phenolic compounds is increased in lettuce grown under high light intensity and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Usue; Sgherri, Cristina; Miranda-Apodaca, Jon; Micaelli, Francesco; Lacuesta, Maite; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The present study was focused on lettuce, a widely consumed leafy vegetable for the large number of healthy phenolic compounds. Two differently-pigmented lettuce cultivars, i.e. an acyanic-green leaf cv. and an anthocyanic-red one, were grown under high light intensity or elevated CO 2 or both in order to evaluate how environmental conditions may affect the production of secondary phenolic metabolites and, thus, lettuce quality. Mild light stress imposed for a short time under ambient or elevated CO 2 concentration increased phenolics compounds as well as antioxidant capacity in both lettuce cvs, indicating how the cultivation practice could enhance the health-promoting benefits of lettuce. The phenolic profile depended on pigmentation and the anthocyanic-red cv. always maintained a higher phenolic amount as well as antioxidant capacity than the acyanic-green one. In particular, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol, quercitrin and rutin accumulated under high light or high CO 2 in the anthocyanic-red cv., whereas cyanidin derivatives were responsive to mild light stress, both at ambient and elevated CO 2 . In both cvs total free and conjugated phenolic acids maintained higher values under all altered environmental conditions, whereas luteolin reached significant amounts when both stresses were administered together, indicating, in this last case, that the enzymatic regulation of the flavonoid synthesis could be differently affected, the synthesis of flavones being favored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-08-29

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi ( Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0-87.6% and 20.1-82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9-71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1-59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg -1 bw day -1 , BEDI of As < 3 μg kg -1 bw day -1 ) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co

  7. The Importance of Traditional Leafy Vegetables in South Africa | H J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 4 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Impact of climate change on microbial safety of leafy green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Climate change is generally recognized as a major threat to humans and the environment. With respect to food production, climate change does not only affect crop production or food security, but possibly also effects on food safety by affecting the prevalence and levels of

  9. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    effects on carotenoid liberation from different cultivars of Asia salads and negative or no effects on liberation and in vitro accessibility of carotenoids from spinach. In vitro-in vivo study: Mincing resulted in a factor two difference in in vitro accessibility of carotenoids when comparing whole leaf...... variable positive effects on carotenoid liberation from different cultivars of Asia salads and negative or no effects on liberation and in vitro accessibility of carotenoids from spinach. Similarly, fat addition influenced β-car liberation positively; however, the effect was eliminated on the level...

  10. Uptake and accumulation of four PPCP/EDCs in two leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, L K; Li, J; Parker, D; Gan, J J

    2013-11-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using (14)C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of (14)C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22 ± 0.03 to 927 ± 213 ng/g, but nearly all (14)C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The potential of traditional leafy vegetables for improving food security in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, Praxedis; Heijman, Wim J.M.; Ihle, Rico; Ochieng, Justus

    2017-01-01

    Feeding the quickly growing population in Africa remains a global challenge. As the demand for food increases, climate change, on the other hand, poses more challenges to agricultural productivity, implying that the provision of sufficient quantities and qualities of food is threatened. Traditional

  12. Uptake and accumulation of four PPCP/EDCs in two leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, L.K.; Li, J.; Parker, D.; Gan, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using 14 C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of 14 C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22 ± 0.03 to 927 ± 213 ng/g, but nearly all 14 C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of bisphenol A, diclofenac, naproxen, and 4-nonylphenol by lettuce and collards was examined. •Plant accumulation had the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX. •Accumulation in roots was greater than in new leaves, original leaves, and stems. •Nearly all accumulated analyte was non-extractable. -- Four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs were taken up into roots of lettuce and collards, but translocation into edible leaves was limited and nearly all residue was non-extractable

  13. Zn-biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2017-04-01

    Excessive rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO 3 - ) in plants. Considering that many programs of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the NO 3 - accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency was affected by the application of different doses of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants. Zn doses in the range 80-100 µmol L -1 produced an increase in Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO 3 - concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase in reduced N, total N concentration and N utilization efficiency. Consequently, at a dose of 80 µmol L -1 of Zn, the amino acid concentration increased significantly. Adequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially at a dose of 80 µmol L -1 of Zn, because it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO 3 - levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, with all of them having beneficial properties for the human diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada. Fruits and vegetables grown in Canada and offered for entry into the United...

  15. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Giorgi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904 and leafy cardoon (C. cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described.

  16. Species of leafy liverworts in protected forest of simancik 1, regency of deli serdang, north sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, Nursahara; Sartina Siregar, Etti; Rahmi, Wardatur

    2018-03-01

    Data and information of leafy liverworts diversity in Sumatera, especially North Sumatera, are still less reported. Research is conducted in order to invent and describe the morphological character of leafy liverworts in Protected Forest of Simancik I, regency of Deli Serdang, North Sumatera. Samples were collected along the hiking tracks of study site. Twenty two spesies belonging to 12 genera and 6 families were found. They were only one species of Frullaniaceae, eleven species of Lejeuneaceae, two species of Lepidoziaceae, two species of Lophocoleaceae, four species of Plagiochilaceae and two species of Radulaceae. Those species were found as epiphyte on the tree truck and some on the decaying wood. The highest diversity of leafy liverworts was from Lejeuneaceae which consisted of two subfamilies: Lejeuneoideaea and Ptychanthoideae and seven genera which are Lejeunea, Archilejeunea, Lopholejeunea, Dendrolejeunea, Ptychantus, Mastigolejeunea and Thysananthus while the lowest diversity was from Frullaniaceae.

  17. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Results Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 103 to 5.5 × 108 CFU g-1. The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 103 to 5.8 × 105 CFU g-1. Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by

  18. Culture dependent and independent analysis of bacterial communities associated with commercial salad leaf vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colin R; Randolph, Kevin C; Osborn, Shelly L; Tyler, Heather L

    2013-12-01

    Plants harbor a diverse bacterial community, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissue. While some plant-associated bacteria act as plant pathogens or promote plant growth, others may be human pathogens. The aim of the current study was to determine the bacterial community composition of organic and conventionally grown leafy salad vegetables at the point of consumption using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Total culturable bacteria on salad vegetables ranged from 8.0 × 10(3) to 5.5 × 10(8) CFU g(-1). The number of culturable endophytic bacteria from surface sterilized plants was significantly lower, ranging from 2.2 × 10(3) to 5.8 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Cultured isolates belonged to six major bacterial phyla, and included representatives of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, and Flavobacterium. Eleven different phyla and subphyla were identified by culture-independent pyrosequencing, with Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes being the most dominant lineages. Other bacterial lineages identified (e.g. Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) typically represented less than 1% of sequences obtained. At the genus level, sequences classified as Pseudomonas were identified in all samples and this was often the most prevalent genus. Ralstonia sequences made up a greater portion of the community in surface sterilized than non-surface sterilized samples, indicating that it was largely endophytic, while Acinetobacter sequences appeared to be primarily associated with the leaf surface. Analysis of molecular variance indicated there were no significant differences in bacterial community composition between organic versus conventionally grown, or surface-sterilized versus non-sterilized leaf vegetables. While culture-independent pyrosequencing identified significantly more bacterial taxa, the dominant taxa from pyrosequence data were also detected by traditional

  19. Antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to discover new and natural antimicrobial treatments against Salmonella Newport on organic produce, we evaluated the antimicrobial effect of lemongrass essential oil on four different types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. Newport. The effects of lemongrass treatment exposure...

  20. Diets of angora goats grazing leafy spurge Euphorbia esula-infested rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Kirby; Thomas P. Hanson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1997-01-01

    Angora goats have been suggested as biological control agents for leafy spurge, especially in environmentally sensitive or limited access areas. Dietary preferences and dietary nutritive content of herded Angora goats were evaluated over a two-year period in North Dakota. Relative preferences of forages were evaluated by comparing botanical composition of diets as...

  1. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Grown in Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani; Seyed Jalal Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The N source used in commercial hydroponic culture of vegetables is mainly NO3-N. The rate of NO3- uptake is usually high, particularly in leafy vegetables and it can be markedly increased when the NO3- supply in the environment is high. An abundant N supply leads to a high NO3-N absorption and accumulation in plants. When NO3- rich vegetables are consumed, various harmful effects on human health may occur such as met-hemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome) and cancer. Keeping level...

  2. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  3. Salient beliefs about eating and buying dark green vegetables as told by Mid-western African–American women☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, Jylana L.; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables in the dark green group are the most nutritious, yet intake is low. Studies suggest that an increase in fruit and vegetables may improve diet-related health outcomes of African Americans. The aim of this exploratory study was to use the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to qualitatively assess salient, top-of-the-mind, beliefs (consequences, circumstances and referents) about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables each week over the next 3 months. Adult (n = 30), Midwestern African–American women, who buy and prepare food for their household participated in a face-to-face salient belief elicitation. A content analysis of verbatim text and a descriptive analysis were conducted. Findings suggest that the RAA can be used to identify salient consequences, circumstances and referents about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables. The use of the RAA allowed for the extraction of specific beliefs that may aid in the development of nutrition education programs that consider the varying priorities, motivators and barriers that subgroups within the population have in regard to buying and consuming dark green leafy vegetables. PMID:23415980

  4. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves.

  5. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Fuh-Juin Kao; Yu-Shan Chiu; Wen-Dee Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boi...

  6. Quantification of the growth response of light quantity of greenhouse grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Nijs, E.M.F.M.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growers have often assumed that a 1% increment in light results in a 1% yield increase. In this study, this rule of thumb has been evaluated for a number of greenhouse grown crops: fruit vegetables (cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper), soil grown vegetables (lettuce, radish), cut flowers (rose,

  7. Tracing temperature patterns of cut leafy greens during service in North Carolina school food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen M; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Phister, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Contaminated fresh produce has been increasingly identified as a cause of foodborne illnesses. Because of concerns about pathogen growth on these food items at retail, the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code established that cut leafy greens (lettuce, spinach, spring mix, cabbage, arugula, and kale) must have time and temperature controls for safety and hence should be kept at refrigerated temperatures (5°C or lower). The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature profiles of cut leafy greens in single-serving clamshell containers provided as part of the North Carolina School Lunch Program and to compare the two policies that North Carolina has in place to control the temperature of these products (the 3-day rule and time in lieu of temperature). Temperatures were recorded with data loggers in 24 schools during a 3-day period. In all cases, substantial temperature variability was found for these products, including temperatures above 5°C for at least 1 h on each of the 3 days. In some cases, temperatures reached above 5°C for more than 3 h throughout the serving time. The results demonstrate the importance of developing a protocol for continuous temperature monitoring of leafy greens served in school lunch programs.

  8. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet; Delas; Delmas; Demias; Flanzy; Benard; Puyaubert; Fioramonti; Marty; Barbier; Le Blaye; Michon

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  9. Absorption of radioelements from the soil by various vegetables grown under normal condition of cultivation; Absorption de radioelements du sol par divers legumes cultives dans les conditions de la pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet,; Delas,; Delmas,; Demias,; Flanzy,; Benard,; Puyaubert,; Fioramonti,; Marty,; Barbier,; Blaye, Le; Michon,

    1961-07-01

    Various vegetables were cultivated in 4 different types of soil, having received, or receiving periodically, strontium-90 or caesium-137 in fairly strong doses, in order to facilitate the measurement of the fraction of these radioelements taken up by the vegetables. In sandy soil, whole plants absorbed 2 to 3 per cent of Sr and 3 to 9 parts per thousand of Cs approximately; in clay soils, 1 to 6 parts per thousand of Sr and 0,2 to 2 parts per thousand of Cs; Cs, however, migrates relatively more than Sr in fruits or storage organs. The experiments confirmed that the quotient of the ratios {sup 90}Sr/Ca in the vegetables and in the ploughed layer varies comparatively slightly; these would be a certain safety margin in assuming this ratio to be slightly above unity (to be confirmed after homogenising the ploughed layer). In view of the fact that in an arid climate it is necessary to apply several tens of litres of irrigation water (up to 50) in order to produce 1 kg of vegetables (fresh whole plants) and that furthermore, the radioelements of the residue from the crop harvest return to the soil, it can be expected that the limit of accumulation 1 kg of certain vegetables will contain as much of each radioelement as several tens of litres of irrigation water. (author) [French] Divers legumes ont ete cultives dans 4 types de sols differents, ayant recu ou recevant periodiquement du strontium-90 ou du cesium-137, a doses relativement fortes, de maniere a faciliter la mesure de la fraction de ces radioelements absorbee par les legumes. En sol sableux, les plantes entieres ont absorbe 2 a 3 pour cent de Sr et 3 a 9 pour mille de Cs environ, en sol argileux, 1 a 6 pour mille de Sr et 0,2 a 2 pour mille de Cs; mais Cs migre relativement plus que Sr dans les fruits ou les organes de reserve. Les experiences ont confirme que le quotient des rapports {sup 90}Sr/Ca dans les legumes et dans la couche labouree est relativement peu variable; on conserverait une certaine marge de

  10. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014–January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015–April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan’s wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However, the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy. PMID:28228914

  11. Effect of different form of mineral nitrogen fertilizer and organic fertilization with compost on yield and quality of various field-grown vegetable crops (radish, carrot, spinach and tubers celery). Quality investigation through electrochemical method and the determination of p-value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, M.

    1998-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of nitrogen form (calcium-nitrate, nitramoncal, ammonsulfate and urea) and the compost fertilization on yield and quality of different vegetable crops, which were grown under field condition at the same nitrogen fertilizer levels. In addition to evaluate the yield, the nitrate contents and p-value have been tested to determine the quality. Following results have been found: yield: the mineral nitrogen form had no significant effect on yield by radish, carrot, and celery. Spinach is positive responded by a different form of nitrogen fertilizer. The same yield results were nearly obtained by the use of compost, compared to another nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrate content: the nitrate content is investigated in edible plant parts. The nitrogen forms have been effected nitrate contents on researched vegetable crops. Generally, the minimum nitrate content is found in control variant and by use of compost, and too by ammonsulfate or urea fertilizer. The maximum nitrate content is reached by use of calcium-nitrate and nitramoncal fertilizer. Spinach leaves had less nitrate contents than stalks. P-value: results of examination shows a major relation between nitrogen fertilizer form and p-value. With the exception of carrot, had compost and control variants of radish, spinach and celery the highest significant p-value in comparison with another nitrogen fertilizer. The lowest p-value is obtained by application of calcium-nitrate and nitramoncal fertilizer, also for a better quality. (author)

  12. Nitrogen fixation in seedlings of sabia and leucena grown in the caatinga soils under different vegetation covers; Fixacao de nitrogenio em mudas de sabia e leucena cultivadas em solos da caatinga sob diferentes coberturas vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Augusto Cesar de Arruda; Nascimento, Luciana Remigio Santos; Silva, Arthur Jorge da; Freitas, Ana Dolores Santiago de, E-mail: augusto.arruda26@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lucaremigio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: arthur.floresta.jorge@gmail.com, E-mail: ana.freitas@depa.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Agronomia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency differences of populations forming bacteria in legume nodules (BNL) in areas under different vegetation cover in semi-arid Pernambuco state, Brazil, using the methodology of the natural abundance of {sup 15}N to estimate the amount of N fixed symbiotically. The highest levels of nitrogen was found in plants of leucena, and the sabia had levels that did not differ from reference species. The analysis by the technique of 15N showed that in all areas the leucena and the sabia showed signs of 15N different of the average signal of the control plants. The largest nitrogen accumulation was observed for leucena in the Caatinga and Capoeira. The sabia got greater accumulation of N from the Caatinga. The areas of Capoeira and Caatinga has showed the native populations of rhizobia with greater ability to fix nitrogen for the leucena.

  13. A Decision Support System (GesCoN for Managing Fertigation in Vegetable Crops. Part II – Model calibration and validation under different environmental growing conditions on field grown tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eConversa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The GesCoN model was evaluated for its capability to simulate growth, nitrogen uptake and productivity of open field tomato grown under different environmental and cultural conditions. Five datasets collected from experimental trials carried out in Foggia (IT were used for calibration and 13 datasets collected from trials conducted in Foggia, Perugia (IT and Florida (USA were used for validation. The goodness of fitting was performed by comparing the observed and simulated shoot dry weight (SDW and N crop uptake during crop seasons, total dry weight (TDW, N uptake and fresh yield (TFY. In SDW model calibration, the relative RMSE values fell within the good 10 to 15% range, percent BIAS (PBIAS ranged between -11.5% and 7.4%. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE was very close to the optimal value 1. In the N uptake calibration RRMSE and PBIAS were very low(7%, and -1.78, respectively and NSE close to 1. The validation of SDW (RRMSE=16.7%; NSE=0.96 and N uptake (RRMSE=16.8%; NSE=0.96 showed the good accuracy of GesCoN. A model under- or overestimation of the SDW and N uptake occurred when higher or a lower N rates and/or a more or less efficient system were used compared to the calibration trial. The in-season adjustment, using the SDWcheck procedure, greatly improved model simulations both in the calibration and in the validation phases. The TFY prediction was quite good except in Florida, where a large overestimation (+16% was linked to a different harvest index (0.53 compared the cultivars used for model calibration and validation in Italian areas. The soil water content at the 10-30 cm depth appears to be well simulated by the software, and the GesCoN proved to be able to adaptively control potential yield and DW accumulation under limited N soil availability scenarios and consequently to modify fertilizer application. The DSSwell simulate SDW accumulation and N uptake of different tomato genotypes grown under Mediterranean and subtropical

  14. Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröder, Hans; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; De Souza, Katia Leani Oliveira; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The increasing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and for convenience foods is causing an expansion of the market share for minimally processed vegetables. Among the more common pathogenic microorganisms that can be transmitted to humans by these products are Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of a selection of minimally processed vegetables. A total of 181 samples of minimally processed leafy salads were collected from retailers in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Counts of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and Salmonella were conducted for 133 samples. L. monocytogenes was assessed in 181 samples using the BAX System and by plating the enrichment broth onto Palcam and Oxford agars. Suspected Listeria colonies were submitted to classical biochemical tests. Populations of psychrotrophic microorganisms >10(6) CFU/g were found in 51% of the 133 samples, and Enterobacteriaceae populations between 10(5) and 106 CFU/g were found in 42% of the samples. Fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) CFU/g (Brazilian standard) were found in 97 (73%) of the samples, and Salmonella was detected in 4 (3%) of the samples. Two of the Salmonella-positive samples had minimally processed vegetables had poor microbiological quality, and these products could be a vehicle for pathogens such as Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

  15. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction.

  16. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The N source used in commercial hydroponic culture of vegetables is mainly NO3-N. The rate of NO3- uptake is usually high, particularly in leafy vegetables and it can be markedly increased when the NO3- supply in the environment is high. An abundant N supply leads to a high NO3-N absorption and accumulation in plants. When NO3- rich vegetables are consumed, various harmful effects on human health may occur such as met-hemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome and cancer. Keeping levels of NO3- below limits of FAO seems to be impossible without changing conventional fertilizer application techniques. The suitability of urea for the cultivation of field crops has been well documented. Urea is used as the main source of N fertilizer for crops grown in soil. Its use as N source for crops grown under the hydroponic system has yet to be evaluated. To hydrolyze urea, the enzyme urease requires Ni as a component. Substitution of urea for commonly used N03-N fertilizers in hydroponic culture of vegetables would not only enable to avoid excessive accumulation of N03- in plants but would also reduce the cost of production. Leafy vegetable crops, such as lettuce and spinach, contain large amounts of N03-N. Therefore, it is important to reduce N03- concentrations in hydroponically grown with lowest negative effects on yield. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried outin greenhouse hydroponicsResearchFaculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz in randomized complete block designwithtwo factors ureaatfivelevels of 0,25, 50, 75and100milligrams perliter(U0, U25,U50, U75, U100andnickelattwo levels of0and2mg per liter (Ni0, Ni2ofnickelsulfate(NiSO4in4replicatesusinglettuce(Lactuca sativa cv. Siyahoo. Plants fed with the modifiedHoagland solutionorhalf theconcentration. Treatments added to nutrient solution when plants were in four leaf stage. Plants were harvested 50 days after treatment. Different organs (leaves, stems and roots were separated

  17. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

  18. Foliar glyphosate treatment alters transcript and hormone profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge and induces dwarfed and bushy phenotypes throughout its perennial life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an invasive weed of North America and its perennial nature is attributed to underground adventitious buds (UABs) that undergo seasonal cycles of para-, endo- and eco-dormancy. Recommended field rates of glyphosate (~1 kg/ha) destroys above-ground shoots of leafy spu...

  19. Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Dulk-Ras, A D; Hooykaas, P J

    2000-01-01

    In a screen for leaf developmental mutants we have isolated an activator T-DNA-tagged mutant that produces leaves without a petiole. In addition to that leafy petiole phenotype this lettuce (let) mutant shows aberrant inflorescence branching and silique shape. The LEAFY PETIOLE (LEP) gene...

  20. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yu; Fang, Jun-Chao; Gao, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand-searching journals and contacting experts. The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum-adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) for fruit fiber in these high-quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow-up period of 10 years or more. A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Evaluation of a Biostimulant (Pepton Based in Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Animal Protein in Comparison to Seaweed Extracts on Root Development, Vegetative Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Gold Cherry Tomatoes Grown under Low Stress Ambient Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Polo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of different application rates of an enzyme hydrolyzed animal protein biostimulant (Pepton compared to a standard application rate of a biostimulant derived from seaweed extract (Acadian on plant growth parameters and yield of gold cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Biostimulant treatments were applied starting at 15 days after transplant and every 2 weeks thereafter for a total of 5 applications. One treatment group received no biostimulant (Control. Three treatment groups (Pepton-2, Pepton-3, Pepton-4 received Pepton at different application rates equivalent to 2, 3, or 4 kg/ha applied by foliar (first 2 applications and by irrigation (last 3 applications. Another treatment group (Acadian received Acadian at 1.5 L/ha by irrigation for all five applications. All groups received the regular fertilizer application for this crop at transplantation, flowering, and fruiting periods. There were four plots per treatment group. Each plot had a surface area of 21 m2 that consisted of two rows that were 7 m long and 1.5 m wide. Plant height, stem diameter, distance from head to bouquet flowering, fruit set distance between the entire cluster and cluster flowering fruit set, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant was recorded for 20 plants (5 plants per plot at 56 and 61 days after the first application. Root length and diameter of cherry tomatoes were determined at harvest from 20 randomly selected plants. Harvesting yield per plot was registered and production per hectare was calculated. Both biostimulants improved (P < 0.05 all vegetative parameters compared with the control group. There was a positive linear (P < 0.001 effect of Pepton application rate for all parameters. The calculated yield was 7.8 and 1 Ton/ha greater that represent 27 and 2.9% higher production for Pepton applied at 4 kg/ha compared to the control and to Acadian, respectively. In conclusion, Pepton was

  2. [Sequence analysis of LEAFY homologous gene from Dendrobium moniliforme and application for identification of medicinal Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-Rui; Hou, Bei-Wei; Guan, Jing-Jiao; Luo, Jing; Ding, Xiao-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The LEAFY (LFY) homologous gene of Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. was cloned by new primers which were designed based on the conservative region of known sequences of orchid LEAFY gene. Partial LFY homologous gene was cloned by common PCR, then we got the complete LFY homologous gene Den LFY by Tail-PCR. The complete sequence of DenLFY gene was 3 575 bp which contained three exons and two introns. Using BLAST method, comparison analysis among the exon of LFY homologous gene indicted that the DenLFY gene had high identity with orchids LFY homologous, including the related fragment of PhalLFY (84%) in Phalaenopsis hybrid cultivar, LFY homologous gene in Oncidium (90%) and in other orchid (over 80%). Using MP analysis, Dendrobium is found to be the sister to Oncidium and Phalaenopsis. Homologous analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal amino acids were highly conserved. When the exons and introns were separately considered, exons and the sequence of amino acid were good markers for the function research of DenLFY gene. The second intron can be used in authentication research of Dendrobium based on the length polymorphism between Dendrobium moniliforme and Dendrobium officinale.

  3. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  4. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  5. Assessment of the doses due to natural radionuclide in the green leafy vegetables of Domiasiat, Meghalaya India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Chaturvedi, S.S.; Jha, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the Ipomea batata, Allium sativum, Dacaus carota, and Solanum tuberosum due to naturally available radionuclide 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the Domiasiat area of Meghalaya. The concentration of radionuclides in biota as well as corresponding soil was measured by precipitation method using NaI detector for continuous 12 months. Transfer factor was calculated and was, for 40 K(3.96E-05, 3.40E-05, 3.40E-05, 2.70E-05), for 232 Th(3.94E-05, 3.20E-05, 3.20E-054.93E-05), for 238 U(3.60E-05, 3.89E-05, 3.85E-054.57E-05), respectively in each biota due to each radionuclide. The point source dose distribution (source ↔ target) hypotheses was applied for the consideration of absorbed fraction. The generated data were modeled using the FASSET method and obtained dose was 8.42E-03, 8.36E-03, 7.78E-03, 7.74E-03 μGy h -1 , respectively and finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR dataset for screening level dose for terrestrial biota. (author)

  6. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that cadmium mobility was decreased due to biochar application. This study shows that pigeon pea biochar has the potential to increase spinach yield and reduce cadmium mobility in contaminated sandy soil.

  7. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing plant antimicrobials inactivate Salmonella Newport in packaged organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased demand for organic leafy green may raise the risk of foodborne illness outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated produce. Edible films incorporated with natural antimicrobials have the potential to be used as ingredients into organic bagged salads to control contamination from path...

  8. Combining essential oils and olive extract for control of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effects of plant essential oils and olive extract against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Newport on organic leafy greens. Organic baby spinach, mature spinach, romaine lettuce, and iceberg lettuce were inoculated with S. Newport and dip-t...

  9. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Concentration of 210Po in local foodstuffs grown nearby High Background Areas (HBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamesh Viswanathan, B.; Arunachalam, Kantha D.; Sathesh Kumar, A.; Jayakrishna, K.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    210 Po is the decay product of natural radionuclide of 238 U series. The presence of a radionuclide migrates from soil > plant > food and ingested by the humans residing in the areas of syentite rocks nearby the High Background Radiation Area's (HBRA). The food samples were studied by Market Basket Study (MBS). The average concentration of 210 Po in foodstuffs like green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, roots and tubers; fruits, fish, other flesh foods, milk and cereals were 1671 ± 163.3, 28.2 ± 7.3, 320 ± 99, 53 ± 17.5, 251.5 ± 54.5, 37 ± 14.5, 16 ± 6 and 230 ± 75 mBq. Kg -1 fresh weight. (author)

  11. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  12. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookie, Kate L.; Best, Georgia I.; Conner, Tamlin S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned) fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18–25 (66.1% female) living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs. cooked/canned/processed fruits and vegetables, negative and positive mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative mood, positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing), and covariates (including socio-economic status, body mass index, sleep, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use). Results: Controlling for covariates, raw fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) predicted reduced depressive symptoms and higher positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing; processed FVI only predicted higher positive mood. The top 10 raw foods related to better mental health were carrots, bananas, apples, dark leafy greens like spinach, grapefruit, lettuce, citrus fruits, fresh berries, cucumber, and kiwifruit. Conclusions: Raw FVI, but not processed FVI, significantly predicted higher mental health outcomes when controlling for the covariates. Applications include recommending the consumption of raw fruits and vegetables to maximize mental health benefits. PMID:29692750

  13. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Brookie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables, rich in micronutrients, have been associated with better mental health. However, cooking or processing may reduce the availability of these important micronutrients. This study investigated the differential associations between intake of raw fruits and vegetables, compared to processed (cooked or canned fruits and vegetables, and mental health in young adults.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey design, 422 young adults ages 18–25 (66.1% female living in New Zealand and the United States completed an online survey that assessed typical consumption of raw vs. cooked/canned/processed fruits and vegetables, negative and positive mental health (depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative mood, positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing, and covariates (including socio-economic status, body mass index, sleep, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use.Results: Controlling for covariates, raw fruit and vegetable intake (FVI predicted reduced depressive symptoms and higher positive mood, life satisfaction, and flourishing; processed FVI only predicted higher positive mood. The top 10 raw foods related to better mental health were carrots, bananas, apples, dark leafy greens like spinach, grapefruit, lettuce, citrus fruits, fresh berries, cucumber, and kiwifruit.Conclusions: Raw FVI, but not processed FVI, significantly predicted higher mental health outcomes when controlling for the covariates. Applications include recommending the consumption of raw fruits and vegetables to maximize mental health benefits.

  14. The effects of the vegetable prices insurance on the fluctuation of price: Based on Shanghai evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunhong; Li, Huishang; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Xuebiao; Yang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Taking Shanghai as an example, the influence of the vegetable price insurance on the fluctuation of prices was analyzed in the article. It was found that the sequence of seasonal fluctuations characteristics of leafy vegetable prices was changed by the vegetable cost-price insurance, the period of price fluctuation was elongated from 12-to-18 months to 37 months, and the influence of random factors on the price fluctuations was reduced in some degree. There was still great space for innovation of the vegetable prices insurance system in Shanghai. Some countermeasures would be suggested to develop the insurance system to better to play the role of insurance and promote the market running more smoothly in Shanghai such as prolonging the insurance cycle, improving the price information monitoring mechanism and innovating income insurance products and so on.

  15. Impact of urban gardening in equatorial zone on soils and metal transfer to vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondo Aubin Jean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the impact of urban agriculture on physicochemical soil properties and the metal uptake by some leafy vegetables cultivated in urban soils of Libreville, Gabon. Cultivated and uncultivated top-soil and vegetable samples were collected on two urban garden sites, and analyzed. The results showed that there was strong acidification and a decrease of nutrient and metal concentrations in soils due of agricultural practices. The metal transfer to plants was important, with the exception of iron. The non-essential metal cadmium and lead were not detectable in plant tissues. Amaranth accumulated more metals than other vegetables. Amaranth and Roselle were vegetables that preferentially concentrated metals in their leaves and can therefore be used for metal supplementation in food chain.

  16. Comparison of food processing retention factors of 137Cs and 40K in vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiko Tagami; Shigeo Uchida

    2013-01-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. To provide more Cs removal rates, we studied the applicability of K data using edible plant samples. Values were compared for 137 Cs and 40 K of the food processing retention factors, F r (total activity in processed food/total activity in raw food), and they were found to be close to the 1:1 line and highly correlated (R = 0.96, p r ) x 100, for ten vegetable types to provide potential Cs removal rates. The average percent of K removal were as follows: dried pulses, 33; fresh pulses, 15; leafy vegetables, 52; fruit vegetables, 7; flower vegetables, 44: root crops, 18; tubers, 16; ferns, 93: mushrooms, 32; and others, 30. (author)

  17. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  18. Understory vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  19. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  20. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0±2.3 to 64.6±11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4±18.4 to 265.6±63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8±0.13 to 1.40±0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas

  1. Microbial and heavy metal contamination of pineapple products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Quantitative determination of heavy metals: zinc, iron, lead, copper, cadmium and aluminium ...... consumption of dairy products, fish/seafood and meat from Ismailia ... Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Bangalore Urban.

  2. Prevalence and characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae on retail vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Veenman, Christiaan; van Overbeek, Wendy M; Lynch, Gretta; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2015-01-01

    In total 1216 vegetables obtained from Dutch stores during 2012 and 2013 were analysed to determine the prevalence of 3rd-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistant bacteria on soil-grown fresh produce possibly consumed raw. Vegetables grown conventionally and organically, from Dutch as well as

  3. Study on the natural radionuclides in vegetables and food materials in Coonoor Taluk of Nilgiri Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarappandian, S.; Kannan, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the important route through which radionuclides enter human body is food material. A considerable study on this aspect focuses on the natural radionuclides content since it is the major contributor to the total dose received by human beings. Natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb in uranium series and 228 Ra in the thorium series exist ubiquitously in the environment and significantly contribute to the effective dose equivalent. The concentration of these radionuclides in different vegetables and food material collected in Coonoor taluk of Nilgiri Biosphere has been estimated. The concentration of 210 Po has been estimated by radiochemical separation followed by alpha counting. 210 Pb content in food material has been estimated by in growth of its daughter 210 Bi and followed by its counting by low background beta counting system. 228 Ra content has been estimated by chemical separation followed by, low background beta counting. 226 Ra has been estimated by chemical separation followed by emanation of 222 Rn and alpha counting. The vegetables and other food materials have been collected throught the study area Coonoor. The collected vegetable and food materials are coming under five categories such as leafy vegetable, tuberous vegetables, other vegetables, cereals and other food materials. The observed 210 Po concentration in the present study varies from 0.06 to 0.91 Ba/kg (fresh weight). The highest concentration of 210 Po (0.91 Bq/kg) has been observed in Tea collected at Thaimalai and the lowest value (0.06 Bq/kg) has been observed in carrot (root) collected at Bikole. The highest concentration of 210 Pb (1.12 Bq/kg) has been found in Cauliflower collected at Colocombai, while the least concentration of 210 Pb (0.12 Bq/kg) has been observed in Beans collected at Bikole. The Carrot coming under tuberous vegetable collected at Kateri have registered the highest value of 2.30 Bq/kg and the Cauliflower coming under leafy vegetable collected at

  4. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: comparing a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite-observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily uses shallow soil water, whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment appears to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information and allow new insights into dryland vegetation dynamics.

  5. Molecular evidence for association of chlamydiales bacteria with epitheliocystis in leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques), silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), and barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Adam; Roholl, Paul J M; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Jones, Brian; Nowak, Barbara F

    2006-01-01

    Epitheliocystis in leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques), silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), and barramundi (Lates calcarifer), previously associated with chlamydial bacterial infection using ultrastructural analysis, was further investigated by using molecular and immunocytochemical methods.

  6. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  7. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  8. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  9. Graphic Grown Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  10. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray. The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg. In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

  11. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunyun; Spooner, David; Liu, Jing; Cao, Jiashu; Teng, Yuanwen

    2011-09-14

    The genus Pyrus belongs to the tribe Pyreae (the former subfamily Maloideae) of the family Rosaceae, and includes one of the most important commercial fruit crops, pear. The phylogeny of Pyrus has not been definitively reconstructed. In our previous efforts, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) revealed a poorly resolved phylogeny due to non-concerted evolution of nrDNA arrays. Therefore, introns of low copy nuclear genes (LCNG) are explored here for improved resolution. However, paralogs and lineage sorting are still two challenges for applying LCNGs in phylogenetic studies, and at least two independent nuclear loci should be compared. In this work the second intron of LEAFY and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh) were selected to investigate their molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility. DNA sequence analyses revealed a complex ortholog and paralog structure of Adh genes in Pyrus and Malus, the pears and apples. Comparisons between sequences from RT-PCR and genomic PCR indicate that some Adh homologs are putatively nonfunctional. A partial region of Adh1 was sequenced for 18 Pyrus species and three subparalogs representing Adh1-1 were identified. These led to poorly resolved phylogenies due to low sequence divergence and the inclusion of putative recombinants. For the second intron of LEAFY, multiple inparalogs were discovered for both LFY1int2 and LFY2int2. LFY1int2 is inadequate for phylogenetic analysis due to lineage sorting of two inparalogs. LFY2int2-N, however, showed a relatively high sequence divergence and led to the best-resolved phylogeny. This study documents the coexistence of outparalogs and inparalogs, and lineage sorting of these paralogs and orthologous copies. It reveals putative recombinants that can lead to incorrect phylogenetic inferences, and presents an improved phylogenetic resolution of Pyrus using LFY2int2-N. Our study represents the first phylogenetic analyses based on LCNGs in Pyrus. Ancient and recent duplications lead

  12. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jiashu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Pyrus belongs to the tribe Pyreae (the former subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae, and includes one of the most important commercial fruit crops, pear. The phylogeny of Pyrus has not been definitively reconstructed. In our previous efforts, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS revealed a poorly resolved phylogeny due to non-concerted evolution of nrDNA arrays. Therefore, introns of low copy nuclear genes (LCNG are explored here for improved resolution. However, paralogs and lineage sorting are still two challenges for applying LCNGs in phylogenetic studies, and at least two independent nuclear loci should be compared. In this work the second intron of LEAFY and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh were selected to investigate their molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility. Results DNA sequence analyses revealed a complex ortholog and paralog structure of Adh genes in Pyrus and Malus, the pears and apples. Comparisons between sequences from RT-PCR and genomic PCR indicate that some Adh homologs are putatively nonfunctional. A partial region of Adh1 was sequenced for 18 Pyrus species and three subparalogs representing Adh1-1 were identified. These led to poorly resolved phylogenies due to low sequence divergence and the inclusion of putative recombinants. For the second intron of LEAFY, multiple inparalogs were discovered for both LFY1int2 and LFY2int2. LFY1int2 is inadequate for phylogenetic analysis due to lineage sorting of two inparalogs. LFY2int2-N, however, showed a relatively high sequence divergence and led to the best-resolved phylogeny. This study documents the coexistence of outparalogs and inparalogs, and lineage sorting of these paralogs and orthologous copies. It reveals putative recombinants that can lead to incorrect phylogenetic inferences, and presents an improved phylogenetic resolution of Pyrus using LFY2int2-N. Conclusions Our study represents the first phylogenetic analyses based

  13. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  14. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  15. Trace Metals in Vegetables and Cereals- A Case Study of Indian Market-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaidya Nath Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables and Cereals are considered vital for properly-balanced diet given that they deliver vitamins, minerals, nutritional fiber, and phytochemicals. This study aimed to assess the concentration of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg in common vegetables and cereals in urban open markets in Varanasi district, India Materials & Methods: Total 260 edible portions of vegetable samples of 13 species were collected in March to October, 2016 from predefined market sites. These samples classified into roots, stems, leafy vegetables, fruits, and legumes. These samples (unwashed, acetic acid washed and boiled were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical evaluations were carried out using the IBM SPSS 21. Results: The results obtained reveal that unwashed vegetables and cereals as compared to washed and boiled samples contain higher trace metal concentration. The order of heavy metal concentration was observed in Cu>Pb>Cd>As in vegetable and cereals samples. Hg and Cr were not detected in any samples. The mean value of Cu, Cd and Pb in unwashed and washed vegetables and cereals were lower than PFA standard except As, whereas in boiled vegetables and cereals are lower than PFA standard but the mean value of Cd and Pb were many folds higher than the EU standard at all the market site samples. Leafy vegetables were found to contain the highest metals values especially Spinacia oleracea followed by roots vegetable like Brassica rapa, at all the studied sites. The market sites MS3 located in the vicinity of industrial zone and in proximity to national highway showed elevated levels of trace metals concentration in the vegetables and cereals as compared to other market sites. Conclusions: The results showed that, the As, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration were reduced to about 12.5%, 5.87%, 11.36% and 10.42% of the initial concentrations by 2% acetic acid washing and to 25%, 21.87%, 20.45% and 16.67% of the initial

  16. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  17. Selection and validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun S Chao

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed, adventitious underground bud, and other organs of leafy spurge. Eleven candidate reference genes (BAM4, PU1, TRP-like, FRO1, ORE9, BAM1, SEU, ARF2, KAPP, ZTL, and MPK4 were selected from among 171 genes based on expression stabilities during seed germination and bud growth. The other ten candidate reference genes were selected from three different sources: (1 3 stably expressed leafy spurge genes (60S, bZIP21, and MD-100 identified from the analyses of leafy spurge microarray data; (2 3 orthologs of Arabidopsis "general purpose" traditional reference genes (GAPDH_1, GAPDH_2, and UBC; and (3 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis stably expressed genes (UBC9, SAND, PTB, and F-box identified from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies. The expression stabilities of these 21 genes were ranked based on the C(T values of 72 samples using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔC(T method. Our analyses revealed SAND, PTB, ORE9, and ARF2 to be the most appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data. Since SAND and PTB were obtained from 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis, while ORE9 and ARF2 were selected from 171 leafy spurge genes, it was more efficient to identify good reference genes from the orthologs of other plant species that were known to be stably expressed than that of randomly testing endogenous genes. Nevertheless, the two newly identified leafy spurge genes, ORE9 and ARF2, can serve as orthologous candidates in the search for reference genes

  18. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  19. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  20. Auxin transport in leafy pea stem cuttings is partially driven by photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpula, C.L.; Potter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    When 14 C-IAA was applied to the apex of disbudded leafy pea stem cuttings (15 cm long), the movement of 14 C-IAA to the base of the cuttings after 24 h was influenced by the photosynthetic rate. In the absence of photosynthesis, light did not influence 14 C-IAA movement. Photosynthesis was altered by varying light, CO 2 concentration, or stomatal aperature (blocked with an antitranspirant). Radioactivity (identified by co-chromatography) was 25, 60, and 5% IAA, IAA-aspartate, and indolealdehyde respectively regardless of treatment. Adventitious root formation was reduced 50 to 95% and movement of IAA was inhibited 50 to 70% by decreasing gross photosynthesis 90 to 100%. Apparently, photosynthesis partially drives the movement of IAA from the apex to the base where roots arise. This gives a probably role of photosynthesis in rooting, because in this system virtually no rooting will take place without exogenous auxin and at least a low level of gross photosynthesis

  1. Elongation-related functions of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 during the development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Astrid; Mönke, Gudrun; Rutten, Twan; Keilwagen, Jens; Seifert, Michael; Thi, Tuyet Minh Nguyen; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Viehöver, Prisca; Hähnel, Urs; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Altschmied, Lothar; Conrad, Udo; Weisshaar, Bernd; Bäumlein, Helmut

    2012-08-01

    The transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) controls aspects of early embryogenesis and seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify components of the LEC1 regulon, transgenic plants were derived in which LEC1 expression was inducible by dexamethasone treatment. The cotyledon-like leaves and swollen root tips developed by these plants contained seed-storage compounds and resemble the phenotypes produced by increased auxin levels. In agreement with this, LEC1 was found to mediate up-regulation of the auxin synthesis gene YUCCA10. Auxin accumulated primarily in the elongation zone at the root-hypocotyl junction (collet). This accumulation correlates with hypocotyl growth, which is either inhibited in LEC1-induced embryonic seedlings or stimulated in the LEC1-induced long-hypocotyl phenotype, therefore resembling etiolated seedlings. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a number of phytohormone- and elongation-related genes among the putative LEC1 target genes. LEC1 appears to be an integrator of various regulatory events, involving the transcription factor itself as well as light and hormone signalling, especially during somatic and early zygotic embryogenesis. Furthermore, the data suggest non-embryonic functions for LEC1 during post-germinative etiolation. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Development of a cost-effectiveness analysis of leafy green marketing agreement irrigation water provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Pouliot, Sébastien; Wang, Tong; Jay-Russell, Michele T

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of meeting the irrigation water provisions of the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) relative to its costs provides an approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of good agricultural practices that uses available data. A case example for lettuce is used to evaluate data requirements and provide a methodological example to determine the cost-effectiveness of the LGMA water quality provision. Both cost and field data on pathogen or indicator bacterial levels are difficult and expensive to obtain prospectively. Therefore, methods to use existing field and experimental data are required. Based on data from current literature and experimental studies, we calculate a cost-efficiency ratio that expresses the reduction in E. coli concentration per dollar expenditure on testing of irrigation water. With appropriate data, the same type of analysis can be extended to soil amendments and other practices and to evaluation of public benefits of practices used in production. Careful use of existing and experimental data can lead to evaluation of an expanded set of practices.

  3. Fine Mapping and Cloning of Leafy Head Mutant Gene pla1-5 in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-neng FENG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We identified a leafy head mutant pla1-5 (plastochron 1-5 from the progeny of japonica rice cultivar Taipei 309 treated with 60Co-γ ray irradiation. The pla1-5 mutant has a dwarf phenotype and small leaves. Compared with its wild type, pla1-5 has more leaves and fewer tillers, and it fails to produce normal panicles at the maturity stage. Genetic analysis showed that the pla1-5 phenotype is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using the map-based cloning strategy, we narrowed down the location of the target gene to a 58-kb region between simple sequence repeat markers CHR1027 and CHR1030 on the long arm of chromosome 10. The target gene cosegregated with molecular markers CHR1028 and CHR1029. There were five predicted genes in the mapped region. The results from sequencing analysis revealed that there was one base deletion in the first exon of LOC_Os10g26340 encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A11 in the pla1-5 mutant, which might result in a downstream frame shift and premature termination. These results suggest that the P450 CYP78A11 gene is the candidate gene of PLA1-5.

  4. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  5. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew J; Forouhi, Nita G; Ye, Zheng; Buijsse, Brian; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline WJ; Boeing, Heiner; Büchner, Frederike L; Dahm, Christina C; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Masala, Giovanna; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith JM; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. Subjects/Methods In the EPIC-InterAct (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340 234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. Results In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than two-fold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit, and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV sub-types, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV sub-types, only green leafy vegetable intake (RR: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Conclusions Sub-types of vegetables, such as root vegetables or green leafy vegetables may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect. PMID:22854878

  6. Comparison of three nudge interventions (priming, default option, and perceived variety) to promote vegetable consumption in a self-service buffet setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Rasmus; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    assigned to one of the three experiments: priming, default and perceived variety. The priming arm of the experiment consisted of creating a leafy environment with green plants and an odour of herbs. In the default arm of the experiment, the salad was pre-portioned into a bowl containing 200g of vegetables....... The third experiment divided the pre-mixed salad into each of its components, to increase the visual variety of vegetables, yet not providing an actual increase in items. Each individual was partaking twice thus serving as her/his own control, randomly assigned to start with control or experimental setting...

  7. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Bono, James L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Norman, Keri N; Suslow, Trevor V; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Millner, Patricia D

    2015-02-01

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of 2 years, leafy greens were planted in nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 m from a cattle feedlot (3 plots at each distance). Leafy greens (270) and feedlot manure samples (100) were collected six different times from June to September in each year. Both E. coli O157:H7 and total E. coli bacteria were recovered from leafy greens at all plot distances. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from 3.5% of leafy green samples per plot at 60 m, which was higher (P green field distance guidelines of 120 m (400 feet) may not be adequate to limit the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to produce crops planted near concentrated animal feeding operations. Additional research is needed to determine safe set-back distances between cattle feedlots and crop production that will reduce fresh produce contamination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. New insights on the evolution of Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) type genes in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Korbes, Ana Paula; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos; Margis, Rogerio; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    NF-Y is a conserved oligomeric transcription factor found in all eukaryotes. In plants, this regulator evolved with a broad diversification of the genes coding for its three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC). The NF-YB members can be divided into Leafy Cotyledon1 (LEC1) and non-LEC1 types. Here we presented a comparative genomic study using phylogenetic analyses to validate an evolutionary model for the origin of LEC-type genes in plants and their emergence from non-LEC1-type genes. We identified LEC1-type members in all vascular plant genomes, but not in amoebozoa, algae, fungi, metazoa and non-vascular plant representatives, which present exclusively non-LEC1-type genes as constituents of their NF-YB subunits. The non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (Ka/Ks) between LEC1 and non-LEC1-type genes indicate the presence of positive selection acting on LEC1-type members to the fixation of LEC1-specific amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that plant LEC1-type genes are evolutionary divergent from the non-LEC1-type genes of plants, fungi, amoebozoa, algae and animals. Our results point to a scenario in which LEC1-type genes have originated in vascular plants after gene expansion in plants. We suggest that processes of neofunctionalization and/or subfunctionalization were responsible for the emergence of a versatile role for LEC1-type genes in vascular plants, especially in seed plants. LEC1-type genes besides being phylogenetic divergent also present different expression profile when compared with non-LEC1-type genes. Altogether, our data provide new insights about the LEC1 and non-LEC1 evolutionary relationship during the vascular plant evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  10. A Mathematical Model for Pathogen Cross-Contamination Dynamics during the Postharvest Processing of Leafy Greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Amir; Oryang, David; Chen, Yuhuan; Pouillot, Regis; Van Doren, Jane

    2018-01-08

    We developed a probabilistic mathematical model for the postharvest processing of leafy greens focusing on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut romaine lettuce as the case study. Our model can (i) support the investigation of cross-contamination scenarios, and (ii) evaluate and compare different risk mitigation options. We used an agent-based modeling framework to predict the pathogen prevalence and levels in bags of fresh-cut lettuce and quantify spread of E. coli O157:H7 from contaminated lettuce to surface areas of processing equipment. Using an unbalanced factorial design, we were able to propagate combinations of random values assigned to model inputs through different processing steps and ranked statistically significant inputs with respect to their impacts on selected model outputs. Results indicated that whether contamination originated on incoming lettuce heads or on the surface areas of processing equipment, pathogen prevalence among bags of fresh-cut lettuce and batches was most significantly impacted by the level of free chlorine in the flume tank and frequency of replacing the wash water inside the tank. Pathogen levels in bags of fresh-cut lettuce were most significantly influenced by the initial levels of contamination on incoming lettuce heads or surface areas of processing equipment. The influence of surface contamination on pathogen prevalence or levels in fresh-cut bags depended on the location of that surface relative to the flume tank. This study demonstrates that developing a flexible yet mathematically rigorous modeling tool, a "virtual laboratory," can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of individual and combined risk mitigation options. © 2018 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Mercury concentration in vegetables of Pakistan irrigated by different water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, Q.; Mahmood, Z.; Imran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury levels were determined in twenty samples of each vegetable i.e., Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Carrot (Daucus cariota), Capsicum (Capsicum fistulosus), Sweet pea (Lathyrus Odoratus), Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), with a special reference of source of water of irrigation, i.e., tube well water, canal water and municipal sewage water. All the samples of vegetables were collected during the year 2006, 2007 and 2008 from the five districts of Pakistan viz Lahore, Kasur, Multan, Bahawalpur and R.Y. Khan. Statistical analysis such as Test of significance and multiple comparison were applied on the data obtained. The results showed that the concentration of Mercury in vegetables irrigated by canal water, sewage water and tube well water was in the range of 3.1-88.9 ppb and 9.0-130.6 ppb. It can be concluded from this study that the uptake of mercury by vegetables collected from above five districts of Pakistan was in the following order. Leafy vegetables > Root vegetables > seedy vegetables. (author)

  12. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  13. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, S

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice.

  14. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice. (author)

  15. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  16. Hydrothermally grown zeolite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.K.; Qureshi, A.H.; Hussain, M.A.; Qazi, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type materials were synthesized by hydrothermal process at 150-170 degree C for various periods of time from the mixtures containing colloidal reactive silica, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, iron nitrate and organic templates. Organic polycation templates were used as zeolite crystal shape modifiers to enhance relative growth rates. The template was almost completely removed from the zeolite specimens by calcination at 550 degree C for 8h in air. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) was performed to study the removal of water molecules and the amount of organic template cations occluded inside the crystal pore of zeolite framework. The 12-13% weight loss in the range of (140-560 degree C) was associated with removal of the (C/sub 3/H/sub 7/)/sub 4/ N+ cation and water molecules. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology and surface features of hydrothermally grown aluminium-deficient and ferrosilicate zeolite-type crystals. In order to elucidate the mode of zeolite crystallization the crystallinity and unit cell parameters of the materials were determined by XRD, which are the function of Al and Fe contents of zeolites. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Production and Carbon Benefit of Different Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed environmental and economic benefits of 8 types of vegetables in 4 different farms over 3 years. The specific results were as follows:(1The input-output ratio and carbon footprint of organic production mode was 18.5% and 87.4% of that of pollution-free mode, respectively; (2Fertilizer and power consumption was the main source of carbon emissions, accounting for 58.76% and 16.67% of total carbon emissions, respectively; (3There were positive correlations between N fertilizer and both carbon emissions and carbon footprint. In other words, higher use of N fertilizer resulted in higher carbon emissions and carbon footprint; (4 When organic fertilizers use reached 122 352 kg·hm-2, the crop production could reach the maximum under organic mode. Under the mode of pollution-free production, when agricultural chemicals input reached 20 103 yuan·hm-2, leafy vegetable production could reach the maximum. Therefore, to increase production and reduce carbon emissions in the process of vegetable production, the main approach was to use organic mode, increase the quantity of organic fertilizer, instead of the use of inorganic N fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals and establish water-saving irrigation system for electricity efficiency.

  18. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates...... combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), should...... of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism) in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique...

  19. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu (China); Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Jia, Hui-Hui [State High-Tech Industrial Innovation Center, Shenzhen 518057, Guangdong (China); Wang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: junjian.wang@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  20. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  1. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake.

  2. Grown on Novel Microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Falk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE cells have been tested as a cell-based therapy for Parkinson’s disease but will require additional study before further clinical trials can be planned. We now show that the long-term survival and neurotrophic potential of hRPE cells can be enhanced by the use of FDA-approved plastic-based microcarriers compared to a gelatin-based microcarrier as used in failed clinical trials. The hRPE cells grown on these plastic-based microcarriers display several important characteristics of hRPE found in vivo: (1 characteristic morphological features, (2 accumulation of melanin pigment, and (3 high levels of production of the neurotrophic factors pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A. Growth of hRPE cells on plastic-based microcarriers led to sustained levels (>1 ng/ml of PEDF and VEGF-A in conditioned media for two months. We also show that the expression of VEGF-A and PEDF is reciprocally regulated by activation of the GPR143 pathway. GPR143 is activated by L-DOPA (1 μM which decreased VEGF-A secretion as opposed to the previously reported increase in PEDF secretion. The hRPE microcarriers are therefore novel candidate delivery systems for achieving long-term delivery of the neuroprotective factors PEDF and VEGF-A, which could have a value in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s disease.

  3. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Nick W.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Irving, Louis J.; Jameson, Paula E.; Davies, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lc petunia system, which displays enhanced, light-induced vegetative pigmentation, was used to investigate how high light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to assess the effects of anthocyanin pigmentation upon photosynthesis. Lc petunia plants displayed intense purple anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the leaves and stems when grown under high-light conditions, yet remain acyanic when grown under shade conditions. The coloured phenotypes matched with an accumulation of anthocyanins...

  4. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  5. Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Tamang, Buddhiman; Schillinger, Ulrich; Guigas, Claudia; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2009-09-30

    A total of 94 strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from ethnic fermented vegetables and tender bamboo shoots of the Himalayas, were screened for functional properties such as acidification capacity, enzymatic activities, degradation of antinutritive factors and oligosaccharides, production of biogenic amines, hydrophobicity and adherence to mucus secreting HT29 MTX cells. Strong acidification and coagulation activities of LAB strains were recorded. Most of the LAB strains showed antimicrobial activities against the used indicator strains; however, only Lb. plantarum IB2 (BFE 948) isolated from inziangsang, a fermented leafy vegetable product, produced a bacteriocin against Staphylococcus aureus S1. LAB strains showed enzymatic activities and also degraded oligosaccharides. Almost all the strains of LAB were non-producers of biogenic amines except few strains. Some strains of Lb. plantarum showed more than 70% hydrophobicity. Adherence to the mucus secreting HT29 MTX cells was also shown by seven strains indicating their probiotic nature.

  6. Efficacy of household washing treatments for the control of Listeria monocytogenes on salad vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastou, Aikaterini; Rhoades, Jonathan; Smirniotis, Petros; Makri, Ioanna; Kontominas, Michael; Likotrafiti, Eleni

    2012-10-15

    The efficacy of household decontamination methods at reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) was studied. Inoculated vegetable pieces were immersed in washing solutions and surviving L. monocytogenes enumerated. Parameters investigated were storage temperature prior to washing, dipping water temperature, agitation, acetic acid concentration and immersion time. The results indicated that the storage temperature significantly affects the efficacy of dipping vegetables in water for the control of L. monocytogenes, as the reduction in count was greatest when products had been stored at cooler temperatures. Decontamination with acetic acid (up to 2.0% v/v) was shown to have some effect in most cases, but the highest observed decrease in count was 2.6 log cfu/g. Experiments investigating the effect of exposure time to acetic acid (0.5% and 1.0% v/v, up to 30 min immersion) indicated that immersing the vegetables for more than 10 min is of minimal benefit. The most significant factor affecting washing and decontamination efficacy was the vegetable itself: L. monocytogenes colonizing cucumber epidermis was far more resistant to removal by washing and to acid treatment than that on the leafy vegetables, and L. monocytogenes on parsley was the most susceptible. This shows that published decontamination experiments (often performed with lettuce) cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other vegetables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Fruit and vegetable crops for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes data on the area, yield, and number of fruit and vegetable crops grown per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in the conterminous USA....

  8. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  9. Influence of food acidulants and antioxidant spices on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2008-09-24

    Four common food acidulants--amchur, lime, tamarind, and kokum--and two antioxidant spices--turmeric and onion--were examined for their influence on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from two fleshy and two leafy vegetables. Amchur and lime generally enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these test vegetables in many instances. Such an improved bioaccessibility was evident in both raw and heat-processed vegetables. The effect of lime juice was generally more pronounced than that of amchur. Turmeric significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from all of the vegetables tested, especially when heat-processed. Onion enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from pressure-cooked carrot and amaranth leaf and from open-pan-boiled pumpkin and fenugreek leaf. Lime juice and the antioxidant spices turmeric and onion minimized the loss of beta-carotene during heat processing of the vegetables. In the case of antioxidant spices, improved bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from heat-processed vegetables is attributable to their role in minimizing the loss of this provitamin. Lime juice, which enhanced the bioaccessibility of this provitamin from both raw and heat-processed vegetables, probably exerted this effect by some other mechanism in addition to minimizing the loss of beta-carotene. Thus, the presence of food acidulants (lime juice/amchur) and antioxidant spices (turmeric/onion) proved to be advantageous in the context of deriving maximum beta-carotene from the vegetable sources.

  10. A comparison of hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging techniques for detection of contaminants on leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring the supply of safe, contaminant free fresh fruit and vegetables is of importance to consumers, suppliers and governments worldwide. In this study, three hyperspectral imaging (HSI) configurations coupled with two multivariate image analysis techniques are compared for detection of fecal con...

  11. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaoke, Akinyi; Weber, E Scott; Innis, Charles; Stremme, Donald; Dowd, Cynthia; Hinckley, Lynn; Gorton, Timothy; Wickes, Brian; Sutton, Deanna; de Hoog, Sybren; Frasca, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the aquarium industry and conservation groups. The objective of this study was to characterize the pathology and identify fungi associated with phaeohyphomycotic lesions in these species. Samples from 14 weedy and 6 leafy seadragons were received from 2 institutions and included fresh, frozen, and formalin-fixed tissues from necropsy and biopsy specimens. Fresh and frozen tissues were cultured for fungi on Sabouraud dextrose agar only or both Sabouraud dextrose agar and inhibitory mold agar with gentamicin and chloramphenicol at 30 degrees C. Isolates were processed for morphologic identification and molecular sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Lesions were extensive and consisted of parenchymal and vascular necrosis with fungal invasion of gill (11/20), kidney (14/20), and other coelomic viscera with or without cutaneous ulceration (13/20). Exophiala sp. isolates were obtained from 4 weedy and 3 leafy seadragons and were identified to species level in 6 of 7 instances, namely Exophiala angulospora (1) and a novel species of Exophiala (5), based on nucleotide sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis represents an important pathologic condition of both weedy and leafy seadragons for which 2 species of Exophiala, 1 a novel species, have been isolated.

  12. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyaoke, A.; Weber, E.S.; Innis, C.; Stremme, D.; Dowd, C.; Hinckley, L.; Gorton, T.; Wickes, B.; Sutton, D.; de Hoog, S.; Frasca (jr.), S.

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the

  13. AtGA3ox2, a key gene responsible for bioactive gibberellin biosynthesis, is regulated during embryogenesis by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 and FUSCA3 in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curaba, J.; Moritz, T.; Blervaque, R.; Parcy, F.; Raz, V.; Herzog, M.; Vachon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic regulators LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) and FUS3 (FUSCA3) are involved in multiple aspects of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development, including repression of leaf traits and premature germination and activation of seed storage protein genes. In this study, we show that gibberellin

  14. Patterning of Inflorescences and Flowers by the F-Box Protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY Homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of Petunia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souer, E.J.; Bliek, M.; Koes, R.E.; Kusters, E.; Bruin de, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY

  15. Modifications of imaging spectroscopy methods for increases spatial and temporal consistency: A case study of change in leafy spurge distribution between 1999 and 2001 in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Kathleen Burke

    The noxious weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has spread throughout the northern Great Plains of North America since it was introduced in the early 1800s, and it is currently a significant management concern. Accurate, rapid location and repeatable measurements are critical for successful temporal monitoring of infestations. Imaging spectroscopy is well suited for identification of spurge; however, the development and dissemination of standardized hyperspectral mapping procedures that produce consistent multi-temporal maps has been absent. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, collected in 1999 and 2001 over Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, were used to locate leafy spurge. Published image-processing methods were tested to determine the most successful for consistent maps. Best results were obtained using: (1) NDVI masking; (2) cross-track illumination correction; (3) image-derived spectral libraries; and (4) mixture-tuned matched filtering algorithm. Application of the algorithm was modified to standardize processing and eliminate threshold decisions; the image-derived library was refined to eliminate additional variability. Primary (spurge dominant), secondary (spurge non-dominant), abundance, and area-wide vegetation maps were produced. Map accuracies were analyzed with point, polygon, and grid reference sets, using confusion matrices and regression between field-measured and image-derived abundances. Accuracies were recalculated after applying a majority filter, and buffers ranging from 1-5 pixels wide around classified pixels, to accommodate poor reference-image alignment. Overall accuracy varied from 39% to 82%, however, regression analyses yielded r2 = 0.725, indicating a strong relationship between field and image-derived densities. Accuracy was sensitive to: (1) registration offsets between field and image locations; (2) modification of analytical methods; and (3) reference data quality. Sensor viewing angle

  16. Vegetation dynamics and dynamic vegetation science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maarel, E

    1996-01-01

    his contribution presents a review of the development of the study of vegetation dynamics since 1979, in the framework of a jubilee meeting on progress in the study of vegetation. However, an exhaustive review is both impossible and unnecessary. It is impossible within the few pages available

  17. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  18. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  19. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  20. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... When Hpa1 was applied to plants, it acted to enhance the vegetative growth but did not affect the .... Plants were grown in pots containing potting soils in an environ- mentally .... adapted to dark for 20 minutes and then adjusted to PPFD 1500 ... X. oryzae pv. oryzae Hpa1 contains 140 amino acids and has.

  1. Genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cultivated betelvine is grown in traditional farming systems many of which are managed exclusively or com- munally. The betelvine growers invariably named ...... vegetative cultivation practices fixed the variations by eliminating selection of the plants on the basis of sexual reproduction. This could be another reason for the ...

  2. OBS ervations on the vegetative propagation of the marine alga, Gelidiella acerosa (Forssk) Feldmann and Hamel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.; Tarwadi, S.J.; Chauhan, V.D.

    of this the present work on the vegetative propagation of the alga was planned. The cultures of the vegetative cut pieces of a frond of the species were grown in different culture media. The culture media were of sea water enriched with inorganic nutrient...

  3. Modeling osmotic salinity effects on yield characteristics of substrate-grown greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Bos, van den A.L.; Voogt, W.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of experiments with different osmotic potentials in the root environment, various vegetables, and ornamentals were grown in a substrate system. The osmotic potential was varied by addition of nutrients. Yield characteristics of the crop were related to the osmotic potential of the

  4. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven

  5. Risk elements in selected types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable has an important role in human nutrition. Various parts of the plants have been part of the human diet since the beginning. Vegetables have a number of properties that make its consumption very healthful. It not only is a good source of vitamins, minerals and fiber but also contains protective components so called phytonutrients, has an antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Daily intake of vegetables offers many health benefits, helps to improve health for example the function of digestive and immune system, reduces the risk of various diseases and so we should take care to its regular consumption. It is widely used, except that it is the basic raw material for the preparation of foods and is also an important raw material for the processing industry. Nowadays has become environmental pollution by heavy metals as a big problem. The contamination of water, soil as well as air pollution by heavy metals negatively affects agricultural production and production of non-harmful to health, safe and quality food, which may be adverse effects on human health. Therefore, it is important that we devote this issue more attention. The aim of this work was to identify and determine content of heavy metals in selected vegetables. Defined objectives have been achieved by analyzing of selected species samples of root from brassica vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus, parsley (Petroselinum hortesne HOFFM conv. radicosum, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes, celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva ssp. vulgaris. The crops were bought in local market. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained from analyzes of vegetables that were grown in home conditions respectively from markets of local growers. All crops were grown in Slovak Republic. By using Varian AA 240FS and AAS method were analyzed the contents of risk metals in selected vegetables. It was confirmed that

  6. Use of Vegetation Health Data for Estimation of Aus Rice Yield in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Atiqur; Roytman, Leonid; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Goldberg, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a vital staple crop for Bangladesh and surrounding countries, with interannual variation in yields depending on climatic conditions. We compared Bangladesh yield of aus rice, one of the main varieties grown, from official agricultural statistics with Vegetation Health (VH) Indices [Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Vegetation Health Index (VHI)] computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data covering a period of 15 years (1991...

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  8. The uptake of 131I by some hydroponically grown crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.; de la Paz, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Biologically labelled vegetables which include kangkong and sweet potato tops were grown hydroponically in a modified Hoagland-Arnon nutrient solution containing radioiodine with 0.5% non-radioactive Nal solution as the medium. The crops considered in this study are commonly eaten by Filipinos. The concentration of the solution as well as the uptake in the plant system were determined at various time intervals. The extent of radioiodine uptake through air-water-plant pathway is one of the parameters needed for calculating the dose that the general populace could be exposed to, due to radioactivity in the environment. (author)

  9. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria sp. in ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Mira; Burazin, Jelena; Pavlović, Hrvoje; Kopjar, Mirela; Piližota, Vlasta

    2013-04-01

    Minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables can be contaminated with Listeria species bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes due to extensive handling during processing or by cross contamination from the processing environment. The objective of this study was to examine the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables from supermarkets in Osijek, Croatia. 100 samples of ready-to-eat vegetables collected from different supermarkets in Osijek, Croatia, were analyzed for presence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes. The collected samples were cut iceberg lettuces (24 samples), other leafy vegetables (11 samples), delicatessen salads (23 samples), cabbage salads (19 samples), salads from mixed (17 samples) and root vegetables (6 samples). Listeria species was found in 20 samples (20 %) and Listeria monocytogenes was detected in only 1 sample (1 %) of cut red cabbage (less than 100 CFU/g). According to Croatian and EU microbiological criteria these results are satisfactory. However, the presence of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes indicates poor hygiene quality. The study showed that these products are often improperly labeled, since 24 % of analyzed samples lacked information about shelf life, and 60 % of samples lacked information about storage conditions. With regard to these facts, cold chain abruption with extended use after expiration date is a probable scenario. Therefore, the microbiological risk for consumers of ready-to-eat minimally processed and refrigerated vegetables is not completely eliminated.

  10. Double Up Food Bucks program effects on SNAP recipients' fruit and vegetable purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Adjognon, Marie; Weatherspoon, Dave

    2017-12-12

    To encourage the consumption of more fresh fruits and vegetables, the 2014 United Sates Farm Bill allocated funds to the Double Up Food Bucks Program. This program provided Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program beneficiaries who spent $10 on fresh fruits and vegetables, in one transaction, with a $10 gift card exclusively for Michigan grown fresh fruits and vegetables. This study analyzes how fruit and vegetable expenditures, expenditure shares, variety and purchase decisions were affected by the initiation and conclusion, as well as any persistent effects of the program. Changes in fruit and vegetable purchase behaviors due to Double Up Food Bucks in a supermarket serving a low-income, predominantly Hispanic community in Detroit, Michigan were evaluated using a difference in difference fixed effects estimation strategy. We find that the Double Up Food Bucks program increased vegetable expenditures, fruit and vegetable expenditure shares, and variety of fruits and vegetables purchased but the effects were modest and not sustainable without the financial incentive. Fruit expenditures and the fruit and vegetable purchase decision were unaffected by the program. This study provides valuable insight on how a nutrition program influences a low-income, urban, Hispanic community's fruit and vegetable purchase behavior. Policy recommendations include either removing or lowering the purchase hurdle for incentive eligibility and dropping the Michigan grown requirement to better align with the customers' preferences for fresh fruits and vegetables.

  11. The influence of effective microorganisms (EM) and yeast on the degradation of strobilurins and carboxamides in leafy vegetables monitored by LC-MS/MS and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołejko, Elżbieta; Łozowicka, Bożena; Kaczyński, Piotr; Jankowska, Magdalena; Piekut, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of strobilurin and carbocyamides commonly used in chemical protection of lettuce depending on carefully selected effective microorganisms (EM) and yeast (Y). Additionally, the assessment of the chronic health risk during a 2-week experiment was performed. The statistical method for correlation of physico-chemical parameters and time of degradation for pesticides was applied. In this study, the concentration of azoxystrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin and iprodione using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the matrix of lettuce plants was performed, and there was no case of concentration above maximum residues levels. Before harvest, four fungicides and their mixture with EM (1 % and 10 %) and/or yeast 5 % were applied. In our work, the mixtures of 1%EM + Y and 10%EM + Y both stimulated and inhibited the degradation of the tested active substances. Adding 10%EM to the test substances strongly inhibited the degradation of iprodione, and its concentration decreased by 30 %, and in the case of other test substances, the degradation was approximately 60 %. Moreover, the addition of yeast stimulated the distribution of pyraclostrobin and boscalid in lettuce leaves. The risk assessment for the pesticides ranged from 0.4 to 64.8 % on day 1, but after 14 days, it ranged from 0.0 to 20.9 % for children and adults, respectively. It indicated no risk of adverse effects following exposure to individual pesticides and their mixtures with EM and yeast.

  12. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) caused by species of Exophiala, including a novel species

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaoke, A.; Weber, E.S.; Innis, C.; Stremme, D.; Dowd, C.; Hinckley, L.; Gorton, T.; Wickes, B.; Sutton, D.; de Hoog, S.; Frasca (jr.), S.

    2009-01-01

    During the period from January 2002 to March 2007, infections by melanized fungi were identified with greater frequency in aquarium-maintained leafy seadragons (Phycodurus eques) and weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus), pivotal species to the educational and environmental concerns of the aquarium industry and conservation groups. The objective of this study was to characterize the pathology and identify fungi associated with phaeohyphomycotic lesions in these species. Samples from 14 ...

  13. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  14. 110mAg root and foliar uptake in vegetables and its migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.R.; Leung, J.K.C.

    2003-01-01

    110m Ag, as a radionuclide of corrosion products in water-cooled nuclear reactors, was detected in the liquid effluents of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) of Daya Bay under normal operation conditions. Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot experiment approach. The most common plants in Hong Kong and the South China vegetable gardens such as lettuce, Chinese spinach, kale, carrot, pepper, eggplant, bean, flowering cabbage, celery, European onion and cucumber were selected for 110m Ag root and foliar uptake tests. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the greatest values of soil to plant transfer factor among the vegetables, while 110m Ag can be transferred to Chinese spinach via foliar uptake. Flowering cabbage, the most popular leafy vegetable locally, could be used as a biomonitor for the radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability and distributio coefficient (K d ) of 110m Ag in the soil. The results show that most of the radionuclide was adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. The K d was also determined

  15. {sup 110m}Ag root and foliar uptake in vegetables and its migration in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Z.R.; Leung, J.K.C. E-mail: jkcleung@hku.hk

    2003-07-01

    {sup 110m}Ag, as a radionuclide of corrosion products in water-cooled nuclear reactors, was detected in the liquid effluents of Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) of Daya Bay under normal operation conditions. Experiments on a simulated terrestrial agricultural ecosystem were carried out using the pot experiment approach. The most common plants in Hong Kong and the South China vegetable gardens such as lettuce, Chinese spinach, kale, carrot, pepper, eggplant, bean, flowering cabbage, celery, European onion and cucumber were selected for {sup 110m}Ag root and foliar uptake tests. The results show that carrot, kale and flowering cabbage have the greatest values of soil to plant transfer factor among the vegetables, while{sup 110m}Ag can be transferred to Chinese spinach via foliar uptake. Flowering cabbage, the most popular leafy vegetable locally, could be used as a biomonitor for the radioisotope contamination in vegetables. Soil column and adsorption tests were also carried out to study the leaching ability and distributio coefficient (K{sub d}) of {sup 110m}Ag in the soil. The results show that most of the radionuclide was adsorbed in the top 1 cm of soil regardless of the pH value. The K{sub d} was also determined.

  16. Irradiation of dehydrated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhuyse, A; Esterhuizen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The reason for radurization was to decreased the microbial count of dehydrated vegetables. The average absorbed irradiation dose range between 2kGy and 15kGy. The product catagories include a) Green vegetables b) White vegetables c) Powders of a) and b). The microbiological aspects were: Declining curves for the different products of T.P.C., Coliforms, E. Coli, Stap. areus, Yeast + Mold at different doses. The organoleptical aspects were: change in taste, flavour, texture, colour and moisture. The aim is the marketing of irradiated dehydrated vegetables national and international basis

  17. Evaluation of the nitrate content in leaf vegetables produced through different agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, S G; Rath, S; Reyes, F G R

    2005-12-01

    The nitrate content of leafy vegetables (watercress, lettuce and arugula) produced by different agricultural systems (conventional, organic and hydroponic) was determined. The daily nitrate intake from the consumption of these crop species by the average Brazilian consumer was also estimated. Sampling was carried out between June 2001 to February 2003 in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Nitrate was extracted from the samples using the procedure recommended by the AOAC. Flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection at 460 nm was used for nitrate determination through the ternary complex FeSCNNO+. For lettuce and arugula, the average nitrate content varied (p hydroponic system. For watercress, no difference (p hydroponic samples, both having higher nitrate contents (p hydroponic system, represented 29% of the acceptable daily intake established for this ion.

  18. Heavy metals in vegetables sampled from farm and market sites in Accra metropolis, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordjour, Linda Addae

    2015-07-01

    agricultural soil. The bio-accumulation or transfer factors for the metals in vegetables were highest in leafy and fleshy vegetables than root vegetables. The estimated health risks, average daily intake (ADI) and hazard quotient (HQ) of these metals in the vegetables were far below the FAO/WHO tolerable limits and did not pose any imminent risk to consumers (except As in vegetables from farms). Even so, the calculated risk for children (15 kg) was about 3 times higher than that of adults, indicating that children were prone to metal toxicities. (au)

  19. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Junqian; Wang, Yuchun; Zhang, Dongfeng; Qu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to January 2014. Study-specific relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. Twenty prospective cohort studies were included, involving 16 981 stroke events among 760 629 participants. The multivariable relative risk (95% confidence intervals) of stroke for the highest versus lowest category of total fruits and vegetables consumption was 0.79 (0.75-0.84), and the effect was 0.77 (0.71-0.84) for fruits consumption and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for vegetables consumption. Subgroup and meta-regression showed that the inverse association of total fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke was consistent in subgroup analysis. Citrus fruits, apples/pears, and leafy vegetables might contribute to the protection. The linear dose-response relationship showed that the risk of stroke decreased by 32% (0.68 [0.56-0.82]) and 11% (0.89 [0.81-0.98]) for every 200 g per day increment in fruits consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.77) and vegetables consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.62), respectively. Fruits and vegetables consumption are inversely associated with the risk of stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Skin cancer full-grown from scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors investigate the peculiarities of skin cancer full-grown from scar, the theory of it's descent, quote some statistical data on skin cancer full-grown from scar and variety clinical forms of skin cancer full-grown from scar was shown, quote some methods of treatment

  1. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  2. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  3. The moss Funaria hygrometrica has cuticular wax similar to vascular plants, with distinct composition on leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Budke, Jessica M; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a waxy cuticle to protect against water loss. The amount and composition of cuticular waxes on moss surfaces had rarely been investigated. Accordingly, the degree of similarity between moss and vascular plant waxes, and between maternal and offspring moss structure waxes is unknown. To resolve these issues, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the waxes on the leafy gametophyte, gametophyte calyptra and sporophyte capsule of the moss Funaria hygrometrica Waxes were extracted from the surfaces of leafy gametophytes, gametophyte calyptrae and sporophyte capsules, separated by gas chromatography, identified qualitatively with mass spectrometry, and quantified with flame ionization detection. Diagnostic mass spectral peaks were used to determine the isomer composition of wax esters. The surfaces of the leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule of F. hygrometrica were covered with 0·94, 2·0 and 0·44 μg cm(-2) wax, respectively. While each wax mixture was composed of mainly fatty acid alkyl esters, the waxes from maternal and offspring structures had unique compositional markers. β-Hydroxy fatty acid alkyl esters were limited to the leafy gametophyte and calyptra, while alkanes, aldehydes and diol esters were restricted to the sporophyte capsule. Ubiquitous fatty acids, alcohols, fatty acid alkyl esters, aldehydes and alkanes were all found on at least one surface. This is the first study to determine wax coverage (μg cm(-2)) on a moss surface, enabling direct comparisons with vascular plants, which were shown to have an equal amount or more wax than F. hygrometrica Wax ester biosynthesis is of particular importance in this species, and the ester-forming enzyme(s) in different parts of the moss may have different substrate preferences. Furthermore, the alkane-forming wax biosynthesis pathway, found widely in vascular plants, is active in the sporophyte capsule, but not in the leafy

  4. The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yu, Q; Chen, M; Ma, H

    2001-07-01

    The Arabidopsis floral regulatory genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are required for the B function according to the ABC model for floral organ identity. AP3 and PI expression are positively regulated by the LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) genes. UFO encodes an F-box protein, and we have shown previously that UFO genetically interacts with the ASK1 gene encoding a SKP1 homologue; both the F-box containing protein and SKP1 are subunits of ubiquitin ligases. We show here that the ask1-1 mutation can enhance the floral phenotypes of weak lfy and ap3 mutants; therefore, like UFO, ASK1 also interacts with LFY and AP3 genetically. Furthermore, our results from RNA in situ hybridizations indicate that ASK1 regulates early AP3 and PI expression. These results support the idea that UFO and ASK1 together positively regulate AP3 and PI expression. We propose that the UFO and ASK1 proteins are components of a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of a repressor of AP3 and PI expression. Our genetic studies also indicate that ASK1 and UFO play a role in regulating the number of floral organ primordia, and we discuss possible mechanisms for such a regulation.

  5. Method of producing vegetable puree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A process for producing a vegetable puree, comprising the sequential steps of: a)crushing, chopping or slicing the vegetable into pieces of 1 to 30 mm; b) blanching the vegetable pieces at a temperature of 60 to 90°C; c) contacted the blanched vegetable pieces with a macerating enzyme activity; d......) blending the macerated vegetable pieces and obtaining a puree....

  6. Composição mineral de diversas hortaliças Mineral composition of several vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. C. Furlani

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer, na época normal de colheita, as quantidades de matéria seca acumuladas, as concentrações dos elementos essenciais às plantas, mais as de cobalto, alumínio e sódio na matéria fresca e seca de 50 cultivares de hortaliças num total de 35 espécies. As amostras, normalmente constituídas de produtos da colheita, foram na sua maioria procedentes da região de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo e separadas em: melancia - em casca + polpa branca, polpa vermelha e semente; melão - em casca + polpa e semente; ervilha - em vagem e grão; berinjela - em fruto e pedúnculo; couve-flor - em folha e inflorescência; beterraba, cenoura, nabo e rabanete - em folha e raiz; alcachofra - em folha + caule e inflorescência. Das demais hortaliças foram utilizados o fruto todo, as folhas ou os bulbos sem separação. Verificou-se que as leguminosas extraíram maiores quantidades de N, P, K, Mg, Cu, Mo, Zn e Co; as tuberosas, de Cl, Fe e Mn; as amarilidáceas, de S, B e Al; as folhosas, de Ca e Na. As cucurbitáceas extraíram menores quantidades da maioria dos nutrientes.This work reports the dry matter accumulation, the nutrient, Co, Al and Na - concentrations, and the removal of nutrients and Co, Al and Na per metric ton of fresh material of 35 species of vegetables by the harvest. The samples mostly came from the region of Campinas, State of São Paulo and consisted of the products removed from the field, fractioned in their several parts: watermelon in epicarp + white pulp, red pulp and seeds; eggplant in fruit and stalk; melon in epicarp + pulp and seeds; pea in shell and seeds; cauliflower in leaf and inflorescence; sugar beet, carrot, turnip and radish in leaf and root; artichoke in leaf + stalk and inflorescence. The whole fruit was utilized in the case of edible fruit bearing vegetables; the leaves in the case of the leafy vegetables; and the bulbous root in the case of the iffy-like vegetables. In general, the leguminous

  7. Variation of strontium stable isotope ratios and origins of strontium in Japanese vegetables and comparison with Chinese vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Keisuke; Nakano, Takanori; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Izawa, Atsunobu; Morita, Sakie

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the utility of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio for determining the geographical provenance of vegetables, we compared 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in five vegetable species grown in Japan and China, and we also examined the relationships between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in vegetables, the soil-exchangeable pool, irrigation water, and fertilizer from 20 Japanese agricultural areas. The vegetable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in Japan were similar for all species within a given agricultural area, but tended to be low in northeast Japan and high in southwest Japan. The median 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in Japanese vegetables was similar to that in fertilizer, suggesting that in addition to rock-derived Sr, vegetables contain Sr derived from fertilizers. In most cases, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the Japanese and Chinese vegetables differed by approximately 0.710. Linear discriminant analysis using both 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and the Sr concentration allowed more accurate discrimination between vegetables from the two countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we

  9. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mapping of fluoride endemic area and assessment of F(-1) accumulation in soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride (F(-1)) through drinking water, vegetables, and crops. The objective of the study was mapping of F(-1) endemic area of Newai Tehsil, Tonk district, Rajasthan, India. For the present study, water, soil (0-45 cm), and vegetation samples were collected from 17 villages. Fluoride concentration in water samples ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mg/l. Out of 17 villages studied, the amounts of F(-1) content of eight villages were found to exceed the permissible limits. Labile F(-1) content and total F(-1) content in soil samples ranges 11.00-70.05 mg/l and 50.3-179.63 μg g(-1), respectively. F(-1) content in tree species was found in this order Azadirachta indica 47.32-55.76 μg g(-1) > Prosopis juliflora 40.16-49.63 μg g(-1) > Acacia tortilis 34.39-43.60 μg g(-1). While in case of leafy vegetables, F(-1) content order was Chenopodium album 54.23-98.42 μg g(-1) > Spinacea oleracea 30.41-64.09 μg g(-1) > Mentha arvensis 35.48-51.97 μg g(-1). The order of F(-1) content in crops was found as 41.04 μg g(-1) Pennisetum glaucum > 13.61 μg g(-1) Brassica juncea > 7.98 μg g(-1) Triticum sativum in Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) farms. Among vegetation, the leafy vegetables have more F(-1) content. From the results, it is suggested that the people of KVK farms should avoid the use of highly F(-1) containing water for irrigation and drinking purpose. It has been recommended to the government authority to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low F(-1) concentration for the fluorosis affected villages. Further, grow more F(-1) hyperaccumulator plants in F(-1) endemic areas to lower the F(-1) content of the soils.

  11. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  12. Radioactivity of vegetables and mushrooms in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, Aino.

    1987-06-01

    The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety determined gamma-emitting radionuclides in vegetables, fruit and mushrooms in the growing season of 1986. About 780 samples of the most common species were collected during six months in locations which represent different fallout areas of radioactivity. The samples were analysed for the gamma-emitting substances by semiconductor-spectrometry. 89 Sr and 90 Sr were determined radiochemically in a limited number of vegetable and berry samples. Early in May 1986, 131 I and other short-lived radionuclides were dominating. Later in the sampling season, the most important substances detected were 134 Cs and 137 Cs. The lowest concentrations of 137 Cs were measured in leafy and fruit vegetables, root crops and potatoes, 0.3 - 8 Bq kg -1 on an average, depending on the species. In garden berries the nationwide mean 137 Cs concentrations were 10 - 30 Bq kg -1 and in wild berries 80 - 120 Bq kg -1 . The average concentrations of 137 Cs in different types of mushrooms varied from 220 to 1100 Bq kg -1 . The contents of 90 Sr in vegetables and berries were about the same or slightly higher than in the previous years. The daily intake of 137 Cs via the products studied was estimated using nationwide production-weighted mean contents of 137 Cs in different species and data on the average consumption of foodstuffs. Fruit and vegetables of the season 1986 contributed 3.4 Bq d -1 to the dietary intake and mushrooms about 1 Bq d -1 . The effects of processing on vegetables and fruits were not taken into account in the intake calculations. The dietary intake of radionuclides other than 134 Cs and 137 Cs via the produce of season 1986 was very small

  13. ARSENIC AND COPPER UPTAKE BY CABBAGES GROWN ON POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cabbages (Brassica Juncea (L. Czern were grown in pot experiments on typical unpolluted and polluted soils with concentration changing from 20.50 - 50.00 mg As/kg and 156.00 - 413.00 mg Cu/kg dry soil. The results demonstrate the elevation of As and Cu in soil may lead to increased uptake by these cabbages subsequent entry into human food chain. It was found 11.84- 32.12 mg As/kg and 46.86 - 94.47 mg Cu/kg dry leaves. It has tendency increase uptake and accumulation of Cu in cabbage tissue with increasing cultivated time, whereas, it was found accumulation of As in cabbages tissue decreased with time prolonging. The quantity of As and Cu in these cabbages, were significant higher than 0.2 mg As/kg and 5.0 mg Cu/kg fresh vegetable, the permissible limit concentration in fresh vegetable. This indicated that human may As and Cu exposure occur through eating these vegetables.

  14. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-17

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  15. Carotene and provitamin A content of vegetables sold in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, during spring and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Costa Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the α- and β-carotene content and provitamin A value of four leafy vegetables sold at local and street markets in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in the spring and winter of 2002. Carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Carotene was detected in all samples sold during spring, but was only present in a few samples of smooth and curly lettuce and kale in winter. β-Carotene was found in marked quantities in all leafy vegetables analyzed. Duncan's test (α = 5% showed significantly higher α-carotene content in curly lettuce and vitamin A value in large-leaved watercress in the spring. Mean β-carotene content and vitamin A value were 7544, 8751, 2584, 2792, 8193, and 5338 μg/100 g and 666, 760, 227, 238, 698, and 460 μg RAE/100 g in large-leaved and hydroponic watercress, smooth and curly lettuce, kale and spinach, respectively. All leafy vegetables analyzed represent important sources of provitamin A and supply an important part of the daily requirements of children and adults.Investigou-se o conteúdo de α e β-caroteno e avaliou-se o valor pro-vitamínico A de quatro hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em mercados locais e feira- livre de Viçosa, MG durante a primavera e o inverno de 2002. Os carotenóides foram analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O α-caroteno foi detectado em todas as amostras analisadas na primavera, porém no inverno, somente algumas amostras de alface crespa e lisa, e couve apresentaram tal carotenóide. O β-caroteno foi encontrado, em quantidades apreciáveis, em todas as hortaliças folhosas analisadas. O teste de Duncan (α=5% detectou que o conteúdo de α-caroteno em alface crespa e o valor de vitamina A em agrião de folha larga foram estatisticamente superiores na primavera. Os teores médios de β-caroteno e de valor de vitamina A para agrião de folha larga e hidropônico, alface crespa e lisa, couve e espinafre foram: 7544; 8751

  16. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helt, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific terrain element of interest is vegetation, and in particular, tree type. Data taken on April 12th, 2005, were taken over a 10 km 20 km region which is mixed use agriculture and wetlands...

  17. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Juin Kao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boiling cilantro, Thai basil leaves, and sweet potato leaves for 10 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively, and choy sum remained almost unchanged after 30 minutes of boiling. Boiling cilantro and choy sum had a negative effect on their TPC, whereas there was a significant increase in TPC of Thai basil leaf and sweet potato leaf at 1 minute and 5 minutes of boiling, respectively. During water cooking, TAC of the vegetables did not demonstrate a consistent trend. However, TCC was a vital contributor to %IP, whereas TPC showed a strong association with TEAC. Our findings suggest that a boiling time of ≤5 minutes would be better for preserving or enhancing TCC and TPC as well as revealing a higher %IP, TEAC, or metal-chelating effect for the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  18. Vegetation and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  19. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability. PMID:28231181

  20. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Setiawan Slamet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability.

  1. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-12-07

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers' motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability.

  2. Fruit and vegetable radioactivity survey, Nevada Test Site environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.; Vandervort, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    During the 1974 growing season, the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, collected samples of fruits and vegetables grown in the off-site area surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The objective was to estimate the potential radiological dose to off-site residents from consumption of locally grown foodstuffs. Irrigation water and soil were collected from the gardens and orchards sampled. Soil concentrations of cesium-137 and plutonium-239 reflected the effects of close-in fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. The only radionuclide measured in fruit and vegetable samples which might be related to such fallout was strontium-90, for which the first year estimated dose to bone marrow of an adult with an assumed rate of consumption of the food would be 0.14 millirad

  3. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  4. Evidence for distinct roles of the SEPALLATA gene LEAFY HULL STERILE1 in Eleusine indica and Megathyrsus maximus (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinheimer, Renata; Malcomber, Simon T; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1) is an MIKC-type MADS-box gene in the SEPALLATA class. Expression patterns of LHS1 homologs vary among species of grasses, and may be involved in determining palea and lemma morphology, specifying the terminal floret of the spikelet, and sex determination. Here we present LHS1 expression data from Eleusine indica (subfamily Chloridoideae) and Megathyrsus maximus (subfamily Panicoideae) to provide further insights into the hypothesized roles of the gene. E. indica has spikelets with three to eight florets that mature acropetally; E. indica LHS1 (EiLHS1) is expressed in the palea and lemma of all florets. In contrast, M. maximus has spikelets with two florets that mature basipetally; M. maximus LHS1 (MmLHS1) is expressed in the palea and lemma of the distal floret only. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that LHS1 plays a role in determining palea and lemma morphology and specifies the terminal floret of basipetally maturing grass spikelets. However, LHS1 expression does not correlate with floret sex expression; MmLHS1 is restricted to the bisexual distal floret, whereas EiLHS1 is expressed in both sterile and bisexual floret meristems. Phylogenetic analyses reconstruct a complex pattern of LHS1 expression evolution in grasses. LHS1 expression within the gynoecium has apparently been lost twice, once before diversification of a major clade within tribe Paniceae, and once in subfamily Chloridoideae. These data suggest that LHS1 has multiple roles during spikelet development and may have played a role in the diversification of spikelet morphology.

  5. Quantitative transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to equipment during small-scale production of fresh-cut leafy greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-07-01

    Postharvest contamination and subsequent spread of Escherichia coli O157:H7 can occur during shredding, conveying, fluming, and dewatering of fresh-cut leafy greens. This study quantified E. coli O157:H7 transfer from leafy greens to equipment surfaces during simulated small-scale commercial processing. Three to five batches (22.7 kg) of baby spinach, iceberg lettuce, and romaine lettuce were dip inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillinresistant E. coli O157:H7 to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), and 10(2) CFU/g, and then were processed after 1 h of draining at ∼23°C or 24 h of storage at 4°C. Lettuce was shredded using an Urschel TransSlicer at two different blade and belt speeds to obtain normal (5 by 5 cm) and more finely shredded (0.5 by 5 cm) lettuce. Thereafter, the lettuce was step conveyed to a flume tank and was washed and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Product (25-g) and water (40-ml) samples were collected at various points during processing. After processing, product contact surfaces (100 cm(2)) on the shredder (n = 14), conveyer (n = 8), flume tank (n = 11), shaker table (n = 9), and centrifugal dryer (n = 8) were sampled using one-ply composite tissues. Sample homogenates diluted in phosphate or neutralizing buffer were plated, with or without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration, on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract supplemented with 100 ppm of ampicillin to quantify green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 under UV light. During leafy green processing, ∼90% of the E. coli O157:H7 inoculum transferred to the wash water. After processing, E. coli O157:H7 populations were highest on the conveyor and shredder (Ptransfer.

  6. No impact of transgenic nptII-leafy Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) on Pseudocoremia suavis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) or its endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, E P J; Barraclough, E I; Kean, A M; Walter, C; Malone, L A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the biosafety to insects of transgenic Pinus radiata D. Don containing the antibiotic resistance marker gene nptII and the reproductive control gene leafy, bioassays were conducted with an endemic lepidopteran pest of New Zealand plantation pine forests and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid. Larvae of the common forest looper, Pseudocoremia suavis (Butler), were fed from hatching on P. radiata needles from either one of two nptII-leafy transgenic clones, or an isogenic unmodified control line. For both unparasitized P. suavis and those parasitized by Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), consuming transgenic versus control pine had no impact on larval growth rate or mass at any age, larval duration, survival, pupation or successful emergence as an adult. Total larval duration was 1 d (3%) longer in larvae fed nptII-2 than nptII-1, but this difference was considered trivial and neither differed from the control. In unparasitized P. suavis larvae, pine type consumed did not affect rate of pupation or adult emergence, pupal mass, or pupal duration. Pine type had no effect on the duration or survival of M. pulchricornis larval or pupal stages, mass of cocoons, stage at which they died, adult emergence, or fecundity. Parasitism by M. pulchricornis reduced P. suavis larval growth rate, increased the duration of the third larval stadium, and resulted in the death of all host larvae before pupation. The lack of impact of an exclusive diet of nptII-leafy transgenic pines on the life history of P. suavis and M. pulchricornis suggests that transgenic plantation pines expressing nptII are unlikely to affect insect populations in the field.

  7. Use of environmental series to study the sensitivity of vegetable contamination to chronic releases S.E.N.S.I.B. project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, B.; Mercat-Rommens, C.

    2007-01-01

    This study consists in the assessment of three radioecological parameters involved in the phenomenological modeling of the plant contamination (interception capacity of the vegetables, root transfer and effective period in soils). The aim is to obtain information about these parameters (If possible regionalized information): range and probability distribution. This study is based on various data sets available, in particular, from long records of radioactivity measurements carried out in France over the period 1960-1980 on leafy vegetables (related to the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons). The plant contamination equation is fitted from various data sets. As a whole, the different cases studied highlight a bad goodness of fit. Thus, even if the majority of the estimated values for modeling parameters are consistent with literature, they cannot be used to propose regionalized value for ecological parameters. (N.C.)

  8. Radiation after-effects in daughter generations of barley grown under conditions of enhanced radioactive background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, O.N.; Shershunova, V.I.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Stimulation of growth and development was observed in the first daughter generation of barley plants grown under conditions simulating an enhanced radioactive background. The stimulatory effect was partially reproduced in the second generation, and signs of depression of initial growth of plants were found in the third generation. A great number of alterations and their regular occurrence allow to refer them to lingering modifications originating under the effect of a radiation factor on vegetating plants

  9. Daily ingestion of 232Th, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in vegetables by inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.E.; Lauria, D.C.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Rochedo, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 232 Th, 238 U, 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in the vegetables (leafy vegetables, fruit, root, bean and rice) and derived products (sugar, coffee, manioc flour, wheat flour, corn flour and pasta) consumed most by the adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro City. A total of 88 samples from 26 different vegetables and derived products were analyzed. The highest contribution to radionuclide intake arises from bean, wheat flour, manioc flour, carrot, rice, tomato and potato consumption. The estimated daily intakes due to the consumption of vegetables and derived products are 1.9 mBq of 232 Th (0.47 μg), 2.0 mBq of 238 U (0.17 μg), 19 mBq of 226 Ra, 26 mBq of 210 Pb and 47 mBq of 228 Ra. The estimated annual effective dose due to the ingestion of vegetables and their derived products with the long-lived natural radionuclides is 14.5 μSv. Taking into account literature data for water and milk from Rio de Janeiro the dose value increases to 29 μSv, with vegetables and derived products responsible for 50% of the dose and water for 48%. 210 Pb (62%) and 228 Ra (24%) were found to be the main sources for internal irradiation

  10. Heavy metal and microbial loads in sewage irrigated vegetables of Kabul, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Buerkert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the heavy metal and microbial contamination of vegetables produced in Central Asian cities. We therefore measured the concentration of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn and of faecal pathogens (Coliform bacteria, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Ascaris lubricoides, Entamoeba sp. and pinworms [Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis] in soil, irrigation water, and marketed vegetables of Kabul City, Afghanistan. Leaf Pb and Zn concentrations of leafy vegetables were with 1–5 and 33–160 mg kg^{-1} dry weight (DW several-fold above respective international thresholds of 0.3 mg Pb kg^{-1} and 50 mg Zn kg^{-1}. The tissue concentration of Cu was below threshold limits in all samples except for spinach in one farm. Above-threshold loads of microbes and parasites on vegetables were found in five out of six gardens with coliforms ranging from 0.5–2 × 10^7 cells 100g^{-1} fresh weight (FW, but no Salmonella and Shigella were found. Contamination with 0.2 × 10^7 eggs 100g^{-1} FW of Ascaris was detected on produce of three farms and critical concentrations of Entamoeba in a single case, while Oxyuris vermicularis, and Enterobius vermicularis were found on produce of three and four farms, respectively. Irrigation water had Ascaris, Coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Entamoeba, and Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis ranging from 0.35 × 10^7 to 2 × 10^7 cells l^{-1}. The heavy metal and microbial loads on fresh UPA vegetables are likely the result of contamination from rising traffic, residues of the past decades of war and lacking treatment of sewage which needs urgent attention.

  11. Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and types every day. Broccoli, spinach, collard greens, kale, and other dark leafy greens are good choices. ... opposite effect. Foods rich in vitamin K include kale, spinach, Brussels sprouts, and some types of lettuce. ...

  12. Distribution of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs on Leaves of Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, Masayuki; YURIMOTO, Hiroya; YOSHIDA, Naoko; IGUCHI, Hiroyuki; SAKAI, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest coun...

  13. Management of soil-borne diseases of organic vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Hafiza Asma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides, people are looking for organically grown vegetables. Consumers are increasingly choosing organic foods due to the perception that they are healthier than those conventionally grown. Vegetable crops are vulnerable to a range of pathogenic organisms that reduce yield by killing the plant or damaging the product, thus making it unmarketable. Soil-borne diseases are among the major factors contributing to low yields of organic produce. Apart from chemical pesticides there are several methods that can be used to protect crops from soil-borne pathogens. These include the introduction of biocontrol agents against soil-borne plant pathogens, plants with therapeutic effects and organic soil amendments that stimulate antagonistic activities of microorganisms to soil-borne diseases. The decomposition of organic matter in soil also results in the accumulation of specific compounds that may be antifungal or nematicidal. With the growing interest in organic vegetables, it is necessary to find non chemical means of plant disease control. This review describes the impact of soil-borne diseases on organic vegetables and methods used for their control.

  14. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  15. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    in the relationship between creative artists and the Anglo-American popular music industry in the mid-1960s. Finally, and in retrospect, the figure of the vegetable cast into relief the counter-culture's utopian and dystopian dynamics as manifested in these song-writers' personal lives, now rendered as contemporary...... lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  16. INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF VEGETABLES PRODUCTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilevici Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paper aims to highlight the scientific correlation between the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV onsensory and microbiological characteristics of plant products in the category of leaves (lettuce and other types ofvegetables or fruit (bananas and their preservation’s duration, through their UV irradiation under certain conditions.The literature indicates a germicidal action of UV (medium UV on micro-organisms, optimal for λ = 254 nm. Theeffectiveness of radiation is influenced by duration of irradiation, the distance between the radiation source and thesample product and radiant power source.The action of microbial cell inactivation or destruction can be explained by changes in cellular structure andpermeability with changes at the level of mitochondria and the genetic material as a result of photochemical effects ofUV products. Research highlights the preservative effect of UV radiation (with λ = 254 nm and also their influence onsensory properties and positive to negative for leafy vegetables and fruits (bananas in our case.

  17. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  18. Effect of Phosphate levels on vegetables irrigated with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, S. O.; Saeed, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined accumulation of phosphate ions in wastewater and vegetables through man-made activities. Phosphate level was determined in wastewater and vegetables collected on seasonal basis along Kubanni stream in Zaria using UV/Visible and Smart Spectro Spectrophotometers for their analyses. Results obtained show that phosphate concentrations ranged from 3.85 – 42.33 mg/L in the first year and 15.60 – 72.80 mg/L in the second year for wastewater whereas the vegetable had levels of 3.80 – 23.65 mg/kg in the year I and 7.48 – 27.15 mg/kg in the year II. Further statistical tests indicated no significant difference in phosphate levels across the locations and seasons for wastewater and vegetables evaluated. Correlation results for these two years indicated negative (r = -0.062) relationship for wastewater while low (r = 0.339) relationship noticed for vegetables planted in year I to that of year II. Phosphate concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as WHO and FAO for wastewater whereas vegetables of the sampling sites were not contaminated with phosphate ions. Irrigating farmland with untreated wastewater has negative consequence on the crops grown with it.

  19. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siele Ceuppens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses than soil (16/1186 and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries. The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region.

  20. Cyclic Diarylheptanoids from Corylus avellana Green Leafy Covers: Determination of Their Absolute Configurations and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerulli, Antonietta; Lauro, Gianluigi; Masullo, Milena; Cantone, Vincenza; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Nazzaro, Filomena; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Piacente, Sonia

    2017-06-23

    The methanol extract of the leafy covers of Corylus avellana, source of the Italian PGI (protected geographical indication) product "Nocciola di Giffoni", afforded two new cyclic diarylheptanoids, giffonins T and U (2 and 3), along with two known cyclic diarylheptanoids, a quinic acid, flavonoid-, and citric acid derivatives. The structures of giffonins T and U were determined as highly hydroxylated cyclic diarylheptanoids by 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Their relative configurations were assigned by a combined quantum mechanical/NMR approach, comparing the experimental 13 C/ 1 H NMR chemical shift data and the related predicted values. The absolute configurations of carpinontriol B (1) and giffonins T and U (2 and 3) were assigned by comparison of their experimental electronic circular dichroism curves with the TDDFT-predicted curves. The ability of the compounds to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H 2 O 2 and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ was determined by measuring the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of leafy covers of C. avellana and of the isolated compounds against the Gram-positive strains Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative strains Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated. Carpinontriol B (1) and giffonin U (3) at 40 μg/disk caused the formation of zones of inhibition.

  1. Duplication and diversification of the LEAFY HULL STERILE1 and Oryza sativa MADS5 SEPALLATA lineages in graminoid Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ashley R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence in function of the resulting paralogs via subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization is hypothesized to have played a major role in the evolution of plant form. The LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1 SEPALLATA (SEP genes have been linked with the origin and diversification of the grass spikelet, but it is uncertain 1 when the duplication event that produced the LHS1 clade and its paralogous lineage Oryza sativa MADS5 (OSM5 occurred, and 2 how changes in gene structure and/or expression might have contributed to subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization in the two lineages. Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 84 SEP genes were estimated using Bayesian methods. RNA expression patterns were inferred using in situ hybridization. The patterns of protein sequence and RNA expression evolution were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods, respectively. Results Phylogenetic analyses mapped the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event to the base of the grass family. MP character reconstructions estimated a change from cytosine to thymine in the first codon position of the first amino acid after the Zea mays MADS3 (ZMM3 domain converted a glutamine to a stop codon in the OSM5 ancestor following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event. RNA expression analyses of OSM5 co-orthologs in Avena sativa, Chasmanthium latifolium, Hordeum vulgare, Pennisetum glaucum, and Sorghum bicolor followed by ML reconstructions of these data and previously published analyses estimated a complex pattern of gain and loss of LHS1 and OSM5 expression in different floral organs and different flowers within the spikelet or inflorescence. Conclusions Previous authors have reported that rice OSM5 and LHS1 proteins have different interaction partners indicating that the truncation of OSM5 following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event has resulted in both partitioned and potentially novel gene

  2. Canopy Modeling of Aquatic Vegetation: Construction of Submerged Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, G.

    2018-04-01

    The unique spectral characteristics of submerged vegetation in wetlands determine that the conventional terrestrial vegetation index cannot be directly employed to species identification and parameter inversion of submerged vegetation. Based on the Aquatic Vegetation Radiative Transfer model (AVRT), this paper attempts to construct an index suitable for submerged vegetation, the model simulated data and a scene of Sentinel-2A image in Taihu Lake, China are utilized for assessing the performance of the newly constructed indices and the existent vegetation indices. The results show that the angle index composed by 525 nm, 555 nm and 670 nm can resist the effects of water columns and is more sensitive to vegetation parameters such as LAI. Furthermore, it makes a well discrimination between submerged vegetation and water bodies in the satellite data. We hope that the new index will provide a theoretical basis for future research.

  3. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  4. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalaura Carducci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  5. Flavonoids in vegetable foods commonly consumed in Brazil and estimated ingestion by the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabbi, Paola R; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco M

    2004-03-10

    The objective of this work was to quantify the flavonoids present in foods most commonly consumed by the Brazilian population. The predominant flavonoids found in largest abundance in all of the analyzed vegetables were glycosides of quercetin. In lettuce, a small amount of luteolin was also detected. In sweet pepper, quercetin and luteolin were both present. White onion [48-56 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), expressed as aglycon], red onion (40-100 mg/100 g of FW), red lettuce (67-67.2 mg/100 g of FW), arugula (41-118 mg/100 g of FW), and chicory (18-38 mg/100 g of FW) were highest in total flavonoids. In fruits, the highest concentrations of flavonoids were found in the peel (125-170 mg/100 g of FW) and pulp (35-44 mg/100 g of FW) of oranges and in some apple varieties (14-36 mg/100 g of FW). Variability in flavonoid content due to time of harvesting was high for leafy vegetables and red onions. The estimated ingestion by Brazilian population ranged from 60 to 106 mg/day.

  6. Natural modifiers of seed longevity in the Arabidopsis mutants abscisic acid insensitive3-5 (abi3-5) and leafy cotyledon1-3 (lec1-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.R.L.; Rajjou, L.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    • Seed longevity is an important trait in many crops and is essential for the success of most land plant species. Current knowledge of its molecular regulation is limited. The Arabidopsis mutants abscisic acid insensitive3-5 (abi3-5) and leafy cotyledon1-3 (lec1-3) have impaired seed maturation and

  7. Successive monitoring surveys of selected banned and restricted pesticide residues in vegetables from the northwest region of China from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Senke; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Xue, Jianjun; Zhang, Jinghua; Gao, Song; Yang, Aimin

    2017-08-02

    A wide range of pesticides is applied for crop protection in vegetable cultivation in China. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in vegetables is established but not fully enforced. And pesticide residues in vegetables were not well monitored. This study conducted the monitoring surveys from 2011 to 2013 to investigate the pesticides in vegetables in the northwest region of China. A multi-residue gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method (GC/MS) was used in determination of pesticides in vegetable samples. The χ 2 test was used to compare the concentration of pesticide residues. A total of 32 pesticide residues were detected in 518 samples from 20 types of vegetables in this study. 7.7% of the detected pesticide residues exceeded the MRLs. The percentages of residues that exceeded the MRLs for leafy, melon and fruit, and root vegetables were 11.2%, 5.1%, and 1.6%, respectively. There was no seasonal difference in the proportion of samples that exceeded the MRLs in different vegetables. A total of 84.3% (27/32) pesticides were detected at concentrations that exceeded MRLs. And of the 27 pesticides that exceeded the MRLs, 11 (40.7%) were banned for use in agriculture. The most frequently detected pesticides were Malathion (9.4%), Dichlorvos (8.7%), and Dimethoate (8.1%). The observed high rate of pesticides detected and high incidence of pesticide detection exceeding their MRLs in the commonly consumed vegetables indicated that the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) may not be well followed. The management of pesticide use and control should be improved. Well-developed training programs should be initiated to improve pesticide application knowledge for farmers.

  8. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower ... Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per ...

  9. Lysimeter study of vegetative uptake from saltstone. Part I. Design, installation, and data collection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1986-02-01

    A field test facility has been designed and installed to obtain data on the vegetative uptake of radionuclides from buried low-level radioactive waste. The waste is a cement-like, solidified salt solution known as saltstone. The facility consists of 32 lysimeters (containers 6 feet in diameter and 6 to 10 feet in depth) holding buried saltstone at varying depths, and with varying types of vegetation grown at the surface. Vegetation, soil, and groundwater samples will be analyzed for Tc-99, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137, and other radionuclides. Groundwater will also be analyzed for other water quality parameters, including nitrates

  10. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Nina F; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Jane; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers. This cross-sectional study examined which variables related to diet and lifestyle were associated with high plasma concentrations of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women. Plasma ENL was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in 857 Danish women aged 50-64 y who participated in a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ, and background information on lifestyle was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple analyses of covariance were completed in two steps. The median plasma ENL concentration was 27 nmol/L (range 0-455 nmol/L). In covariance analyses, positive associations were found between consumption of cereals, vegetables, and beverages and plasma ENL concentration. When analyzing subgroups of these food groups, the associations were confined to whole-grain products, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and coffee. For fat and the nondietary variables, negative associations between BMI, smoking, and frequency of bowel movements and plasma ENL concentration were observed. These data show that foods high in ENL precursors are associated with high concentrations of ENL. Furthermore, smoking, frequent bowel movements, and consumption of fat seems to have a negative affect on the ENL concentration. In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased.

  11. Induced mutagenesis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Ojiewo, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    (represented by tomato) and leafy vegetables (represented by African nightshade) are reported. (author)

  12. Comparison of vegetation roughness descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Huthoff, Freek; van Velzen, E.H.; Altinakar, M.S.; Kokpinar, M.A.; Aydin, I.; Cokgor, S.; Kirkgoz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness is an important parameter in describing flow through river systems. Vegetation impedes the flow, which affects the stage-discharge curve and may increase flood risks. Roughness is often used as a calibration parameter in river models, however when vegetation is allowed to

  13. The role of vegetation in mitigating air quality impacts from traffic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Baldauf; L. Jackson; G. Hagler; I. Vlad; G. McPherson; D. Nowak; T. Cahill; M. Zhang; R. Cook; C. Bailey; P. Wood

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a multidisciplinary group of researchers and policy-makers met to discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the potential of roadside vegetation to mitigate near-road air quality impacts. Concerns over population exposures to traffic-generated pollutants near roads have grown with an increasing number of health studies reporting links between proximity...

  14. A survey of some insect pests of cultivated vegetables in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    ABSTRACT. The survey aimed at identifying insect pests that attack vegetables grown in three irrigation areas along Jakara River in Kano, Nigeria. The areas were Kwarin gogau, Nomansland and. Kwakwaci. Two methods of trapping the insects were employed, namely hand capture for wingless insects as well as hand net ...

  15. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  16. Hydroponic production of Chinese water chestnut corms for potential use as a functional vegetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut is used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many or healthy corms when grown in plastic pots containing flooded sand in Griffin, GA. This study was conducted to use a drip irriga...

  17. Variation in Carotenoid Content of Kale and Other Vegetables: A Review of Pre- and Post-harvest Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rachel P; Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

    2015-11-11

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye, where they are thought to protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration. They are obtained from dietary sources, with the highest concentrations found in dark green leafy vegetables, such as kale and spinach. In this Review, compositional variations due to variety/cultivar, stage of maturity, climate or season, farming practice, storage, and processing effects are highlighted. Only data from studies which report on lutein and zeaxanthin content in foods are reported. The main focus is kale; however, other predominantly xanthophyll containing vegetables such as spinach and broccoli are included. A small amount of data about exotic fruits is also referenced for comparison. The qualitative and quantitative composition of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables is known to vary with multiple factors. In kale, lutein and zeaxanthin levels are affected by pre-harvest effects such as maturity, climate, and farming practice. Further research is needed to determine the post-harvest processing and storage effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in kale; this will enable precise suggestions for increasing retinal levels of these nutrients.

  18. Accumulation of metals in vegetation established in wood ash; Upptag av metaller i vegetation som etablerats i vedaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemstroem, Kristian; Fransson, Sara; Wik, Ola

    2009-04-15

    From an environmental point of view, a considerable amount of natural resources can be preserved if ashes were used in geotechnical constructions, e.g. in embankments, roads, hard surfaces, landfill coverage, and in soil stabilizations. However, when using ashes in constructions an assessment of the risks the content of contaminants in the ash might pose, must be done. Today, there is a lack of basic data to make a full risk assessment of ash material in constructions. The risk may differ depending on whether the construction is in operation or in a post operational phase. In the post operational phase, the fate and exposure routs of the contaminants in the ash might change over time. For example, a forest road out of use can with time be overgrown and become a more or less integrated part of the surrounding environment. Contaminants from the ash material might then be assimilated in the established vegetation. As primary producers, plants constitute the basis of the terrestrial food chain, and metals accumulated in plants might be transported further to plant eating animals. The accumulation of metals in vegetation may pose a risk to these herbivores especially when the metals are translocated to grazable parts, e.g. leaves and shoots. In the present study metal concentrations in different parts of vegetation established in ash material was determined and compared to concentrations in vegetation grown in a reference material. Studied materials where i) a wood ash, a waste product possible to use in geotechnical constructions, and ii) crushed stone, a non-controversial geotechnical construction material. The ash material was taken from an older lysimeter that can be seen as a snapshot picture of a geotechnical construction that was built with ash and then taken out of use 15 years ago. The aim of the study was to document and compare the accumulation and distribution of metals in vegetation that had self established in the studied materials. The results obtained in

  19. Accumulation of metals in vegetation established in wood ash; Upptag av metaller i vegetation som etablerats i vedaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemstroem, Kristian; Fransson, Sara; Wik, Ola

    2009-04-15

    From an environmental point of view, a considerable amount of natural resources can be preserved if ashes were used in geotechnical constructions, e.g. in embankments, roads, hard surfaces, landfill coverage, and in soil stabilizations. However, when using ashes in constructions an assessment of the risks the content of contaminants in the ash might pose, must be done. Today, there is a lack of basic data to make a full risk assessment of ash material in constructions. The risk may differ depending on whether the construction is in operation or in a post operational phase. In the post operational phase, the fate and exposure routs of the contaminants in the ash might change over time. For example, a forest road out of use can with time be overgrown and become a more or less integrated part of the surrounding environment. Contaminants from the ash material might then be assimilated in the established vegetation. As primary producers, plants constitute the basis of the terrestrial food chain, and metals accumulated in plants might be transported further to plant eating animals. The accumulation of metals in vegetation may pose a risk to these herbivores especially when the metals are translocated to grazable parts, e.g. leaves and shoots. In the present study metal concentrations in different parts of vegetation established in ash material was determined and compared to concentrations in vegetation grown in a reference material. Studied materials where i) a wood ash, a waste product possible to use in geotechnical constructions, and ii) crushed stone, a non-controversial geotechnical construction material. The ash material was taken from an older lysimeter that can be seen as a snapshot picture of a geotechnical construction that was built with ash and then taken out of use 15 years ago. The aim of the study was to document and compare the accumulation and distribution of metals in vegetation that had self established in the studied materials. The results obtained in

  20. Genetic resources of cultivated and volunteer vegetables in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Branka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plant species and populations in the diet and agriculture, and knowledge about them, their cultivation and use, represent the biological, cultural and social heritage of the humankind. Due to favourable geographic, soil, and climate conditions, and large diversity of flora in Serbia, there is a rich tradition of vegetable use in the diet, cultivated and volunteer, autochthonous. More than 70 botanical vegetable species that are accepted for long-term preservation are mentioned nowadays in Serbia. Besides that, some plant species that are classified as industrial, medicinal and aromatic plants are being used as vegetables. Vegetables include legumes used as stewing vegetables. Serbia has three vegetable regions: lowlands (along the rivers Danube, Tisa and Sava, Moravian (along three Morava Rivers and their tributaries and mountainous (Eastern, South-eastern and Western areas, Kosovo and Metohija. In these regions, genetic resources of vegetables should be looked for in cultivated and volunteering flora of different domestic and domesticated populations developed due to adaptation to the specific abiotic and biotic factors, including breeders' selection. International and national projects have been organised in the field of preserving genetic resources of vegetables in the past, as well as nowadays in Serbia. Collected samples are stored in Plant Gene Bank of Serbia and in gene banks all over the world. Significant part is located in the collections of national institutes and faculties. Samples are described with passport data, while those in collections even in more detail. However, none of this is sufficient. In the last decades in Serbia, many populations and vegetable species have threatened to disappear. Many villages are disappearing, there are few growers of vegetables, and extinction of numerous valuable genotypes is accelerated by unfavourable weather conditions. Large number of cultivars and vegetable species that were