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Sample records for leafy green vegetables

  1. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesa Shafi Bhat; Sooad Al-Daihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and photochemicals of five green leafy vegetables against a panel of five bacteria strains. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity, while kanamycin was used as a reference antibiotic. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results:All methanol extracts were found active against all the test bacterial strains. Overall maximum extracts shows antibacterial activity which range from 6 to 15 mm. Proteins and carbohydrates was found in all the green leaves, whereas alkaloid, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins were found in most of the test samples. Conclusions:The obtain result suggests that green leafy vegetables have moderate antibacterial activity and contain various pharmacologically active compounds and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of the studied vegetables in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  2. 76 FR 24291 - Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and Opportunity To... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 970 Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green...) under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 to cover the handling of fresh leafy green...

  3. NITRATE IN LEAFY GREEN VEGETABLES AND ESTIMATED INTAKE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Danijel; Bošnir, Jasna; Bevardi, Martina; Bošković, Andrea Gross; Miloš, Sanja; Lasić, Dario; Krivohlavek, Adela; Racz, Aleksandar; Ćuić, Ana Mojsović; Trstenjak, Natalija Uršulin

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are rich in vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are foods that contain considerable amounts of nitrate, which can have both positive and negative effects on the human body. Their potential carcinogenicity and toxicity have been proven, particularly after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite itself or just serving as a reactant with amines and/or amides in the formation of N-nitroso compounds -N-nitrosamines and other nitrogen compounds which may have high levels of nitrate. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference, considering the location and seasonal sampling period, in the level of nitrate in certain types of green vegetables, all in order to be able to assess their intake, and possible impact on human health, especially knowing that exposure to nitrate can be potentially higher for vegetarian population group. For this purpose, the sampling of 200 different leafy green vegetables was conducted, all of which could be found in free sale in the Republic of Croatia. The sampling was conducted during two seasonal periods - the spring and autumn period. In the springtime, lettuce (sem), spinach (pinacho), kale (kale), chard (mangel) and cabbage (brassica) were sampled, and in autumn lettuce, spinach, kale, chard and arugula. Samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The results from the spring sampling phase were in the range of 603 mg/kg for cabbage - 972 mg/kg for chard, and for autumn phase of 1.024 mg/kg for chard to 4.354 mg/kg for the arugula. The results showed that there were significant differences (p vegetables contain significant amounts of nitrate in their composition, which represents relatively significant, but still acceptable intake into the human body.

  4. Pathogens and Heavy Metals Concentration in Green Leafy Vegetables

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    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metal and bacterial pathogen in randomly collected samples of green leafy from various stations of Bengaluru city was detected. Heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium, nickel and lead were analyzed by tri-acid digestion method. The presence of heavy metals in general was in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb. Trace metal concentration in all green leafy vegetables of stations 1-5 were within permissible limit and it has been exceeded in station 6-10. This indicated high levels of soil contamination pose potential danger for the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Arakere lake, Bannerghatta road, Gottigere lake, Naganaikanakere, Bommasandra lake, Hulimavu lake, Kelaginakere and Amblipura lake. The total bacteria and coliforms were enumerated on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar and VRBA (Violet Red Bile Agar media respectively. The total bacterial count in randomly collected samples of coriander ranged from 296 cfu/g to 8 cfu/g, in palak from 16 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g, whereas in case of cabbage was 104 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g which is an indication of improper pre-harvest and post harvest handling.

  5. 78 FR 73111 - National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Termination of Proceeding on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 970 National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Termination of Proceeding on Proposed Marketing Agreement AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Termination of proceeding. SUMMARY: This action terminates...

  6. Enzymatic Digestion for Improved Bacteria Separation from Leafy Green Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhui; Wang, Ziyuan; He, Fei; Kinchla, Amanda J; Nugen, Sam R

    2016-08-01

    An effective and rapid method for the separation of bacteria from food matrix remains a bottleneck for rapid bacteria detection for food safety. Bacteria can strongly attach to a food surface or internalize within the matrix, making their isolation extremely difficult. Traditional methods of separating bacteria from food routinely involve stomaching, blending, and shaking. However, these methods may not be efficient at removing all the bacteria from complex matrices. Here, we investigate the benefits of using enzyme digestion followed by immunomagnetic separation to isolate Salmonella from spinach and lettuce. Enzymatic digestion using pectinase and cellulase was able to break down the structure of the leafy green vegetables, resulting in the detachment and release of Salmonella from the leaves. Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella from the liquefied sample allowed an additional separation step to achieve a more pure sample without leaf debris that may benefit additional downstream applications. We have investigated the optimal combination of pectinase and cellulase for the digestion of spinach and lettuce to improve sample detection yields. The concentrations of enzymes used to digest the leaves were confirmed to have no significant effect on the viability of the inoculated Salmonella. Results reported that the recovery of the Salmonella from the produce after enzyme digestion of the leaves was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than traditional sample preparation methods to separate bacteria (stomaching and manually shaking). The results demonstrate the potential for use of enzyme digestion prior to separation can improve the efficiency of bacteria separation and increase the likelihood of detecting pathogens in the final detection assay.

  7. Effect of Processing on Magnesium Content of Green Leafy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D.; Agrawal, R.; Kumar, R.; Rai, A. Kumar; Rai, G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the effect of different food processing techniques like blanching, microwave processing, boiling, frying, and different drying methods on depletion of minerals especially magnesium in green leafy vegetables (leaves of Trigonella foenum, common name methi, and Spinacia oleracea, common name spinach) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These processing techniques are frequently used at home as well as in food processing industries. The LIBS spectra of the fresh leaves of methi and spinach and their pellets (made by drying, grinding, and pressing the leaf) were recorded in a spectral range from 200 to 500 nm. After applying the above processing techniques, different pellets of these leaves were made in the same way. The LIBS spectra of these processed leaf samples were also recorded using the same experimental parameters as used for the fresh samples. Our results show that among the above processing techniques, frying most significantly reduces the content of magnesium, whereas the least loss of Mg is observed in the case of boiling. We have verified this result by recording the LIBS spectra of the intact fresh leaves and of those processed with different techniques. The same results were also obtained from the LIBS spectra of the intact leaves and their pellets. The LIBS spectra of methi and spinach leaves were also recorded after drying them using two different techniques — drying in vacuum and in a hot air oven; the results show that vacuum drying is more suitable in terms of minimizing loss of Mg content in leaves.

  8. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  9. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  10. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  11. Iron bioavailability of sweet potato and moringa leaves in comparision with leafy green vegetables commonly consumed in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a significant public health problem in Northern Ghana especially amongst women and children. Leafy green vegetables are major contributors to iron intake in this part of the world; poor iron bioavailability from these food sources may be part of the reason for the high prevalence of IDA. Evidence suggests that sweet potato and Moringa leaves might be better sources of bioavailable iron, compared with other leafy green vegetables, as both have hig...

  12. Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercanoglu Taban, Birce; Halkman, A Kadir

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, there is an increasing demand for leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads since people changed their eating habits because of healthier lifestyle interest. Nevertheless fresh leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads are recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks in many parts of the world. However, this increased proportion of outbreaks cannot be completely explained by increased consumption and enhanced surveillance of them. Both in Europe and in the USA, recent foodborne illness outbreaks have revealed links between some pathogens and some leafy green vegetables such as mostly lettuces and spinaches and their RTE salads since fresh leafy green vegetables carry the potential risk of microbiological contamination due to the usage of untreated irrigation water, inappropriate organic fertilizers, wildlife or other sources that can occur anywhere from the farm to the fork such as failure during harvesting, handling, processing and packaging. Among a wide range of pathogens causing foodborne illnesses, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate leafy green vegetables. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised people are the most at risk for developing complications from foodborne illness as a result of eating contaminated leafy greens or their RTE salads. These outbreaks are mostly restaurant associated or they sometimes spread across several countries by international trade routes. This review summarizes current observations concerning the contaminated leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads as important vehicles for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Cyclospora cayetanensis in health care facilities, sewage water and green leafy vegetables in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchand, J B; Cross, J H; Jimba, M; Sherchand, S; Shrestha, M P

    1999-03-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging parasite, is endemic in Nepal. A total of 2,123 stool specimens were collected from 3 health care facilities based on clinical symptoms during the period between 1995 to October, 1998. Out of these specimens, cayetanensis oocysts were found in 632 (29.8%). To identify possible sources for Cyclospora infection, drinking water, sewage water, green-leafy vegetables including fecal samples of various animals were collected and examined. The vegetable leaves were washed in distilled water then the washings, sewage water and drinking water were centrifuged and the sediment were examined microscopically. As a result, oocyst of Cyclospora were identified in sewage water and vegetable washings on four different occasions in June, August, October and November. The positive results were also confirmed as C. cayetanensis by development of 2 sporocysts after 2 week incubation period in potassium dichromate. A survey of 196 domestic animals from the same areas demonstrated that two chickens were positive for Cyclospora-like organism and others were negative. Although further studies are needed to clarify the direct link between Cyclospora infection and these sources, the results suggest that sewage water, green leafy vegetables are possible sources of infection and chickens could be possible reservoir host of Cyclospora in Nepal.

  14. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  15. Detection of Minerals in Green Leafy Vegetables Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P.; Kumar, R.; Raib, A. Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of minerals in different green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, chenopodium, chickpea, mustard, and fenugreek, was calculated using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can provide an easy, reliable, efficient, low-cost, and in situ chemical analysis with a reasonable precision. In situ LIBS spectra in the range 200-500 nm were carried out using fresh leaves and leaves in the pellet form. As the spectra suggest, magnesium and calcium are present in each vegetable; however, the amount of them varies. It is observed that the amount of iron is maximal in spinach. The nutrition value of the plants was analyzed, and it was revealed that they are low in calories and fat and high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium, and phytochemicals.

  16. Diets containing traditional and novel green leafy vegetables improve liver fatty acid profiles of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Melissa; Pace, Ralphenia D.; Dawkins, Norma L.; Willian, Kyle R

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) has been demonstrated to reduce the risks associated with cardiovascular and other diseases. However, no literature exists that examines the influence of traditional and novel GLVs on the liver fatty acid profile of an animal model genetically predisposed to developing hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of diets containing 4% collard greens, purslane or sweet potato greens on the liver fatty acid pr...

  17. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  18. Effect of Fermentation on Nutritional Composition of Selected Commonly Consumed Green Leafy Vegetables in Nigeria

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    B.O.T. Ifesan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leafy vegetables which include Amarathus hybridus (Bush green, Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted pumpkin leaf, Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf and Pterocarpus mildbraedii (White campwood leaf were subjected to spontaneous fermentation for 5 days at room temperature. Physicochemical properties (pH, temperature, and total titratable acidity were monitored during the fermentation. It was observed that the pH (6.8 to 3.78 of all the vegetables decreased steadily as fermentation progressed. However, the temperature (27°C to 34°C and total titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid equivalent (0.014-0.147 for all the vegetables increased as fermentation progressed. The percentage of occurrence of bacteria isolated from the fermenting mass include Bacillus spp. (39.1%, Lactobacillus spp. (26.1%, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. (8.7%, Proteus spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp (4.3% respectively. The proximate composition and mineral contents of fermented and unfermented leaves were investigated. Significant increase in ash content was noticed for unfermented (8.07%-15.72% and for fermented vegetables (12.50%-23.28%. The protein contents of T. occidentalis (24.29%-25.65%, and A. hybridus (14.27%-16.96% increased significantly after fermentation. A decrease in fiber content was noticed for all fermented vegetables except for V. amygdalina where significant increase was noticed (10.97%-14.55%. Increase in both thiamine (1.37-1.52mg/ml and niacin (1.32-1.62mg/ml contents were observed in T. occidentalis after fermentation while significant reductions were recorded for A. hybridus and V. amygdalina. Generally, vitamin C content of the vegetables decreased during fermentation while some increases were recorded in the mineral content of fermented vegetables.

  19. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

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    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  20. Effect of Processing on the Vitamin C Content of Seven Nigerian Green Leafy Vegetables

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    Olubukola Babalola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of processing on the Vitamin C content of seven Nigerian green leafy vegetables, Telfaria occidentalis (ugu, Talinum triangulare (waterleaf, Basella alba (indian spinach, Celosia argentea (soko, Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf, Amaranthus hybridus (tete and Crassephalum crepidioees (rorowo. Processing methods employed are, blanching, boiling, sundrying, squeezewashing, squeeze-washing with salt and squeeze-washing with boiling. Raw ugu had highest Vitamin C content of 62.50 mg/100g while raw waterleaf had the lowest value of 9.30 mg/100g. Blanching and boiling reduced the Vitamin C content of soko and tete tremendously with a value of 91.50% reduction for boiled tete. The percentage loss for sundried vegetables was the lowest when compared with other processing methods with a reduction of 6.50 and 12.40% in indian spinach and rorowo, respectively. Squeeze washing reduced the Vitamin C content of ugu from 62.50 mg/100g to 6.47 mg/100g (89.65% and bitter leaf from 42.40 mg/100g to 4.28 mg/100g (89.90%. Squeeze-washing followed by boiling of bitter leaf reduced the Vitamin C content from 42.40 mg/100g to 2.18 mg/100g recording the highest loss of 94.90% when compared with other processing methods.

  1. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

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    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  2. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

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    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  3. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  4. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  5. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  6. Detection of Ni, Cd, and Cu in green leafy vegetables collected from different cultivation areas in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananke, Thilini; Wansapala, Jagath; Gunaratne, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Five types of green leafy vegetables ["Kankun" (Ipomoea aquatica), "Mukunuwenna" (Alternanthera sessilis), "Thampala" (Amaranthus viridis), "Nivithi" (Basella alba), and "Kohila leaves" (Lasia spinosa)] were randomly collected from six different locations (Wellampitiya, Kolonnawa, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Bandaragama, and Kahathuduwa) in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka, and subjected to analysis of three heavy metals [nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu)] by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils from green leafy vegetable cultivation lands and irrigated water were also tested. The average concentrations of heavy metals Ni, Cd, and Cu in soils were 51.5 ± 45.5, 1.4 ± 1.1, and 66.5 ± 59.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The highest Ni contamination was detected in the irrigated water samples from Wellampitiya (2.02 mg L(-1)) followed by Kolonnawa (1.02 mg L(-1)) and Kahathuduwa (0.25 mg L(-1)) areas. This has exceeded the WHO/FAO guideline (0.2 mg L(-1)). However, Cd and Cu contents in all tested irrigated water samples were well below the detection limits. Significant differences were observed in Ni, Cd, and Cu levels, between both production sites and green leafy vegetables analyzed (P vegetable samples collected from six areas varied as 0.23 ± 0.15 for Cd, 12.60 ± 9.01 for Cu, and 7.62 ± 8.41 for Ni. Maximum Ni, Cd, and Cu contaminations were found in the green leafy vegetables collected from Kolonnawa area. Among the green leafy vegetables analyzed, "Kohila leaves" have the highest tendency to accumulate Ni, Cd, and Cu from the environment.

  7. Impact of a social marketing campaign promoting dark-green leafy vegetables and eggs in central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, S; Bloem, M W; Satoto; Yip, R; Sukaton, A; Tjiong, R; Shrimpton, R; Muhilal; Kodyat, B

    1998-01-01

    In order to work towards further reduction of vitamin A deficiency in central Java, Indonesia, a social marketing campaign promoting eggs and dark-green leafy vegetables was initiated in March 1996. The nutritional surveillance system (December 1995-December 1996) found the following. The campaign's messages were well noticed. Consumption of at least one egg in the past week increased from 80% to 92% in mothers and from 78% to 92% in children 12-36 months old. It increased in all socio-economic groups and was independent of ownership of chickens. Most eggs had been purchased. The quantity of vegetables prepared increased from 93 to 111 g/person daily and most was purchased. Vitamin A intake increased from 335 to 371 RE/d for mothers and from 130 to 160 RE/d for children. Serum retinol levels increased after the start of the campaign, and were related to egg consumption and vitamin A intake. Because 1. data were collected in such a way that respondents were not aware of the link between data collected and the campaign, and 2. vitamin A status increased and was related to increased consumption of eggs and vitamin A intake, we conclude that the social marketing campaign was successful.

  8. Evaluation of methods to prepare samples of leafy green vegetables for preenrichment with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew Patrick; Gill, Vikas Singh; Irvin, Kari Anne; Wang, Hua; Hammack, Thomas Seyliard

    2012-02-01

    Three sample preparation procedures, soak, stomach, and blend, were evaluated using the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method with eight types of leafy green produce. In the soak method, test portions were added to lactose broth without homogenization; in the stomach method, test portions were stomached with lactose broth; and in the blend method, test portions were blended with lactose broth. Twenty artificially contaminated test portions were analyzed with each procedure in individual experimental trials. The number of test portions identified as positive were compared among the procedures. Statistically significant differences were identified with Fisher's exact two-tailed F test (P < 0.05). Where differences did occur (P < 0.05), the soak procedure was the most effective or was at least as effective as homogenization by either blending or stomaching. Statistically significant differences most frequently occurred with romaine lettuce and cabbage; for these items, blending was significantly less effective than the soak procedure. Overall, for all of the produce types examined, results showed that the soak procedure was more effective than either of the homogenization procedures in recovering Salmonella from leafy green produce. Of the 540 test portions examined by each sample preparation method, 344 were positive for the presence of Salmonella by soaking, 293 by stomaching, and 232 by blending. We recommend that the soak procedure replace homogenization for the analysis of leafy green produce because the soak procedure is more productive than homogenization by either blending or stomaching of the leafy green produce types as reported herein.

  9. Bioavailability of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin from commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, V; Sharada, D; Pushpamma, P

    1982-01-01

    The physiological availability of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin from three green leafy vegetables -- amaranth (Amaranthes gangeticus), gogu (Hibiscus cannabinus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) was calculated from individual dose response curves. The bioavailability of thiamine and riboflavin was higher from drumstick leaves curry, while the availability of niacin was higher from gogu curry. But the differences in the bioavailability of the vitamins from the experimental curries was not significant.

  10. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for a beneficial effect of dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, on measures of cardiovascular function in healthy individuals is accumulating. It is less clear whether increased dietary nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables would have similar beneficial vascular effects in those at increased risk of developing hypertension. Our aim was to assess the effects of short-term regular consumption of increased nitrate from green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Thirty-eight men and women ages 30-70 years with systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm Hg were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover trial. The effects of a 7-day high-nitrate diet intervention (increased nitrate intake by at least 300 mg/day from green leafy vegetables) were compared to a 7-day low-nitrate diet intervention. Outcome measures included pre- and postintervention salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations; ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure; augmentation index; and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The high-nitrate diet intervention resulted in at least a fourfold increase in salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite (Pblood pressure and arterial stiffness were not different between the high-nitrate diet and the low-nitrate diet. Increasing dietary nitrate intake in those with high-normal blood pressure and at increased risk of hypertension may not be an effective short-term strategy to lower blood pressure.

  11. Orange fruit is more effective than are dark-green, leafy vegetables in increasing serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene in schoolchildren in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, S; West, C E; Permaesih, D; Martuti, S; Muhilal; Hautvast, J G

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of dietary retinol sources, orange fruit, and dark-green, leafy vegetables in improving vitamin A status, and to test whether orange fruit is a better source of vitamin A and carotenoids than are leafy vegetables. Anemic schoolchildren aged 7-11 y (n = 238) in West Java, Indonesia, were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups to consume 2 complete meals/d, 6 d/wk, for 9 wk: 1) 556 retinol equivalents (RE)/d from retinol-rich food (n = 48); 2) 509 RE/d from fruit (n = 49); 3) 684 RE/d from dark-green, leafy vegetables and carrots (n = 45); and 4) 44 RE/d from low-retinol, low-carotene food (n = 46). Mean changes in serum retinol concentrations of the retinol-rich, fruit, vegetable, and low-retinol, low-carotene groups were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28), 0.12 (0.06, 0.18), 0.07 (0.03,0.11), and 0.00 (-0.06, 0.05) micromol/L, respectively. Mean changes in serum beta-carotene concentrations in the vegetable and fruit groups were 0.14 (0.12, 0.17) and 0.52 (0.43, 0.60) micromol/L, respectively. Until now, it has been assumed that 6 microg dietary beta-carotene is equivalent to 1 RE. On the basis of this study, however, the equivalent of 1 RE would be 12 microg beta-carotene (95% CI: 6 microg, 29 microg) for fruit and 26 microg beta-carotene (95% CI: 13 microg, 76 microg) for leafy vegetables and carrots. Thus, the apparent mean vitamin A activity of carotenoids in fruit and in leafy vegetables and carrots was 50% (95% CI: 21%, 100%) and 23% (95% CI: 8%, 46%) of that assumed, respectively. This has important implications for choosing strategies for controlling vitamin A deficiency. Research should be directed toward ways of improving bioavailability and bioconversion of dietary carotenoids, focusing on factors such as intestinal parasites, absorption inhibitors, and food matrixes.

  12. A Daily Snack Containing Leafy Green Vegetables, Fruit, and Milk before and during Pregnancy Prevents Gestational Diabetes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Sirazul A; Potdar, Ramesh D; Gandhi, Meera; Kehoe, Sarah H; Brown, Nick; Sane, Harshad; Coakley, Patsy J; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Chopra, Harsha; Shivshankaran, Devi; Cox, Vanessa A; Jackson, Alan A; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-07-01

    Prospective observational studies suggest that maternal diets rich in leafy green vegetables and fruit may help prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to test whether increasing women's dietary intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before conception and throughout pregnancy reduced their risk of GDM. Project SARAS ("excellent") (2006-2012) was a nonblinded, individually randomized, controlled trial in women living in slums in the city of Mumbai, India. The interventions included a daily snack made from leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk for the treatment group or low-micronutrient vegetables (e.g., potato and onion) for the control group, in addition to the usual diet. Results for the primary outcome, birth weight, have been reported. Women were invited to take an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 wk gestation to screen for GDM (WHO 1999 criteria). The prevalence of GDM was compared between the intervention and control groups, and Kernel density analysis was used to compare distributions of 120-min plasma glucose concentrations between groups. Of 6513 women randomly assigned, 2291 became pregnant; of these, 2028 reached a gestation of 28 wk, 1008 (50%) attended for an OGTT, and 100 (9.9%) had GDM. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the prevalence of GDM was reduced in the treatment group (7.3% compared with 12.4% in controls; OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86; P = 0.008). The reduction in GDM remained significant after adjusting for prepregnancy adiposity and fat or weight gain during pregnancy. Kernel density analysis showed that this was explained by the fact that fewer women in the treatment group had a 2-h glucose concentration in the range 7.5-10.0 mmol/L. In low-income settings, in which women have a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods, improving dietary micronutrient quality by increasing intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and/or milk may have an important protective effect against the development of GDM

  13. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the ... especially in the hitherto, non-consuming segments of the society including the upper ... resources could be exploited to their disadvantage is very much a possibility.

  14. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2010-02-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green vegetables in salad from salad bars in The Netherlands. Pathogen growth was modeled in Aladin (Agro Logistics Analysis and Design Instrument) using time-temperature profiles in the chilled supply chain and one particular restaurant with a salad bar. A second-order Monte Carlo risk assessment model was constructed (using @Risk) to estimate the public health effects. The temperature in the studied cold chain was well controlled below 5 degrees C. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was minimal (17 and 15%, respectively). Growth of L. monocytogenes was considerably greater (194%). Based on first-order Monte Carlo simulations, the average number of cases per year in The Netherlands associated the consumption leafy greens in salads from salad bars was 166, 187, and 0.3 for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The ranges of the average number of annual cases as estimated by second-order Monte Carlo simulation (with prevalence and number of visitors as uncertain variables) were 42 to 551 for E. coli O157:H7, 81 to 281 for Salmonella, and 0.1 to 0.9 for L. monocytogenes. This study included an integration of modeling pathogen growth in the supply chain of fresh leafy vegetables destined for restaurant salad bars using software designed to model and design logistics and modeling the public health effects using probabilistic risk assessment software.

  15. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h.

  16. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Tufts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL, followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL. Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r2=0.7639, P=0.0228. Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  17. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, H R; Harris, C S; Bukania, Z N; Johns, T

    2015-01-01

    Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally) showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg) and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g) but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable) showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL), followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant) (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL). Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r (2) = 0.7639,  P = 0.0228). Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  18. Application of gas chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry to the multi-residue analysis of pesticides in green leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2008-12-01

    A new, sensitive and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 129 pesticides in lettuce and other green leafy vegetables. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and co-extractives such as fatty acids and pigments were removed using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). All pesticides were analyzed in a single injection gas chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) acquisition method. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of precursor ions fragmenting into product ions were recorded for the targeted pesticides, thus fulfilling the EU identification points system criteria for the identification of contaminants (2002/657/EC). Calibration curves were determined using matrix-matched standards, and exhibited excellent linearity at two orders of magnitude from 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg for almost all the pesticides studied (R(2) > or = 0.99). The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of lettuce samples spiked at five concentration levels ranging from 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg for each pesticide. The recovery and repeatability results satisfied SANCO/2007/3131 criteria (i.e. average recoveries were in the range 70-120% with RSDs vegetable samples such as lettuce, cabbage and leek.

  19. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  20. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejoh, Richard A; Dever, Joseph T; Mills, Jordan P; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-06-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanum nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to six treatment groups (n 10; four vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100 % bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0.0001). Liver beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1.9 and 2.3 microg beta-carotene equivalents to 1 microg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol.

  1. Effectiveness of washing procedures in reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a raw leafy green vegetable (Eruca vescicaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pezzuto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket (Eruca vescicaria. Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g, suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively. This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens.

  2. Diversity, knowledge and use of leafy vegetables in northern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Vilkamaa, Anna M.; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    , Thailand. The leafy vegetables collected from fresh food markets included 55 species, six of them with a total of 13 cultivars, belonging to 32 families. Structured interviews were made with 49 vegetable sellers. Semi-structured interviews were made with three Thai medicine practitioners and 100 residents...... of Chiang Mai city. The residents participated in a knowledge test using photographs of six species widely used in dishes and six species specific to traditional homemade dishes. The diversity of leafy vegetables in urban areas of Chiang Mai Province has remained the same in the past decade. Leafy vegetable...

  3. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  4. Carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mieko; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-04-23

    Because hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common, the carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables commercialized in Campinas, Brazil, was determined. All samples were collected and analyzed in winter. Lactucaxanthin was quantified for the first time and was found to have concentrations similar to that of neoxanthin in the four types of lettuce analyzed. Lutein predominated in cress, chicory, and roquette (75.4 +/- 10.2, 57.0 +/- 10.3, and 52.2 +/- 12.6 microg/g, respectively). In the lactucaxanthin-containing lettuces, beta-carotene and lutein were the principal carotenoids (ranging from 9.9 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g and from 10.2 +/- 1.0 to 22.9 +/- 2.6 microg/g, respectively). Comparison of hydroponic and field-produced curly lettuce, taken from neighboring farms, showed that the hydroponic lettuce had significantly lower lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin contents than the conventionally produced lettuce. Because the hydroponic farm had a polyethylene covering, less exposure to sunlight and lower temperatures may have decreased carotenogenesis.

  5. 氮肥施用量对2种绿叶蔬菜产量的影响%Effect of Application Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Production of Two Green Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱波; 豁泽春; 张志芳; 潘一展

    2015-01-01

    以翡翠生菜和白苋菜为试验材料,研究了追施氮肥用量( N0( CK ):0 kg/hm2, N1:75 kg/hm2, N2:105 kg/hm2,N3:150 kg/hm2)对这2种绿叶蔬菜单株叶片数、株高、单株鲜质量和单株干质量的影响,以筛选2种绿叶蔬菜的最佳氮肥施用量。结果表明,施用氮肥可促进2种绿叶蔬菜单株叶片数和株高的增加,单株叶片数和株高(苋菜除外)均随着氮肥施用量的增加先增加后降低,总体以N2处理最高;施用氮肥可显著增加2种绿叶蔬菜单株鲜质量和单株干质量,单株鲜质量和单株干质量均随着氮肥施用量的增加先增加后降低,以N2处理最高。综上,追施105 kg/hm2氮肥最有利于促进2种绿叶蔬菜的生长和产量提高,且节约肥料。%In order to select the best application amount of nitrogen fertilizer for two green leafy vegeta-bles emerald green lettuce and white Amaranth, the plant height, leaves numbers, fresh weight and dry weight per plant of the two green leafy vegetables treated with different application amount of nitrogen fer-tilizer (N0 (CK):0 kg/ha,N1:75 kg/ha,N2:105 kg/ha,N3:150 kg/ha) were studied. The results showed that the application of nitrogen fertilizer could improve the leaves numbers per plant and the plant height of the two green leafy vegetables,which increased at first and then decreased with the increase of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer except the plant height of white Amaranth,reaching the highest value at N2 treatment;the application of nitrogen fertilizer could significantly improve the fresh weight and dry weight per plant,which increased at first and then decreased with the increase of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer,reaching the highest value at N2 treatment. Overall,105 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer was the best to improve the growth and production of the two green leafy vegetables,and could save fertilizer.

  6. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 viability on leafy green vegetables by treatment with a bacteriophage mixture and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Akhtar, Mastura; Feirtag, Joellen; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2011-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been recognized as a major foodborne pathogen responsible for frequent gastroenteritis outbreaks. Phages and essential oils can be used as a natural antimicrobial method to reduce bacterial pathogens from the food supply. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a bacteriophage cocktail, BEC8, alone and in combination with the essential oil trans-cinnameldehyde (TC) on the viability of a mixture of EHEC O157:H7 strains applied on whole baby romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. The EHEC O157:H7 strains used were Nal(R) mutants of EK27, ATCC 43895, and 472. Exponentially growing cells from tryptic soy (TS) broth cultures were spot inoculated on leaves and dried. EHEC cells were placed at low, medium, and high inoculum levels (10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively). Appropriate controls, BEC8 (approx. 10(6) PFU/leaf), and TC (0.5% v/v) were applied on treated leaves. The leaves were incubated at 4, 8, 23, and 37 °C in Petri dishes with moistened filter papers. EHEC survival was determined using standard plate count on nalidixic acid (50 μg/mL) Sorbitol MacConkey agar. No survivors were detected when both leaves were treated with BEC8 or TC individually at low inoculum levels after 24 h at 23 and 37 °C. When the EHEC inoculum size increased and/or incubation temperature decreased, the efficacy of BEC8 and TC decreased. However, when the two treatments were combined, no survivors were detected after 10 min at all temperatures and inoculum levels on both leafy greens. These results indicated that the BEC8/TC combination was highly effective against EHEC on both leafy greens. This combination could potentially be used as an antimicrobial to inactivate EHEC O157:H7 and reduce their incidence in the food chain.

  7. Nutritional quality of ten leafy vegetables harvested at two light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Emma; Rouphael, Youssef; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2016-05-15

    The nutritional composition of ten leafy vegetables (chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, red lettuce, rocket, spinach, Swiss chard, and tatsoi) and quality traits of the selected leafy vegetables in relation to the light intensity (low and high Photosynthetically Active Radiation; PAR) at time of harvest were determined. Irrespective of the light intensity at time of harvest, the highest leaf dry matter (DM), proteins, nitrate, P, K and Ca contents were observed in rocket followed by mizuna. The highest lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA) was recorded in red lettuce and rocket, whereas ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic (TP) contents of red lettuce were higher compared to the other leafy vegetables. When leafy vegetables were harvested at low as opposed to high PAR, the leaf content was higher in DM, protein, K, Ca and Mg, hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA), and LAA by 12.5%, 10.0%, 12.6%, 23.7%, 14.1%, 11.9%, and 18.5%, respectively. The highest values in TP for chicory, green lettuce, lamb's lettuce, mizuna, red chard, and red lettuce, were observed under high PAR.

  8. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  9. Mineral Composition of Some Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetables could be good supplement for some of the elements analyzed. Keywords: Leafy ... presence of vitamins and mineral elements. They are very ... However, these plants contain both essential and toxic metals over a ... The organism can never grow complete in its life cycle .... people of Kano Nigeria. From the figure ...

  10. Food Safety Posters for Safe Handling of Leafy Greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman; Arendt, Susan W.; Shaw, Angela M.; Strohbehn, Catherine H.; Sauer, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes food safety educational tools depicting safe handling of leafy greens that are available as downloadable posters to Extension educators and practitioners (www.extension.iastate.edu). Nine visual-based minimal-text colored posters in English, Chinese, and Spanish were developed for use when formally or informally educating…

  11. The social context of wild leafy vegetables uses in Shiri, Daghestan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszewska, Iwona; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona

    2015-08-11

    Shiri is a small mountainous village in the Republic of Daghestan, in the North Caucasus. Daghestan is Russia's southernmost and most ethnically and linguistically diverse republic, a considerable part of which belongs to the Caucasus Biodiversity Hotspot. Various species of wild leafy vegetables are collected in Shiri and there are still many social and cultural practices connected with plant collection in the village. Yet due to migration processes, local knowledge about wild greens and their uses is being slowly forgotten or not passed on. The Shiri language is highly endangered and so are the local plant terminologies and classifications. The unstable political situation hinders local and international research, therefore we find it highly important to explore both what wild leafy vegetables are collected in this mountainous part of Daghestan and how the relation between plants and people is shaped in this linguistically and culturally diverse context. We answer the following questions: what wild leafy vegetables are collected in Shiri? Why are they important to the local people? What is the social aspect of wild leafy vegetable uses? The methods applied were as follows: forest walks and semi-structured interviews with adult inhabitants of Shiri village, participant and non-participant observation. During the walks herbarium specimens were collected, and visual recording of plant collecting process was conducted. This article is based on fieldwork done in Shiri, Daghestan, between 2012 and 2014, over the course of 3 field trips that took place in 3 seasons. We collected and identified twenty-two local (24 botanical) species of wild leafy vegetables. Fourteen local species were used as snacks, eight for cooked dishes and three of them were also dried in order to be transported to kin living in the lowlands. It is significant that 70 % of taxa collected in Shiri are used as snacks. While snacks were collected by both sexes, greens for cooking and drying were part

  12. Determining Factors of Lipophilic Micronutrient Bioaccessibility in Several Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwichai, Wichien; Berger, Jacques; Picq, Christian; Avallone, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are still a public health issue in least developed countries. Promoting diet diversification is a promising strategy. Numerous fruits and vegetables are rich in micronutrients, but some of these compounds are poorly bioaccessible. The objective of this study was to identify the biochemical determinants of the micronutrient bioaccessibility in leaves. The contents in cell walls, pectins, tannins, and proteins of the leafy vegetables were assessed, and correlations with the micronutrient bioaccessibitity were explored. The leafy vegetables have interesting nutritional profiles with noticeable amounts in protein, provitamin A (β-carotene), and α-tocopherol for some species. Their cell wall contents greatly varied from 3.4 to 8.7 g/100 g as well as their pectin percentages. Only the perilla and drumstick leaves contained condensed tannins. In fresh leaves, the contents in bioaccessible carotenoids were low. The correlation study highlighted that the carotenoid bioaccessibility was negatively correlated to the pectin contents of the leaves.

  13. Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao KS

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables.

  14. Handling Practices of Fresh Leafy Greens in Restaurants: Receiving and Training†

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLEMAN, ERIK; DELEA, KRISTIN; EVERSTINE, KAREN; REIMANN, DAVID; RIPLEY, DANNY

    2015-01-01

    Multiple foodborne illness outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. Investigations have indicated that microbial contamination throughout the farm-to-fork continuum often contributed to these outbreaks. Researchers have hypothesized that handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants may support contamination by and proliferation and amplification of pathogens that cause foodborne illness outbreaks. However, limited data are available on how workers handle leafy greens in restaurants. The purpose of this study was to collect descriptive data on handling practices of leafy greens in restaurants, including restaurant characteristics, types of leafy greens used, produce receipt, and food safety training and certification. As a federal collaborative partner with the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that EHS-Net participants survey handling practices for leafy greens in restaurants. The recommendations in the FDA’s Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Leafy Greens are significant to this study for comparison of the results. The survey revealed that appropriate handling procedures assist in the mitigation of other unsafe handling practices for leafy greens. These results are significant because the FDA guidance for the safe handling of leafy greens was not available until 2009, after the survey had been completed. The information provided from this study can be used to promote additional efforts that will assist in developing interventions to prevent future foodborne illness outbreaks associated with leafy greens. PMID:24290691

  15. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars, based on modeling supply chain logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; Franz, E

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference between simulating supply chain logistics (MOD) and assuming fixed storage times (FIX) in microbial risk estimation for the supply chain of fresh-cut leafy green vegetables destined for working-canteen salad bars. The results of the FIX model were previously published (E. Franz, S. O. Tromp, H. Rijgersberg, and H. J. van der Fels-Klerx, J. Food Prot. 73:274-285, 2010). Pathogen growth was modeled using stochastic discrete-event simulation of the applied logistics concept. The public health effects were assessed by conducting an exposure assessment and risk characterization. The relative growths of Escherichia coli O157 (17%) and Salmonella enterica (15%) were identical in the MOD and FIX models. In contrast, the relative growth of Listeria monocytogenes was considerably higher in the MOD model (1,156%) than in the FIX model (194%). The probability of L. monocytogenes infection in The Netherlands was higher in the MOD model (5.18×10(-8)) than in the FIX model (1.23×10(-8)). The risk of listeriosis-induced fetal mortality in the perinatal population increased from 1.24×10(-4) (FIX) to 1.66×10(-4) (MOD). Modeling the probabilistic nature of supply chain logistics is of additional value for microbial risk assessments regarding psychrotrophic pathogens in food products for which time and temperature are the postharvest preventive measures in guaranteeing food safety.

  16. Traditional leafy vegetables in Senegal: diversity and medicinal uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Gueye; Meissa, Diouf

    2007-06-10

    Six administrative regions of Senegal were investigated. Forty species of vegetable leaves which are traditionally consumed in Senegal have been inventoried. All species are members of twenty-one families the most numerous of which are Amaranthaceae Juss., Malvaceae Juss., Moraceae Link., the Papilionaceae Giseke and Tiliaceae Juss. The species are subdivided into three groups: cultivated leafy vegetables, plants gathered annually, perennial sub-ligneous and ligneous species. The gathered species represent 67.5% of the inventory, 40.7% of which is ligneous. Cultivated species account for 32.5% of the inventory. The species are consumed for their medicinal properties, nutritive value and eating habits linked to specific ethnic traditions. During the drought years, with the scarcity of main food (millet, mays) consumption of leafy vegetables is high. All species reported except Sesuvium portulacastrum L. are consumed like vegetable herbs. The species of Hibiscus are eaten in spinach and condiment form while Sesuvium portulacastrum L is cooked in salad. Of the forty species examined, eleven are widely consumed. Within the entire study area, Hibiscus sabdariffa predominates among species consumed, followed by Moringa oleifera Lam. and Senna obtusifolia Link. A high consumption level of some species like amarante, Corchorus tridens L., Corchorus aestuans L., Leptadenia hastata Decne. and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp is confined to certain areas. In addition to their consumption as vegetables, the medicinal uses of 57.5% of these is of primary importance. The most commonly exploited parts are, respectively, leaf (40%), roots (20%), and bark (13.3%). Among the numerous pathologies treated, abscess, constipation, and rheumatism are predominant followed by aphrodisiac uses. The Amaranthus spp. L., Leptadenia hastata Decne., Senna obtusifolia Link., Adansonia digitata L. and Tamarindus indica L. are species with multiple medicinal uses.

  17. Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Charles, M; Emmanuel, D

    1998-01-01

    Six non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed largely by the rural populace of Nigeria were analyzed for mineral composition. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on the type of vegetables. Amaranthus spinosus and Adansonia digitata leaves contained the highest level of iron (38.4 mg/100 g and 30.6 mg/100 g dw, respectively). These values are low compared to those for common Nigerian vegetables but higher than those for other food sources. All the vegetables contained high levels of calcium compared to common vegetables, thus they could be a rich source of this mineral. Microelement content of the leaves varied appreciably. Zinc content was highest in Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata and Cassia tora leaves (25.5 mg/100 g, 22.4 mg/100 g and 20.9 mg/100 g dw, respectively) while the manganese content was comparatively higher in Colocasia esculenta. The concentrations of the mineral elements in the vegetables per serving portion are presented and these values indicate that the local vegetables could be valuable and important contributors in the diets of the rural and urban people of Nigeria. The mean daily intake of P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn were lower than their recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). However, the manganese daily intake was found not to differ significantly (p = 0.05) from the RDA value.

  18. Mineral content of traditional leafy vegetables from western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, F O; Christensen, D L; Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Socio-economic changes that have taken place in Africa have influenced people's eating habits in both rural and urban set-ups. Most people prefer introduced foods to traditional foods, including plant foods whose consumption is widely regarded as a primitive culture manifesting poor lifestyles....... However, recent studies on traditional plant foods have shown that some are highly nutritious; containing high levels of both vitamins and minerals. They also have potential as a remedy to counter food insecurity since most are well adapted to the local environment, enabling them to resist pests, drought...... and diseases. This paper describes the mineral (calcium, iron and zinc) contents in some 54 traditional vegetable species collected from Nyang'oma area of Bondo district, western Kenya. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content. We found that most traditional leafy vegetables...

  19. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to educate adult…

  20. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to…

  1. Predominance of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage AII in Fresh Leafy Vegetables from a Market in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Arruda Piovesani, Ana Flávia; Tiyo, Bruna Tiaki; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Marchioro, Ariella Andrade; Gomes, Monica Lucia; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts and its genotypes in raw leafy vegetables sold in a Brazilian market. These products are different from those sold in most street markets because the producers themselves display and sell their products and rely on specialized technical and sanitary assistance. Vegetable and water samples were collected from 14 (80%) producers who cultivated vegetables that are typically consumed raw for sale at the market, obtained at the market and farms, respectively. A total of 128 samples of leafy greens (chives, parsley, cabbage, arugula, watercress, and chicory) and 14 water samples were analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR techniques. The positive samples were genotyped (GHD gene) using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The analyses indicated that 16 (12.5%) of 128 samples were positive by PCR, while 1 (0.8%) of 128 samples were positive by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were not detected in the water samples obtained at the farms. The molecular technique revealed a genotype with zoonotic potential, which underscores the challenge in the control of giardiasis dissemination via the consumption of raw vegetables.

  2. Vitamin A content of traditional leafy vegetables consumed by the Luo people of western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, Francis O.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Friis, H.

    2011-01-01

    and analyse traditional, leafy vegetables for pro-vitamin A carotenoids and tocopherols. A total of 15 domesticated and 36 wild traditional leafy vegetable species were collected and analysed. The species that contained the highest amounts of -carotene, lutein and -tocopherol was Erythrococca bongensis Pax (5.......3, 60.7 and 220.7 mg/kg DM, respectively). The results showed that wild plant species generally contained higher levels of pro-vitamin A carotenoids than the domesticated vegetable species and varieties. The study concluded that traditional, leafy vegetables (domesticated and wild) have the potential...

  3. Salads, safety and speech under a national Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Rita Marie

    2012-01-01

    This paper explains the processes for getting greens to market, and the safety issues they pose. The analysis explains marketing by large handlers of greens compared to smaller, local and organic producers. Part II analyzes the governmental safety net for leafy greens under the FDA's authority, juxtaposed against the USDA's governance of agricultural marketing agreements. Part III examines the proposed national Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement in detail. Part IV recommends an alternative to the USDA proposal in light of the foregoing analyses.

  4. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

  6. Cost and Returns in the marketing of Local Leafy Vegetables in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... in the marketing of ten local/indigenous leafy vegetables in some markets in Ibadan metropolis. ... Data on costs and returns of marketing operations were collected using structured questionnaire.

  7. Dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from a cattle feedlot: effect of proximity on contamination of leafy greens, bioaerosols, and pest flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables have focused attention on cattle as potential sources of contamination, and fueled the need for information regarding the dissemination of this pathogen from cattle production facilities. Questions include: can E...

  8. Inactivation of Human Norovirus GI, GII, and Surrogates by Free Chlorine in Postharvest Leafy Green Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, Nathan; Weng, Shih-Chi; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-09-08

    Human noroviruses (hNoVs) are a known public health concern associated with the consumption of leafy green vegetables. While a number of studies have investigated pathogen reduction on the surfaces of leafy greens during the postharvest washing process, there remains a paucity of data on the level of treatment needed to inactivate viruses in the wash water, which is critical for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to quantify the susceptibility of hNoV GI, hNoV GII, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 to free chlorine in whole leaf, chopped romaine, and shredded iceberg lettuce industrial leafy green wash waters, each sampled three times over a 4-month period. A suite of kinetic inactivation models was fit to the viral reduction data to aid in quantification of concentration × time (CT) values. Results indicate that 3 log10 infectivity reduction was achieved at CT values of less than 0.2 mg-min/L for MNV and 2.5 mg-min/L for MS2 in all wash water types. CT values for 2 log10 molecular reduction of hNoV GI in whole leaf and chopped romaine wash waters were 1.5 and 0.9 mg-min/L, respectively. For hNoV GII, CT values were 13.0 and 7.5 mg-min/L, respectively. In shredded iceberg wash water, 3 log10 molecular reduction was not observed for any virus over the time course of experiments. These findings demonstrate that noroviruses may exhibit genogroup dependent resistance to free chlorine and emphasize the importance of distinguishing between genogroups in hNoV persistence studies.Importance Postharvest washing of millions of pounds of leafy greens is performed daily in industrial processing facilities with the intention of removing dirt, debris, and pathogenic microorganisms prior to packaging. Modest inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms (less than 1-2 log10) is known to occur on the surfaces of leafy greens during washing. Therefore, the primary purpose of the sanitizing agent is to maintain microbial quality of postharvest

  9. Bacterial biomes and potential human pathogens in irrigation water and leafy greens from different production systems described using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, M; Chidamba, L; Korsten, L

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the influence of irrigation water microbial quality on leafy green vegetables produced in commercial and small-scale farms as well as homestead gardens using pyrosequencing. Next generation sequencing analysis of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of bacterial 16S rDNA was used to compare bacterial diversity in irrigation water sources and on leafy vegetables. In all samples (12) analysed, the phylum Proteobacteria (64·5%), class Gammaproteobacteria (56·6%) and genus Aeromonas (14·4%) were found to be dominant. Of the total Escherichia sequences detected in tested samples, lettuce (16·3%) from the one commercial farm harboured more sequences than cabbage from the small-scale farm (1·3%) or homestead gardens (1·9%). Escherichia sequences were detected in both irrigation water (4·6%) and on cabbage (1·3%) samples from the small-scale farm. The genus Salmonella was absent in borehole water but was detected in the holding dam water (irrigation greatly influences the microbial dynamics of the irrigated crop. Microbial biomes in irrigation water and on leafy greens were described with pyrosequencing and revealed insights into prevalence of potential and opportunistic pathogens across different production systems. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A Neural Network Based Recognition and Classification of Commonly Used Indian Non Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Danti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A methodology to characterize the commonly used Indian non-leafy vegetables’ images is developed. From the captured images of Indian non-leafy vegetables, color components, namely, RGB and HSV features are extracted, analyzed and classified. A feed forward backpropagation artificial neural network (BPNN is used for the classification. The results show that it has good robustness and a very high success rate in the range of 96-100% for eight types of vegetables. The work finds usefulness in developing recognition system for super market, automatic vending, packing and grading of vegetables, food preparation and Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC.

  11. Salmonella Typhimurium internalization is variable in leafy vegetables and fresh herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Dana; Kroupitski, Yulia; Belausov, Eduard; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo

    2011-01-31

    Despite washing and decontamination, outbreaks linked to consumption of fresh or minimally-processed leafy greens have been increasingly reported in recent years. In order to assure the safety of produce it is necessary to gain knowledge regarding the exact routes of contamination. Leaf internalization through stomata was previously reported as a potential route of contamination, which renders food-borne pathogens protected from washing and disinfection by sanitizers. In the present study we have examined the incidence (percentage of microscopic fields harboring ≥ 1 GFP-tagged bacteria) of Salmonella Typhimurium on the surface and underneath the epidermis in detached leaves of seven vegetables and fresh herbs. The incidence of internalized Salmonella varied considerably among the different plants. The highest incidence was observed in iceberg lettuce (81 ± 16%) and arugula leaves (88 ± 16%), while romaine (16 ± 16%) and red-lettuce (20 ± 15%), showed significantly lower incidence (P < 0.05). Internalization incidence in fresh basil was 46 ± 12%, while parsley and tomato leaves demonstrated only marginal internalization (1.9 ± 3.3% and 0.56 ± 1.36%, respectively). Internalization of Salmonella in iceberg lettuce largely varied (0-100%) through a 2 year survey, with a higher incidence occurring mainly in the summer. These results imply that Salmonella internalization occurs in several leafy vegetables and fresh herbs, other than iceberg lettuce, yet the level of internalization largely varies among plants and within the same crop. Since internalized bacteria may evade disinfection, it is of great interest to identify plants which are more susceptible to bacterial internalization, as well as plant and environmental factors that affect internalization.

  12. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  13. Bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium, iron and zinc in leafy vegetables amended with urban particulate matter suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlová, Jana; Száková, Jiřina; Sysalová, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Urban particulate matter (PM) can affect green plants either via deposition on the above-ground biomass, where the contaminants can penetrate the leaf surface, or indirectly via soil-root interaction. This experiment assessed the potential risk of PM-derived risk elements contained in vegetables. The bioavailable portions of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in leafy vegetables amended by PM via soil and/or foliar application were investigated in a model pot experiment, in which lettuce and chard were cultivated. By using the physiologically based extraction test simulating in vitro human digestive processes in the stomach and small intestine, the bioavailable portions of toxic elements from PM-amended plant biomass were extracted. Extractable portions of elements by a simulated gastric solution from biomass decreased for lettuce in the order Zn > Cd > As > Fe; while for chard, the order was As > Zn > Cd > Fe. No significant effects of PM physical fractions or soil were observed. Although the bioavailable element portions in the PM samples were lower compared to plants, the bioavailable element contents in foliar PM-amended plant leaves exceeded the control and soil PM amendment levels, even after biomass washing. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  15. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  16. Field application of glyphosate induces molecular changes affecting vegetative growth processes in leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommended rates of glyphosate for non-cultivated areas destroy the aboveground shoots of the perennial plant leafy spurge. However, such applications cause little or no damage to underground adventitious buds (UABs), and thus the plant readily regenerates vegetatively. High concentrations of glyph...

  17. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaquis, Pascal; Bach, Susan; Dinu, Laura-Dorina

    2007-08-01

    Leafy vegetables, including lettuce and spinach, have been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne disease caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, a pathogen of increasing public health significance because of the severity of the gastrointestinal illness and long-term, chronic sequelae that can result from infection. A definitive association between the consumption of leafy vegetables and human disease provides implicit evidence of transfer from animal sources to field crops and retail commodities, including minimally processed or fresh-cut products. Understanding the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy vegetables during production, after harvest, in storage, during processing, and in packaged fresh-cut products is essential for the development of effective control measures. To this end, previous research on the fate of the species at each step in the production of market-ready leafy vegetables is reviewed in this study. Several critical gaps in knowledge are identified, notably uncertainty about the location of contaminating cells on or in plant tissues, behavior in packaged products stored at low temperatures, and the influence of environmental stresses on growth and infectivity.

  18. A Preliminary Study on Microbial Contamination of Leafy Vegetables in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimu Shehu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Sokoto metropolis were evaluated for microbiological quality using standard procedures involving standard plate count (SPC. The vegetables investigated included Lactuaca sativa (Lettuce, Amaranthus hybridus (Spinach, Vernonia amagdalina (Bitter leaf, Brassica oleracea (Cabbage and Moringa oleifera Lam (Horse radish. Ten fungal species which include Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium oxysporium, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor racemoses, Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma harzianum and four species of bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocystogens and Staphyllococus aureus were isolated from the leafy vegetables. The total colony counts of fungi ranged from 1.8 x 106 – 6.28 x 105 (cfu/g of the vegetables while that of bacteria ranged from 1.0 x 106 to 2.94 x 106 cfu/g of the vegetables. The highest counts of microbial organisms were found on A. hybridus while M. oleifera and B. olerarea had the lowest fungal and bacterial counts respectively. There is a need to reduce the levels of  microbial contamination on leafy vegetables through appropriate production practices, careful handling by the vendors and appropriate processing  with a view to minimize  the risk of human exposure to fungal and bacterial pathogens associated with the vegetables.

  19. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy vegetable

  20. Mitigation of starch and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats by antioxidant-rich green-leafy vegetables′ juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Consumption of green-leafy vegetables is being advocated beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals possibly because they are cost effective source of potent biological antioxidants. This research analyzed various phytochemicals, free radicals scavenging antioxidant potentials and starch digesting enzymes inhibitory activities in fresh juice of nine green-leafy vegetables. Furthermore, this study also investigated influence of these vegetables juice on starch and glucose induced postprandial glycemic load. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical constituents, in vitro free radicals scavenging antioxidant and enzymes inhibitory activities were evaluated applying various reported methods. Post-prandial glycemic excursion was induced in rats pretreated with vegetables juice by oral administration of starch and glucose. Results: All the leafy vegetables juice displayed potent free radicals scavenging activities. Juice of amaranthus, rumex, palak and raphanus displayed potential anti-oxidative property by reducing H 2 O 2 induced hemolysis in rats red blood cells RBCs. Ajwain and rumex juice showed pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity. Alternanthera, ajwain, methi, amaranthus and sowa leaves juice displayed intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa significantly mitigated starch-induced postprandial glycemic load. Amaranthus leaves juice potently mitigated glucose-induced postprandial glycemic load and also reduced hemoglobin glycation induced by glucose in vitro. Conclusions: This investigation finds that juice of leafy vegetables is potent source of biological antioxidants. In addition, juice of raphanus, ajwain and sowa leaves possess capacity to mitigate starch induced postprandial glycemic burden and amaranthus leaves′ juice can reduce glucose induced postprandial glycemic excursion.

  1. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG He; DONG De-ming; WANG Ju; YANG Kai-ning; TIAN Lei; SUN Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar,total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi( Brassica rapa chihensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce( Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramnosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  2. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar, total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi(Brassica rapa chinensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce(Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  3. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï; Lessoy Yves Thierry Zoue; Sébastien Lamine Niamké

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5) leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leaf...

  4. Heavy metals in five leafy vegetables from urban and periurban sites in Ngaoundere, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adjia1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal concentrations were estimated in five leafy vegetables (Solanum nigrum, Brassica oleraceae, Lactuca sativa, Amaranthus hybridus and Corchorus olitorius from urban and periurban sites in Ngaoundere (Cameroon using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Vegetable samples were collected at the two stages of maturity: stage I (60 days and stage II (90 days for analysis. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in all vegetables were greater in urban site than in periurban site. The highest concentrations of Fe (673.92 mg/kg DW, Cu (10.42 mg/kg, Cd (1.70 mg/kg DW, and Pb (31.75 mg/kg DW were recorded in Lactuca sativa, Zn (94.60 mg/kg DW in Solanum nigrum, and Ni (16.91 mg/kg DW in Corchorus olitorius. The concentrations of Cu, and Pb were greater in roots than in aerial parts, while Fe, Cd, Ni and Zn concentrations were greater in aerial parts than in roots. Some of the concentrations of Ni, Zn and Pb in crops reached the critical level for plant growth. In general, the results indicated that the consumption of leafy vegetables harvested at the stage II potentially provides the greatest amount of heavy metals. The transportation index (Ti decreased in vegetables harvested at the stage II for Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn but slightly increased for Ni and Pb, suggesting that heavy metal transportation from roots to aerial parts depends on the plant phenology and metal species. In all farms and at the two stages of maturity, the lead concentrations in all vegetables were more than the FAO/WHO maximum recommended level in leafy vegetable for human consumption. Moreover, all vegetables had some Cd concentrations that were higher than limits set by FAO/WHO. So, they are not suitable for human consumption.

  5. Guidelines To Validate Control of Cross-Contamination during Washing of Fresh-Cut Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombas, D; Luo, Y; Brennan, J; Shergill, G; Petran, R; Walsh, R; Hau, H; Khurana, K; Zomorodi, B; Rosen, J; Varley, R; Deng, K

    2017-02-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires food processors to implement and validate processes that will result in significantly minimizing or preventing the occurrence of hazards that are reasonably foreseeable in food production. During production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, microbial contamination that may be present on the product can spread throughout the production batch when the product is washed, thus increasing the risk of illnesses. The use of antimicrobials in the wash water is a critical step in preventing such water-mediated cross-contamination; however, many factors can affect antimicrobial efficacy in the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, and the procedures for validating this key preventive control have not been articulated. Producers may consider three options for validating antimicrobial washing as a preventive control for cross-contamination. Option 1 involves the use of a surrogate for the microbial hazard and the demonstration that cross-contamination is prevented by the antimicrobial wash. Option 2 involves the use of antimicrobial sensors and the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained during worst-case operating conditions. Option 3 validates the placement of the sensors in the processing equipment with the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained at all locations, regardless of operating conditions. These validation options developed for fresh-cut leafy vegetables may serve as examples for validating processes that prevent cross-contamination during washing of other fresh produce commodities.

  6. Carotenoid and chlorophyll composition of commonly consumed leafy vegetables in Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znidarčič, Dragan; Ban, Dean; Sircelj, Helena

    2011-12-01

    Major chloroplast pigments in five leafy vegetables (chicory-Cichorium intybus, cv. 'Anivip' and cv. 'Monivip', dandelion-Taraxacum officinale, garden rocket-Eruca sativa and wild rocket-Diplotaxis tenuifolia), commonly consumed in Mediterranean countries, have been separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a reversed-phase column. Three classes of pigments were identified and quantified: xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids), carotenes (hydrocarbon carotenoids) and chlorophylls. The contents of the pigments in the analysed leafy vegetables varied significantly. The results indicated that selected leafy vegetables were moderately rich in xanthophylls, primarily lutein (3.87-7.44mg/100g fwt). Other xanthophylls were detected in relatively small quantities. The provitamin A carotenoids (α- and β-carotene) were also detected, but α-carotene were not present in chicory cultivars and in dandelion. The ratio of chlorophyll a/b varied from 2.44 to 2.67 depending on the species. The highest content of all the analysed constituents was found in the garden rocket.

  7. Effect of traditional leafy vegetables on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Muhammad Arshad; Baijnath, Himansu; Odhav, Bharti

    2014-12-01

    Traditional leafy vegetables, apart from being a staple in the diet of most of sub-Saharan Africa, are an essential part of traditional medicine and are used daily by traditional healers in the region to treat a wide variety of ailments. In this study, a batch culture technique was used to investigate whether 25 infusions from 22 traditional leafy vegetables stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium longum in pure culture. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the inulin content of the infusions. Sonchus oleraceus stimulated all four strains and Taraxacum officinale stimulated three strains. In total, 18 plants stimulated at least one of the four probiotic strains. The inulin content of the infusions varied between 2.5% and 3.6%, with Asparagus sprengeri containing the highest percentage. These results indicate that traditional leafy vegetables do stimulate the growth of the selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in pure culture and contain inulin. These infusions can now be tested for prebiotic potential using mixed culture systems or human hosts.

  8. Postharvest Survival of Porcine Sapovirus, a Human Norovirus Surrogate, on Phytopathogen-Infected Leafy Greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseili, Malak A; Chin, Ashlina; Saif, Linda; Miller, Sally A; Qu, Feng; Lewis Ivey, Melanie L; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-08-01

    Leafy greens are increasingly being recognized as an important vehicle for human noroviruses (HuNoV), which cause recurring gastroenteritis outbreaks. Leafy greens often become infected by phytopathogens in the field, which may cause symptoms on the edible parts. Whether plant pathogen infections enhance the survival of HuNoV on leafy greens is unknown. Lettuce and spinach plants were infected with a bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians strain 701a, and with Cucumber mosaic virus strain Fny, respectively. The survival rate of porcine sapovirus (SaV), a HuNoV surrogate, on infected and noninfected postharvest leaves was then assessed. In addition, acibenzolar-S-methyl, a commercial chemical elicitor of plant systemic defense, was used to assess whether stimulating the plant host defense affects the postharvest survival of SaV. Leaves harvested from control and treated plants were inoculated with SaV and incubated for 7 days at 4°C. The infectivity (tissue culture infectious dose affecting 50% of the culture [TCID50]/ml) and RNA (genomic equivalent/ml) titers of SaV were assayed using immunohistochemistry staining and SaV-specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcription PCR. Our results showed that cucumber mosaic virus Fny induced mild, nonnecrotic symptoms on spinach leaves and had no effect on SaV survival. In contrast, X. campestris pv. vitians 701a induced small localized necrotic lesions and significantly enhanced SaV survival on lettuce leaves. Treatment with acibenzolar-S-methyl was effective in reducing X. campestris pv. vitians 701a-induced lesions on infected lettuce plants but had no direct effect on SaV survival when used on healthy lettuce plants. These findings indicate that phytopathogen-induced necrotic lesions may enhance the postharvest survival of HuNoV on lettuce leaves. Therefore, preventive measures aiming to maintain healthy plants and minimize preharvest biological damage are expected to improve the safety of leafy greens.

  9. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R., E-mail: colin.black@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ{sub M}), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  10. Tracing temperature patterns of cut leafy greens during service in North Carolina school food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen M; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Phister, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Contaminated fresh produce has been increasingly identified as a cause of foodborne illnesses. Because of concerns about pathogen growth on these food items at retail, the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code established that cut leafy greens (lettuce, spinach, spring mix, cabbage, arugula, and kale) must have time and temperature controls for safety and hence should be kept at refrigerated temperatures (5°C or lower). The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature profiles of cut leafy greens in single-serving clamshell containers provided as part of the North Carolina School Lunch Program and to compare the two policies that North Carolina has in place to control the temperature of these products (the 3-day rule and time in lieu of temperature). Temperatures were recorded with data loggers in 24 schools during a 3-day period. In all cases, substantial temperature variability was found for these products, including temperatures above 5°C for at least 1 h on each of the 3 days. In some cases, temperatures reached above 5°C for more than 3 h throughout the serving time. The results demonstrate the importance of developing a protocol for continuous temperature monitoring of leafy greens served in school lunch programs.

  11. African leafy vegetables consumed by households in the Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A low intake of vegetables and fruit is among the top ten risk factors contributing to mortality worldwide.1 The World Health. Organization (WHO) ... deficiency.7 In South Africa, 64% of one- to nine-year-old children ...... chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J Am Diet.

  12. Residue Determination of Dimethoate in Leafy Vegetables (Spinach) using RPHPLC

    OpenAIRE

    J. BAGYALAKSHMI,; Kavitha, G.; Ravi, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of Dimethoate present in locally available Spinach varities - Palak : Beta maritima, Vendhai : Trigonella foenumgraecum, Thandan : Amarnathus mangostanus - green and red were determined. The quantification was carried out using RP-HPLC for unprocessed (fresh) and processed (washed, washed and cooked) Spinach samples. The extraction was carried out with benzene. It was found that unprocessedDimethoate Spinach contains dimethoate residue which is slightly more than the tolerance limit,...

  13. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  14. Silicon biofortification of leafy vegetables and its bioaccessibility in the edible parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Renna, Massimiliano; Cardinali, Angela; Buttaro, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro; Serio, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    The mineral silicon (Si) is an essential element for humans and a general component of the diet found mainly in plant-based foods. The aim of this study was to obtain Si biofortificated leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, basil, Swiss chard, and chicory) to use for the fresh-cut products (ready to use). For the production of biofortified plants, a floating system with 0, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) of Si in nutrient solution, was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of biofortified plants, by in vitro gastro-digestion process, was performed. The added silicon in nutrient solution did not influence yield and colour of vegetables but a species-related accumulation of Si (expressed as SiO2) was found: from 18 to 69 mg kg(-1) fresh weight (FW) in tatsoi, from 19 to 106 mg kg(-1) FW in mizuna, from 15 to 93 mg kg(-1) FW in purslane, from 41 to 294 mg kg(-1) FW in basil, from 17 to 76 mg kg(-1) FW in Swiss chard, and from 23 to 76 mg kg(-1) FW in chicory. The Si became bioaccessible in all species considered in a range from 23% (basil) to 64% (chicory). The application of Si to the nutrient solution in the range of 50-100 mg L(-1) allows biofortification of leafy vegetables. In addition, the biofortified vegetables showed, on average, more bioaccessible Si, with respect to unbiofortified vegetables. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Residue Determination of Dimethoate in Leafy Vegetables (Spinach using RPHPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BAGYALAKSHMI,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Residues of Dimethoate present in locally available Spinach varities - Palak : Beta maritima, Vendhai : Trigonella foenumgraecum, Thandan : Amarnathus mangostanus - green and red were determined. The quantification was carried out using RP-HPLC for unprocessed (fresh and processed (washed, washed and cooked Spinach samples. The extraction was carried out with benzene. It was found that unprocessedDimethoate Spinach contains dimethoate residue which is slightly more than the tolerance limit, while the processed sample contains imethoate residue within the tolerance limit. The washed samples (3 times under ordinary tap water showed 28-50 % reduction while the cooked samples (boiling for 15 min shows 58-71 % reduction compared to the unprocessed samples. Hence it can be concluded that in case of greens, it should be washed three times with ordinary water and then cooked (cooked for fifteen minutes so that the pesticide residue is very much reduced and it will be well within the tolerance limit as specified by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency.

  16. Iron bioavailibity from a tropical leafy vegetable in anaemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latunde-Dada Gladys O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Telfairia occidentalis is a vegetable food crop that is indigenous to West Africa. The leaves and seeds are the edible parts of the plant and are used in everyday meals by incorporation into soups and stews. Previous studies have attributed improved haematological indices to the vegetable and have advocated the use of T. occidentalis in the treatment of anemia. This study investigates the ameliorative effects of T. occidentalis when compared to FeSO4 as a reference salt in anaemic mice. It also compares the bioavailability of test iron and hepatic hepcidin expression for the estimation of iron absorption in the mice. Non-haem iron was determined in the liver of mice after the experimental feeding treatments. Hepcidin mRNA expression was carried out by quantitative RT-PCR. Administration of T. occidentalis leaves led to a modest increase in haemoglobin (Hb levels in anaemic mice that were comparable to the Hb repletion in anaemic mice given FeSO4. Hepatic iron increase in the mice given either T. occidentalis or FeSO4 led to a corresponding enhancement of hepcidin mRNA expression. Induced hepcidin mRNA expression was enhanced by the addition of ascorbic acid to the test dose of iron. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression was found to be responsive to increase in the relative bioavailability of iron from test diets.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of apple, hibiscus, olive, and hydrogen peroxide formulations against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine L; Patel, Jitendra; Jaroni, Divya; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial pathogens implicated in foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce in the last decade. In an effort to discover natural antimicrobials for use on fresh produce, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial plant extract-concentrate formulations on four types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. enterica serovar Newport. The leafy greens tested included organic romaine and iceberg lettuce, and organic adult and baby spinach. Each leaf sample was washed, dip inoculated with Salmonella Newport (10(6) CFU/ml), and dried. Apple and olive extract formulations were prepared at 1, 3, and 5% concentrations, and hibiscus concentrates were prepared at 10, 20, and 30%. Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 2 min and individually incubated at 4°C. After incubation, samples were taken on days 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. Our results showed that the antimicrobial activity was both concentration and time dependent. Olive extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity, resulting in 2- to 3-log CFU/g reductions for each concentration and type of leafy green by day 3. Apple extract showed 1- to 2-log CFU/g reductions by day 3 on various leafy greens. Hibiscus concentrate showed an overall reduction of 1 log CFU/g for all leafy greens. The maximum reduction by hydrogen peroxide (3%) was about 1 log CFU/g. The antimicrobial activity was also tested on the background microflora of organic leafy greens, and reductions ranged from 0 to 2.8 log. This study demonstrates the potential of natural plant extract formulations to inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens.

  18. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea: a long-term study on safety and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Woong; Kim, Kwang Gon; Choi, Eun Ah; Kang, Gyeong Ri; Kim, Tae Sun; Yang, Yong Shik; Moon, Su Jin; Ha, Dong Ryong; Kim, Eun Sun; Cho, Bae Sik

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has a unique food culture. South Koreans enjoy wrapping meat and eating or making kimchi (traditionally fermented Korean food) and eating using raw leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables. Therefore, there is a high chance of being exposed to pesticide residues of vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables from South Korea. A total of 8496 samples were mainly collected from Gwangju and Jeonnam area (the largest production region of leafy vegetables, stalk and stem vegetables) in South Korea from 2010 to 2014. A total of 230 pesticides were used for multi-residue analysis of pesticides. Among 8496 samples, 61 different pesticides (1029 times) were detected in 890 samples, of which 118 samples (1.4%) exceeded the Korea maximum residue limits (MRLs). Samples exceeding the MRLs were mostly found in leafy vegetables (brassica lee ssp. namai, leafy lettuce, spinach, perilla leaves, crown daisy, marsh mallow, aster scaber, pimpinella brachycarpa) and Chinese chive. Procymidone, dimethomorph and azoxystrobin were the most frequently found pesticides. A risk assessment of pesticides exceeding the MRLs was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ratio of EDI to ADI was 0.003-30.4%.

  19. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed.

  20. Screening of traditional South African leafy vegetables for specific anti-nutritional factors before and after processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira ESSACK

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of processing on anti-nutritional factors of thirteen traditional leafy vegetables collected in Kwa Zulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim was to determine whether processing reduced anti-nutrient levels of leafy vegetables. The vegetables were boiled in a plant-to-distilled water ratio of 1:4 (w/v at 97 °C for a time period of 5 and 15 min. The vegetables studied were: Amaranthus dubius, Amaranthus hybridus, Asystasia gangetica, Bidens pilosa, Ceratotheca triloba, Chenopodium album, Emex australis, Galinsoga parviflora, Guilleminea densa, Momordica balsamina, Oxygonum sinuatum, Physalis viscosa and Solanum nigrum. From this study, it was determined that non processed samples contained anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, alkaloids, oxalic acid, and cyanogenic glycoside. Both boiling parameters were effective in reducing the tannin, phytic acid, alkaloid, oxalic acid and cyanogenic glycoside contents of all 13 traditional leafy vegetables. The results of this study provide evidence that the local traditional leafy vegetables which the population is so reliant upon, are important contributors to micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries and can be minimized through common boiling methods for a minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 minutes.

  1. Uptake of 137Cs by Leafy Vegetables and Grains from Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C; Kehl, S

    2004-04-19

    Cesium-137 was deposited on Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll in 1954 as a result of nuclear testing and has been transported and cycled in the ecosystem ever since. Atoll soils are of marine origin and are almost pure CaCO{sub 3} with high concentrations of organic matter in the top 40 cm. Data from previous experiments with mature fruit trees show very high transfer factors (TF's), [Bq g{sup -1} plant/ Bq g{sup -1} soil, both in dry weight] into fruits from atoll calcareous soil. These TF's are much higher than reported for continental, silica-based soils. In this report TF's for 5 types of leafy vegetable crops and 2 types of grain crops are provided for use in predictive dose assessments and for comparison with other data from other investigators working with other types of soil in the IAEA CRP ''The Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants''. Transfer factors for plants grown on calcareous soil are again very high relative to clay-containing soils and range from 23 to 39 for grain crops and 21 to 113 for leafy vegetables. Results from these experiments, in this unique, high pH, high organic content, low potassium (K) soil, provide a boundary condition for models relating soil properties to TF.

  2. Metrics Proposed To Prevent the Harvest of Leafy Green Crops Exposed to Floodwater Contaminated with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Mary Theresa; Micallef, Shirley A; Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia D; Buchanan, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    The California Leafy Green Products Handler Marketing Agreement (LGMA) requires leafy green crops within 9 m of the edge of a flooded field not be harvested due to potential contamination (California Leafy Green Products Handler Marketing Board, Commodity Specific Flood Safety Guidelines for the Production and Harvest of Lettuce and Leafy Greens, 2012). Further, previously flooded soils should not be replanted for 60 days. In this study, the suitability of the LGMA metrics for farms in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States was evaluated. The upper end of a spinach bed (in Beltsville, MD) established on a -5% grade was flooded with water containing 6 log CFU/ml Escherichia coli to model a worst-case scenario of bacterial movement through soil. Escherichia coli prevalence in soil and on foliar tissue was determined by most probable number (MPN) analysis at distances up to 9 m from the edge of the flood for 63 days. While E. coli was quickly detected at the 9-m distance within 1 day in the spring trial and within 3 days in the fall trial, no E. coli was detected on plants outside the flood zone after 14 days. On day 63 for the two trials, E. coli populations in the flood zone soil were higher in the fall than in the spring. Regression analysis predicted that the time required for a 3-log MPN/g (dry weight) decrease in E. coli populations inside the flood zone was within the 60-day LGMA guideline in the spring but would require 90 days in the fall. Overall, data suggest that the current guidelines should be revised to include considerations of field and weather conditions that may promote bacterial movement and survival. This study tracked the movement of Escherichia coli from floodwater across a horizontal plane of soil and the potential for the contamination of distant leafy green produce. The purpose of this study was to address the validity of the California Leafy Green Products Handler Marketing Agreement recommendations for the harvest of leafy green crops

  3. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of leafy green producers. The relevance of microbiological criteria applicable to production, processing and at retail/catering were considered. The current legal framework does not include microbiological criteria applicable at primary production which will validate and verify GAP and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose. A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered and will also give an indication of the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programs have been implemented. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in leafy greens could be used as a tool to communicate to producers and processors that Salmonella should not be present in the product. Studies on the prevalence and infectivity of Norovirus are limited, and quantitative data on viral load are scarce making establishment of microbiological criteria for Norovirus on

  4. Wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, Berhane; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Asfaw, Zemede; Sosef, M.S.M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2015-01-01

    We studied wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical methods, including individual and focus group (n = 18) discussions, field observations, and individual interviews (n = 144), were used in t

  5. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Maysa Ahmad Eraky; Samia Mostafa Rashed; Mona El-Sayed Nasr; Azza Mohammed Salah El-Hamshary; Amera Salah El-Ghannam

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained sm...

  6. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  7. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders. ... of traditional dishes by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in. Nigeria and their contribution to ... resources of many crops. ... issues have resulted in increased demand of knowledge of ... into a Technicon Multi-sample Amino Acid Analyzer (TSM) ..... Malaysian.

  8. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, T C; Gaga, H E

    1999-01-01

    the vegetables were blanched for 30 seconds. When blanched for 60 seconds, trypsin inhibitor activity was reduced by 16.2, 45.8, 46.2, 51.0 and 42.4 percent in cabbage, collard, turnip, sweet potato and peanut greens, respectively. Similar trends in the reduction of chymotrypsin inhibitor activity were observed when the vegetables were conventionally blanched for 2.5, 5 and 10 minutes and when blanched by microwave oven for 30, 45 and 60 seconds. Based on the results of this study, the vegetables were good dietary sources of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrate and proteins. Also, blanching was an effective method for reducing the trypsin and chymotripsin inhibitor activities in the leafy vegetables, however, further investigation on the heating times for both conventional and microwave blanching methods is suggested.

  9. Dry deposition of gaseous radioiodine and particulate radiocaesium onto leafy vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschiersch, Jochen, E-mail: tschiersch@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Shinonaga, Taeko [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heuberger, Heidi [TU Muenchen, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Duernast 2, 85350 Freising (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Radionuclides released to the atmosphere during dry weather (e.g. after a nuclear accident) may contaminate vegetable foods and cause exposure to humans via the food chain. To obtain experimental data for an appropriate assessment of this exposure path, dry deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables was studied under homogeneous and controlled greenhouse conditions. Gaseous {sup 131}I-tracer in predominant elemental form and particulate {sup 134}Cs-tracer at about 1 {mu}m diameter were used to identify susceptible vegetable species with regard to contamination by these radionuclides. The persistence was examined by washing the harvested product with water. The vegetables tested were spinach (Spinacia oleracea), butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata), endive (Cichorium endivia), leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa), curly kale (Brassica oleracea convar. acephala) and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata). The variation of radionuclides deposited onto each vegetable was evaluated statistically using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis Test and the U-test of Mann-Whitney. Significant differences in deposited {sup 131}I and {sup 134}Cs activity concentration were found among the vegetable species. For {sup 131}I, the deposition velocity to spinach normalized to the biomass of the vegetation was 0.5-0.9 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} which was the highest among all species. The particulate {sup 134}Cs deposition velocity of 0.09 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} was the highest for curly kale, which has rough and structured leaves. The lowest deposition velocity was onto white cabbage: 0.02 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} (iodine) and 0.003 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} s{sup -1} (caesium). For all species, the gaseous iodine deposition was significantly higher compared to the particulate caesium deposition. The deposition depends on the sensitive parameters leaf area, stomatal aperture, and plant morphology. Decontamination by washing with water was very

  10. [Concentrations of mercury in ambient air in wastewater irrigated area of Tianjin City and its accumulation in leafy vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-An; Han, Yun-Lei; Zheng, Xiang-Qun

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury (Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade I, but were still lower than grade II. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade I . Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71.3 ng x m(-3) and 39.2 ng x m(-3), respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1.5-2.0 ng x m(-3)). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9.4 ng x m(-3). In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the allowable

  11. Evaluation of Nutritive and Antioxidant Properties of Blanched Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulai Patricia D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam blanching processing on the nutritive value and the antioxidant properties of five leafy vegetable species (Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata that are used for sauce preparation in Northern CÔte d'Ivoire. The selected leafy vegetables were subjected to blanching in pressure cooker for 15, 25 and 45 min and the physicochemical properties were determined using AOAC methods. The result of the study revealed that longer time of blanching (higher than 15 min caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients and increasing polyphenols. The registered losses (p0.05 at 15 min were as follow: ash (0.08-10.01%, proteins (0.36-12.03%, vitamin C (19.56-68.67%, carotenoids (18.91-55.48% oxalates (3.58-21.39% and phytates (10.51-68.02%. The average increase of polyphenols contents at 15 min of blanching was 1.61 to 30.72%. In addition, a slight increase (0.35-4.16% of fibres content was observed in the studied blanched leafy vegetables. Furthermore, after 15 min of blanching time the residual contents (p0.05 of minerals were: calcium (264.88-844.92 mg/100 g, magnesium (49.45-435.43 mg/100 g, potassium (675-1895.41 mg/100 g, iron (14.54-70.89 mg/100 g and zinc (9.48-36.46 mg/100 g. All these results suggest that the recommended time of domestic blanching must be less than 15 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population

  12. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5 leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leafy vegetables (500 g were spread on clean filter paper and kept in a well-ventilated room of the laboratory at 25°C for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results of proximate composition after 15 days of shadow drying were: moisture (15.19 – 20.36%, ash (9.14 -19.54%, crude fiber (11.04 – 27.40%, proteins (11.14 - 17.94%, lipids (2.41 – 5.86% and carbohydrates (16.59 – 45.14%. The concentration of minerals increased with respective values after 15 days of shadow drying: calcium (68.14-408.09 mg/100 g, magnesium (50.62-317.23 mg/100 g, iron (27.52-92.03 mg/100 g and zinc (10.17-16.73 mg/100 g. During shadow drying, vitamin C and carotenoids were subjected to losses estimated to 35.52 – 70.50% and 22.82 – 45.63%, respectively. Contrary to these losses, antioxidant activity increased and ranged from 57.45 to 75.55 % after 15 days of shadow drying. All these results suggest that the considerable nutrient contents of shade dried leafy vegetables make them good source of food supplements in order to meet the nutritional requirements of Ivorian population.

  13. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro E. Mabeyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90±0.40 to 1.95±0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW, with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12±0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35±0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P<0.01. The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods.

  14. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in water wells and soil using common leafy green plant indicators in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the levels of eight heavy metals in irrigation well water and soil and to assess the suitability of some leafy green plants that are commonly cultivated in the Al-Kharj region, Saudi Arabia, for human consumption using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The mean concentrations of metals ranged from 0.0001 to 0.436 mg/L in well water and from 0.248 to 164.52 mg/kg in soil. The heavy metal concentrations showed significant differences among the different leafy green plants studied. Parsley (4.98 mg/kg) exhibited higher levels of Pb than other leafy green plants, whereas mallow (0.097 mg/kg) revealed greater amounts of Cd than other plants. All of the leafy green plants retained essential metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) more than the toxic metals (Pb and Cd). The levels of some of the metals in the leafy green plants were found to meet the FAO/WHO-recommended limits. The monitoring of heavy metals in leafy green plants must be continued because these plants are the main source of food for humans in many parts of the world and are considered to be bio-indicators for environmental pollution.

  15. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2009-09-01

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe 3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn 2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C dbnd O bonds.

  16. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some leafy vegetables collected from Palakkad regions of Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SUTHARSON

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sauropus androgynus, Aerva lanata & Benincasa hispida have been using as leafy vegetable in kerala. The investigation undertaken was aimed to study xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitory activity of these three plants and it was demonstrated the usefulness and beneficial effects in the treatment of Gout. Inhibition of XO is an effective therapeutic approach for treating hyperuricemia that causes gout. Allopurinol, a known inhibitor of XO, was used to validate the method and was adopted as positive control in the studies. The degree of inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295 nm associated with uric acid formation. Aerva lanata showed a significant XO inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 62.53μg/ml. Benincasa hispida and Sauropus androgynus showed a moderate significant XO inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 67.97μg/ml,80.12 μg/ml respectively. The study recommended that leaves possess XO inhibitory activity that might be useful in preventing or slow down the progress of gout.

  17. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Ahmad Eraky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6% samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8% followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%, various helminth larvae (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%. The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5% followed by watercress (41.3%, parsley (34.3%, green onion (16.5%, and leek (10.7%. These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P<0.05, with highest prevalence in summer (49% and the lowest in winter (10.8%. These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables.

  18. Parasitic contamination of commonly consumed fresh leafy vegetables in benha, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Rashed, Samia Mostafa; Nasr, Mona El-Sayed; El-Hamshary, Azza Mohammed Salah; Salah El-Ghannam, Amera

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6%) samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8%) followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%), Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%), various helminth larvae (3.6%), Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%), Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%), and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%). The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5%) followed by watercress (41.3%), parsley (34.3%), green onion (16.5%), and leek (10.7%). These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables.

  19. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable /sup 26/Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.; Spencer, H.; Welsh, J.J.

    1984-04-01

    Collards, turnip greens, leaf lettuce, and spinach, grown in nutrient solution so that their Mg content was 80 to 90% /sup 26/Mg, were tested in ambulant male volunteers stabilized on a constant metabolic diet. The freeze-dried vegetables were incorporated in bran muffins in which the vegetables replaced part of the bran. Bran muffins without vegetables were consumed for breakfast each day. They were also used as a standard test meal to which the vegetable muffins were compared. All subjects participated in three consecutive isotope absorption tests: one of the standard test meal and two of the vegetables. The standard test was carried out after at least 30 days on the controlled diet. Subsequent tests of vegetables followed at 4-wk intervals. Each test meal contained 30 microCi /sup 28/MgCl2 and 50 mg stable /sup 26/Mg, the latter either as the intrinsic label of a test vegetable or as /sup 26/MgCl/sub 2/ in solution taken with the standard bran muffins. Net absorption of both isotopes was measured to establish exchangeability and to determine relative Mg absorption from the vegetables. Exchangeability was 90% or higher from all meals tested. Relative Mg absorption was highest from collards and least from the standard test meal. Net absorption values ranged from 40 to 60%.

  20. Potential of intercropping for management of some arthropod and nematode pests of leafy vegetables in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linguya Kimaru S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available African leafy vegetables (ALVs play an important role as income and food security crops in many households in Kenya. However, their potential in alleviating poverty and ensuring household food and nutrition security has not been fully exploited. The objectives of this study were to identify some arthropod and nematode pests that infest ALVs and to evaluate the effectiveness of intercropping of susceptible and resistant plants for the management purposes. Three vegetable types: African nightshade, sunn hemp and spider plant were used in determining the efficacy of an intercrop of susceptible and non-susceptible types in reducing arthropod and nematode pest effect. The treatments in the field experiment consisted of different intercrop designs and a sole crop design as control while data was taken based on five different variables. Crops in the field were infested with arthropod pests and eight different species were enumerated. The same row and hill intercropping designs were the most effective in reducing the effect of arthropod and nematode pests compared to the control plots. Spider plant and African nightshade intercrops recorded the least arthropod pest damage, higher fresh and dry shoot yields and differed significantly (P≤0.05 to African nightshade planted as a sole crop. A similar trend was observed when the experiment was repeated with a sunn hemp and African nightshade intercrop. It is concluded from this study that intercropping of different crops can be integrated with other methods to provide an easily adaptable technology to apply for effective management of arthropod and nematode pests with low external inputs.

  1. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose. A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered......Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates...... of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism) in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique...

  2. HOW SAFE ARE VEGETABLES: PARASITOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF FRESH LEAFY VEGETABLES IN MANGALORE

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Dias; Minu George; Akshay Dias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Parasitic diseases are the leading causes of death and disease especially in developing tropical countries like India. One of the major modes of transmission of parasites to humans is via consumption of Vegetables. They normally become a potential source by contamination, during production, collection, transport and preparation or during processing and the sources of contamination are usually faeces, faecally contaminated soil or water. Objectives: To know the presence ...

  3. Development of a cost-effectiveness analysis of leafy green marketing agreement irrigation water provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Pouliot, Sébastien; Wang, Tong; Jay-Russell, Michele T

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of meeting the irrigation water provisions of the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) relative to its costs provides an approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of good agricultural practices that uses available data. A case example for lettuce is used to evaluate data requirements and provide a methodological example to determine the cost-effectiveness of the LGMA water quality provision. Both cost and field data on pathogen or indicator bacterial levels are difficult and expensive to obtain prospectively. Therefore, methods to use existing field and experimental data are required. Based on data from current literature and experimental studies, we calculate a cost-efficiency ratio that expresses the reduction in E. coli concentration per dollar expenditure on testing of irrigation water. With appropriate data, the same type of analysis can be extended to soil amendments and other practices and to evaluation of public benefits of practices used in production. Careful use of existing and experimental data can lead to evaluation of an expanded set of practices.

  4. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  5. Minerals, vitamin C, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentrations and antioxidant activity levels in 15 leafy Amaranthus species. Across species, the concentration ranges of Ca, K, Mg, P and phenolics, and activity ranges of antioxidants in amaranth leaves were 1....

  6. Bacterial communities associated with surfaces of leafy greens: shift in composition and decrease in richness over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Nordskog, Berit; Brurberg, May Bente

    2015-02-01

    The phyllosphere is colonized by a wide variety of bacteria and fungi; it harbors epiphytes, as well as plant-pathogenic bacteria and even human pathogens. However, little is known about how the bacterial community composition on leafy greens develops over time. The bacterial community of the leafy-green phyllosphere obtained from two plantings of rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) and three plantings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at two farms in Norway were profiled by an Illumina MiSeq-based approach. We found that the bacterial richness of the L. sativa samples was significantly greater shortly (3 weeks) after planting than at harvest (5 to 7 weeks after planting) for plantings 1 and 3 at both farms. For the second planting, the bacterial diversity remained consistent at the two sites. This suggests that the effect on bacterial colonization of leaves, at least in part must, be seasonally driven rather than driven solely by leaf maturity. The distribution of phyllosphere communities varied between D. tenuifolia and L. sativa at harvest. The variability between these species at the same location suggests that the leaf-dwelling bacteria are not only passive inhabitants but interact with the host, which shapes niches favoring the growth of particular taxa. This work contributes to our understanding of host plant-specific microbial community structures and shows how these communities change throughout plant development.

  7. Reduced transcription of a LEAFY-like gene in Alstroemeria sp. cultivar Green Coral that cannot develop floral meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Masayo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Kanno, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Alstroemeria sp. cv. Green Coral has numerous bracts instead of flowers, and its cyme structures are repeated eternally. Observations of the development and morphology of inflorescence in cv. Green Coral revealed that transition from inflorescence to floral meristem was restricted. We isolated and characterized floral meristem identity genes LEAFY-like (AlsLFY) and SQUAMOSA-like (AlsSQa and AlsSQb) genes from Alstroemeria ligtu. In situ hybridization results indicated that AlsSQa and AlsSQb were expressed in the dome-shaped floral meristems and all floral organ primordia in A. ligtu. Transcripts of AlsLFY accumulated early in the dome-shaped floral meristems; the signals were restricted later to the outer region of the floral meristem. These results indicate that AlsLFY, AlsSQa, and AlsSQb function as floral meristem identity genes. Expression profiles of AlsLFY, AlsSQa, AlsSQb, and other MADS-box genes were compared between A. ligtu and cv. Green Coral. AlsLFY, AlsDEFa, and AlsAGL6 transcripts were not detected at the shoot apices of cv. Green Coral but were detected in A. ligtu. The early induction and accumulation of AlsLFY transcripts in the inflorescence meristem of A. ligtu prior to development of the floral meristem suggest that downregulation of AlsLFY is likely to restrict the inflorescence-to-floral meristem transition in cv. Green Coral.

  8. Antibacterial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (iceberg and romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were wash...

  9. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivated as tuber or leafy vegetable supplier as affected by elevated tropospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutgen, Norbert; Keutgen, Anna J; Janssens, Marc J J

    2008-08-13

    Sweet potato cultivars respond differently to elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations of ca. 130 mug m (-3), 8 h a day for 4 weeks, which affects their selection for cultivation. In the first cultivar presented here, an adequate leafy vegetable supplier, the ozone load resulted in a shift of biomass to maintain the canopy at the expense of tuber development. Starch content of leaves was reduced, indicating an impairment of quality, but carotenoid content remained stable. The second cultivar may be grown for tuber production. Although the ratio tuber/plant remained stable under ozone, tuber yield and its starch content were significantly reduced. The lower starch content indicated a worse quality for certain industrial processing, but it is desirable for chip production. Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations also influenced free amino acids and macronutrient contents of tubers, but these modifications were of minor significance for tuber quality in the second cultivar.

  10. Absence of internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into germinating tissue of field-grown leafy greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Davey, Lindsey E; Payton, Alison S; Flitcroft, Ian D; Phatak, Sharad C; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    Both growth chamber and field studies were conducted to investigate the potential for Escherichia coli O157:H7 to be internalized into leafy green tissue when seeds were germinated in contaminated soil. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in both spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings when seeds were germinated within the growth chamber in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, respectively, contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 at 2.0 and 3.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations could be detected by enumeration within leafy green tissues either by increasing the pathogen levels in the soil or by autoclaving the soil. Attempts to maximize the exposure of seed to E. coli O157:H7 by increasing the mobility of the microbe either through soil with a higher moisture content or through directly soaking the seeds in an E. coli O157:H7 inoculum did not increase the degree of internalization. Based on responses obtained in growth chamber studies, internalization of E. coli O157:H7 surrogates (natural isolates of Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 or recombinant [stx- and eae-negative] outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7) occurred to a slightly lesser degree than did internalization of the virulent outbreak strains of E. coli O157:H7. The apparent lack of internalized E. coli O157:H7 when spinach and lettuce were germinated from seed in contaminated soil (ca. 3 to 5 log CFU/g) in the field and the limited occurrence of surface contamination on the seedlings suggest that competition from indigenous soil bacteria and environmental stresses were greater in the field than in the growth chamber. On the rare occasion that soil contamination with E. coli O157:H7 exceeded 5 log CFU/g in a commercial field, this pathogen probably would not be internalized into germinating leafy greens and/or would not still be present at the time of harvest.

  11. Integrated in vitro approaches to assess the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables and preliminary effects on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Giacomina; Gigante, Isabella; Serio, Francesco; Santamaria, Pietro; Cardinali, Angela; Colucci, Silvia; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2017-03-01

    Food industries are increasingly oriented toward new foods to improve nutritional status and/or to combat nutritional deficiency diseases. In this context, silicon biofortification could be an innovative tool for obtaining new foods with possible positive effects on bone mineralization. In this paper, an alternative and quick in vitro approach was applied in order to evaluate the potential health-promoting effects of five silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, Swiss chard and chicory) on bone mineralization compared with a commercial silicon supplement. The silicon bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the five leafy vegetables (biofortified or not) and of the supplement were assessed by applying a protocol consisting of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion coupled with a Caco-2 cell model. Silicon bioaccessibility ranged from 0.89 to 8.18 mg/L and bioavailability ranged from 111 to 206 μg/L of Si for both vegetables and supplement. Furthermore, the bioavailable fractions were tested on a human osteoblast cell model following the expression of type 1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase. The results obtained highlighted that the bioavailable fraction of biofortified purslane and Swiss chard improved the expression of both osteoblast markers compared with the supplement and other vegetables. These results underline the potentially beneficial effect of biofortified leafy vegetables and also indicate the usefulness of in vitro approaches for selecting the best vegetable with positive bone effects for further in vivo research.

  12. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-06-28

    Phenolic compounds in the aqueous systems were extracted, from hazelnut kernel (HK) and hazelnut green leafy cover (HGLC), with 80% (v/v) ethanol (HKe and HGLCe) or 80% (v/v) acetone (HKa and HGLCa). The extracts were examined for their phenolic and condensed tannin contents and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities by total antioxidant activity (TAA), antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, and reducing power. Significant differences (p HGLCe > HKa > HKe. These results suggest that both 80% ethanol and acetone are capable of extracting phenolics, but 80% acetone was a more effective solvent for the extraction process. HGLC exhibited stronger antioxidant and antiradical activities than HK itself in both extracts and could potentially be considered as an inexpensive source of natural antioxidants.

  13. β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiye, Shadrack O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Shiundu, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in β-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for β-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. β-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative β-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a β-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the β-carotene. As much as 280 μRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through β-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post-cooking, kales had statistically comparable β-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of β-carotene content. Measures to prevent β-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high β-carotene content.

  14. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and per

  15. Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus) a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2014-04-01

    Morogo (vegetables in Tswana) is a green leafy vegetable from the Amaranthaceae family that can be harvested from wild growing or cultivated. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value, the total antioxidant capacity and selected bioactive compounds present in morogo leaves, and evaluate the effect of drying and cooking. Results showed that morogo contained a significant amount of protein (3.6 ± 0.1 g/100 g FW) and minerals which the level exceed 1% of fresh weight. The total antioxidant capacity (μmole TE/ 100 g FW) determined by DPPH and FRAP assays were 118.3 ± 15.3 and 128.4 ± 11.9 respectively. Total polyphenols (109.4 ± 7.5 mg GAE/100 g FW), vitamin C (36.6 ± 1.0 mg /100 g FW) and carotenoids represented by β carotene (25.3 ± 1.3 mg /100 g FW) and xanthophylls (7.48 ± 0.31 mg /100 g FW) formed a significant part of bioactive compounds content of morogo leaves. Since the boiling can cause significant losses of compounds in the boiling water, it can be recommended to avoid cooking methods that can include a boiling step with discard of boiling water.

  16. Nutritional yield: a proposed index for fresh food improvement illustrated with leafy vegetable data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Natalie R; Scheerens, Joseph C; Kleinhenz, Matthew D

    2012-09-01

    Consumer interest in food products, including fresh vegetables, with health promoting properties is rising. In fresh vegetables, these properties include vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and secondary compounds, which collectively impart a large portion of the dietary, nutritional or health value associated with vegetable intake. Many, including farmers, aim to increase the health-promoting properties of fresh vegetables on the whole but they face at least three obstacles. First, describing crop composition in terms of its nutrition-based impact on human health is complex and there are few, if any, accepted processes and associated metrics for assessing and managing vegetable composition on-farm, at the origin of supply. Second, data suggest that primary and secondary metabolism can be 'in conflict' when establishing the abundance versus composition of a crop. Third, fresh vegetable farmers are rarely compensated for the phytochemical composition of their product. The development and implementation of a fresh vegetable 'nutritional yield' index could be instrumental in overcoming these obstacles. Nutritional yield is a function of crop biomass and tissue levels of health-related metabolites, including bioavailable antioxidant potential. Data from a multi-factor study of leaf lettuce primary and secondary metabolism and the literature suggest that antioxidant yield is sensitive to genetic and environmental production factors, and that changes in crop production and valuation will be required for fresh vegetable production systems to become more focused and purposeful instruments of public health.

  17. Total nutritional capacity and inflammation inhibition effect of Acalypha alnifolia Klein ex wild—An unexplored wild leafy vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Ponnusamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the nutritional as well as trace elements of a wild leafy vegetable, Acalypha alnifolia, and evaluation of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of acetone and methanol leaf extracts are the main objectives of the present study. The powdered A. alnifolia leaf sample was subjected to nutritional and mineral analysis. Plant leaves were extracted (using the Soxhlet apparatus as successive solvent extractions. The extract doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of acetone and methanol extracts were used for pharmacology study. The analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic experiments were carried out by using animal models. The obtained result proves that the plant possesses essential nutritive values and useful biological properties. The higher dose of acetone extract has significant potency when compared with methanol extract at p < 0.005. On the whole, the plant is rich in minerals and has good biological properties; hence, this plant is suggested for cultivation and regular use for nutritional supplement.

  18. Risk Assessment or Assessment of Risk? Developing an Evidence-Based Approach for Primary Producers of Leafy Vegetables To Assess and Manage Microbial Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, J M; Augustin, J C; Bassett, J; Betts, R; Pourkomailian, B; Zwietering, M H

    2017-03-28

    Over the last 10 years, some high-profile foodborne illness outbreaks have been linked to the consumption of leafy greens. Growers are required to complete microbiological risk assessments (RAs) for the production of leafy crops supplied either to retail or for further processing. These RAs are based primarily on qualitative judgements of hazard and risks at various stages in the production process but lack many of the steps defined for quantitative microbiological RAs by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This article is based on the discussions of an industry expert group and proposes a grower RA approach based on a structured qualitative assessment, which requires all decisions to be based on evidence and a framework for describing the decision process that can be challenged and defended within the supply chain. In addition, this article highlights the need for evidence to be more easily available and accessible to primary producers and identifies the need to develop hygiene criteria to aid validation of proposed interventions.

  19. Relative effectiveness of selected preenrichment media for the detection of Salmonella from leafy green produce and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Wang, Hua; Gill, Vikas S; Duvall, Robert; Arce, Gabriela; Chirtel, Stuart; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-05-01

    Four buffered preenrichment media (BAX(®) System MP Media (BAX)), Universal Preenrichment Broth (UPB), modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW), and Buffered Peptone Water (BPW)) were compared with lactose broth (LB) in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's (BAM) Salmonella culture method for the analysis of 9 leafy green produce and herb types. Artificially contaminated test portions were pre-enriched in each medium and the results were analyzed statistically using Fisher's Exact 2-tailed F test (p Salmonella from curly parsley and basil among the five media (p > 0.05). UPB was consistently among the most effective media for recovery of Salmonella from the nine produce types; however, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport were isolated from cabbage more frequently with mBPW than with UPB (p Salmonella is more effectively detected and isolated using buffered enrichments than with the currently recommended LB (p Salmonella-positive test portions of the produce tested (BAX (160 Salmonella-positive test portions/480 test portions), UPB (176/480), mBPW (184/480), BPW (169/480), LB (128/480))(p > 0.05).

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  1. Effects of mixed rare earth fertilizer on yield and nutrient quality of leafy vegetables during different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳军; 任学军; 马建军; 闫立英

    2016-01-01

    Using Chinese cabbage and rape as test material and examining the same soil conditions at different seasons (spring and autumn), the effects of mixed rare earth fertilizer on the yield and nutrient quality of leafy vegetables were studied to provide a theo-retical basis for the application of mixed rare earth fertilizer in agriculture. Results showed a seasonal difference in the nutrient quality of Chinese cabbage and rape. For crops planted in autumn, the soluble sugar and vitamin C content were higher, the titratable acid and nitrate content were lower, and the sugar acid ratio was higher relative to crops planted in spring. Mixed rare earth treatments pro-moted growth of both crops during both seasons. The plot yield, stem and leaf fresh and dry matter weight, and dry and fresh ratio in-creased. These increases for Chinese cabbage were greater in autumn than in spring while for rape, the increases were greater in spring than autumn. The soluble sugar content, titratable acid content and sugar acid ratio were increased and the nitrate content de-creased, in autumn the effects were more obvious than in spring. In spring, the vitamin C content was increased, and the increase was greater for Chinese cabbage than rape. In autumn, the vitamin C content decreased, and the decrease was greater for rape than Chinese cabbage. At the same time, the content of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Ni in stems and leaves decreased. This decrease was greater in spring for Chinese cabbage and in autumn for rape.

  2. Design of a Small Intelligent Leafy Vegetable Harvester%小型智能叶菜类蔬菜收割机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高龙; 弋景刚; 孔德刚; 袁永伟

    2016-01-01

    目前,我国大部分叶菜类蔬菜收获作业基本靠人工完成,收割效率低,且对蔬菜损伤较大。针对叶菜类蔬菜收割存在的问题,通过使用功能树对机器功能进行分析,设计了一种小型智能自动化叶菜类蔬菜收割机。该机能够根据蔬菜种类的不同,智能调节收割蔬菜的割幅宽度与割茬高度,并采用了电池直流驱动技术、丝杆升降技术、双向丝杠技术和分级传动技术。该收割机收割效率高,可保证蔬菜的收割品质,满足国内大部分地区叶菜类蔬菜收割的需要。%Currently, most of the harvesting operation of leafy vegetable was completed by manual work in china, which are inefficiency and serious damage to vegetable.To solve this problem,this paper design a small intelligent leafy vegeta-ble harvesters.It can adjust the cutting width and cutting height to suit different kinds of vegetables.The machine utilizes some technologies that are lead screw for lifting ,the DC drive cage steering wheel,two-stage drive and Two-way lead screw.The machine get high harvesting efficiency, while ensuring the quality of the vegetables to meet harvesting re-quirements for vegetables in large part of china.

  3. Vegetation type classification and vegetation cover percentage estimation in urban green zone using pleiades imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Open green space in the urban area has aims to maintain the availability of land as a water catchment area, creating aspects of urban planning through a balance between the natural environment and the built environment that are useful for the public needs. Local governments have to make the green zone plan map and monitor the green space changes in their territory. Medium and high resolution satellite imageries have been widely utilized to map and monitor the changes of vegetation cover as an indicator of green space area. This paper describes the use of pleaides imagery to classify vegetation types and estimate vegetation cover percentage in the green zone. Vegetation cover was mapped using a combination of NDVI and blue band. Furthermore, vegetation types in the green space were classified using unsupervised and supervised (ISODATA and MLEN) methods. Vegetation types in the study area were divided into sparse vegetation, low-medium vegetation and medium-high vegetation. The classification accuracies were 97.9% and 98.9% for unsupervised and supervised method respectively. The vegetation cover percentage was determined by calculating the ratio between the vegetation type area and the green zone area. These information are useful to support green zone management activities.

  4. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Johannessen, Gro S; Allende, Ana; Tondo, Eduardo César; El-Tahan, Fouad; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-08-18

    The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses) than soil (16/1186) and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries). The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR) 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella) was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region.

  5. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siele Ceuppens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses than soil (16/1186 and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries. The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region.

  6. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required.

  7. Risk Factors for Salmonella, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Campylobacter Occurrence in Primary Production of Leafy Greens and Strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Johannessen, Gro S.; Allende, Ana; Tondo, Eduardo César; El-Tahan, Fouad; Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The microbiological sanitary quality and safety of leafy greens and strawberries were assessed in the primary production in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway and Spain by enumeration of Escherichia coli and detection of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Campylobacter. Water samples were more prone to containing pathogens (54 positives out of 950 analyses) than soil (16/1186) and produce on the field (18/977 for leafy greens and 5/402 for strawberries). The prevalence of pathogens also varied markedly according to the sampling region. Flooding of fields increased the risk considerably, with odds ratio (OR) 10.9 for Salmonella and 7.0 for STEC. A significant association between elevated numbers of generic E. coli and detection of pathogens (OR of 2.3 for STEC and 2.7 for Salmonella) was established. Generic E. coli was found to be a suitable index organism for Salmonella and STEC, but to a lesser extent for Campylobacter. Guidelines on frequency of sampling and threshold values for E. coli in irrigation water may differ from region to region. PMID:26295251

  8. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunasekaran Nagarani; Arumugam Abirami; Prasad Nikitha; Perumal Siddhuraju

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea.Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity.Results:The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3439-309549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17808-53818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions: The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed.

  9. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for bioaerosol and pest fly transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent foodborne outbreaks linked to spinach and lettuce emphasize the need for information regarding E. coli O157:H7 dissemination from cattle production. Project objectives were to evaluate the impact of proximity to a cattle feedlot on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and to examine...

  10. Occurrence of generic E. coli, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in water and sediment from leafy green produce farms and streams on the Central California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation with water of poor microbiological quality can elevate levels of bacteria on produce. This study aimed to identify climate and management covariates associated with generic E. coli in irrigation water on leafy green produce farms and to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmon...

  11. Changes in phytochemicals, anti-nutrients and antioxidant activity in leafy vegetables by microwave boiling with normal and 5% NaCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shrawan; Swain, S; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Nayak, Dipak; Roy, S Dam

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the changes in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in 25 leafy vegetables with two common boiling practices viz., with 5% NaCl solution (BSW) and normal water (BNW) in a domestic microwave oven. Fresh samples (100g) were rich in polyphenols (58.8-296.9mg), tannin (402.0-519.4mg), flavonoids (148.9-614.4mg), carotenoids (69.0-786.3mg), anthocyanin (11.7-493.7mg) and ascorbic acid (245.0-314.2mg). Microwave boiling significantly (pBoiling process reduced anti-nutrients from fresh samples (FS) as observed for nitrate (4.5-73.6% by BSW and 22.5-98.8% by BNW); phytate (6.2-69.7% by BSW and 10.6-57.3% by BNW) and oxalate (14.7-88.9% by BSW and 14.5-87.3% by BNW) but saponin increased in 18 vegetables by BNW while 8 vegetables by BSW. The study revealed differential pattern of change in phytochemical matrix and anti-nutrients in vegetables by microwave boiling which will help in devising efficient cooking practices and contribute in health and nutritional security. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  13. Methodology for modeling the disinfection efficiency of fresh-cut leafy vegetables wash water applied on peracetic acid combined with lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haute, S; López-Gálvez, F; Gómez-López, V M; Eriksson, Markus; Devlieghere, F; Allende, Ana; Sampers, I

    2015-09-02

    A methodology to i) assess the feasibility of water disinfection in fresh-cut leafy greens wash water and ii) to compare the disinfectant efficiency of water disinfectants was defined and applied for a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) and lactic acid (LA) and comparison with free chlorine was made. Standardized process water, a watery suspension of iceberg lettuce, was used for the experiments. First, the combination of PAA+LA was evaluated for water recycling. In this case disinfectant was added to standardized process water inoculated with Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 (6logCFU/mL). Regression models were constructed based on the batch inactivation data and validated in industrial process water obtained from fresh-cut leafy green processing plants. The UV254(F) was the best indicator for PAA decay and as such for the E. coli O157 inactivation with PAA+LA. The disinfection efficiency of PAA+LA increased with decreasing pH. Furthermore, PAA+LA efficacy was assessed as a process water disinfectant to be used within the washing tank, using a dynamic washing process with continuous influx of E. coli O157 and organic matter in the washing tank. The process water contamination in the dynamic process was adequately estimated by the developed model that assumed that knowledge of the disinfectant residual was sufficient to estimate the microbial contamination, regardless the physicochemical load. Based on the obtained results, PAA+LA seems to be better suited than chlorine for disinfecting process wash water with a high organic load but a higher disinfectant residual is necessary due to the slower E. coli O157 inactivation kinetics when compared to chlorine.

  14. Impact of climate change on microbial safety of leafy green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Climate change is generally recognized as a major threat to humans and the environment. With respect to food production, climate change does not only affect crop production or food security, but possibly also effects on food safety by affecting the prevalence and levels of bacteria, fungi or

  15. Impact of climate change on microbial safety of leafy green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Climate change is generally recognized as a major threat to humans and the environment. With respect to food production, climate change does not only affect crop production or food security, but possibly also effects on food safety by affecting the prevalence and levels of bacteria, fungi or

  16. Zn-biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2017-04-01

    Excessive rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO3(-) ) in plants. Considering that many programs of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the NO3(-) accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency was affected by the application of different doses of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants. Zn doses in the range 80-100 µmol L(-1) produced an increase in Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO3(-) concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase in reduced N, total N concentration and N utilization efficiency. Consequently, at a dose of 80 µmol L(-1) of Zn, the amino acid concentration increased significantly. Adequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially at a dose of 80 µmol L(-1) of Zn, because it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO3(-) levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, with all of them having beneficial properties for the human diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Neibel, Katherine; Gerber, Colin; Patel, Jitendra; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (Iceberg and Romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (6-log CFU/ml) and dried. Oregano oil was prepared at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% concentrations in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 1 or 2 min, and individually incubated at 4 or 8 °C. Samples were taken at day 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. The results showed that oregano oil was effective against S. Newport at all concentrations. S. Newport showed reductions from the PBS control of 0.7-4.8 log CFU/g (Romaine lettuce), 0.8-4.8 log CFU/g (Iceberg lettuce), 0.8-4.9 log CFU/g (mature spinach), and 0.5-4.7 log CFU/g (baby spinach), respectively. The antibacterial activity also increased with exposure time. Leaf samples treated for 2 min generally showed greater reductions (by 1.4-3.2 log CFU/g), than those samples treated for 1 min; however, there was minimal difference in antimicrobial activity among samples stored under refrigeration and abuse temperatures. This study demonstrates the potential of oregano oil to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  18. Bioaccumulation and cancer risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in leafy vegetables grown in soils within automobile repair complex and environ in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Edu; Ibanga, Felicia; Essien, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) assessment model, the bioaccumulation and cancer risk of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina and Lasianthera africanum) grown in soils within an automobile repair complex environment in Uyo, Nigeria was studied. The total PAHs concentrations recorded for soils ranged from 0.02 to 1.77 mg/kg. The highest level of 1.77 mg/kg was recorded for soils from the main automobile repair complex (site 1). Low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were predominant although some high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs suites (0.04 mg/kg of chrysene and 0.04 of benzo[k]fluoranthene) were also found in site 1. The leafy vegetables accumulated PAHs were mostly LMW. Accumulation levels were similar but the extent of PAH uptake in vegetables was species dependent as V. amygdalina accumulated more (0.81 mg/kg). The bioaccumulation factors (BaFs) calculated ranged from 0.22 to 0.63 for L. africanum, and 0.18 to 0.55 for V. amygdalina in site 1 where high PAH levels were recorded in soil. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed a strong positive relation between the PAH content of soil and the amount accumulated by L. africanum (r = 0.5) and V. amygdalina (r = 0.8) at p = 0.05. The vegetable's potential to bioaccumulate PAHs is indicative of their use as good bioindicators for PAH contamination in soil. Only two of the USEPA possible human carcinogenic PAHs were detected, and carcinogenic risk assessment based on occupational exposures to soil particles by adults revealed that the total risk level (7.17 × 10(-5)) contribution from incidental soil ingestion, dermal contact, and soil particle dust inhalation slightly exceed the USEPA acceptable limits (automobile repair complexes across Nigeria.

  19. Absorption and accumulation of seaweed iodine by leafy vegetable%叶菜类蔬菜对海藻碘的吸收与积累特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会萍; 洪春来; 翁焕新; 朱凤香; 陈晓旸; 王卫平; 薛智勇

    2012-01-01

    以叶菜类蔬菜菠菜、大白菜、生菜、香菜、芥菜和雪菜为研究对象,利用海藻固体碘肥和海藻液体碘肥作为外源碘,在露天和大棚栽培条件下进行蔬菜植物碘强化的田间试验,通过分析蔬菜对碘吸收量的动态变化和碘在蔬菜各器官的分布和分配状况,研究了叶菜类蔬菜对外源碘的吸收与积累特征.结果表明,供试叶菜可食部分中碘的含量随着外源碘添加量的增加而增加;随着取样时间的延后,叶菜可食部分中碘的含量呈现出下降的趋势;喷施液体碘肥比土施固体碘肥更有利于叶菜对碘的吸收和积累,前者使吸收的碘大部分积累在叶面,后者则大部分积累在根部.%Using liquid or solid iodized fertilizer derived from seaweed, we cultivated a number of leafy vegetables in field trial, including spinach, Chinese cabbage, lettuce, cilantro, mustard, and snow cabbage to study the characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by these plants. Our results indicate that the iodine content in the edible parts of leafy vegetable increases with increasing level of exogenous iodine, and decreases after the initial application of the iodized fertilizer. Surface application of liquid iodized fertilizer is more favorable for iodine accumulation in vegetable leaves, whereas root application of solid iodized fertilizer leads to more accumulation of iodine in roots.

  20. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  1. Protective effects of Asian green vegetables against oxidant induced cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Rose; Choon Nam Ong; Matt Whiteman

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant and phase Ⅱ detoxification enzyme inducing ability of green leaf vegetables consumed in Asia.METHODS: The antioxidant properties of six commonly consumed Asian vegetables were determined using the ABTS, DPPH, deoxyribose, PR bleaching and ironascorbate induced lipid peroxidation assay. Induce of phase Ⅱ detoxification enzymes was also determined for each respective vegetable extract. Protection against authentic ONOO- and HOCI mediated cytotoxicity in human colon HCT116 cells was determined using the MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide) viability assay.RESULTS: All of the extracts derived from green leaf vegetables exhibited antioxidant properties, while also having cytoprotective effects against ONOO- and HOCI mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, evaluation of the phase Ⅱ enzyme inducing ability of each extract,as assessed by quinone reductase and glutathioneS-transferase activities, showed significant variation between the vegetables analyzed.CONCLUSION: Green leaf vegetables are potential sources of antioxidants and phase Ⅱ detoxification enzyme inducers in the Asian diet. It is likely that consumption of such vegetables is a major source of beneficial phytochemical constituents that may protect against colonic damage.

  2. Vegetation impoverishment despite greening: a case study from central Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have documented a greening trend in the semi-arid Sahel and Sudan zones of West Africa since the early 1980s, which challenges the mainstream paradigm of irreversible land degradation in this region. What the greening trend means on the ground, however, has not yet been explored. This research focuses on a region in central Senegal to examine changes in woody vegetation abundance and composition in selected sites by means of a botanical inventory of woody vegetation species, repeat photography, and perceptions of local land users. Despite the greening, an impoverishment of the woody vegetation cover was observed in the studied sites, indicated by an overall reduction in woody species richness, a loss of large trees, an increasing dominance of shrubs, and a shift towards more arid-tolerant, Sahelian species since 1983. Thus, interpretation of the satellite-derived greening trend as an improvement or recovery is not always justified. The case of central Senegal represents only one of several possible pathways of greening throughout the region, all of which result in similar satellite-derived greening signals.

  3. Development of an extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of copper(II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, L Subramanyam; Kumar, J Rajesh; Reddy, K Janardhan; Reddy, A Varada

    2005-07-13

    A highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of copper(II) using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone(PPT) as an analytical reagent. The PPT forms reddish brown species of copper(II) at a pH range of 3.0-5.5, and the complex was extracted into n-butanol. The Cu(II)-PPT complex shows maximum absorbance at 440 nm, with molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity being 2.16 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 2.94 x 10(-3) microg cm(-2), respectively. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.2-5.0 mg/L. The regression coefficient of the Beer's law straight line is 0.338, and the correlation coefficient is 0.96. The detection limit of the method is 0.0065 microg mL(-1). Most of the common metal ions generally found associated with copper do not interfere. The repeatability of the method was checked by finding the relative standard deviation. The developed method has been successfully employed for the determination of copper(II) in leafy vegetable and pharmaceutical samples. The method is evaluated by analyzing samples from the Bureau of Analyzed Samples (BCS 233, 266, 216/1, 207, and 179) and by intercomparison of experimental values using AAS.

  4. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo ... Fresh leaves were shredded and sun dried before milling into vegetable powder and ... Amaranthus and Talinum recorded high mineral contents.

  5. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  6. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  7. The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon oil against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is generally no kill-step when preparing salad vegetables, so there is a risk for foodborne illness outbreaks due to consumption of these vegetables. Some essential oils have antimicrobial activities and could provide a natural way to reduce pathogens on fresh produce. The use of a cinnamon ...

  8. Positive effects of vegetation: urban heat island and green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, T; Gaffin, S R; Dell'osso, G R

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 °C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO(2) equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role.

  9. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are

  10. Influence of Vacuum Cooling on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infiltration in Fresh Leafy Greens via a Multiphoton-Imaging Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogen infiltration in fresh leafy greens is a significant food safety risk factor. In various postharvest operations, vacuum cooling is a critical process for maintaining the quality of fresh produce. The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of vacuum cooling-induced infiltration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce using multiphoton microscopy. Multiphoton imaging was chosen as the method to locate E. coli O157:H7 within an intact lettuce leaf due to its high spatial resolution, low background fluorescence, and near-infrared (NIR) excitation source compared to those of conventional confocal microscopy. The variables vacuum cooling, surface moisture, and leaf side were evaluated in a three-way factorial study with E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. A total of 188 image stacks were collected. The images were analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 association with stomata and E. coli O157:H7 infiltration. The quantitative imaging data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that the low-moisture condition led to an increased risk of microbial association with stomata (P vacuum cooling levels and moisture levels led to an increased risk of infiltration (P < 0.05). This study also demonstrates the potential of multiphoton imaging for improving sensitivity and resolution of imaging-based measurements of microbial interactions with intact leaf structures, including infiltration. PMID:26475109

  11. Effect of acidified sodium chlorite, chlorine, and acidic electrolyzed water on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto leafy greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopforth, J D; Mai, T; Kottapalli, B; Samadpour, M

    2008-03-01

    Recent foodborne outbreaks implicating spinach and lettuce have increased consumer concerns regarding the safety of fresh produce. While the most common commercial antimicrobial intervention for fresh produce is wash water containing 50 to 200 ppm chlorine, this study compares the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite, chlorine, and acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto leafy greens. Fresh mixed greens were left uninoculated or inoculated with approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes and treated by immersion for 60 or 90 s in different wash solutions (1:150, wt/vol), including 50 ppm of chlorine solution acidified to pH 6.5, acidic electrolyzed water (pH 2.1 +/- 0.2, oxygen reduction potential of 1,100 mV, 30 to 35 ppm of free chlorine), and acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm, pH 2.5). Samples were neutralized and homogenized. Bacterial survival was determined by standard spread plating on selective media. Each test case (organism x treatment x time) was replicated twice with five samples per replicate. There was no difference (P > or = 0.05) in the time of immersion on the antimicrobial effectiveness of the treatments. Furthermore, there was no difference (P > or = 0.05) in survival of the three organisms regardless of treatment or time. Acidified sodium chlorite, resulted in reductions in populations of 3 to 3.8 log CFU/g and was more effective than chlorinated water (2.1 to 2.8 log CFU/g reduction). These results provide the produce industry with important information to assist in selection of effective antimicrobial strategies.

  12. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  13. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  14. Effects of industrial processing on folate content in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Le Grandois, Julie; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Galland, Rachel; Georgé, Stéphane; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-08-15

    Folates are described to be sensitive to different physical parameters such as heat, light, pH and leaching. Most studies on folates degradation during processing or cooking treatments were carried out on model solutions or vegetables only with thermal treatments. Our aim was to identify which steps were involved in folates loss in industrial processing chains, and which mechanisms were underlying these losses. For this, the folates contents were monitored along an industrial canning chain of green beans and along an industrial freezing chain of spinach. Folates contents decreased significantly by 25% during the washing step for spinach in the freezing process, and by 30% in the green beans canning process after sterilisation, with 20% of the initial amount being transferred into the covering liquid. The main mechanism involved in folate loss during both canning green beans and freezing spinach was leaching. Limiting the contact between vegetables and water or using steaming seems to be an adequate measure to limit folates losses during processing.

  15. The physico-chemical characteristics and some nutritional values of vegetable amaranth sold in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Shibairo, S.I.; Imungi, J.K.; Harbinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy vegetabl

  16. Determining Thermal Specifications for Vegetated GREEN Roofs in Moderate Winter Climats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesloot, Christoph Maria

    2015-01-01

    Because local weather conditions in moderate climates are changing constantly, heat transfer specifications of substrate and vegetation in vegetated green roofs also change accordingly. Nevertheless, it is assumed that vegetated green roofs can have a positive effect on the thermal performance of co

  17. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Characterization of Escherichia coli and Hygiene Indicator Bacteria Isolated from Leafy Green Produce, Beef, and Pork Obtained from Farmers' Markets in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua A; Dudley, Edward G; Campbell, Jonathan; Roberts, Beth; DiMarzio, Michael; DebRoy, Chitrita; Cutter, Catherine N

    2017-02-01

    The popularity of farmers' markets in the United States has led to over 8,400 farmers' markets being in operation in 2015. As farmers' markets have increased in size and complexity in the kinds of foods sold at these venues, so have the potential food safety risks. Since 2008, seven major foodborne illness outbreaks and two recalls associated with food products from farmers' markets have occurred, causing 80 known reported illnesses and one death. Various researchers also have observed vendors performing high-risk food safety retail behaviors, and others have identified microbiological hazards in foods sold at farmers' markets. In this study, the presence of hygiene indicators (coliforms, fecal coliforms, Listeria spp., and Escherichia coli ) was assessed in select samples of leafy green produce and meat obtained from farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. E. coli isolates were further characterized by phylogenetic profile and virulence potential. E. coli was present in 40% (20 of 50) and 18% (9 of 50) of beef and pork samples, respectively, and in 28% (15 of 54), 29% (15 of 52), and 17% (8 of 46) of kale, lettuce, and spinach samples, respectively. Listeria spp. was found in 8% (4 of 50) of beef samples, 2% (1 of 54) of kale samples, 4% (2 of 52) of lettuce samples, and 7% (3 of 46) of spinach samples. Among the 10 Listeria spp. isolates, 3 were identified as L. monocytogenes . E. coli isolated from meat samples mainly clustered into phylogroup B1 (66%; 19 of 29), whereas produce isolates clustered into phylogroups B2 (36%; 14 of 39) and B1 (33%; 13 of 39). These E. coli isolates possessed the fimH, iroN, hlyD, and eae genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli . The high prevalence but low levels of E. coli and Listeria spp. found on both produce and meat products obtained from farmers' markets in this study strongly indicate that farmers' market vendors would benefit greatly from food safety training and increased

  18. Occurrence of generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in water and sediment from leafy green produce farms and streams on the Central California coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lisa; Atwill, Edward R; Jay-Russell, Michele; Cooley, Michael; Carychao, Diana; Gorski, Lisa; Mandrell, Robert E

    2013-07-01

    Irrigation with water of poor microbiological quality can elevate levels of bacteria on produce. This study aimed to identify climate and management variables associated with generic Escherichia coli in irrigation water on leafy green produce farms and to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in irrigation and non-irrigation water sources on these farms. Water and sediment samples collected from various points along irrigation systems, as well as from streams and ponds on farms on the Central California coast between May 27th, 2008 and October 26th, 2010 were cultured for generic E. coli (MPN/100 mL or cfu 100 g) (n=436), E. coli O157 (n=437), and (n=163) Salmonella. Variables were based on grower's management practices, landscape features in proximity to samples (e.g., distance to roads and ranches/livestock), and climate data accessed from an online database. Negative binomial regression models were constructed to test associations between generic E. coli (MPN/100 mL) in water from farms and variables. Arithmetic mean concentration of E. coli for water, not including those from Moore swabs, and sediment samples, was 7.1×10(2) MPN/100 mL and 1.0×10(4) cfu/100 g, respectively. Matched by collection day, E. coli concentration in sediment (cfu/100 g) was typically 10- to 1000-fold higher than the overlying water (MPN/100 mL) for these irrigation systems. Generic E. coli concentration (MPN/100 mL) increased by 60.1% for each 1m/s increase in wind speed and decreased by 3% for each 10 m increase in the distance between the sample location and rangeland. Moore swabs detected a higher proportion of E. coli O157 (13.8%) positive water samples compared to grab samples (1.8%); 1.7% of sediment samples had detectable levels of this pathogen. Interestingly, season was not significantly associated with E. coli O157 presence in water or sediments from produce farms or water sources with public access. Salmonella was detected in 6% (6/96) water and 4.3% (3

  19. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  20. Determining Thermal Specifications for Vegetated GREEN Roofs in Moderate Winter Climats

    OpenAIRE

    Ravesloot, Christoph Maria

    2015-01-01

    Because local weather conditions in moderate climates are changing constantly, heat transfer specifications of substrate and vegetation in vegetated green roofs also change accordingly. Nevertheless, it is assumed that vegetated green roofs can have a positive effect on the thermal performance of construction in winter conditions. Is there proof from scientific research and field testing for this assumption? To answer this question, research is conducted with the main research question: Which...

  1. Solid phase extraction of Cd, Cu, and Ni from leafy vegetables and plant leaves using amberlite XAD-2 functionalized with 2-hydroxy-acetophenone-thiosemicarbazone (HAPTSC) and determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Purna Chandra; Seshaiah, Kalluru; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Wang, M C

    2006-04-19

    A method for solid phase extraction of trace metals, namely, Cd, Cu, and Ni, using Amberlite XAD-2 functionalized with a new chelating ligand, 2-hydroxy-acetophenone-3-thiosemicarbazone (Amberlite XAD-2-HAPTSC), has been developed. The optimum experimental conditions for the quantitative sorption of three metals, pH, effect of flow rate, concentration of eluent, sorption capacity, kinetics of sorption, and the effect of diverse ions on the sorption of analytes have been investigated. The chelating resin could be reused for more than 20 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change (<1.5%). The accuracy of the proposed procedure was evaluated by standard reference materials. The proposed method was applied for the determination of trace metal ions in leafy vegetable samples collected from different sources and medicinal plant leaves.

  2. Green Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate Uniform Microspheres Using Vegetables%Green Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate Uniform Microspheres Using Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen, Long; Bao, Zuben; Pan, Jian; Xu, Weibing; Zhang, Heping; Hu, Hongbo; Hu, Jichao; Zhou, Lili

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel strategy for the green synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microspheres by using four vegetables: potato, cucumber, aubergine, and carrot. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry and/or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the spherical calcite crystals are obtained in the presence of potato, cucumber and aubergine extracts, while uniform vaterite and calcite mixed microspheres are produced with the extracts of carrot. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 microspheres by using vegetables is also discussed, suggesting that the biomolecules especially proteins may induce and control the nucleation and growth of CaCO3 crystals. CaCO3 is an important biomineral and inorganic material. Uniform particles have numerous important applications in many areas. Therefore, this study is very significant not only for expanding the scope of crystal engineering, but also for biomineralization research and green synthesis of functional inorganic materials.

  3. Developing a compositing algorithm for retrieval of green vegetation fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Ju, J.; vargas, M.; Csiszar, I. A.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time weekly global green vegetation fraction (GVF) is needed in the numeric weather, climate and hydrological models. The current NOAA operational GVF product is derived from weekly AVHRR NDVI data, which are composited using the maximum-value compositing (MVC) method. MVC is a widely used technique to remove cloud and atmospheric contamination over land surface by selecting the observation of the maximum NDVI in a compositing period. However, it is well documented that the maximum NDVI is often selected from high sensor zenith angles (SZA), which may introduce error in GVF retrieval. To reduce the composite sensor zenith angles, a view angle adjusted soil-adjusted vegetation index (VA-SAVI), instead of NDVI, is proposed as the criterion of compositing in this study (VA-SAVI=SAVI-C×SZA2, where C is a coefficient). The observation with the maximum VA-SAVI (MVA-SAVI) is selected to represent a compositing period. To evaluate the MVA-SAVI compositing method, global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daily surface reflectance data (MYD09GA) in different seasons were composited using the MVA-SAVI method. Composite data were then compared with the 16-day MVC composite data, the MODIS standard 16-day vegetation index (MYD13A1) and 8-day surface reflectance data (MYD09A1). It was found that the mean 16-day composite sensor zenith angle by MVA-SAVI was 13.5°, whereas the mean sensor zenith angles composited by MVC was 39.3°, demonstrated that MVA-SAVI compositing tends to select observations close to the nadir view. MVA-SAVI compositing produced the mean sensor zenith angle 10° and 6° smaller than the MYD13A1 and MYD09A1 data and the mean NDVI (EVI) values 1.4% and 3.2% (4.0% and 3.3%) higher than those the MYD13A1 and MYD09A1 data, respectively. The smaller composited sensor zenith angles and higher vegetation index values suggest that MVA-SAVI compositing is a better compositing method than the MODIS compositing methods and the

  4. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Yingtang; Qiao, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain, the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate, as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables. Currently, the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China, and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained, so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green su...

  5. Recent trends in vegetation greenness in China significantly altered annual evapotranspiration and water yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Xiao, Jingfeng; Ju, Weimin; Xu, Ke; Zhou, Yanlian; Zhao, Yuntai

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing evidence that vegetation greenness has been increasing in many parts of the northern middle and high latitudes including China during the last three to four decades. However, the effects of increasing vegetation greenness particularly afforestation on the hydrological cycle have been controversial. We used a process-based ecosystem model and a satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) dataset to examine how the changes in vegetation greenness affected annual evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield for China over the period from 2000 to 2014. Significant trends in vegetation greenness were observed in 26.1% of China’s land area. We used two model simulations driven with original and detrended LAI, respectively, to assess the effects of vegetation ‘greening’ and ‘browning’ on terrestrial ET and water yield. On a per-pixel basis, vegetation greening increased annual ET and decreased water yield, while vegetation browning reduced ET and increased water yield. At the large river basin and national scales, the greening trends also had positive effects on annual ET and had negative effects on water yield. Our results showed that the effects of the changes in vegetation greenness on the hydrological cycle varied with spatial scale. Afforestation efforts perhaps should focus on southern China with larger water supply given the water crisis in northern China and the negative effects of vegetation greening on water yield. Future studies on the effects of the greenness changes on the hydrological cycle are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  6. Different Hydrologic Responses to Vegetation Greening between Water-limited and Energy-limited Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Bai, P.; Li, Y.; Changming, L.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation greening has been reported at regional and continental scales on the basis of forest inventory and satellite measurements. Large areas of vegetation greening have been observed in China due to the implementation of country-wide ecological protection and reforestation programs since the late 1990s. Investigation on how vegetation greening affects hydrologic cycle is an important topic for hydrologic research. In this study, two typical greening regions with different climatic conditions, namely the Loess Plateau with relatively dry climatic condition and the largest freshwater lake in China (Poyang Lake) with humid climatic condition, were selected to investigate hydrologic responses to vegetation greening. Results show that large-scale greening in the Poyang Lake basin did not cause significant water reduction, while greening in the Loess Plateau did lead to a significant decrease in streamflow. Vegetation greening allows more precipitation to be intercepted by the vegetation canopy and to be infiltrated into soil. In the Loess Plateau, those increased intercepted and infiltrated water quickly return to the atmosphere through evaporation (Ea) because of the water-limited condition, leading to the decrease in streamflow. In the Poyang Lake basin, however, the increased intercepted and infiltrated water did not increase Ea, because Ea is constrained by potential evaporation (Ep) due to the energy-limited condition. The increased intercepted and infiltrated water enhanced groundwater recharge and thus baseflow in the Poyang Lake basin. The findings highlight that hydrologic responses to vegetation greening greatly depend on regional climatic conditions, which is inconsistent with the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between vegetation greening and water resources. These results can benefit future ecological protection and reforestation programs and water resource management worldwide.

  7. Amazon vegetation greenness as measured by satellite sensors over the last decade

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, P.M.; Dash, J.; Jeganathan, C.

    2011-01-01

    [1] During the last decade two major drought events, one in 2005 and another in 2010, occurred in the Amazon basin. Several studies have claimed the ability to detect the effect of these droughts on Amazon vegetation response, measured through satellite sensor vegetation indices (VIs). Such monitoring capability is important as it potentially links climate changes (increasing frequency and severity of drought), vegetation response as observed through vegetation greenness, and land-atmosphere ...

  8. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  9. Observational Quantification of Climatic and Human Influences on Vegetation Greening in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Hua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to quantify the relative contributions of vegetation greening in China due to climatic and human influences from multiple observational datasets. Satellite measured vegetation greenness, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and relevant climate, land cover, and socioeconomic data since 1982 are analyzed using a multiple linear regression (MLR method. A statistically significant positive trend of average growing-season (April–October NDVI is found over more than 34% of the vegetated areas, mainly in North China, while significant decreases in NDVI are only seen in less than 5% of the areas. The relationships between vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and radiation vary by geographical location and vegetation type. We estimate the NDVI changes in association with the non-climatic effects by removing the climatic effects from the original NDVI time series using the MLR analysis. Our results indicate that land use change is the dominant factor driving the long-term changes in vegetation greenness. The significant greening in North China is due to the increase in crops, grasslands, and forests. The socioeconomic datasets provide consistent and supportive results for the non-climatic effects at the provincial level that afforestation and reduced fire events generally have a major contribution. This study provides a basis for quantifying the non-climatic effects due to possible human influences on the vegetation greening in China.

  10. Remote Sensing of Fractional Green Vegetation Cover Using Spatially-Interpolated Endmembers

    OpenAIRE

    Ryutaro Tateishi; Brian Johnson; Toshiyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Fractional green vegetation cover (FVC) is a useful parameter for many environmental and climate-related applications. A common approach for estimating FVC involves the linear unmixing of two spectral endmembers in a remote sensing image; bare soil and green vegetation. The spectral properties of these two endmembers are typically determined based on field measurements, estimated using additional data sources (e.g., soil databases or land cover maps), or extracted directly from the imagery. M...

  11. Identifying environmental controls on vegetation greenness phenology through model-data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forkel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs have a~limited ability in reproducing phenology and decadal dynamics of vegetation greenness as observed by satellites. These limitations in reproducing observations reflect a poor understanding and description of the environmental controls on phenology, which strongly influence the ability to simulate longer term vegetation dynamics, e.g. carbon allocation. Combining DGVMs with observational data sets can potentially help to revise current modelling approaches and thus to enhance the understanding of processes that control seasonal to long-term vegetation greenness dynamics. Here we implemented a~new phenology model within the LPJmL (Lund Potsdam Jena managed lands DGVM and integrated several observational data sets to improve the ability of the model in reproducing satellite-derived time series of vegetation greenness. Specifically, we optimized LPJmL parameters against observational time series of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR, albedo and gross primary production to identify the main environmental controls for seasonal vegetation greenness dynamics. We demonstrated that LPJmL with new phenology and optimized parameters better reproduces seasonality, inter-annual variability and trends of vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that soil water availability is an important control on vegetation phenology not only in water-limited biomes but also in boreal forests and the arctic tundra. Whereas water availability controls phenology in water-limited ecosystems during the entire growing season, water availability co-modulates jointly with temperature the beginning of the growing season in boreal and arctic regions. Additionally, water availability contributes to better explain decadal greening trends in the Sahel and browning trends in boreal forests. These results emphasize the importance of considering water availability in a new generation of phenology modules

  12. Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible impacts of real-world wind farms (WFs on vegetation growth using two vegetation indices (VIs, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, at a ~250 m resolution from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS for the period 2003–2014. We focus on two well-studied large WF regions, one in western Texas and the other in northern Illinois. These two regions differ distinctively in terms of land cover, topography, and background climate, allowing us to examine whether the WF impacts on vegetation, if any, vary due to the differences in atmospheric and boundary conditions. We use three methods (spatial coupling analysis, time series analysis, and seasonal cycle analysis and consider two groups of pixels, wind farm pixels (WFPs and non-wind-farm pixels (NWFPs, to quantify and attribute such impacts during the pre- and post-turbine periods. Our results indicate that the WFs have insignificant or no detectible impacts on local vegetation growth. At the pixel level, the VI changes demonstrate a random nature and have no spatial coupling with the WF layout. At the regional level, there is no systematic shift in vegetation greenness between the pre- and post-turbine periods. At interannual and seasonal time scales, there are no confident vegetation changes over WFPs relative to NWFPs. These results remain robust when the pre- and post-turbine periods and NWFPs are defined differently. Most importantly, the majority of the VI changes are within the MODIS data uncertainty, suggesting that the WF impacts on vegetation, if any, cannot be separated confidently from the data uncertainty and noise. Overall, there are some small decreases in vegetation greenness over WF regions, but no convincing observational evidence is found for the impacts of operating WFs on vegetation growth.

  13. Water retention and evapotranspiration of green roofs and possible natural vegetation types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Matching vegetation to growing conditions on green roofs is one of the options to increase biodiversity in cities. A hydrological model has been applied to match the hydrological requirements of natural vegetation types to roof substrate parameters and to simulate moisture stress for specific substr

  14. Meta-analysis identifies potential molecular markers for endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative shoot growth originating from underground adventitious buds (UABs) of herbaceous perennials such as leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is critical for survival after episodes of severe abiotic stress. Although leafy spurge is considered an invasive weed in North American ecosystems, it ha...

  15. Simultaneous determination of 16 kinds of organophosphorous pesticide multiresidues in leafy vegetables by gas chromatography%气相色谱法同时测定叶菜中16种有机磷农药残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙巧莺; 李永波; 左蓓

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱法测定叶类蔬菜中16种有机磷农药残留量的分析方法.方法:蔬菜捣碎用乙腈提取,盐析,用氮吹仪吹干,丙酮溶解定容,采用HP-5毛细管柱分离,FPD检测器测定.结果:16种有机磷类农药能较好地分离,峰面积与其浓度均具有良好线性,低水平加标回收率除了敌敌畏在44.0%~58.8%之间,其余均在62.8%~128.8%之间,高水平加标回收率除了敌敌畏在40.6%~59.2%之间,其余均在69.3%~123.3%之间,相对标准偏差均小于20%.结论:本方法简便、快速、灵敏、准确,可以满足叶类蔬菜中有机磷类农药检测的需要.%Objective:To establish a method for the simultaneous determination of 16 kinds of organophosphorous pesticide multiresidues in leafy vegetables by gas chromatography(GC). Methods: The sample was determined by flame photometric detector (FPD) with HP-5 capillary column after acetonitrile extraction, salting - out, dried by nitrogen blowing meter and dissolved to constant volume with acetone. Results: Good linearities were obtained for 16 kinds of organophosphorous pesticide multiresidues. The average recoveries ranged from 62. 8% tol28. 8% at low concentration levels except for dichlorovos from 44.0% to 58.8% , the average recoveries ranged from 69.3% ~ 123.3% at high concentration levels except for dichlorovos from 40.6% to 59.2%. Relative standard deviations are all under 20%. Conclusion:This method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, which can be applied to determine the organophosphorous pesticide multiresidues in leafy vegetables.

  16. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  17. A multitemporal and non-parametric approach for assessing the impacts of drought on vegetation greenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrao, Hugo; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F;

    2013-01-01

    for the period between 1998 and 2010. The time-series analysis of vegetation greenness is performed during the growing season with a non-parametric method, namely the seasonal Relative Greenness (RG) of spatially accumulated fAPAR. The Global Land Cover map of 2000 and the GlobCover maps of 2005/2006 and 2009......This study evaluates the relationship between the frequency and duration of meteorological droughts and the subsequent temporal changes on the quantity of actively photosynthesizing biomass (greenness) estimated from satellite imagery on rainfed croplands in Latin America. An innovative non...... Full Data Reanalysis precipitation time-series product, which ranges from January 1901 to December 2010 and is interpolated at the spatial resolution of 1° (decimal degree, DD). Vegetation greenness composites are derived from 10-daily SPOT-VEGETATION images at the spatial resolution of 1/112° DD...

  18. The Effect of Biogas Slurry with Different Proportions of N, P, K on Leafy Vegetable Yield and Quality%不同N,P,K配比的沼液肥对叶菜产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德江; 王金玲; 高桂丽; 刘歆

    2013-01-01

    Biogas slurry were combined with 4 different proportions of N,P,K in this experiment with raw biogas slurry as a control.The mixed fertilizer were sprayed on three kinds of leafy vegetables,i.e.Chinese cabbage,cabbage,and oil cabbage.The vegetable yield,VC,nitrate and pesticide residue contents were determined and compared,so that to find the best combined fertilizer.The results showed that all the 4 proportions of N,P,K combined biogas slurry had higher yield comparing with the control,but the nitrate content in vegetables also had a corresponding increase.The comprehensive comparison on yield and VC content showed that N∶ P∶ K ratio of 2∶1 ∶ 4 was relatively better,and then followed by 5∶1∶7.%试验以原沼液作对照,设置了4个不同N、P、K配比的沼液叶面肥共计5个处理,分别喷施在白菜、甘蓝及油白菜3种叶菜上.通过比较各处理对叶菜产量,VC,硝酸盐及农残含量的影响,探究出最佳的沼液叶面肥配方.结果表明:向沼液中加入不同比例的氮、磷、钾化肥后,其增产效果均高于原沼液,但叶菜中硝酸盐含量也相应提高.综合比较各处理的产量及VC含量,以N∶P∶K比例为2∶1∶4相对较好,为最佳配方,其次为5∶1∶7.

  19. [Green space vegetation quantity in workshop area of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Li, Haifang; Zhong, Yingfei

    2006-04-01

    Aimed at the complex community structure and higher fragmentation of urban green space, and based on the investigation of synusia structure and its coverage, this paper studied the vegetation quantity of ornamental green space in the workshop area of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company, with the help of GIS. The results showed that different life forms of ornamental plants in this area had a greater difference in their single leaf area and leaf area index (LAI), and the LAI was not only depended on single leaf area, but also governed by the shape of tree crown and the intensive degree of branches and leaves. The total vegetation quantity was 1 694.2 hm2, with the average LAI being 7.75, and the vegetation quantity of arbor-shrub-herb and arbor-shrub communities accounted for 79.7% and 92.3% of the total, respectively, reflecting that the green space structure was dominated by arbor species and by arbor-shrub-herb and arbor-shrub community types. Single layer-structured lawn had a less percentage, while the vegetation quantity of herb synusia accounted for 22.9% of the total, suggesting an afforestation characteristic of "making use of every bit of space" in the workshop area. The vegetation quantity of urban ornamental green space depended on the area of green space, its synusia structure, and the LAI and coverage of ornamental plants. In enlarging urban green space, ornamental plant species with high LAI should be selected, and community structure should be improved to have a higher vegetation quantity in urban area. To quantify the vegetation quantity of urban ornamental green space more accurately, synusia should be taken as the unit to measure the LAI of typical species, and the synusia structure and its coverage of different community types should be investigated with the help of remote sensing images and GIS.

  20. Development of a Robust Method for Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Positive Escherichia coli (STEC) from Fecal, Plant, Soil and Water Samples from a Leafy Greens Production Region in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael B.; Jay-Russell, Michele; Atwill, Edward R.; Carychao, Diana; Nguyen, Kimberly; Quiñones, Beatriz; Patel, Ronak; Walker, Samarpita; Swimley, Michelle; Pierre-Jerome, Edith; Gordus, Andrew G.; Mandrell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6%) or non-O157 STEC (14.0%), respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%), feral swine (4.7%), sediment (4.4%), and water (3.3%) samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%), feral swine (21.4%), birds (2.4%), small mammals (3.5%), deer or elk (8.3%), water (14.0%), sediment (12.3%), produce (0.3%) and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%). stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the “Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment. PMID:23762414

  1. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: combining a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily use shallow soil water whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment seems to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information, bringing new insights on vegetation dynamics.

  2. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: comparing a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite-observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily uses shallow soil water, whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment appears to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information and allow new insights into dryland vegetation dynamics.

  3. Linking Vital Rates of Landbirds on a Tropical Island to Rainfall and Vegetation Greenness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Saracco

    Full Text Available Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI] to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons, bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus, and golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei. Rainfall was positively related to vegetation greenness at all but the highest rainfall levels. Temporal variation in greenness affected the productivity of each bird species in unique ways. Predicted productivity of rufous fantail was highest when dry and wet season greenness values were high relative to site-specific 5-year seasonal mean values (i.e., relative greenness; while the white-eye species had highest predicted productivity when relative greenness contrasted between wet and dry seasons. Survival of rufous fantail and bridled white eye was positively related to relative dry-season greenness and negatively related to relative wet-season greenness. Bridled white-eye survival also showed evidence of a positive response to overall greenness. Our results highlight the potentially important role of rainfall regimes in affecting population dynamics of species on oceanic tropical islands. Understanding linkages between rainfall, vegetation, and animal population dynamics will be critical for developing effective conservation strategies in this and other regions where the seasonal timing, extent, and variability of rainfall is expected to change in the

  4. Comparison of different sample preparation procedures for the detection and isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 STECs from leafy greens and cilantro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Julie A; Maounounen-Laasri, Anna; Son, Insook; Deer, Deanne M; Borenstein, Stacey; Prezioso, Samantha; Hammack, Thomas S

    2012-12-01

    The FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method for the detection/isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) involves enrichment of produce rinses, blended homogenates or stomached homogenates. However, the effectiveness of rinsing produce to remove attached bacteria is largely unknown. Moreover, PCR inhibitors can be released under physical treatment. The study objective was to determine the relative effectiveness of recovery methods for STEC contaminated produce. Spinach, lettuce, and cilantro were contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 or a non-O157 STEC, subjected to both the BAM method and a soak method, and tested by real-time PCR and cultural methods. For O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 STECs, the soak method was significantly more productive than leafy green rinses. Of 320 test portions, PCR of recovered colonies confirmed 148 were positive by rinsing and 271 were positive by soaking (an 83% increase in sensitivity). For recovery of O157:H7 from cilantro, of 60 test portions, positives were 38 by soaking, 41 by stomaching, and 28 by blending. Soaking and stomaching were significantly more productive than blending, although soaking was only arithmetically superior to stomaching. Based upon these results, it is recommended that a soak method replace the current BAM procedures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Simple saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Christensen, Lars P

    2005-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and gentle saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables was developed. The method involves an extraction procedure with acetone and the selective removal of the chlorophylls and esterified fatty acids from the organic phase using a strongly basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). Extracts from common green vegetables (beans, broccoli, green bell pepper, chive, lettuce, parsley, peas, and spinach) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their content of major carotenoids before and after action of Ambersep 900 OH. The mean recovery percentages for most carotenoids [(all-E)-violaxanthin, (all-E)-lutein epoxide, (all-E)-lutein, neolutein A, and (all-E)-beta-carotene] after saponification of the vegetable extracts with Ambersep 900 OH were close to 100% (99-104%), while the mean recovery percentages of (9'Z)-neoxanthin increased to 119% and that of (all-E)-neoxanthin and neolutein B decreased to 90% and 72%, respectively.

  6. A multitemporal and non-parametric approach for assessing the impacts of drought on vegetation greenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrao, Hugo; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the frequency and duration of meteorological droughts and the subsequent temporal changes on the quantity of actively photosynthesizing biomass (greenness) estimated from satellite imagery on rainfed croplands in Latin America. An innovative non...... Full Data Reanalysis precipitation time-series product, which ranges from January 1901 to December 2010 and is interpolated at the spatial resolution of 1° (decimal degree, DD). Vegetation greenness composites are derived from 10-daily SPOT-VEGETATION images at the spatial resolution of 1/112° DD...

  7. Survey of Nitrate Ion Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Plant Factories: Comparison with Open-Culture Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuka; Hirayama, Izumi; Yoshikawa, Mitsuhide; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Iida, Kenji; Iwakoshi, Katsushi; Suzuki, Ayana; Yanagihara, Midori; Segawa, Yukino; Kukimoto, Sonomi; Hamada, Humika; Matsuzawa, Satomi; Tabata, Setsuko; Sasamoto, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A survey of nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables was conducted. 344 samples of twenty-one varieties of raw leafy vegetables were examined using HPLC. The nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were found to be LOD-6,800 mg/kg. Furthermore, the average concentration values varied among different leafy vegetables. The average values for plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were higher than those of open-cultured leafy vegetables reported in previous studies, such as the values listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan- 2015 - (Seventh revised edition). For some plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables, such as salad spinach, the average values were above the maximum permissible levels of nitrate concentration in EC No 1258/2011; however, even when these plant-factory-cultured vegetables were routinely eaten, the intake of nitrate ions in humans did not exceed the ADI.

  8. Remote Sensing of Fractional Green Vegetation Cover Using Spatially-Interpolated Endmembers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Tateishi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractional green vegetation cover (FVC is a useful parameter for many environmental and climate-related applications. A common approach for estimating FVC involves the linear unmixing of two spectral endmembers in a remote sensing image; bare soil and green vegetation. The spectral properties of these two endmembers are typically determined based on field measurements, estimated using additional data sources (e.g., soil databases or land cover maps, or extracted directly from the imagery. Most FVC estimation approaches do not consider that the spectral properties of endmembers may vary across space. However, due to local differences in climate, soil type, vegetation species, etc., the spectral characteristics of soil and green vegetation may exhibit positive spatial autocorrelation. When this is the case, it may be useful to take these local variations into account for estimating FVC. In this study, spatial interpolation (Inverse Distance Weighting and Ordinary Kriging was used to predict variations in the spectral characteristics of bare soil and green vegetation across space. When the spatially-interpolated values were used in place of scene-invariant endmember values to estimate FVC in an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image, the accuracy of FVC estimates increased, providing evidence that it may be useful to consider the effects of spatial autocorrelation for spectral mixture analysis.

  9. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingtang; LI; Zhong; QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain,the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate,as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables.Currently,the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China,and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained,so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.The operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors,and the most important factor is the incomplete consistency between the individual interests of supply chain members and the overall interests of supply chain.Therefore,the key driving force to improve the efficiency of green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is to build the scientific and rational collaborative decision-making mechanism of supply chain,in order to solve the problems concerning the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables,such as risk sharing,cost control and revenue allocation,thereby achieving the coordinated development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.

  10. Temperature and snowfall trigger alpine vegetation green-up on the world's roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Inouye, David W; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    Rapid temperature increase and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest and largest plateau, are a matter of global concern. Satellite observations have revealed distinctly different trend changes and contradicting temperature responses of vegetation green-up dates, leading to broad debate about the Plateau's spring phenology and its climatic attribution. Large uncertainties in remote-sensing estimates of phenology significantly limit efforts to predict the impacts of climate change on vegetation growth and carbon balance in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which are further exacerbated by a lack of detailed ground observation calibration. Here, we revealed the spatiotemporal variations and climate drivers of ground-based herbaceous plant green-up dates using 72 green-up datasets for 22 herbaceous plant species at 23 phenological stations, and corresponding daily mean air temperature and daily precipitation data from 19 climate stations across eastern and southern parts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1981 to 2011. Results show that neither the continuously advancing trend from 1982 to 2011, nor a turning point in the mid to late 1990s as reported by remote-sensing studies can be verified by most of the green-up time series, and no robust evidence for a warmer winter-induced later green-up dates can be detected. Thus, chilling requirements may not be an important driver influencing green-up responses to spring warming. Moreover, temperature-only control of green-up dates appears mainly at stations with relatively scarce preseason snowfall and lower elevation, while coupled temperature and precipitation controls of green-up dates occur mostly at stations with relatively abundant preseason snowfall and higher elevation. The diversified interactions between snowfall and temperature during late winter to early spring likely determine the spatiotemporal variations of green-up dates. Therefore, prediction of vegetation growth

  11. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of varieties and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, B-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy Brassica crops: collard (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard (B. juncea L.) and turnip (B. rapa) greens are important commercial and culinary vegetables; especially in the southern United States. However, almost no information on essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit...

  12. Impact of climate and vegetation type on evapotranspiration from green roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, M. E.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; Way, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly popular low impact development tool used to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization and the loss of vegetated spaces. The benefits of green roofs include reducing stormwater volume and peak flows, reducing building energy loads, and mitigating the urban heat island effect. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key process fundamental to hydrologic and thermal performance of green roofs. For example, ET governs the water storage volume available in the soil medium and thus the ability of the green roof to retain and attenuate stormwater. Green roof design considerations such as soil medium depth and plant type impact ET rates. Additionally, climate has a strong impact on ET rates. To date, the influence between climate and green roof design factors (e.g. vegetation type and soil medium depth) on ET rates have not been well quantified. We performed a field study to evaluate the impact of climate, vegetation type, and soil medium depth on ET rates from extensive modular green roofs over prolonged drying periods. Three Canadian cities with distinct climates were chosen as field sites: London, ON, Calgary, AB, and Halifax, NS. At each site, daily module weights were recorded from May to August in 2013 and 2014 for approximately 40 green roof modules. These modules were divided into four vegetation treatments (three single species and one mixed species), and each treatment was divided into two groups of soil medium depth (10 cm or 15 cm). Daily ET rates and seasonal moisture loss were calculated and compared for the modules to determine which treatment provided the highest ET rates. The root depth profile, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance were also measured. On average, daily ET rates among the vegetation treatments did not vary greatly, however, observations on plant survival indicate which plant types are best suited for each site. In all three sites, mixed species in 15 cm of soil medium had higher seasonal moisture loss compared to

  13. LEAFY controls floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Weigel, Detlef; Alvarez, John; Smyth, David R.; Yanofsky, Martin F.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    The first step in flower development is the generation of a floral meristem by the inflorescence meristem. We have analyzed how this process is affected by mutant alleles of the Arabidopsis gene LEAFY. We show that LEAFY interacts with another floral control gene, APETALA1, to promote the transition from inflorescence to floral meristem. We have cloned the LEAFY gene, and, consistent with the mutant phenotype, we find that LEAFY RNA is expressed strongly in young flower primordia. LEAFY expre...

  14. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Red Clay Green Roof Vegetation Blocks for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for restoration of ecological systems in buildings, porous vegetation red clay green roof blocks were designed for performance evaluation. Blast furnace slag (BFS; fine aggregates (agg., coarse aggregates, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fiber (hydrophilic fiber, and red clay (ecofriendly additive material were applied to the construction of the porous vegetation red clay green roof blocks. A decrease in cement use is one way of reducing carbon emissions. To increase the water retentivity and the efficiency of roof vegetation blocks, blast furnace slag aggregates with excellent water absorptivity and polyvinyl alcohol fiber with a water absorption rate above 20% were added. In particular, the addition of polyvinyl alcohol fiber prevents performance reduction of the green roof vegetation blocks during freezing and melting in winter. Compressive strength, void ratio, and unit-mass tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the roof vegetation blocks. After their application to roof vegetation, the effect of water purification was evaluated. According to the experimental results, the mix that satisfies the target performance of green roof vegetation blocks (compression strength above 8 MPa, void ratio above 20%, unit mass 2.0 kg/cm3 or below is: cement = 128.95 kg/m3, BFS = 96.75 kg/m3, red clay = 96.75 kg/m3, water = 81.50 kg/m3, BFS agg. = 1450 kg/m3, PVA fiber = 1.26 kg/m3. The green roof vegetation blocks were designed using the mix that satisfied the target performance. To find the amount of attainable water due to rainfall, a rainfall meter was installed after application of the roof vegetation to measure daily rainfall and calculate the amount of attainable water. The results show that, for 1 mm of rainfall, it is possible to attain about 0.53 L of water per 1 m2. In addition, the water quality of effluents after application of roof vegetation was analyzed, and the results satisfied Class 4 of the River-life Environmental

  15. Impact of boiling on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of green vegetables consumed in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Ana F; Alves, Rita C; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-04-01

    The effect of boiling (10 minutes) on eleven green vegetables frequently consumed in the Mediterranean diet was evaluated. For that, some physicochemical parameters and the contents of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity, were determined in raw and boiled samples. The raw vegetables analysed in this study were good sources of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, with contents ranging from 10.6 to 255.1 mg/100 g, 0.03 to 3.29 mg/100 g and 202.9 to 1010.7 mg/100 g, respectively. Boiling promoted losses in different extensions considering both the different bioactive compounds and the distinct vegetables analysed. Contrary to phenolics (more resistant), vitamin C was the most affected compound. Boiling also originated significant losses in the antioxidant activity of the vegetables. Considering all the parameters analysed, the vegetables most affected by boiling were broccoli and lettuce. The least affected ones were collard and tronchuda cabbage.

  16. Green vegetables and colon cancer: the mechanism of a protective effect by chlorophyll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important environmental determinants of the risk of colon cancer is the composition of the diet. Regular consumption of high amounts of red meat increases colon cancer risk. In contrast, consumption of green vegetables decreases the risk of colon cancer. This thesis provides a molecular m

  17. Impacts of Greening Materials and Seed Pretreatment on Vegetation Development at an initial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Slope protection using greening measures as an integral part of soil-bioengineering is characterized by an increasing demand in research and practice. However, successful greening is a very complex issue due to the vast variety in specific slope characteristics such as morphology, soil properties and environmental factors. Because of practical experience in the greening of slopes and the results of further investigations in small-scale tests, it can be stated that the use of appropriate planting techniques, the quality of the materials used and the proper implementation of potential needed auxiliary materials at difficult locations are seen as key success criteria for sustainable vegetation development. Within this framework small-scale testing series were conducted regarding the influence of specific soil-properties, the use of auxiliary greening materials (fertilizer, mycorrhiza fungi, Bonded fiber matrix (BFM)…), application of different seed-pretreatment methods and influences of specific environmental factors (inclination, seeding depth) on vegetational development in an early phase. The aim of the series is to quantitatively and thus economically optimize the use of different greening-components and seed mixtures for practical application, while ensuring optimal development of vegetation. To quantify the influence of the treatment systems, vegetation cover ratio, biomass production (aboveground and belowground) and the germination of plant seeds served as main criteria for assessing the development in an initial stage. Selected findings for instance show that the admixture of mycorrhiza fungi can increase the cover ratio up to 23 % compared to untreated plots. In addition, pretreatment of seeds showed distinct effects too by shortening germination phase and increasing the capability of producing a higher amount of healthy sprouts. From a bioengineering perspective the results will serve as potential decisive advantage for successful implementation of

  18. Determination of pesticide residues in leafy vegetables at parts per billion levels by a chemometric study using GC-ECD in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Yang; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Bibi, Nusrat; Khalik, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd

    2017-06-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2(4-1) design and CCD matrices. The method evaluation was done by external standard calibration with linearity range between 0.5 and 3mg/kg, with correlation coefficient 0.99, limit of detection (LOD) ranges between 0.02 and 4.5ng/g, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges between 0.2 and 45ng/g. The average recovery was between 60% and 128%, with RSD 0.2-19.8%. The method was applied on real vegetable samples from Cameron Highlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CONDITION OF VEGETATION ON THE GREEN WALL WITH THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Skarżyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the possibility of using remote sensing methods to evaluate condition of vegetation on the green walls were performed on experimental models in 2010–2011. Two models that differ from one another with vegetation layer were analyzed: a retention model (MR I with substrate soil and an economic model (ME II with hydroponic felt. In the individual panels plants representing shrubs, perennials and grasses were planted. In total, on experimental models 60 plant species was applied depending on the exhibition of the walls. The evaluation of the plants condition was performed based on field observations and the analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Evaluation of vegetation condition using remote sensing methods leads to the conclusion that the vegetation on retention model (MR I have a much higher NDVI index value compared with the economic model (ME II. The comparison of the percent coverage of panels on retention model (MR I and economic model (ME II by the plants was done by separating the background plane from the plant surface. As a division criterion NDVI ratio in the range from -1 to 0.2 was taken. The results showed a clear contrast between the level of plant coverage of the examined models for individual facades. On the retention model (MR I panels plant covering was significantly higher than on an economic model (ME II where plant growth was limited. The growth of vegetation on the retention model (MR I using substrate soil in plant panels was normal suggesting the potential use of such solutions in the climatic conditions of Lower Silesia. Vegetation on the economic model (ME II is characterized by a worse growth throughout the growing season, which is why it is not recommended. The study showed that it is possible to evaluate the conditions of vegetation on the green walls with the use of remote sensing methods based on a modified photographic camera.

  20. Influence of vegetation dynamic modeling on the allocation of green and blue waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Francés, Félix

    2015-04-01

    The long history of the Mediterranean region is dominated by the interactions and co-evolution between man and its natural environment. It is important to consider that the Mediterranean region is recurrently or permanently confronted with the scarcity of the water. The issue of climate change is (and will be) aggravating this situation. This raises the question of a loss of services that ecosystems provide to human and also the amount of available water to be used by vegetation. The question of the water cycle, therefore, should be considered in an integrated manner by taking into account both blue water (water in liquid form used for the human needs or which flows into the oceans) and green water (water having the vapor for resulting from evaporation and transpiration processes). In spite of this, traditionally, very few hydrological models have incorporated the vegetation dynamic as a state variable. In fact, most of them are able to represent fairly well the observed discharge, but usually including the vegetation as a static parameter. However, in the last decade, the number of hydrological models which explicitly take into account the vegetation development as a state variable has increased substantially. In this work, we want to analyze if it is really necessary to use a dynamic vegetation model to quantify adequately the distribution of water into blue and green water. The study site is located in the Public Forest Monte de la Hunde y Palomeras (Spain). The vegetation in the study area is dominated by Aleppo pine of high tree density with scant presence of other species. Two different daily models were applied (with static and dynamic vegetation representation respectively) in three different scenarios: dry year (2005), normal year (2008) and wet year (2010). The static vegetation model simulates the evapotranspiration considering the vegetation as a stationary parameter. Contrarily, the dynamic vegetation model connects the hydrological model with a

  1. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Jiao, Wentao

    2012-02-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree-shrub-herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables from green markets in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenov Danijela D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available are valuable source of vitamins, minerals and fibers important for healthy human nutrition. However, an increased level of heavy metals in vegetables has been noticed in recent years. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze content of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and chromium (Cr in 11 vegetable species which are the most common in human diet. Vegetables were collected from three green markets (Limanska, Futoška and Riblja pijaca in Novi Sad, during September and October, from 2009 to 2011. Heavy metal contents were analyzed in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, onion, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Varian, AAS 240FS. The results showed statistically significant differences in element concentrations among analyzed vegetables. In general, the highest metal pollution was observed in the year of 2011. Spinach was found to contain the highest metals content - 0.89 μg/g for Cd, 5.81 μg/g for Pb, and 3.67 μg/g for Cr. According to Serbian official regulations, 18.18% of all analyzed species exceeded maximum permissible level for Cd, 9.09% for Pb, while for Cr these limits are not defined. Elevated content of heavy metals in vegetables might be related to soil contamination, atmospheric depositions during transportation and marketing. Thus, a continuous monitoring of vegetables on markets should be performed in order to prevent potential health risks to consumers.

  3. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  4. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m(3)) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  5. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: the influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Berretta, C; Poe, S.; Stovin, V.

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one lef...

  6. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  7. Constrained projections of high northern latitudinal photosynthesis increase by satellite observations of vegetation greenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander J.; Myneni, Ranga; Brovkin, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations of the last three decades provide strong evidence that the Earth is greening. Especially in northern high latitudes, a substantial increase of the leaf area index (LAI), an indicator of greening, is observed. For these regions, it is assumed that plant growth benefits from higher temperature (radiative effect) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2 fertilization effect). This greening trend, in terms of increasing LAI, is also simulated by various global ecosystem models. We also found a persistent greening trend analyzing historical simulations of Earth system models (ESM) participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, a wide spread in magnitude of an associated increase of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) among the ESMs is found, and thus contributes to pronounced uncertainties in projections of future climate change. Here we demonstrate that the tight correlation between enhanced GPP of high northern latitudinal ecosystems and their LAI sensitivity to both key environmental factors, temperature and CO2 concentration, opens up the possibility of an Emergent Constraint on plant photosynthesis. Combining this almost linear relationship across the ensemble of CMIP5 models with the LAI trends in the long-term satellite records, we are able to constrain projections of vegetation growth increase for respective ecosystems.

  8. The antioxidant and phenolic profiles of five green vegetables grown in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Abiola M; Ighodaro, Osasenaga M; Aminu, Abiola O; Ogunlana, Aminat I

    2016-01-01

    Regular consumption of vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. The phenolic and free radical scavenging properties of five green vegetables grown in southern Nigeria were determined. The phenolic and antioxidant profile of African spinach, bitter leaf, jute leaf, scent leaf and water leaf harvested in the month of August were assessed using standard protocols. The total phenolic content (GAE mg/100 g) of the fresh vegetables ranges from 738.70 ±7.90 in African spinach to 1464.63 ±7.60 in scent leaf. A higher flavonoid content (QE mg/100 g) was found in water leaf (512.07 ±1.47) and jute leaf (510.13 ±2.22) compared to the other vegetables examined; scent leaf (496.51 ±1.31), African spinach (457.40 ±1.50), bitter leaf (371.89 ±0.44). Scent leaf possesses the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an EC50 [μg/mL] of 74.64 ±7.73. The other vegetables show a lower EC50 [μg/mL]; jute leaf (125.86 ±11.34) > water leaf (132.43 ±9.43) > bitter leaf (156.02 ±5.43) > African spinach (213.44 ±9.29). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (EC50, μg/mL) of the vegetables in order of decreasing activity, was bitter leaf (50.38 ±7.17) > water leaf (103.41 ±6.27) > African spinach   (110.54±8.15) > jute leaf (144.39 ±9.37) > scent leaf (217.51 ±6.90). The total antioxidant capacity (EC50, μg/mL) of the vegetables increases in the following order; African spinach (227.39 ±7.25) vegetables possess appreciable phenolic and antioxidant potentials, which underscore their regular consumption as part of healthy Nigerian diet. Principal component analysis (PCA) buttresses the correlations and variations of the aforementioned potential among vegetable species.

  9. More Americans are eating "5 a day" but intakes of dark green and cruciferous vegetables remain low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C S; Taylor, C A; Hampl, J S

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations repeatedly show that the regular consumption of dark green and cruciferous vegetables, tomatoes and citrus fruits in particular is related to reduced cancer risk. We used the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals to examine the types of fruits and vegetables consumed by Americans. The analytic sample population, which consisted of 4806 men and women (25-75 y old) who completed two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls, consumed 3.6 +/- 2.3 servings of vegetables and 1.6 +/- 2.0 servings of fruit daily. Iceberg lettuce, tomatoes, French fried potatoes, bananas and orange juice were the most commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, accounting for nearly 30% of all fruits and vegetables consumed. The most popular items, lettuce and tomatoes, were consumed by 39-42% of the sample population during the reporting period. Fewer respondents (16-24%) consumed French fried potatoes, bananas or orange juice. Only 3% of the sample consumed broccoli during the reporting period. White potato consumption averaged 1.1 servings daily, with French fried potatoes representing 0.4 serving. Tomato product consumption averaged 0.5 serving daily, dark green vegetable consumption averaged 0.2 serving daily and citrus, berries or melon consumption amounted to nearly 0.8 serving daily. These data indicate that Americans are consuming more fruits and vegetables but that dark green and cruciferous vegetable intake is low.

  10. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability.

  11. Hyperspectral Monitoring of Green Roof Vegetation Health State in Sub-Mediterranean Climate: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Patrizia; Porti, Michele; Veltri, Simone; Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica

    2017-03-23

    In urban and industrial environments, the constant increase of impermeable surfaces has produced drastic changes in the natural hydrological cycle. Decreasing green areas not only produce negative effects from a hydrological-hydraulic perspective, but also from an energy point of view, modifying the urban microclimate and generating, as shown in the literature, heat islands in our cities. In this context, green infrastructures may represent an environmental compensation action that can be used to re-equilibrate the hydrological and energy balance and reduce the impact of pollutant load on receiving water bodies. To ensure that a green infrastructure will work properly, vegetated areas have to be continuously monitored to verify their health state. This paper presents a ground spectroscopy monitoring survey of a green roof installed at the University of Calabria fulfilled via the acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. This study is part of a larger research project financed by European Structural funds aimed at understanding the influence of green roofs on rainwater management and energy consumption for air conditioning in the Mediterranean area. Reflectance values were acquired with a field-portable spectroradiometer that operates in the range of wavelengths 350-2500 nm. The survey was carried out during the time period November 2014-June 2015 and data were acquired weekly. Climatic, thermo-physical, hydrological and hydraulic quantities were acquired as well and related to spectral data. Broadband and narrowband spectral indices, related to chlorophyll content and to chlorophyll-carotenoid ratio, were computed. The two narrowband indices NDVI705 and SIPI turned out to be the most representative indices to detect the plant health status.

  12. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yu; Fang, Jun-Chao; Gao, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand-searching journals and contacting experts. The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum-adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) for fruit fiber in these high-quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow-up period of 10 years or more. A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Xanthophyll content of selected vegetables commonly consumed in the Philippines and the effect of boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaporte, Melvin S; Rabaya, Friche Jay R; Toleco, Mitchellrey M; Flores, Dulce M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify xanthophylls in selected vegetables commonly consumed in the Philippines and to investigate the effect of boiling on their availability. Thirteen vegetables were grouped into green-leafy and non-leafy. Results showed that fresh malunggay contains the highest amount of lutein (167.1±6.1 μg/g), neoxanthin (48.66±2.31 μg/g), and violaxanthin (37.86±1.76 μg/g) while mais has the highest zeaxanthin (269.1±11.8 μg/g). Statistically, there is no significant difference (p>0.1) in xanthophyll content between fresh leafy and non-leafy samples. However, 15-min boiling (100 °C) changed this, resulting in a significant difference (pBoiling increased the availability of lutein and neoxanthin, while an opposite effect was observed for zeaxanthin and violaxanthin. Results also showed that consuming 20 g of cooked malunggay (Moringa oleifera) can provide 100% the recommended level of lutein (10 mg) for eye health, while 8 g of cooked mais (Zea mays) a day can provide a high enough level (2 mg) of zeaxanthin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinação do fator de correção das hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em Brasília Correction factor determination in leafy vegetable crops commercialized in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline G Lemos

    2011-06-01

    modo geral, as perdas avaliadas pelo FC estão mais relacionadas ao manipulador das folhosas e ao estado de conservação das hortaliças do que ao período de safra. Desta forma, para as hortaliças que apresentaram diferenças com relação à época de amostragem, recomenda-se observância quanto ao período de planejamento dos cardápios visando a obtenção do aproveitamento eficiente do produto.Brazil has high indexes of food waste, which affects regional economy and increases social problems. Inadequate planning of food processing, from postharvest to consumption, is one of the reasons of loss. Vegetable crops are live organisms and their durability is affected by the processes of subdivision and cooking. To reduce losses, the determination of the Correction Factor is essential in order to evaluate the losses and the factors which interfere on these losses. This work consists on determining the Correction Factor of the following vegetable crops: Crisphead Lettuce, Unheaded Lettuce, Lettuce, Purple Leafs, Chard, Endive, Watercress, Common Chicory, Borecole Green Collard, Escarole, Spinach, Mustard, Cabbage, Red Cabbage and Rocket Crop. Three sale units of each vegetable crop were acquired at the CEASA in Brasília (Federal District, Brazil, from three different suppliers, with four replicates, a total of 36 samples of each vegetable crop. Aiming to detect the influence of the gathering month on the Partial Correction Factor (CF 1 and Final Correction Factor (CF 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test were carried out. In all tests a level of 5% of statistical significance was considered. The results showed that for the majority of the vegetables, harvest does not influence loss. However for chard, the lower CF occurred at harvest. On the other hand for cabbage, the lower CF occurred at harvest. This way for the majority of the vegetables, the losses evaluated by the CF are more related to handling procedures and conservation. For cabbage, it is recommended

  15. Detection and attribution of vegetation greening trend in China over the last 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shilong; Yin, Guodong; Tan, Jianguang; Cheng, Lei; Huang, Mengtian; Li, Yue; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Myneni, Ranga B; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Ben; Shi, Xiaoying; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Zeng, ZhenZhong; Wang, Yingping

    2015-04-01

    The reliable detection and attribution of changes in vegetation growth is a prerequisite for the development of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This is an extraordinary challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively detect and attribute a greening trend in China over the last three decades. We use three different satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) datasets for detection as well as five different process-based ecosystem models for attribution. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition are identified as the most likely causes of the greening trend in China, explaining 85% and 41% of the average growing-season LAI trend (LAIGS) estimated by satellite datasets (average trend of 0.0070 yr(-1), ranging from 0.0035 yr(-1) to 0.0127 yr(-1)), respectively. The contribution of nitrogen deposition is more clearly seen in southern China than in the north of the country. Models disagree about the contribution of climate change alone to the trend in LAIGS at the country scale (one model shows a significant increasing trend, whereas two others show significant decreasing trends). However, the models generally agree on the negative impacts of climate change in north China and Inner Mongolia and the positive impact in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Provincial forest area change tends to be significantly correlated with the trend of LAIGS (P trend, calculated as the trend observed by satellite minus that estimated by models through considering the effects of climate change, rising CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, across different provinces. This result highlights the important role of China's afforestation program in explaining the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Concentrations of Mercury in Ambient Air in Wastewater Irrigated Area of Tianjin City and Its Accumulation in Leafy Vegetables%天津污灌区内气态汞的污染特征及在叶菜类蔬菜中的富集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑顺安; 韩允垒; 郑向群

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous Hg can evaporate and enter the plants through the stomata of plat leaves, which will cause a serious threat to local food safety and human health. For the risk assessment, this study aimed to characterize atmospheric mercury ( Hg) as well as its accumulation in 5 leafy vegetables (spinach, edible amaranth, rape, lettuce, allium tuberosum) from sewage-irrigated area of Tianjin City. Bio-monitoring sites were located in paddy (wastewater irrigation for 30 a), vegetables (wastewater irrigation for 15 a) and grass (control) fields. Results showed that after long-term wastewater irrigation, the mean values of mercury content in paddy and vegetation fields were significantly higher than the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard value for mercury in grade Ⅰ, but were still lower than grade Ⅱ. Soil mercury contents in the studied control grass field were between the local background value and the national soil environment quality standard grade Ⅰ. Besides, the atmospheric environment of paddy and vegetation fields was subjected to serious mercury pollution. The mean values of mercury content in the atmosphere of paddy and vegetation fields were 71. 3 ng·m - 3 and 39. 2 ng·m - 3 , respectively, which were markedly higher than the reference gaseous mercury value on the north sphere of the earth (1. 5-2. 0 ng·m - 3 ). The mean value of ambient mercury in the control grass fields was 9. 4 ng·m - 3 . In addition, it was found that the mercury content in leafy vegetables had a good linear correlation with the ambient total gaseous mercury (the data was transformed into logarithms as the dataset did not show a normal distribution). The comparison among 5 vegetables showed that the accumulations of mercury in vegetables followed this order: spinach > edible amaranth > allium tuberosum > rape > lettuce. Median and mean values of mercury contents in spinach and edible amaranth were greater than the hygienic standard for the

  17. The Energy Impact in Buildings of Vegetative Solutions for Extensive Green Roofs in Temperate Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Barozzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many bibliographical studies have highlighted the positive effects of green roofs as technological solutions both for new and renovated buildings. The one-year experimental monitoring campaign conducted has investigated, in detail, some aspects related to the surface temperature variation induced by the presence of different types of vegetation compared to traditional finishing systems for flat roofs and their impact from an energy and environmental point of view. The results obtained underlined how an appropriate vegetative solution selection can contribute to a significant reduction of the external surface temperatures (10 °C–20 °C for I > 500 W/m2 and 0 °C–5 °C for I < 500 W/m2, regardless of the season compared to traditional flat roofs. During the winter season, the thermal gradients of the planted surface temperatures are close to zero compared to the floor, except under special improving conditions. This entails a significant reduction of the energy loads from summer air conditioning, and an almost conservative behavior with respect to that from winter heating consumption. The analysis of the inside growing medium temperatures returned a further interesting datum, too: the temperature gradient with respect to surface temperature (annual average 4 °C–9 °C is a function of solar radiation and involves the insulating contribution of the soil.

  18. Development of satellite green vegetation fraction time series for use in mesoscale modeling: application to the European heat wave 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for development of satellite green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF data is in the WRF model used to describe the temporal evolution of many land surface parameters, in addition to the evolution...

  19. Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Lieshout, van E.M.M.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with increased colon cancer risk. This association might be partly due to the haem content of red meat. In rats, dietary haem is metabolized in the gut to a cytotoxic factor that increases colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial prolifera

  20. Flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin) contents of selected fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq

    2008-06-01

    The concentrations of flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin) were determined in 22 plant materials (9 vegetables, 5 fruits, and 8 medicinal plant organs). The materials were extracted with acidified methanol (methanol/HCl, 100:1, v/v) and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) with UV detection. The total flavonols contents varied significantly (Paloe vera leaves contained the highest contents of flavonols (6125.6 and 1636.04mgkg(-1)), respectively, whereas, lowest was present in barks (2.42-274.07mgkg(-1)). Overall, leafy green vegetables, soft fruits and medicinal plant leaves exhibited higher levels of flavonols.

  1. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  2. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p ... vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R2 = 0.85, p cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions....

  3. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Tionni R; Brown, J Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2010-01-01

    Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Sixty-one low-income, married/cohabiting men (n = 28) and women (n = 33). Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored because of unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could (1) alter family norms about vegetables served, (2) change perceptions of experiences, (3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables, and (4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  6. EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN EATABLE VEGETABLES – A PROPOSAL FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S Paiva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The  carotenoids  are  natural  colored  pigments  varying  from  yellow  to  red.  They  are  divided  in  carotenes,  as  β-carotene  and lycopene, and their oxygenated derivatives, the xanthophylls, as astaxanthin present in shellfishes.  β-carotenes are precursors of vitamin A being an important anti-oxidant molecule. Both β-carotene and lycopene, have been  used  in  the  cancer  inhibition.  In  the  present  work,  we  detected  the  presence  of  carotenoids  using  thin  layer chromatography (TLC for the separation of the pigments of green eatable vegetables, aiming the application of those methods  in  the  practical  classes  of  the  Biological  Science  Course  of  UFPE.  Spinacia  oleracea  (spinach,  Brassica oleracea (cabbage and Lactuca sativa (lettuce were macerated with washed send in the presence of sodium sulfate followed by the addition of 25 ml of hexane until total homogeneity. The extracts were filtrated, washed with 10 ml of hexane, concentrated in vacuum  evaporator  and resuspended in hexane. The  hexanic extract was applied  on silica gel  G  plates  activated  at  120°C  for  30  min.  The  chromatogram  was  developed  in  hexane-benzene-pyridine  system (40:5:5.  All  the  used  solvents  were  from  analytical  grade,  β-carotene  (C40H56  and  astaxanthin  (C40H52O4  from Sigma  St.  Louis  – USA  were  used  as  standards.  Meanwhile,  the  lycopene  was  identified  by  a  comparison  with  the same compound present in a tomato extract. The results demonstrated that β-carotene has a higher concentration in the  spinach  and  cabbage  than  in  the  lettuce.  However,  lettuce  presented  more  lycopene  than  the  others  two vegetables. Astaxanthin was not detected in all studied vegetables. In conclusion, green eatable vegetables could be a  good  source  of

  7. Elevation-Dependent Vegetation Greening of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin in the Southern Tibetan Plateau, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River basin is an important alley to transport moisture from the Indian Ocean to the inner Tibetan Plateau. With a wide range of elevations from 147 m to over 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l., ecosystems respond differently to climate change at various elevations. However, the pattern of elevation-dependent vegetation change and how it responds to recent warming have been rarely reported. Here, we investigated the pattern of vegetation greening at different elevations in this river basin using SPOT normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data during 1999–2013, and examined its relationship with elevation-dependent changes in temperature and precipitation. The annual NDVI has increased by 8.83% from 1999 to 2013. In particular, the NDVI increased more apparently at lower elevations, but remained relatively stable or even decreased at high elevations. It seems that rising temperature has driven the basin-wide vegetation greening, but the greening rate is in contrast to the pattern of elevation-dependent warming (EDW with more significant temperature increase at higher elevations. It appears that decreasing precipitation does not reverse the overall increasing trend in NDVI, but relatively limited precipitation (<500 mm may constrain the NDVI increases, causing apparently stable or even decreased NDVI at higher elevations (>4000 m.

  8. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  9. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m(2) plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  10. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  11. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Vegetation on Building Comfort: A Comparative Study of Lawns, Green Walls and Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Malys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following development and validation of the SOLENE-microclimat tool, the underlying model was used to compare the impacts of various “greening strategies” on buildings’ summer energy consumption and indoor comfort. This study distinguishes between direct and indirect impacts by successively implementing the test strategies on both the studied building and surrounding ones; it also considers insulated vs. non-insulated buildings. Findings indicate that green walls have a direct effect on indoor comfort throughout the entire building, whereas the effect of green roofs is apparently primarily confined to the upper floor. Moreover, the indirect effect of a green wall is greater, mainly due to the drop in infrared emissions resulting from a lower surface temperature. It has also been proven that the indirect effects of green walls and surrounding lawns can help reduce the loads acting on a non-insulated building.

  12. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  13. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  14. Environmental controls on the greening of terrestrial vegetation across northern Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dass

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems of northern Eurasia are greening, yet few studies have provided definitive attribution for the changes. While prior studies point to increasing temperatures as the principle environmental control, influences from moisture and other factors are less clear. We assess how changes in temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and forest fires contribute to the trend in Gross Primary Productivity (GPP derived from satellite data across northern Eurasia. For the period 1982–2008 we find that GPP, estimated using ensemble satellite NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index observations from GIMMS3g and VIP datasets, is most sensitive to temperature, precipitation and cloudiness during summer, the peak of the growing season. For regional median GPP, summer temperature explains 33.3 % of the variation in GPP, while the other environmental variables explain from 2.2 to 11.8 %. Warming over the period analyzed, even without a sustained increase in precipitation, led to a significant GPP increase over 67.3 % of the region. A significant decrease in GPP was found over 6.2 % of the region, primarily the dryer grasslands in the south-western. For this area, precipitation positively correlates with GPP, as does cloudiness. This shows that the south-western part of northern Eurasia is relatively more vulnerable to drought than other areas. Our results further advance the notion that air temperature is the dominant environmental control for the recent GPP increases across northern Eurasia.

  15. The Impact of Soil Reflectance on the Quantification of the Green Vegetation Fraction from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. A common method to calculate Fg is to create a simple linear mixing rnodeP between two NDVI endmembers: bare soil NDVI (NDVI(sub o)) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI(sub infinity)). Usually it is assumed that NDVI(sub o), is close to zero (NDVI(sub o) approx.-0.05) and is generally chosen from the lowest observed NDVI values. However, the mean soil NDVI computed from 2906 samples is much larger (NDVI=0.2) and is highly variable (standard deviation=O. 1). We show that the underestimation of NDVI(sub o) yields overestimations of Fg. The largest errors occur in grassland and shrubland areas. Using parameters for NDVI(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity) derived from global scenes yields overestimations of Fg ((Delta) Fg*) that are larger than 0.2 for the majority of U.S. land cover types when pixel NDVI values are 0.2

  16. Are green caterers more likely to serve healthy meals than non-green caterers? Results from a quantitative study in Danish worksite catering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Andersen, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    with the fact that the price premiums and availability of the organic products forces caterers to serve menus with higher amounts of root and non-green leafy vegetables, pulses and seasonal vegetables. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that organic conversion of public canteens may be a good opportunity......Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether organic conversion in catering has positive effects on the nutritional quality of menus offered. Design: The methodology was based on a self-administered questionnaire. The self-declared priority given to the use of organic foods...... was measured as the basis for assigning catering managers to one of two groups: 'green' or 'non-green' caterers. These groups were then compared with regard to the relative nutritional quality of the menu options offered to customers. Setting: The study was carried out among randomly selected Danish worksite...

  17. Stay-green in spring wheat can be determined by spectral reflectance measurements (normalized difference vegetation index) independently from phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2012-06-01

    The green area displayed by a crop is a good indicator of its photosynthetic capacity, while chlorophyll retention or 'stay-green' is regarded as a key indicator of stress adaptation. Remote-sensing methods were tested to estimate these parameters in diverse wheat genotypes under different growing conditions. Two wheat populations (a diverse set of 294 advanced lines and a recombinant inbred line population of 169 sister lines derived from the cross between Seri and Babax) were grown in Mexico under three environments: drought, heat, and heat combined with drought. In the two populations studied here, a moderate heritable expression of stay-green was found-when the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at physiological maturity was estimated using the regression of NDVI over time from the mid-stages of grain-filling to physiological maturity-and for the rate of senescence during the same period. Under heat and heat combined with drought environments, stay-green calculated as NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence, showed positive and negative correlations with yield, respectively. Moreover, stay-green calculated as an estimation of NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence regressed on degree days give an independent measurement of stay-green without the confounding effect of phenology. On average, in both populations under heat and heat combined with drought environments CTgf and stay-green variables accounted for around 30% of yield variability in multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that stay-green traits may provide cumulative effects, together with other traits, to improve adaptation under stress further.

  18. Clonal propagation of Bambusa vulgaris by leafy branch cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Islam; M.K.Bhuiyan; M.M.Hossain; M.A.Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Bambusa vulgaris Schrad ex wendl is a widely cultivated bamboo species in rural Bangladesh for its versatile uses. The vegetative propagation becomes the only viable alternative for this species because B. vulgaris does not set seed after sparse flowering, which makes seed- ling progenies unavailable. A low-cost propagation trial was conducted to explore the clonal propagation techniques for the species with two types of small branch cuttings, nodal leafy cuttings and tip cuttings. The cuttings, after treating with 0, 0.1%, 0.4%, and 0.8% IBA solutions, were kept in non-mist propagator to let them to root for assessing the rooting ability. The cuttings were rooted in four weeks and were allowed to grow in the polybags for 10 months under nursery condition to assess their steckling capacity. The study reveals that both types of branch cuttings are able to develop roots, shoots, to survive and to form rhizome under the nursery condition. Rooting ability of the cuttings was significantly enhanced by the application of rooting hormone - IBA. The highest root- ing percentage in nodal leafy cuttings and the tip cuttings (56.67% and 51.0%, respectively) were observed in 0.8% IBA treatment, followed by 0.4% IBA and the lowest (34.3% and 30.0%, respectively) was in control. The highest number of root developed per cutting (9.77 and 8.33 in nodal leafy cuttings and the tip cuttings, respectively) was also obtained from the cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA solution, followed 0.4% IBA treat- ment and the lowest (3.1 and 2.1, respectively) was in the cuttings with- out treatment. However, the length of the longest root varied significantly neither with the cutting types nor the concentrations of IBA solution. Survival percentage of the stecklings in nursery condition was signifi- cantly enhanced by IBA.

  19. Assessing onset and length of greening period in six vegetation types in Oaxaca, Mexico, using NDVI-precipitation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mendoza, L; Galicia, L; Cuevas-Fernández, M L; Magaña, V; Gómez, G; Palacio-Prieto, J L

    2008-07-01

    Variations in the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, were analyzed in terms of precipitation anomalies for the period 1997-2003. Using 10-day averages in NDVI data, obtained from AVHRR satellite information, the response of six types of vegetation to intra-annual and inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation were examined. The onset and temporal evolution of the greening period were studied in terms of precipitation variations through spectral analysis (coherence and phase). The results indicate that extremely dry periods, such as those observed in 1997 and 2001, resulted in low values of NDVI for much of Oaxaca, while good precipitation periods produced a rapid response (20-30 days of delay) from a stressed to a non-stressed condition in most vegetation types. One of these rapid changes occurred during the transition from dry to wet conditions during the summer of 1998. As in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, the NDVI reflects low frequency variations in precipitation on several spatial scales. Even after long dry periods (2001-2002), the various regional vegetation types are capable of recovering when a good rainy season takes place, indicating that vegetation types such as the evergreen forests in the high parts of Oaxaca respond better to rainfall characteristics (timing, amount) than to temperature changes, as is the case in most mid-latitudes. This finding may be relevant to prepare climate change scenarios for forests, where increases in surface temperature and precipitation anomalies are expected.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Regularity of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables Produced in Inner Mongoli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujin ZHANG; Dekun HOU; Jiang HE; Tianyun GAO; Hong LUO; Songyan LANG; Xinxin ZHANG; Yiping YAO

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study regularity of pesticide residues in veg-etables produced in Inner Mongolia. [Method] Mathematical statistic analysis was carried out on 6 800 samples of veggies, fruits, leguminous vegetables, nuts and seeds produced in Inner Mongolia. [Result] The dominated vegetables in Inner Mon-golia were green leafy vegetables, solanaceous vegetables and melon vegetables, and their yields accounted for 70% of the total vegetables production. Since 2003, with the rapid increase of detected vegetable numbers, the status of vegetable qual-ity safety had entered into a new stage of sustainable steady after a rapid decline or periodic fluctuation, and the differences in safety levels were obvious, of which the range of exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in solanaceous vegeta-bles, melon vegetables and leguminous vegetables (about 55% of the total vegeta-bles) was under 2%, with average values of 1.1%, 1.6% and 3.1%, respectively. They belonged to stable type. The exceeding standard rate of pesticide residues in green leafy vegetables and Chinese cabbage group (about 30% of total vegetables) presented a decreasing trend year by year, wondering in the range of 7%-10%. They belonged to main risk type. The time period of exceeding standard of pesticide residues in root vegetables and cole vegetables was under predictable, and its ex-ceeding standard rate in some years was over 5% (amplitude variation is over 15 percentage points). They belonged to random risk type. The kinds of pesticides, which exceeding standard rate in vegetables were relatively intensive, presented vari-ance in different vegetable species. 70% of the pesticides belonged to intermittent over-limits and the probability was below 5%. About 20% tradition pesticides often exceeded standard and their probabilities were over 30%. The exceeding standard of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides in vegetables presented a decreasing tend, while the risk of some new pesticides

  1. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavaiuolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Nitrates and glucosinolates as strong determinants of the nutritional quality in rocket leafy salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-04-14

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Could small scale vegetable production contribute to a green economy in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the principle of a green economy, and is in the process of transitioning to a low carbon, resource efficient economy. The green economy - a response to the challenges of sustainable development, integrates social, economic and environmental objectives. It also...

  4. QTL Mapping of Leafy Heads by Genome Resequencing in the RIL Population of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Yu; Han Wang; Weili Zhong; Jinjuan Bai; Pinglin Liu; Yuke He

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using...

  5. [Preliminary study on occurrence and health risk assessment of quinolone antibiotics in vegetables from Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Ce-Hui; Tai, Yi-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Ji-Yang; Su, Qing-Yun

    2010-10-01

    Quinolone antibiotics (QNs) including norfloxacin (NOR), enrofolxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin (LOM) in vegetable samples collected from Guangzhou were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescent detector (FLD). The detected frequency of QNs was 96% in vegetables. The total concentration of quinolones (sigma QNs) detected in vegetable ranged from 1.0 microg/kg to 1 683.1 microg/kg (F.W.). Leafy vegetable topped the content of quinolones among the three types of vegetables, followed by the melon-fruit vegetable and rhizome vegetable. The detected frequency of the four quinolone antibiotics ranked as NOR > CIP > LOM > ENR. Except ENR, concentrations of CIP, NOR, LOM and sigma QNs in pollution-free vegetable, green vegetable and organic vegetable were higher than those in routine cultivated vegetables. The maximum contribution to ADI value (caculated by the sum of CIP and ENR) is estimated up to 41.5% and 83% for adults and children respectively via consumption of vegetables.

  6. Reanalysis of global terrestrial vegetation trends from MODIS products: Browning or greening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulong Zhang; Conghe Song; Lawrence E. Band; Ge Sun; Junxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Accurately monitoring global vegetation dynamics with modern remote sensing is critical for understanding the functions and processes of the biosphere and its interactions with the planetary climate. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) product has been a primary data source for this purpose. To date, theMODIS teamhad released...

  7. Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modeling urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lemonsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands, and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form, and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The development is performed so that any vegetation model can be used to represent the vegetation part. Here the ISBA model is used. The model results are compared to microclimatic and evaporation measurements performed in small courtyards in a very arid region of Israel. Two experimental landscaping strategies – bare soil or irrigated grass in the courtyard – are observed and simulated. The new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon scale.

  8. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Allende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  9. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-07-03

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  10. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schmidt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed, irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were <1,000 MPN per 100 mL irrigation water and <1,000 MPN per g of compost. The vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of <200/g set by the South African Department of Health at the time of sampling. E. coli MPN values for irrigation water and vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  11. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 15m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  14. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  15. Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modelling urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lemonsu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow us to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The surface exchanges over vegetation are modelled with the well-known Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA model that is integrated in the TEB's code architecture in order to account for interactions between natural and built-up covers. The design of the code makes possible to plug and use any vegetation scheme. Both versions of TEB are confronted to experimental data issued from a field campaign conducted in Israel in 2007. Two semi-enclosed courtyards arranged with bare soil or watered lawn were instrumented to evaluate the impact of landscaping strategies on microclimatic variables and evapotranspiration. For this case study, the new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities (i.e., the street-level meteorological variables are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon scale.

  16. Changes in satellite-derived spring vegetation green-up date and its linkage to climate in China from 1982 to 2010: a multimethod analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Nan; Wang, Tao; Nan, Huijuan; Ma, Yuecun; Wang, Xuhui; Myneni, Ranga B; Piao, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    The change in spring phenology is recognized to exert a major influence on carbon balance dynamics in temperate ecosystems. Over the past several decades, several studies focused on shifts in spring phenology; however, large uncertainties still exist, and one understudied source could be the method implemented in retrieving satellite-derived spring phenology. To account for this potential uncertainty, we conducted a multimethod investigation to quantify changes in vegetation green-up date from 1982 to 2010 over temperate China, and to characterize climatic controls on spring phenology. Over temperate China, the five methods estimated that the vegetation green-up onset date advanced, on average, at a rate of 1.3 ± 0.6 days per decade (ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 days per decade) over the last 29 years. Moreover, the sign of the trends in vegetation green-up date derived from the five methods were broadly consistent spatially and for different vegetation types, but with large differences in the magnitude of the trend. The large intermethod variance was notably observed in arid and semiarid vegetation types. Our results also showed that change in vegetation green-up date is more closely correlated with temperature than with precipitation. However, the temperature sensitivity of spring vegetation green-up date became higher as precipitation increased, implying that precipitation is an important regulator of the response of vegetation spring phenology to change in temperature. This intricate linkage between spring phenology and precipitation must be taken into account in current phenological models which are mostly driven by temperature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Are green caterers more likely to serve healthy meals than non-green caterers? Results from a quantitative study in Danish worksite catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Be; Bruselius-Jensen, M; Andersen, Js; Lassen, A

    2006-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether organic conversion in catering has positive effects on the nutritional quality of menus offered. The methodology was based on a self-administered questionnaire. The self-declared priority given to the use of organic foods was measured as the basis for assigning catering managers to one of two groups: 'green' or 'non-green' caterers. These groups were then compared with regard to the relative nutritional quality of the menu options offered to customers. The study was carried out among randomly selected Danish worksite catering outlets. The subjects participating in the study comprised 526 Danish worksite catering managers. The results showed a strong correlation between caterers' 'green-ness' and the nutritional quality of the menu options offered. Green caters had more healthy options in their menus than non-green caters, which is likely to result in improved nutritional quality of the diets of end consumers. The reason for this may partly be the increased service training efforts that green caterers practise in order to be able to implement organic foods successfully. It may also be associated with the fact that the price premiums and availability of the organic products forces caterers to serve menus with higher amounts of root and non-green leafy vegetables, pulses and seasonal vegetables. The present findings suggest that organic conversion of public canteens may be a good opportunity to promote healthier eating in public catering.

  18. Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Green Games-this is a Chinese promise to the world. Green it has to be when the Olympic Games are opened at a spectacular venue in the north of Beijing in 2008. However, those who live in the capital still worry whether it will be possible to turn the rather polluted city. into a green or even half-green city. But time and again, China has proved that this kind of huge challenge can be met. Nevertheless,this time around it is a tough call indeed and a little over three years are left to execute and complete an audacious task.

  19. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  20. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  1. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  2. Phylloquinone content from wild green vegetables may contribute substantially to dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Spagner, Camilla; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Nordic eatable wild plants are now sold in local stores and available to everyone. Wild vegetables may contain large amounts of vitamin K1. Due to the concomitant therapeutic use of anticoagulants among the populations, it is important to gain knowledge about the content o...

  3. greening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utpal

    Results reveal that sodium sulphite method of DNA isolation provided higher yield and ... rescence tests with monoclonal antibodies and DNA-DNA hybridization with .... Validation of PCR for detection of greening bacterium. Following the ...

  4. bacteriological quality of some ready to eat vegetables as retailed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Some ready to eat leafy vegetables on sale at Sabon-gari market, Zaria were analysed for their bacterial flora and counts. ... particularly washing. The importance of washing ... biochemical tests that included coagulase, motility, indole, oxidase ...

  5. Vegetable consumption pattern of households in selected areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... bitterleaf, a leafy vegetable that undergoes rigorous process of squeezing and ... de soupes mangées comme des accompagnements avec les aliments de base ...

  6. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  7. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines predictors of vegetative cover on private lands in Baltimore, Maryland. Using high-resolution spatial data, we generated two measures: “possible stewardship,” which is the proportion of private land that does not have built structures on it and hence has the possibility of supporting vegetation, and “realized stewardship,” which is the proportion of possible stewardship land upon which vegetation is growing. These measures were calculated at the parcel level and averaged by US Census block group. Realized stewardship was further defined by proportion of tree canopy and grass. Expenditures on yard supplies and services, available by block group, were used to help understand where vegetation condition appears to be the result of current activity, past legacies, or abandonment. PRIZM™ market segmentation data were tested as categorical predictors of possible and realized stewardship and yard expenditures. PRIZM™ segmentations are hierarchically clustered into 5, 15, and 62 categories, which correspond to population density, social stratification (income and education), and lifestyle clusters, respectively. We found that PRIZM 15 best predicted variation in possible stewardship and PRIZM 62 best predicted variation in realized stewardship. These results were further analyzed by regressing each dependent variable against a set of continuous variables reflective of each of the three PRIZM groupings. Housing age, vacancy, and population density were found to be critical determinants of both stewardship metrics. A number of lifestyle factors, such as average family size, marriage rates, and percentage of single-family detached homes, were strongly related to realized stewardship. The percentage of African Americans by block group was positively related to realized stewardship but negatively related to yard expenditures.

  8. Effect of Storage and Cooking Time on the Antioxidant Properties of Two Commonly Used Ghanaian Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Anderson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetables are good sources of antioxidants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of storage and cooking time on the antioxidant properties of two commonly used Ghanaian vegetables: Corchorus olitorius and Solanum macrocarpon locally known as “adeimey” and “gboma” respectively. The storage conditions were: Left to stand overnight at room temperature, refrigerated for one day and refrigerated for one week, and cooked for ten and thirty minutes at 100ºC. The reducing power and the total carotenoid content were determined by measuring absorbance using a Shimadzu UV-120-02 spectrophotometer at 700 nm and 450 nm respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH method. The antioxidant activity (AOA ranged from 91.59 to 38.42%. The total carotenoid content (TCC varied from 5.10 to 27.30 mg/100 g. The reducing power ranged from 9.52 to 50.59%. The results show that Solanum macrocarpon and Corchorus olitorius are good sources of antioxidants with the later exhibiting higher antioxidant properties than the former. However the AOA, TCC and reducing power decreased drastically when the vegetables were refrigerated for one day and one week and cooked for thirty minutes at 100ºC. Similarly the AOA, TCC and reducing power decreased slightly when the stored vegetables were cooked for ten minutes. These findings suggest modification in the storage and cooking practices of these green leafy vegetables to ensure retention of antioxidants for the best nutritional value and health benefit. The results also indicate that in areas where refrigeration is not possible, vegetables can be left overnight at room temperature to preserve the antioxidants in them.

  9. Comparison of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of building blocks in shinseoncho and kale green vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2012-12-01

    Shinseoncho and kale were divided into stem [shinseoncho stems (SS) and kale stems (KS)] and leaf parts [shinseoncho leaves (SL) and kale leaves (KL)] and made into green vegetable juices for analyses of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities. Higher values of total acidity were observed in SL (0.736%) and KL (0.841%) than in SS (0.417%) and KS (0.335%) (p KL (218.494 μg/mL)> KS (107.269 μg/mL)> SS (75.894 μg/mL). KL exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.834%) (p SL (63.473%)> KS (52.894%)> SS (35.443%). ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that SL (66.088%) and KL (38.511%) had higher scavenging activities, whereas SS (7.695%) and KS (9.609%) demonstrated to be lower activities (pgreen vegetable juices and the consumption of them may be beneficial as a nutrition source and in health protection.

  10. Pattern of NDVI-based vegetation greening along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Himalayas and its response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Li, Yingkui; Xu, Yuyue; Shen, Weishou

    2016-03-01

    The eastern Himalayas, especially the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon Nature Reserve (YNR), is a global hotspot of biodiversity because of a wide variety of climatic conditions and elevations ranging from 500 to > 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The mountain ecosystems at different elevations are vulnerable to climate change; however, there has been little research into the patterns of vegetation greening and their response to global warming. The objective of this paper is to examine the pattern of vegetation greening in different altitudinal zones in the YNR and its relationship with vegetation types and climatic factors. Specifically, the inter-annual change of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its variation along altitudinal gradient between 1999 and 2013 was investigated using SPOT-VGT NDVI data and ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data. We found that annual NDVI increased by 17.58% in the YNR from 1999 to 2013, especially in regions dominated by broad-leaved and coniferous forests at lower elevations. The vegetation greening rate decreased significantly as elevation increased, with a threshold elevation of approximately 3000 m. Rising temperature played a dominant role in driving the increase in NDVI, while precipitation has no statistical relationship with changes in NDVI in this region. This study provides useful information to develop an integrated management and conservation plan for climate change adaptation and promote biodiversity conservation in the YNR.

  11. Recent Declines in Warming and Vegetation Greening Trends over Pan-Arctic Tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Polyakov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation productivity trends for the Arctic tundra are updated for the 1982–2011 period and examined in the context of land surface temperatures and coastal sea ice. Understanding mechanistic links between vegetation and climate parameters contributes to model advancements that are necessary for improving climate projections. This study employs remote sensing data: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MaxNDVI, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I sea-ice concentrations, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR radiometric surface temperatures. Spring sea ice is declining everywhere except in the Bering Sea, while summer open water area is increasing throughout the Arctic. Summer Warmth Index (SWI—sum of degree months above freezing trends from 1982 to 2011 are positive around Beringia but are negative over Eurasia from the Barents to the Laptev Seas and in parts of northern Canada. Eastern North America continues to show increased summer warmth and a corresponding steady increase in MaxNDVI. Positive MaxNDVI trends from 1982 to 2011 are generally weaker compared to trends from 1982–2008. So to better understand the changing trends, break points in the time series were quantified using the Breakfit algorithm. The most notable break points identify declines in SWI since 2003 in Eurasia and 1998 in Western North America. The Time Integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI, sum of the biweekly growing season values of MaxNDVI has declined since 2005 in Eurasia, consistent with SWI declines. Summer (June–August sea level pressure (slp averages from 1999–2011 were compared to those from 1982–1998 to reveal higher slp over Greenland and the western Arctic and generally lower pressure over the continental Arctic in the recent period. This suggests that the large-scale circulation is likely a key contributor to the cooler temperatures over Eurasia through increased summer cloud

  12. Vegetation Greening and Climate Change Promote Multidecadal Rises of Global Land Evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Kimball, John S; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Running, Steven W; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-10-30

    Recent studies showed that anomalous dry conditions and limited moisture supply roughly between 1998 and 2008, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, led to reduced vegetation productivity and ceased growth in land evapotranspiration (ET). However, natural variability of Earth's climate system can degrade capabilities for identifying climate trends. Here we produced a long-term (1982-2013) remote sensing based land ET record and investigated multidecadal changes in global ET and underlying causes. The ET record shows a significant upward global trend of 0.88 mm yr(-2) (P climate phases associated with strong El Niño events.

  13. Analysis of phytochemical composition and chemoprotective capacity of rocket (Eruca sativa and Diplotaxis tenuifolia) leafy salad following cultivation in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Koroleva, Olga A; Gibson, Trevor; Swanston, June; Magan, Jane; Zhang, Yan; Rowland, Ian R; Wagstaff, Carol

    2009-06-24

    Consumption of green leafy vegetables is associated with reduced risk of several types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects are attributed to a range of phytochemicals including flavonoids and glucosinolates, both of which are found in high levels in Brassicaceous crops. Rocket is the general name attributed to cultivars of Eruca sativa and Diplotaxis tenufolia, known as salad rocket and wild rocket, respectively. We have shown that different light levels during the cultivation period of these crops have a significant impact on the levels of flavonoids present in the crop at harvest, with over 15-fold increase achieved in quercetin, isorhamnetin, and cyanidin in high light conditions. Postharvest storage further affects the levels of both flavonoids and glucosinolates, with cyanidin increasing during shelf life and some glucosinolates, such as glucoiberverin, being reduced over the same storage period. In vitro assays using human colon cell lines demonstrate that glucosinolate-rich extracts of Eruca sativa cv. Sky, but not Diplotaxis tenufolia cv. Voyager, confer significant resistance to oxidative stress on the cells, which is indicative of the chemoprotective properties of the leaves from this species. Our findings indicate that both pre and postharvest environment and genotypic selection, when developing new lines of Brassicaceous vegetables, are important considerations with the goal of improving human nutrition and health.

  14. Copper and Lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metals uptake by plants grown in polluted soils has been studied ... Abstract:A study was carried out to determine the levels of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), in two popular ... into small pieces and left to dry on paper for about 2.

  15. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  16. Ionomic variation characterization in African leafy vegetables for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Data suggest that ionomic variation discriminator ability on Fe & Ca single element ... Conclusions are: (1) that for primary data mining, XRF can be utilized as the first course of ...

  17. 几种叶类蔬菜对砷吸收及累积特性的比较研究%A Screening Study of Five Leafy Vegetable Species for Tolerance and Accumulation of Toxic Inorganic Arsenic(Ⅴ) Under Hydroponic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.K.Mathieu; 曾希柏; 李莲芳; 苏世鸣; 王秀荣; 冯秋分; 白玲玉; 王亚男; 段然

    2013-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment under greenhouse condition with five leafy vegetable species including romaine (Lactuce saliva var. longifolia), lettuce(Lactuce saliva L.), Celery (Apium graveolens L.), amaranth(Amaranthus mangostanus L.) and water spinach(Ipomea aquatic a L.) was conducted to compare the properties of arsenic(As) uptake in As contaminated farmland. The results showed that the shoot biomass(FW) of celery, amaranth, and water spinach was significantly(P<0.05) lower, when the As concentration in the nutrient solution was with 2, 4, and 8 mg·L-1, while As addition did not have significant effects on the shoot biomass of romaine and lettuce under all the As treatments used compared to the control. It indicated that romaine and lettuce had higher As tolerance. When the arsenic in nutrient solution reached up to 10 mg·L-1, water spinach had the highest shoot As accumulation with 1623 μg·pof-1 and lettuce had the lowest shoot As accumulation with 45.58 μg·pot-1. As accumulation in shoot of five species was ranked from high to low in the order of spinach, celery, amaranth, lettuce and romaine. Under the different As concentrations in the nutrient solution, the translocation factor(TFs) for lettuce and romaine is with 0.02 and 0.03 respectively, while the BFs(ratio between As concentration in shoot and As in nutrient) for lettuce and romaine is with 2.75 and 2.66 respectively. Both of TFs and BFs in lettuce and romaine is lower than in other vegetables. The results could provide an effective basis for screening of low As uptake crops under hydroponic experiments.%运用水培试验方法,比较了5种叶类作物对砷的吸收特性.结果表明,当营养液中砷浓度为2、4、8 mg· L-1时,芹菜(Apium graveolens L.)、苋菜(Amaranthus mangostanusL.)和空心菜(Ipomea aquatica L)地上部分生物量均显著降低(P<0.05),而莴苣(Lactuce sativa var.longifolia)和生菜(Lactuce sativaL.)的地上部生物量与CK相比差异不显著,表现出相

  18. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  19. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  20. Reprint of “Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-08-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  1. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters.

  2. Green facades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Winden, J.; Smits, E.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Knowledge of living organisms applied in buildings can prevent crucial designer mistakes. Therefore this manual provides information on vegetated facades. Green facade, vertical green, green wall, vertical g

  3. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  4. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  5. A Study on the Impact of Vegetation and Green Roof on Increasing the Wind Speed and Pollutants Dispersion in the Urban Canyons Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Increasing population growth and construction of high-rise buildings have doubled the amount of environmental pollution in the cities. Moreover, people use the open urban spaces more than before in order to meet their ecological needs. Accordingly, some parameters such as various vegetation and continuous winds streams can be considerably influential in transmittance of the particle pollution.  Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the impacts of different green roofs on the dispersion of pollutants in the standpoint of height and density for urban airflow condition of Shiraz City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, a literature review in the field computer simulation with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD model in Envi-met software environment was used. Results: Regarding the importance of using vegetation in the urban spaces, vertical dispersion of the particles in presence of vegetation was explored. By comparing the basic model (without vegetation results with models including vegetation with short, medium and high crowns, it was revealed that vegetation with medium crowns is the closest model to the basic model with a difference of 7.65 m2/s in terms of vertical dispersion of particles; in fact, it was the most optimized condition for maximizing the dispersion of environmental pollutants. Conclusion: The results showed that the green roofs in the buildings increase the horizontal dispersion of the particulate pollution and decrease this term in the vertical dispersion. Finally, by an expansion of green roof usage in the buildings the sustainability in architecture and urbanism can be achieved.

  6. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Montserrat; Pfister, Stephan; Roux, Philippe; Antón, Assumpció

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing direct soil-water consumption, also termed green water in the literature, in life cycle assessment (LCA). This was an issue that LCA had not tackled before. The approach, which is applied during the life cycle inventory phase (LCI), consists of quantifying the net change in the evapo(transpi)ration of the production system compared to the natural reference situation. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) is used as the natural reference situation. In order to apply the method, we estimated PNV evapotranspiration adapted to local biogeographic conditions, on global dry lands, where soil-water consumption impacts can be critical. Values are reported at different spatial aggregation levels: 10-arcmin global grid, ecoregions (501 units), biomes (14 units), countries (124 units), continents, and a global average, to facilitate the assessment for different spatial information detail levels available in the LCI. The method is intended to be used in rain-fed agriculture and rainwater harvesting contexts, which includes direct soil moisture uptake by plants and rainwater harvested and then reused in production systems. The paper provides the necessary LCI method and data for further development of impact assessment models and characterization factors to evaluate the environmental effects of the net change in evapo(transpi)ration.

  7. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  8. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  9. Prevalence and characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae on retail vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Angela H A M; Veenman, Christiaan; van Overbeek, Wendy M; Lynch, Gretta; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2015-07-02

    In total 1216 vegetables obtained from Dutch stores during 2012 and 2013 were analysed to determine the prevalence of 3rd-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistant bacteria on soil-grown fresh produce possibly consumed raw. Vegetables grown conventionally and organically, from Dutch as well as foreign origin were compared. Included were the following vegetable types; blanched celery (n=192), bunched carrots (n=190), butterhead lettuce (n=137), chicory (n=96), endive (n=188), iceberg lettuce (n=193) and radish (n=120). Overall, 3GC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected on 5.2% of vegetables. Based on primary habitat and mechanism of 3GC-resistance, these bacteria could be divided into four groups: ESBL-producing faecal species (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp.), AmpC-producing faecal species (Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp.), ESBL-producing environmental species (Pantoea spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia fonticola), and AmpC-producing environmental species (Cedecca spp., Hafnia alvei, Pantoea spp., Serratia plymuthica), which were detected on 0.8%, 1.2%, 2.6% and 0.4% of the vegetables analysed, respectively. Contamination with faecal 3GC-resistant bacteria was most frequently observed in root and bulb vegetables (average prevalence 4.4%), and less frequently in stem vegetables (prevalence 1.6%) and leafy greens (average prevalence 0.6%). In Dutch stores, only four of the included vegetable types (blanched celery, bunched carrots, endive, iceberg lettuce) were available in all four possible variants: Dutch/conventional, Dutch/organic, foreign/conventional, foreign/organic. With respect to these vegetable types, no statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of 3GC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae between country of origin or cultivation type (5.2%, 5.7%, 5.7% and 3.3%, respectively). Vegetables consumed raw may be a source of dissemination of 3GC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and their resistance genes to humans. The magnitude of the

  10. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars, Based on Modeling Supply Chain Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Franz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference betwee

  11. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars, Based on Modeling Supply Chain Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Franz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference

  12. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  13. Two models to compute an adjusted Green Vegetation Fraction taking into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E.

    2008-12-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. The commonly- used Fg model is a simple linear mixing of two NDVI end-members: bare soil NDVI (NDVIo) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI∞). NDVI∞ is generally set as a percentile of the historical maximum NDVI for each land cover. This approach works well for areas where Fg reaches full cover (100%). Because many biomes do not reach Fg=0, however, NDVIo is often determined as a single invariant value for all land cover types. In general, it is selected among the lowest NDVI observed over bare or desert areas, yielding NDVIo close to zero. There are two issues with this approach: large-scale variability of soil NDVI is ignored and observations on a wide range of soils show that soil NDVI is often larger. Here we introduce and test two new approaches to compute Fg that takes into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI. The first approach uses a global soil NDVI database and time series of MODIS NDVI data over the conterminous United States to constrain possible soil NDVI values over each pixel. Fg is computed using a subset of the soils database that respects the linear mixing model condition NDVIo≤NDVIh, where NDVIh is the pixel historical minimum. The second approach uses an empirical soil NDVI model that combines information of soil organic matter content and texture to infer soil NDVI. The U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO2) database is used as input for spatial soil properties. Using in situ measurements of soil NDVI from sites that span a range of land cover types, we test both models and compare their performance to the standard Fg model. We show that our models adjust the temporal Fg estimates by 40-90% depending on the land cover type and amplitude of the seasonal NDVI signal. Using MODIS NDVI and soil maps over the conterminous U.S., we also study the spatial distribution of Fg adjustments in February and June 2008. We show that the standard Fg method

  14. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food insec

  15. Modeling Responses of Leafy Spurge Dispersal to Control Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zewei Miao

    2007-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has substantial negative effects on grassland biodiversity, productivity, and economic benefit in North America.To predict these negative impacts, we need an appropriate plant-spread model which can simulate the response of an invading population to different control strategies.In this study, using a stochastic map lattice approach we generated a spatially explicitly stochastic process-based model to simulate dispersal trajectories of leafy spurge under various control scenarios.The model integrated dispersal curve, propagule pressure, and population growth of leafy spurge at local and short-temporal scales to capture spread features of leafy spurge at large spatial and long-temporal scales.Our results suggested that narrow-, medium-, and fat-tailed kernels did not differ In their ability to predict spread, in contrast to previous works.For all kernels, Allee effects were significantly present and could explain the lag phase (three decades)before leafy spurge spread accelerated.When simulating from the initial stage of introduction, Allee effects were critical in predicting spread rate of leafy spurge, because the prediction could be seriously affected by the low density period of leafy spurge community.No Allee effects models were not able to simulate spread rate well in this circumstance.When applying control strategies to the current diatribution, Allee effects could stop the spread of leafy spurge; no Allee effects models, however, were able to slow but not stop the spread.The presence of Allee effects had significant ramifications on the efficiencies of control strategies.For both Allee and no Allee effects models, the later that control strategies were implemented, the more effort had to be input to achieve similar control results.

  16. Predicting bird phenology from space: satellite-derived vegetation green-up signal uncovers spatial variation in phenological synchrony between birds and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ella F; Long, Peter R; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Szulkin, Marta; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Population-level studies of how tit species (Parus spp.) track the changing phenology of their caterpillar food source have provided a model system allowing inference into how populations can adjust to changing climates, but are often limited because they implicitly assume all individuals experience similar environments. Ecologists are increasingly using satellite-derived data to quantify aspects of animals' environments, but so far studies examining phenology have generally done so at large spatial scales. Considering the scale at which individuals experience their environment is likely to be key if we are to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes acting on reproductive phenology within populations. Here, we use time series of satellite images, with a resolution of 240 m, to quantify spatial variation in vegetation green-up for a 385-ha mixed-deciduous woodland. Using data spanning 13 years, we demonstrate that annual population-level measures of the timing of peak abundance of winter moth larvae (Operophtera brumata) and the timing of egg laying in great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) is related to satellite-derived spring vegetation phenology. We go on to show that timing of local vegetation green-up significantly explained individual differences in tit reproductive phenology within the population, and that the degree of synchrony between bird and vegetation phenology showed marked spatial variation across the woodland. Areas of high oak tree (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) density showed the strongest match between remote-sensed vegetation phenology and reproductive phenology in both species. Marked within-population variation in the extent to which phenology of different trophic levels match suggests that more attention should be given to small-scale processes when exploring the causes and consequences of phenological matching. We discuss how use of remotely sensed data to study within-population variation

  17. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  18. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  19. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are roofs that have been covered with a growing medium, creating a habitat on what would otherwise be a bland, lifeless surface. It is for this reason that green roofs are sometimes call 'vegetated' or 'living' roofs (Cantor 2008). A...

  20. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    OpenAIRE

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  1. From greening to browning: Catchment vegetation development and reduced S-deposition promote organic carbon load on decadal time scales in Nordic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Anders G.; Andersen, Tom; Larsen, Søren; Tominaga, Koji; Blumentrath, Stefan; de Wit, Heleen A.; Tømmervik, Hans; Hessen, Dag Olav

    2016-08-01

    Increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), often labelled “browning”, is a current trend in northern, particularly boreal, freshwaters. The browning has been attributed to the recent reduction in sulphate (S) deposition during the last 2 to 3 decades. Over the last century, climate and land use change have also caused an increasing trend in vegetation cover (“greening”), and this terrestrially fixed carbon represents another potential source for export of organic carbon to lakes and rivers. The impact of this greening on the observed browning of lakes and rivers on decadal time scales remains poorly investigated, however. Here, we explore time-series both on water chemistry and catchment vegetation cover (using NDVI as proxy) from 70 Norwegian lakes and catchments over a 30-year period. We show that the increase in terrestrial vegetation as well as temperature and runoff significantly adds to the reduced SO4-deposition as a driver of freshwater DOC concentration. Over extended periods (centuries), climate mediated changes in vegetation cover may cause major browning of northern surface waters, with severe impact on ecosystem productivity and functioning.

  2. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    Full Text Available Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea, Chinese cabbage (B. rapa, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa, we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  3. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  4. Systems of Vegetal Façade and Green Roofs used as a Sustainable Option in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chanampa, Mariana; Vidal Rivas, Pilar; Alonso Ojembarrena, Javier; Olivieri, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Green architecture contributes not only in reducing the building’s thermal loads but also in reducing the effects of the urban heat island in densely built-up areas in a hardly natural environment. The current green systems are built in situ/on site and are very expensive, hence the need to create industrialized prevegetated systems which improve the buildings’ energy savings and reduce the times of construction works. The present paper describes three green systems for façades (gabion façade...

  5. Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical ...

  6. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  7. Growing up green on serpentine soils: Biogeochemistry of serpentine vegetation in the Central Coast Range of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Skinner, C.; Schroth, A.W.; Coleman, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Serpentine soils derived from the weathering of ultramafic rocks and their metamorphic derivatives (serpentinites) are chemically prohibitive for vegetative growth. Evaluating how serpentine vegetation is able to persist under these chemical conditions is difficult to ascertain due to the numerous factors (climate, relief, time, water availability, etc.) controlling and affecting plant growth. Here, the uptake, incorporation, and distribution of a wide variety of elements into the biomass of serpentine vegetation has been investigated relative to vegetation growing on an adjacent chert-derived soil. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, soil extractable elements, total soil elemental compositions and plant digestions in conjunction with spider diagrams are utilized to determine the chemical relationships of these soil and plant systems. Plant available Mg and Ca in serpentine soils exceed values assessed in chert soils. Magnesium is nearly 3 times more abundant than Ca in the serpentine soils; however, the serpentine soils are not Ca deficient with Ca concentrations as high as 2235 mg kg-1. Calcium to Mg ratios (Ca:Mg) in both serpentine and chert vegetation are greater than one in both below and above ground tissues. Soil and plant chemistry analyses support that Ca is not a limiting factor for plant growth and that serpentine vegetation is actively moderating Mg uptake as well as tolerating elevated concentrations of bioavailable Mg. Additionally, results demonstrate that serpentine vegetation suppresses the uptake of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and Co into its biomass. The suppressed uptake of these metals mainly occurs in the plants' roots as evident by the comparatively lower metal concentrations present in above ground tissues (twigs, leaves and shoots). This research supports earlier studies that have suggested that ion uptake discrimination and ion suppression in the roots are major mechanisms for serpentine vegetation to tolerate the chemistry of

  8. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  9. Public Health Relevance of Cross-Contamination in the Fresh-Cut Vegetable Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno; Evers, Eric; Franz, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Although quantitative studies have revealed that cross-contamination during the washing stage of fresh produce occurs, the importance of cross-contamination in terms of public health relevance has rarely been assessed. The direct distribution of initially contaminated leafy vegetables to a multitude of servings by cutting and mixing also has not been addressed. The goal of this study was to assess the attribution of both contamination pathways to disease risk. We constructed a transparent and exploratory mathematical model that simulates the dispersion of contamination from a load of leafy greens during industrial washing. The risk of disease was subsequently calculated using a Beta-Poisson dose-response relation. The results indicate that up to contamination loads of 10(6) CFU the direct contamination route is more important than the indirect route (i.e., cross-contamination) in terms of number of illnesses. We highlight that the relevance of cross-contamination decreases with more diffuse and uniform contamination, and we infer that prevention of contamination in the field is the most important risk management strategy and that disinfection of washing water can be an additional intervention to tackle potentially high (>10(6) CFU) point contamination levels.

  10. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  11. Space-borne Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Greenness, Vegetation Models and Interannual Variability of Photosynthetic Activity: Spatio-temporal Patterns, Mechanisms, and Environmental Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, S.; Guanter, L.; Jung, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Sun, Y.; Forkel, M.; Zhang, Y.; Duveiller, G.; Cescatti, A.; Camps-Valls, G.; Köhler, P.

    2016-12-01

    It is much debated whether respiration or photosynthesis drive net ecosystem productivity andwhich regions contribute strongest to the observed interannual variability (IAV) of the strengthof the land sink. Several studies point to photosynthetic productivity in semi-arid regions as avery important factor influencing atmospheric CO2 variability globally (e.g. Jung et al., 2011;Poulter et al., 2014; Ahlstr ̈ om et al., 2015). Here, we aim at a comprehensive comparison ofthe strength, timing and spatial extent of anomalies of photosynthesis as they are indicated bysatellite observations of greenness, vegetation optical depth, and sun-induced chlorophyll fluo-rescence (SIF). We will compare them to the results of diagnostic, empirical and process-basedvegetation models. Except for the evergreen tropics, the spatio-temporal patterns of monthlydominant vegetation variability are generally consistently shown in semi-arid areas, albeit withdiffering magnitudes between greenness and photosynthesis globally. Relative anomalies (to themean seasonal cycle) are particularly widespread in high northern latitudes. Further researchsteps will include i) the repeated analysis at higher temporal resolution to better refine the dif-ferent time scales of reaction between light-use-efficiency and APAR and between forestedand non-forested ecosystems, ii) investigate on characteristic time scales at which the proxies(dis-)agree and why, iii) study the relative contributions of anomalies in peak and length of thegrowing season to IAV (similar to Xia et al., 2015; Zhou et al., 2016), iv) analyse the proxiesfor possibly differing hydrological sensitivities, and v) vegetation models have long been knownto have very diverse abilities to capture GPP IAV. Our preliminary results confirm this and wewill further study possible limitations and possible ways for improvement of the simulations.

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As. The target hazard quotient (THQ method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  13. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  14. Evaluation of Exposure to Heavy Metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Vegetables Grown in the Olericultures of Zanjan Province\\'s Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Tabande

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The contamination of soils and plants with heavy metals is a serious and growing problem. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and some agricultural products and the probability of risks due to their consumption. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using random sampling at harvest time in 2014 on 205 samples of vegetable crops (Leek, chard, parsley, watermelon, melon, tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, onion, garlic, radish, green peas, and broad bean and 129 samples of soils under cultivation. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in soil and plant samples were determined by an atomic absorption instrument and the data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between the mean concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn for different vegetables (P<0.001, but no significant difference was observed for Cd. The highest mean levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were detected in parsley, chard, broad bean, and leek respectively. However, there was no heavy metal pollution in the remainder of the vegetables and soil samples (with the exception of agricultural soils adjacent to the lead mine of Mahneshan area studied. Hazard probability (HQ of each element for cancerous diseases was less than unit and the intake of heavy metals was lower than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that major accumulation of heavy metals was obtained in leafy vegetables. Therefore, much attention should be paid to consumption of leafy vegetables, especially vegetables grown in the surrounding industrial areas.

  15. Simulation of green roof runoff under different substrate depths and vegetation covers by coupling a simple conceptual and a physically based hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Konstantinos X; Valiantzas, John D; Ntoulas, Nikolaos; Kargas, George; Nektarios, Panayiotis A

    2017-09-15

    In spite of the well-known green roof benefits, their widespread adoption in the management practices of urban drainage systems requires the use of adequate analytical and modelling tools. In the current study, green roof runoff modeling was accomplished by developing, testing, and jointly using a simple conceptual model and a physically based numerical simulation model utilizing HYDRUS-1D software. The use of such an approach combines the advantages of the conceptual model, namely simplicity, low computational requirements, and ability to be easily integrated in decision support tools with the capacity of the physically based simulation model to be easily transferred in conditions and locations other than those used for calibrating and validating it. The proposed approach was evaluated with an experimental dataset that included various green roof covers (either succulent plants - Sedum sediforme, or xerophytic plants - Origanum onites, or bare substrate without any vegetation) and two substrate depths (either 8 cm or 16 cm). Both the physically based and the conceptual models matched very closely the observed hydrographs. In general, the conceptual model performed better than the physically based simulation model but the overall performance of both models was sufficient in most cases as it is revealed by the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index which was generally greater than 0.70. Finally, it was showcased how a physically based and a simple conceptual model can be jointly used to allow the use of the simple conceptual model for a wider set of conditions than the available experimental data and in order to support green roof design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploration on the Green Control Technology of Vegetables Diseases and Pests in Jiangning District%江苏省南京市江宁区蔬菜病虫害绿色防控技术探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮小勇

    2016-01-01

    从江苏省南京市江宁区蔬菜种植绿色防控现状出发,阐述了病虫害绿色防控在江宁区蔬菜生产中的重要性和必要性,并提出了规模化应用病虫害绿色防控的相关建议,为更好地推动江宁区蔬菜病虫害绿色防控技术,保障蔬菜质量安全,促进蔬菜产业生态可持续发展提供借鉴与参考。%Starting from introducing the green prevention and control status of vegetables in Jiangning District,the importance and necessity of green pest prevention and control in the production of vegetables were expounded,and the application of green prevention and con-trol of plant diseases and pests in large scale was put forward,in order to provide a reference for better promoting the green prevention and control of vegeta-bles diseases and pests in Jiangning District,protecting the quality and safety of vegetables,and promoting the ecologi-cal sustainable development of vegetable industry.

  17. Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

  18. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  19. Mapping of Impervious Surfaces and Green Vegetation Fraction in Urban Areas Using High-Resolution Optical- and SAR- Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Benjamin; Becker, Frauke; Menz, Gunther

    2010-12-01

    Impervious surfaces (IS) and vegetated surfaces (VS) are two important variables for urban planning. Both are related to surface biophysical processes (e. g. urban heat island) and the quality of life in urban environments. The new generation of spatially very high resolution satellite sensors (e.g. RapidEye, or TerraSAR-X) show promising capabilities to extract these variables in relevant detail and hence to overcome some of the limitations using traditional approaches. In this study, we show a simple workflow for the synergistic use of high-resolution optical and SAR data for the retrieval of detailed information of IS and VS. Here, the focus is on the processing step of vegetation extraction. Three approaches - linear Spectral Mixture Analysis, per-pixel, and segment-oriented classification - are compared. It will also be analyzed if an explicit shadow analysis leads to a significant improvement of the products.

  20. Multi-Vitamins, Folate, and Green Vegetables Protect Against Gene Promoter Methylation in the Aerodigestive Tract of Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stidley, Christine A.; Picchi, Maria A.; Leng, Shuguang; Willink, Randy; Crowell, Richard E.; Flores, Kristina G.; Kang, Huining; Byers, Tim; Gilliland, Frank D.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising molecular marker for early lung cancer detection. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary fruits and vegetables and the micronutrients they contain may reduce risk of lung cancer. This investigation evaluated whether diet and multi-vitamin use influence the prevalence for gene methylation in the cells exfoliated from the aerodigestive tract of current and former smokers. Members (n = 1101) of the Lovelace Smokers Coho...

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria on Ready-to-Eat, Raw and Frozen Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzinska, Radka; Makovcova, Jitka; Kaevska, Marija; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Moravkova, Monika

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables is increasing worldwide because of the positive impact of these foods on human health. Ready-to-eat, raw whole, and frozen fruits and vegetables were purchased from markets and examined for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) using culture, real-time PCR (qPCR), and sequencing. Using qPCR, Mycobacterium sp. at 10(0) to 10(4) ge/g (genome equivalents per gram) was found in almost all of the 178 samples; members of the M. avium complex were found only sporadically. Culture and sequencing revealed the presence of 22 viable NTM isolates in 17 samples. In addition to NTM commonly found in the environment, several rarely described isolates of viable NTM were recovered. The presence of Mycobacterium shigaense, which has been previously isolated only from human patients, was found in lettuce, the first time that this species has been found in an environmental sample. Mycobacterium parmense, Mycobacterium palustre, and Mycobacterium llatzerense, which have been previously isolated from human patients and occasionally from soil and water, were recovered from leafy green vegetables. Strawberries and cut salad mixes contained Mycobacterium algericum, Mycobacterium fallax, and Mycobacterium minnesotense. NTM are primarily nonpathogenic. However, consumption of fruits or vegetables contaminated with NTM could represent a health risk for immunocompromised people, children, and the elderly.

  2. Monitoring of the Spatial Distribution and Temporal Dynamics of the Green Vegetation Fraction of Croplands in Southwest Germany Using High-Resolution RapidEye Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imukova, Kristina; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The green vegetation fraction (GVF) is a key input variable to the evapotranspiration scheme applied in the widely used NOAH land surface model (LSM). In standard applications of the NOAH LSM, the GVF is taken from a global map with a 15 km×15 km resolution. The central objective of the present study was (a) to derive gridded GVF data in a high spatial and temporal resolution from RapidEye images for a region in Southwest Germany, and (b) to improve the representation of the GVF dynamics of croplands in the NOAH LSM for a better simulation of water and energy exchange between land surface and atmosphere. For the region under study we obtained monthly RapidEye satellite images with a resolution 5 m×5 m by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The images hold five spectral bands: blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR). The GVF dynamics were determined based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from the red and near-infrared bands of the satellite images. The satellite GVF data were calibrated and validated against ground truth measurements. Digital colour photographs above the canopy were taken with a boom-mounted digital camera at fifteen permanently marked plots (1 m×1 m). Crops under study were winter wheat, winter rape and silage maize. The GVF was computed based on the red and the green band of the photographs according to Rundquist's method (2002). Based on the obtained calibration scheme GVF maps were derived in a monthly resolution for the region. Our results confirm a linear relationship between GVF and NDVI and demonstrate that it is possible to determine the GVF of croplands from RapidEye images based on a simple two end-member mixing model. Our data highlight the high variability of the GVF in time and space. At the field scale, the GVF was normally distributed with a coefficient of variation of about 32%. Variability was mainly caused by soil heterogeneities and management differences. At the regional scale the GVF

  3. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products.

  4. Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. L.; Anderson, R. G.; Shiflett, S. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for urban water management and conservation, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. In this study, we deployed a mobile energy balance platform to measure evaporative fraction throughout Riverside, California, a warm, semi-arid, city. We observed the relationship between evaporative fraction and satellite derived vegetation index across 29 sites, which was then used to map whole-city ET for a representative mid-summer period. Resulting ET distributions were strongly associated with both neighborhood population density and income. By comparing 2014 and 2015 summer-period water uses, our results show 7.8% reductions in evapotranspiration, which were also correlated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest a mobile energy balance measurement platform coupled with satellite imagery could serve as an effective tool in assessing the outdoor water use at neighborhood to whole city scales.

  5. Consistent shifts in spring vegetation green-up date across temperate biomes in China, 1982-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan

    2013-03-01

    Understanding spring phenology changes in response to the rapid climate change at biome-level is crucial for projecting regional ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. In this study, we assessed the long-term changes and responses to changing climate of the spring phenology in six temperate biomes of China by analyzing the global inventory monitoring and modeling studies (GIMMS) NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and concurrent mean temperature and precipitation data for 1982-2006. Results show that the spring phenology trends in the six temperate biomes are not continuous throughout the 25 year period. The spring phenology in most areas of the six biomes showed obvious advancing trends (ranging from -0.09 to -0.65 day/yr) during the 1980s and early 1990s, but has subsequently suffered consistently delaying trends (ranging from 0.22 to 1.22 day/yr). Changes in spring (February-April) temperature are the dominating factor governing the pattern of spring vegetation phenology in the temperate biomes of China. The recently delayed spring phenology in these temperate biomes has been mainly triggered by the stalling or reversal of the warming trend in spring temperatures. Results in this study also reveal that precipitation during November-January can explain 16.1% (P biomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Changes of the green house gas production potential of inundated peatlands in the perspective of temporal vegetation shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Reuter, Hendrik; Augustin, Jürgen; Shatwell, Tom; Barth, Martin; Gelbrecht, Jörg; McInnes, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Artificially drained minerotrophic peatlands, commonly called fens, are being rewetted on a large scale in many European countries, including Germany. The objectives behind rewetting include the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO2) via oxidative degradation processes in the aerated peat soil, as well as the recovering of the nutrient sink and ecological habitat functions of pristine fens. As a result of long-term organic soil losses, subsidence and the associated lowering of the land surface, rewetting of these areas often results in shallow lake formation. These developing ecosystems differ considerably from pristine fens. Peat formation cannot occur in the open waterbody; instead the highly degraded submerged peat surface becomes covered by organic sediments which form readily due to the subaqueous decomposition of dying grassland vegetation that is intolerant to permanent flooding and the decomposition of shoot biomass from wetland plants. With regard to lake ontogeny, these sites can be compared to lakes in the process of terrestrialization, where peat formation can follow as infill proceeds to surface levels. These newly formed shallow lakes with a highly degraded peat substrate are characteristically eutrophic and show high mobilisations of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon. Furthermore, extremely high methane (CH4) emissions from rewetted fens have been observed. The GHG emissions in the initial stage after rewetting have even been shown to lead to a net climate impact that exceeds that of drained fens. Another distinct difference of rewetted fens from natural fens in Central Europe is the rapid secondary plant succession. In the initial phase of rewetting, Phalaris arundinacea has been observed to be the dominating plant species; more adapted to wet-dry conditions, this species routinely dies off within the first year of inundation. Helophytes like Typha latifolia in marginal areas and Ceratophyllum

  7. Prospective study of fruits and vegetables and risk of oral premalignant lesions in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Zavras, Athanasios; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2006-09-15

    The authors prospectively evaluated fruit and vegetable consumption and the incidence of oral premalignant lesions among 42,311 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Diet was assessed every 4 years by food frequency questionnaires. The authors confirmed 207 cases of clinically or histopathologically diagnosed oral premalignant lesions occurring between 1986 and 2002. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks were calculated from proportional hazards models. Significant inverse associations were observed with citrus fruits, citrus fruit juice, and vitamin-C-rich fruits and vegetables, indicating 30-40% lower risks with greater intakes (e.g., citrus fruit juice quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 relative risk = 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.42, 0.99). Inverse associations with fruits did not vary by smoking status and were stronger in analyses of baseline consumption, with a 10-year lag time to disease follow-up (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1 relative risk = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.82; p = 0.01). No associations were observed with total vegetables or with beta-carotene-rich or lycopene-rich fruits and vegetables. For current smokers, green leafy vegetables (ptrend = 0.05) and beta-carotene-rich fruits and vegetables (ptrend = 0.02) showed significant linear trends of increased risk (one additional serving/day relative risk = 1.7). The risk of oral premalignant lesions was significantly reduced with higher consumption of fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices, while no consistent associations were apparent for vegetables.

  8. Coordinated Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX-Like Genes in Leafy Spurge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyuan Hao

    Full Text Available Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L. is a noxious perennial weed that produces underground adventitious buds, which are crucial for generating new vegetative shoots following periods of freezing temperatures or exposure to various control measures. It is also capable of flowering and producing seeds, but requires vernalization in some cases. DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX (DAM genes have been proposed to play a direct role in the transition to winter-induced dormancy and maintenance through regulation of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene, which also is likely involved in the vernalization process. To explore the regulation of FT and DAM during dormancy transitions in leafy spurge, the transcript accumulation of two previously cloned DAM splice variants and two different previously cloned FT genes was characterized. Under long-photoperiods (16 h light, both DAM and FT transcripts accumulate in a diurnal manner. Tissue specific expression patterns indicated the tissues with high DAM expression had low FT expression and vice versa. DAM expression is detected in leaves, stems, shoot tips, and crown buds. FT transcripts were detected mainly in leaves and flowers. Under dormancy inducing conditions, DAM and FT genes had an inverse expression pattern. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed using DAM-like protein specific antibodies to demonstrate that DAM or related proteins likely bind to cryptic and/or conserved CArG boxes in the promoter regions of FT genes isolated from endodormant crown buds. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DAM proteins play a crucial role in leafy spurge dormancy transition and maintenance, potentially by negatively regulating the expression of FT.

  9. 屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜绿化降温试验%Greening and Temperature Cooling Test for Cultivating Lianoid Vegetables on Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解盼; 龙岳林

    2014-01-01

    Roof thermal radiation is an important reason causing urban thermal environment effect, and the roof greening is an effective way to reduce the thermal radiation. This study selects the balsam pear, lentils and towel gourd as test materials and adopts box-type cultivation method on the roof with steel mesh stent to respectively observe their growth adaptability and compare their temperature cooling effect for roof. The results showed that before middle July, the growth of sponge gourd and bitter melon was vigorous, but gradually declined with increasing temperature after middle July, but lentils had strong ability to resist high temperature, so it can maintain a strong growth state until met the frost; for greening and temperature cooling effect, before middle July, there was no significant difference among three kinds of vegetable, but lentils was obviously better than sponge gourd and bitter after middle July. Cultivating lianoid vegetables on roof has significant temperature cooling effect, the higher the temperature is, the temperature cooling effect the more obvious, especially at 12:00, the temperature cooling range was the largest by 8.7℃.%屋顶热辐射是导致城市热环境效应产生的一个重要原因,屋顶绿化是减轻热辐射的一项有效措施。选用苦瓜、扁豆和丝瓜作试验材料,在屋顶上采用箱式栽培方式,搭建钢丝网作支架,分别观测其生长适应性,并比较屋面降温效果。结果表明:7月中旬前丝瓜与苦瓜生长旺盛,7月中旬后随着温度升高而逐渐衰退,而扁豆具有较强的抗高温能力,一直保持旺盛生长状态,直到遇霜枯死;绿化降温效果7月中旬之前3种蔬菜无明显差异,7月中旬以后扁豆明显优于丝瓜和苦瓜。屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜降温效果显著,气温越高降温越明显,特别是在中午12:00降温幅度最大,达到8.7℃。

  10. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of vegetable pricing in supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Suci

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the variables affecting the determination of the sale price of vegetable which is constant over time in a supermarket qualitatively and quantitavely. It focuses on the non-organic vegetable with a fixed selling price over time such as spinach, beet, and parsley. In qualitative analysis, the sale price determination is influenced by the vegetable characteristics: (1) vegetable segmentation (low to high daily consumed); (2) vegetable age (how long it can last related to freshness); which both characteristic relates to the inventory management and ultimately to the sale price in supermarket. While quantitatively, the vegetables are divided into two categories: the leaf vegetable group that the leaves are eaten as a vegetable with the aging product (a) = 0 and the shelf life (t) = 0, and the non-leafy vegetable group with the aging group (a) = a+1 and the shelf life (t) = t+1. The vegetable age (a) = 0 means they only last for one day when they are ordered then they have to terminate. Whereas a+1 is that they have a longer life for more than a day such as beet, white radish, and string beans. The shelf life refers to how long it will be placed in a shelf in supermarket in line with the vegetable age. According to the cost plus pricing method using full price costing approach, production costs, non-production costs, and markup are adjusted differently for each category. There is a holding cost added to the sale price of the non-leafy vegetable, yet it is assumed a 0 holding cost for the leafy vegetable category. The amount of expected margin of each category is correlated to the vegetable characteristics.

  11. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Juin Kao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boiling cilantro, Thai basil leaves, and sweet potato leaves for 10 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively, and choy sum remained almost unchanged after 30 minutes of boiling. Boiling cilantro and choy sum had a negative effect on their TPC, whereas there was a significant increase in TPC of Thai basil leaf and sweet potato leaf at 1 minute and 5 minutes of boiling, respectively. During water cooking, TAC of the vegetables did not demonstrate a consistent trend. However, TCC was a vital contributor to %IP, whereas TPC showed a strong association with TEAC. Our findings suggest that a boiling time of ≤5 minutes would be better for preserving or enhancing TCC and TPC as well as revealing a higher %IP, TEAC, or metal-chelating effect for the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  12. Fruit and vegetable consumption and hypertriglyceridemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C; Lee, H-J; Shin, H J; Stampfer, M J; Cho, E

    2015-11-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the association between intake of fruits and vegetables and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the association between total fruit and vegetable intake, as well as subgroups of fruit and vegetable intake, with hypertriglyceridemia among Korean adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7934 adults aged 19-64 years from the fourth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Subgroups of fruits and vegetables included citrus, non-citrus and carotene-rich fruits and cruciferous, green leafy and carotene-rich vegetables. Hypertriglyceridemia (plasma triglyceride ⩾150 mg/dl) was diagnosed using a blood sample drawn after 12+ hours of fasting. There were 2001 (25.2%) cases of hypertriglyceridemia among the participants. Total fruit intake was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia; the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hypertriglyceridemia across increasing quintiles were 1.00 (ref), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), 0.72 (0.58, 0.90), 0.68 (0.54, 0.85) and 0.64 (0.49, 0.82; Ptrend=0.001) after controlling for survey year, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, education and income. Similar inverse associations were found for all fruit subgroups. However, we found no significant association between intakes of total or subgroups of vegetable and hypertriglyceridemia; the odds ratio for top vs bottom quintile was 1.00 (0.81-1.24) for total vegetable intake. Our findings support a potential beneficial role of fruit consumption to reduce blood triglyceride levels in Asian populations.

  13. Influence of maturity at harvest, N fertiliser and postharvest storage on dry matter, ascorbic acid and B-carotene contents of vegetable amaranth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Harbinson, J.; Imungi, J.K.; Kooten, van O.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable amaranth is a leafy vegetable traditionally grown in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia where it is the most consumed traditional vegetable. It is considered to have high nutritional quality, containing relatively large amounts of vitamins A and C. We have assessed the influence of the maturity o

  14. Advising Consumption of Green Vegetables, Beef, and Full-Fat Dairy Products Has No Adverse Effects on the Lipid Profiles in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen José van der Gaag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index/BMI-z-score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1–16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins ratio (p < 0.001 and non-HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.044 and a statistically significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.009 in the exposed group, while there was no difference in the BMI and BMI z-scores. The dietary advice has no adverse effect on the lipid profile, BMI, and BMI z-scores in children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol.

  15. Added dietary vegetables and fruits improved coat quality of capybara in Seoul Zoo, Republic of Korea: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyungeun; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2017-01-01

    Adequate levels of dietary vitamin C are necessary for capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrocharis) because they cannot synthesize the vitamin endogenously. Beginning in 2013, hair and weight loss, as well as general dermatitis, were observed in all individual capybaras (n = 4) in a mixed exhibit at Seoul Zoo. Seven additional vegetables, leafy greens, and fruits that increased dietary vitamin C concentration from ∼300-400 to >600 mg/kg dry matter were added to the diet since January 2015. Within 6 months, capybaras' skin and coats improved considerably, with hair becoming thicker and glossier. Animals visually appeared healthier and gained weight. In conclusion, hair loss, dermatitis, and weight loss in capybara can be improved by feeding enough fresh green leaves, vegetables, and fruits. Although vitamin C is considered a major factor for alleviation of poor body condition observed, increased status of other nutrients (i.e., vitamin B6 ) provided by the diet change may also have contributed to the improvements seen in the capybara. Zoo Biol. 36:50-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of lutein bioavailability from vegetables and supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Patrizia; Brusamolino, Antonella; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Porrini, Marisa

    2003-05-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid present in dark green leafy vegetables and it may be involved in the prevention of several diseases related to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate bioavailability of lutein from different food sources (150 g spinach and 200 g broccoli) and a supplement in oil (300 mg VEGEX), all providing about 9 mg lutein. Eight healthy females were instructed to eat a low-carotenoid diet for the period of experimentation. On three different occasions, three weeks apart, volunteers ate the lutein sources together with 10 g olive oil and 40 g bread. Blood samples were collected just before eating, every two hours for 12 hours, and at 24, 32, 56, 80 and 104 hours. Lutein concentration increased significantly after six to eight hours and peaked after 10-12 hours, with the highest concentration reached after VEGEX intake. Lutein concentration remained significantly elevated for up to 80 hours (VEGEX and spinach). On the whole, our results suggest that the intake of one single dose of lutein from different sources is able to bring about a significant plasma response in the short term.

  17. Green towers and green walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.

  18. Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gocal, G.F.W.; King, R.W.; Blundell, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    1 (AP1)-like genes, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2, and of L. temulentum LEAFY (LtLFY). As shown by in situ hybridization, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2 are expressed in the vegetative shoot apical meristem, but expression increases strongly within 30 h of LD floral induction. Later in floral development, LtMADS1 and Lt......MADS2 are expressed within spikelet and floret meristems and in the glume and lemma primordia. It is interesting that LtLFY is detected quite late (about 12 d after LD induction) within the spikelet meristems, glumes, and lemma primordia. These patterns contrast with Arabidopsis, where LFY and AP1...

  19. Fruits and vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer: a PRISMA-compliant systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Li, Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Clinical practice recommends eating ≥2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables (FVs) each day for cancer prevention, in which the evidence from epidemiological studies for the association between FVs intake and bladder cancer (BC) prevention is inconsistent.We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Willy online Library for relevant studies published up to September 27, 2014. Prospective cohort studies investigated FVs intake, and the risk of BC with ≥3 categories of exposure was included. A dose-response meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between FVs intake and risk of BC.Fourteen cohorts with 17 studies including 9447 cases were identified. No evidence of nonlinear association was examined between FVs intake and risk of BC. The summarized relevant risk (RR) of every 0.2 serving increment a day was 1.00 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.00; P = 0.17; I = 41.7%; n = 14) for total fruits; 0.99 (95%CI: 0.96, 1.01; P = 0.28; I = 37.0%; n = 13) for total vegetables; and 0.99 (95%CI: 0.97, 1.01; P = 0.24; I = 57.5%; n = 8) for both FVs. In further analysis, we observed inverse association between every 0.2 serving increment of green leafy vegetables intake a day and risk of BC (RR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.99; I = 0.0%; P cruciferous vegetables (RR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.93, 1.01; P = 0.19; I = 55.8%; n = 8) nor for citrus (RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.00; P = 0.83; I = 0.0%; n = 7). Subgroup analysis showed consistent results.Little evidence supports a beneficial effect for total fruits, vegetables, both FVs, and citrus intake against bladder cancer. Green leafy vegetables may help prevent bladder cancer.

  20. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali markets, Taraba State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ukwubile, Cletus A.; Yohanna, Emohseh

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, leafy vegetables form essential part of dietary foods especially in the South-eastern part. This is because of enormous supplements derived from them that affect human health positively. These benefits derived were however reduced drastically by incidence of soil-transmitted helminthes associated ailments in humans who consumed these vegetables on daily basis. This present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali m...

  1. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative determination of native 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and its polyglutamyl derivatives in raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    -methyltetrahydrofolate profile of inherent folates in a wide range of leafy green vegetables.

  2. Variation in Carotenoid Content of Kale and Other Vegetables: A Review of Pre- and Post-harvest Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rachel P; Bartlett, Hannah; Eperjesi, Frank

    2015-11-11

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye, where they are thought to protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration. They are obtained from dietary sources, with the highest concentrations found in dark green leafy vegetables, such as kale and spinach. In this Review, compositional variations due to variety/cultivar, stage of maturity, climate or season, farming practice, storage, and processing effects are highlighted. Only data from studies which report on lutein and zeaxanthin content in foods are reported. The main focus is kale; however, other predominantly xanthophyll containing vegetables such as spinach and broccoli are included. A small amount of data about exotic fruits is also referenced for comparison. The qualitative and quantitative composition of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables is known to vary with multiple factors. In kale, lutein and zeaxanthin levels are affected by pre-harvest effects such as maturity, climate, and farming practice. Further research is needed to determine the post-harvest processing and storage effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in kale; this will enable precise suggestions for increasing retinal levels of these nutrients.

  3. 基于绿色供应链的鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流效率分析%ANALYSIS ON EFFICIENCY OF FRESH VEGETABLE AND FRUIT COLD CHAIN BASED ON GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡滢

    2015-01-01

    为了响应国家对于环保的号召,促进我国果蔬物流行业的可持续发展,绿色供应链策略成为我国冷链物流发展的关键因素.随着人们对于果蔬需求的不断提升,鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流的需求也进一步增加,如何提高我国冷链物流效率成为果蔬物流行业发展的主要问题.文章主要通过对绿色供应链的定义、主要内容和食品冷链物流等理论进行梳理和总结,分析我国鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流发展现状,主要呈现果蔬产销发展迅速、果蔬冷链物流水平较低和果蔬冷链物流问题较多等特点,并进一步从冷链物流流程和绿色环保两方面,基于绿色供应链角度,对我国鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流效率进行研究,发现其运输损耗率较高,虽然在环保投资额和包装回收率等方面都有所提升,但是与发达国家还存在一定差距.文章最后从政府、行业和企业3方面,为鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流的发展提出对策建议.%In order to respond to the national call for environmental protection, and promote the sustainable devel-opment of China's fruit and vegetable logistics industry, green supply chain strategy has become the key factor in the development of cold chain logistics in China. Along with the rising demand of the people for fruits and vegetables, fresh vegetable and fruit cold chain logistics demand is further increased, how to improve the efficiency of cold chain logistics in China has already become the main problem of the development of the vegetable and fruit logistics industry. Through review and summary the main content and definition of green supply chain, and the food cold chain logistics theory, This paper mainly analyses China's fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics development situa-tion, mainly showing the rapid development of fruit and vegetable production and marketing, fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics level is low and more problems of vegetables and fruit cold chain logistics

  4. Classification of leafy spurge with earth observing-1 advanced land imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Hager, S.; Mladinich, C.; Anderson, G.L.; Dudek, K.; Bustos, M.R.; Kokaly, R.

    2006-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an invasive exotic plant that can completely displace native plant communities. Automated techniques for monitoring the location and extent of leafy spurge, especially if available on a seasonal basis, could add greatly to the effectiveness of control measures. As part of a larger study including multiple sensors, this study examines the utility of mapping the location and extent of leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park using Earth Observing-1 satellite Advanced Land Imager (ALI) scanner data. An unsupervised classification methodology was used producing accuracies in the range of 59% to 66%. Existing field studies, with their associated limitations, were used for identifying class membership and accuracy assessment. This sensor could be useful for broad landscape scale mapping of leafy spurge, from which control measures could be based.

  5. Foodborne outbreaks and potential routes of contamination in fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with mangoes, cantaloupes, and leafy green commodities, respectively. The 2011 outbreak of L. monocytogenes associated with the consumption of contaminated Rocky Ford cantaloupes was one of the m...

  6. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  7. The use of landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus for mapping leafy spurge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinich, C.S.; Bustos, M.R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G.L.; Hager, S.

    2006-01-01

    Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.

  8. Demand for Food Safety Attributes for Vegetables in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanis Izani Abdul Hadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a developing economy like Malaysia with rising per capita income, there have been changes in the consumer demand for food attributes such as safety, freshness, appearance and texture. This study investigated the demand for food safety attributes for vegetables. The results suggested that food safety attributes were ranked the highest for leafy and root vegetables, and ranked second behind freshness for fruit vegetables. Consumers were also willing to pay premium prices for the safety attributes. The findings would have positive implications for the agrifood industry if it responds effectively to translate into business opportunities to these changes.

  9. Response of coastal vegetation and the need for green belts along the Tamil Nadu coast, India: The December 2004 tsunami experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    protection as natural shelter belt against any eventual extreme event. Future plantation strategies will have to consider natural bio-zonalion rather than haphazard patterns that are observed at present. Green belts are beneficial for several reasons: control...

  10. Truncation of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 protein is required for asexual reproduction in Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcês, Helena M P; Koenig, Daniel; Townsley, Brad T; Kim, Minsung; Sinha, Neelima R

    2014-05-01

    Kalanchoë daigremontiana reproduces asexually by generating numerous plantlets on its leaf margins. The formation of plantlets requires the somatic initiation of organogenic and embryogenic developmental programs in the leaves. However, unlike normal embryogenesis in seeds, leaf somatic embryogenesis bypasses seed dormancy to form viable plantlets. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), seed dormancy and embryogenesis are initiated by the transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1). The K. daigremontiana ortholog of LEC1 is expressed during leaf somatic embryo development. However, KdLEC1 encodes for a LEC1-type protein that has a unique B domain, with 11 unique amino acids and a premature stop codon. Moreover, the truncated KdLEC1 protein is not functional in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that K. daigremontiana transgenic plants expressing a functional, chimeric KdLEC1 gene under the control of Arabidopsis LEC1 promoter caused several developmental defects to leaf somatic embryos, including seed dormancy characteristics. The dormant plantlets also behaved as typical dormant seeds. Transgenic plantlets accumulated oil bodies and responded to the abscisic acid biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, which broke somatic-embryo dormancy and promoted their normal development. Our results indicate that having a mutated form of LEC1 gene in K. daigremontiana is essential to bypass dormancy in the leaf embryos and generate viable plantlets, suggesting that the loss of a functional LEC1 promotes viviparous leaf somatic embryos and thus enhances vegetative propagation in K. daigremontiana. Mutations resulting in truncated LEC1 proteins may have been of a selective advantage in creating somatic propagules, because such mutations occurred independently in several Kalanchoë species, which form plantlets constitutively.

  11. Short-Term population dynamics and impacts of the red-headed leafy spurge stem borer (Oberea erythrocephala (Schrank.) Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We researched the efficacy of the biological control agent Oberea erythrocephala against the nonnative invasive plant leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). Our three treatments were release of O. erythrocephala into uncaged plots, release of O. erythrocephala into plots caged to prevent agent escape and ...

  12. Molecular evolution of the transcription factor LEAFY in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, David A; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Oldham, Rebecca L

    2005-10-01

    LEAFY (LFY) is a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates floral meristem identity. LFY is unusual among angiosperm developmental regulators because it is not part of an extended gene family. Recent expression studies and transgenic experiments have suggested that changes at the LFY locus might have played a role in the evolution of rosette flowering, a modified plant architecture that has evolved at least three times in Brassicaceae. Here we examined the sequences of LFY genes from 16 species of Brassicaceae to evaluate whether gene duplication and/or the shift to rosette flowering correlate with changes in the molecular evolution of LFY. We found evidence of gene duplication in four taxa, but phylogenetic analysis suggested that duplicate genes have generally not persisted through multiple speciation events. This result can be explained if LFY is prone to be lost by drift due to a low probability of subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization. Despite great heterogeneity in dN/dS ratios, duplicate genes show a significant tendency to have elevated dN/dS ratios. Rosette-flowering lineages also show elevated dN/dS ratios and two of the rosette-flowering taxa, Idahoa and Leavenworthia, have some radical amino acid substitutions that are candidates for having played a causal role in the evolution of rosette flowering.

  13. The potential of traditional leafy vegetables for improving food security in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, Praxedis; Heijman, Wim J.M.; Ihle, Rico; Ochieng, Justus

    2017-01-01

    Feeding the quickly growing population in Africa remains a global challenge. As the demand for food increases, climate change, on the other hand, poses more challenges to agricultural productivity, implying that the provision of sufficient quantities and qualities of food is threatened. Traditional

  14. Bioconversion of Carotenoids in Five Fruits and Vegetables to Vitamin A Measured by Retinol Accumulation in Rat Livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Carrillo-Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and major nutritional problems in developing countries, especially in young children. In many countries, a substantial proportion of dietary vitamin A is commonly derived from pro-vitamin A carotenoids obtained from colored fruits and orange or green vegetables. However, the bioavailability of retinol derived from carotenoids from these plant sources is not well known. Approach: The present study analyzed β-Carotene and Total Carotenoids (TC composition of carrots (Daucus carota, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Spinach (Spinacea oleracea, mangoes (Mangifera indica and papayas (Carica papaya and determined the bioconversion of their carotenoids to vitamin A by monitoring the levels of retinol accumulated in liver and plasma of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus. Products were freeze-dried, β-Carotene content analyzed by HPLC and TC by Spectrophotometry. Results: Carrots presented the highest content of β-carotene followed by parsley with 32.8 and 19.6 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Spinach had the highest content of TC followed by parsley with 60.7 and 56.7 mg 100 g-1, respectively. Four-week-old male Wistar rats received a standard diet as an adaptation period, a diet free of Carotenoids and Vitamin A (CVA-diet as depletion period and finally a Fruit or Vegetable (FoV based diet as repletion period. The highest β-carotene bioconversion was for mango and the lowest for parsley, whereas the highest TC bioconversion was for carrots and the lowest for parsley. There were no significant differences in plasma retinol between treatments. Conclusion/Recommendations: There was no relation between carotenoids content in FoV-based diet and retinol status in plasma. Furthermore, the employment of a general retinol conversion factor is regarded as not appropriate. So, it is recommended to consider specific conversion factors for groups of horticultural crops, for example, a factor for green leafy

  15. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed.

  17. PROTEOMIC PROFILE REVEALS THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF LEAF PROTEINS IN SPINACH (BETA VULGARIS VAR. ALL GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf is a source organ that serves dual function in photosynthesis and transpiration. As a primary interface between plant and ecosystem, it performs a range of biological processes from carbon assimilation and metabolite partitioning to plant productivity. Basic features of the leaf functionality are conserved in angiosperms exhibiting common and unique characteristics. Spinach has been the model crop for studying leaf function, primarily photosynthesis. It is a reservoir of several hundreds of primary and secondary biomolecules. To better understand the molecular basis for photochemical reaction and metabolic partitioning, we developed leaf proteome of Indian spinach (Beta vulgaris var. all green. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified 639 proteins exhibiting discrete molecular features and functions, including photosynthesis, transpiration, gaseous exchange, transport, redox status, cell defense, and floral induction besides the presence of proteins with unknown function. This represents the first comprehensive foliage proteome of green leafy vegetable. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying spinach leaf biological processes.

  18. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Giorgi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904 and leafy cardoon (C. cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described.

  19. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Debora; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Farina, Anna; Grosso, Valentina; Lucretti, Sergio; Gennaro, Andrea; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904) and leafy cardoon (Cynara cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838). Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS) was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described. PMID:27830052

  20. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure can be defined as the design and development of infrastructure that works with natural systems in the performance of its functions. Green infrastructure recognises the importance of the natural environment in land use planning...

  1. Biorefinery of leafy biomass using green tea residue as a model material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary With the rapidly growing world population and improving living standards, food demand is increased with a simultaneous desire for less human impact on the environment, such that “Twice the food production at half the ecological footprint” could be the EU goal for

  2. Biorefinery of leafy biomass using green tea residue as a model material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary With the rapidly growing world population and improving living standards, food demand is increased with a simultaneous desire for less human impact on the environment, such that “Twice the food production at half the ecological footprint” could be the EU goal for

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  4. determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of these plants could serve as a good food supplements for man and may assist in suppressing iodine deficiency disorders ... shrimp, oyster, luster, and sea weeds etc), milk, vegetables and .... furnishes one with optimum processing condition.

  5. Short-term disruption of a leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) biocontrol program following herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.; Rabie, P.A.; Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) for invasive plant species is being advocated by researchers and implemented by land managers, but few studies have evaluated the success of IPM programs in natural areas. We assessed the relative effects of components of an IPM program for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), an invasive plant, at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota. Effects of herbicides on leafy spurge abundance and on dynamics of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used to control leafy spurge were evaluated over three field seasons following herbicide application. We monitored leafy spurge-infested plots with established flea beetle populations that had received picloram plus 2,4-D in September 1997 or 1998, imazapic in September 1998, versus those with no chemical treatment. Mature stem counts did not differ significantly between treated and untreated plots in 2001, suggesting that leafy spurge stands had recovered from herbicide treatment. Flea beetles were less abundant on plots with a history of herbicide treatment. Structural equation models indicated that in 2000 negative correlations between relative abundances of the two flea beetle species were greater on plots that had received herbicide treatments than on those that had not, but by 2001 no differences were apparent between treated and untreated plots. These results suggest that the most effective component of IPM for leafy spurge at this site is biological control. All herbicide effects we observed were short-lived, but the increased negative correlation between flea beetle relative abundances during 2000 implies that herbicide application may have temporarily disrupted an effective biological control program at this site. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial Response of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to Infrared Warming in Highland Barley of the Tibet%西藏高原青稞三种植被指数对红外增温的初始响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付刚; 沈振西; 钟志明

    2015-01-01

    Climatic warming affects the crop growth and its related vegetation indices. In order to understand the initial response of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized green difference vegetation index (GNDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) to climatic warming, a field warming experiment using infrared radiator was conducted in a highland barley located at the Dazi county of the Tibet since late May, 2015. There were three warming treatments, i.e., control, low (1000 W) and high (2000W) warming. The NDVI, GNDVI and SAVI were obtained using an agricultural digital camera during the period from June to September in 2015. Meanwhile, the soil temperature and soil moisture at depths of 5 cm and 20 cm were also obtained using HOBO microclimate observing systems. Then this study analyzed the response of NDVI, GNDVI and SAVI to infrared warming and the relationships between the three vegetation indices and soil temperature and moisture. The 1000 W and 2000 W infrared warming increased soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm (t5) by 1.62℃ and 1.77℃, and soil temperature at the depth of 20 cm (t20) by 1.16℃and 1.43℃, but decreased soil moisture at the depth of 5 cm (SM5) by 1.8% and 14.1%, and soil moisture at the depth of 20 cm (SM20) by 21.6% and 14.7%, respectively. The 1000 W infrared warming increased NDVI by 2.4%, GNDVI by 4.3% and SAVI by 0.5%, whereas the 2000 W infrared warming increased NDVI by 5.5%, GNDVI by 5.3% and SAVI by 4.8%, although these changes were non-significant. Simple regression analyses showed that (1) NDVI (r2=0.110,P=0.026) and GNDVI(r2=0.254, P=0.0004)decreased with increasingt5,whereas there was non-significant correlation between SAVI andt5 (r2=0.069,P=0.082); (2) GNDVI decreased with increasingt20, (r2=0.218,P=0.001), whereas there were non-significant relationships between NDVI (r2=0.040,P=0.190), SAVI (r2=0.014,P=0.443) andt20; (3) NDVI (r2=0.277,P=0.0002), GNDVI (r2=0.394,P=0.0000) and SAVI (r2=0.208,P=0

  7. Viability of dried vegetative cells or filaments, survivability and/or reproduction under water and light stress, and following heat and UV exposure in some blue-green and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S C; Pal, U

    2003-01-01

    Vegetative cells in dried, mucilagenous mass of Gloeocapsa aeruginosa and Aphanothece nidulans, reticulum of Hydrodictyon reticulatum, mucilagenous mass of Chroococcus minor, and filaments of Oedogonium sp. and Scytonema hofmanni died within 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 h, respectively, while dried vegetative filaments of Phormidium foveolarum retained under similar storage conditions viability for 4 d. P. foveolarum tolerated 1 mol/L NaCl. The resistance to desiccation in P. foveolarum exhibited similar dependence as that to heat or UV light. The water stress imposed on growing algae either on high-agar solid media or in NaCl-containing liquid media reduced at various levels or altogether inhibited the survival of vegetative parts in all, the cell division in C. minor, G. aeruginosa and A. nidulans, formation of heterocyst and false branch in S. hofmanni, oogonium in Oedogonium sp., and daughter net in H. reticulatum. Heat or UV shock of any level also produced similar effects as that by water stress. P. foveolarum tolerated low light level of 10 and 2 mumol m-2 s-1 and no light longer than the rest of other algae studied. Tolerance of microalgal forms to water, heat or UV stress depends primarily upon cell-wall characteristics or cell-sap osmotic properties rather than their habitats, morphology and prokaryotic or eukaryotic nature.

  8. Isolation and functional analysis of the CjNdly gene, a homolog in Cryptomeria japonica of FLORICAULA/LEAFY genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Shinya; Futamura, Norihiro; Osanai, Kosuke; Murasugi, Daisuke; Shinohara, Kenji; Kawai, Shinya; Morohoshi, Noriyuki; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Kajita, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of CjNdly, a homolog in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) of the FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) genes. We determined the entire nucleotide sequence of CjNdly, including short 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to those of the products of the FLO/LFY genes from other species. The nucleotide sequence showed the closest homology to that of the NEEDLY gene in Pinus radiata D. Don. Although no proline-rich region has been reported previously in homologous gene products from gymnosperms, we found such a region at the amino-terminal end of the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by CjNdly. We detected the expression of CjNdly in both reproductive and vegetative tissues and organs of C. japonica. Heterologous expression of CjNdly in transgenic tobacco plants induced precocious flowering of regenerating shoots on agar-solidified medium and flowers with an abnormal phenotype, namely, petal-like stamens. Our findings suggest that the CjNdly gene may have important roles in flower development in Japanese cedar, resembling those of its angiosperm homologs.

  9. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid), ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees (Red Fuji/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46±0.35 nmol g\\+-1FW and 117 nmol l\\+-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment. Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  10. Responses of ABA and CTK to soil drought in leafless and leafy apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 潘海春; 李德全

    2003-01-01

    The authors tested the contents of ABA (abscisic acid) , ZR (zeatin riboside), DHZR (dihydrozeatin riboside) and iPA (isopentenyl adenosine) in leafless and leafy apple trees ( Red Fufi/Malus micromalus Makino) during soil drought stress. ABA concentration in drought stressed leafless trees increased significantly compared to the controls. ABA both in roots and xylem rose steadily in the earlier drought stage, reaching a maximum of 1.46 ± 0.35 nmol g-1 FW and 117 nmol l-1 after the 8th day. Similar change patterns of ABA concentration was observed in the leafy trees during soil drought stress; ABA concentrations in roots and xylem sap increased and reached the maximum in the first three days; after 8th day , it decreased slightly, whereas leaf ABA concentration increased steadily in drought stressed plants throughout the duration of the experiment.Between drought stressed and control trees, no significant differences were observed in concentration of ZR and DHZR in both leafless and leafy trees ; whereas iPA concentration of the drought stressed leafless and leafy plants decreased markedly in the later stage of drought. These results showed that endogenous ABA originated mainly from the roots in the earlier drought stage, and mainly from the leaves in the later drought stage. Total CTK showed no reduction in the earlier drought stage and decreased in the later drought stage.

  11. Development of a leafy Brassica rapa fixed line collection for genetic diversity and population structure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, W.; Li, X.; Choi, S.R.; Dhandapani, V.; Im, S.; Park, M.Y.; Jang, C.S.; Yang, M.S.; Ham, I.K.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, W.; Lee, S.S.; Bonnema, A.B.; Park, S.; Piao, Z.; Lim, Y.P.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy

  12. 77 FR 26462 - Dimethomorph; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... the proposed tolerance level and commodity definition for vegetable, bulb, group 3 and removed the...; brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B; vegetable, leafy except brassica, group 4; onion, green, subgroup 3... dimethomorph for acute exposures are estimated to be 81.1 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 0.264...

  13. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a veggie wrap. 3 choose vegetables rich in color Brighten your plate with vegetables that are red, orange, or dark green. They are full of vitamins and minerals. Try acorn squash, cherry tomatoes, sweet potatoes, or collard greens. They not only ...

  14. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their neigh

  15. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their neighbourhood and meet their fellow resident

  16. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  17. 施用腐熟陈藻水对青菜产量和土壤质量的影响%Influence of using decomposed stale algae-laden water on productivity of green vegetables and soil quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿德晔; 吕锡武; 余亚琴

    2013-01-01

    以太湖蓝藻暴发期打捞的富藻水沤制腐熟的陈藻水为原料,设置低量陈藻水、中量陈藻水、高量陈藻水、化肥及空白对照5个试验,用盆栽模拟法研究腐熟陈藻水施用于青菜对其产量和空白土壤质量的影响.结果表明:施用低量陈藻水和化肥的青菜产量分别增加27%和26%,而施用化肥的土壤有机质含量较空白对照试验降低26%,施用陈藻水的土壤有机质含量则变化不大,土壤全氮含量和碱解氮含量随着施用的腐熟藻水量增加而增加.因此适量腐熟陈藻水会增加作物产量,改良土壤理化性质,增加土壤有机质、全氮和碱解氮含量.%Taking stale algae-laden water refloated in the blue-algae outbreak period as the material, the influence of using the decomposed stale algae-laden water on the productivity of green vegetables and soil quality was studied with the aid of potted simulation method. Five experiments including low quantity of stale algae-laden water, medium quantity of stale algae-laden water, high quantity of stale algae-laden water, chemical fertilizer and blank control were carried out. The results show that the production of green vegetables with low quantity of stale algae-laden and chemical fertilizer water increase 27% and 26% respectively, while the organic content of soil with chemical fertilizer is 26% lower than that of the blank control. In contrast, the organic content of soil with the stale algae-laden water changes only a little, and the total nitrogen content and alkali solution nitrogen content of soil increase with the increase of the amount of stale algae-laden water. Therefore, appropriate amount of stale algae-laden water may boost the crop yield, improve physical and chemical properties of soil, and increase the organic content, total nitrogen content and alkali solution nitrogen content in soil.

  18. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  19. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  20. [Prediction of PCBs uptake by vegetable in a representative area and evaluation of the human health risk by Trapp model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shao-Po; Luo, Yong-Ming; Song, Jing; Teng, Ying; Chen, Yong-Shan

    2010-12-01

    Air, soil and vegetable samples were collected from an e-waste disassembly site and analyzed for characteristic contaminants PCBs. Based on the measured PCBs concentrations in soil and air, PCBs concentration in leafy vegetables was predicted by Trapp Model and the sources, composition of PCBs in vegetable and influencing factors were analyzed. By using human health risk assessment model of USEPA, risk to human health from consumption of vegetable that take up PCBs from environment was evaluated. The results showed that the Trapp Model could give good prediction of PCBs concentrations in leafy vegetables based on PCBs concentration in the soil and air. For instance, the measured sum of seven PCBs in vegetable was 51.2 microg x kg(-1) and the predicted value was 39.9 microg x kg(-1). So the predicted value agrees well with the measured value. The gaseous PCBs were the main source of PCBs in leafy vegetables, and the model predicting results indicated that the contribution rate was as high as 98.8%. The uptake pathway, n-octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) and the n-octanol/air partition coefficient (K(oa)) of PCBs determine the concentration and composition of PCBs in vegetables. The duration needed for PCBs uptake to reach equilibrium was in good correlation with lgK(ow) and lgK(oa). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that lgK(oa) was more important. Carcinogenic risk from consumption of PCBs contaminated vegetables was 10 000 times higher than that of gaseous PCBs, and the no-carcinogenic risk was increased by approximately 200 times. The main reasons are firstly the vegetables take up and accumulate more toxic PCBs with high-chloride substitutes and consequently the oral toxic factors of PCBs increase dramatically. Secondly, an adult takes 71 times more PCBs via consumption of vegetables than via inhalation of air.

  1. Noise Attenuation Effect of Green Vegetation on Beijing Viaduct Rail Traffic System%北京高架轨道交通沿线绿地噪声衰减效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芬; 任杰

    2012-01-01

    轨道交通系统沿线绿地可以有效地降低高架轨道交通噪声.选取北京地铁13号线沿线15块绿地进行高架轨道交通噪声测试实验.采用相关性分析方法对绿地噪声净衰减值与6个影响因子进行分析,提出绿地植物配置建议和噪声衰减预测数学模型.实验结果表明:绿地植物群落噪声衰减效果明显,声源高度、绿地宽度、测试点与噪声源的水平距离、植物配置指数、郁闭度和契合度各影响因素与绿地噪声净衰减值的P值分别为0.632、0.538、0.126、0.048、0.024和0.143,植物配置指数和郁闭度呈显著相关性,在降噪绿地设计时应着重考虑绿地的这2个因子.%Green vegetation along the viaduct rail traffic system (VRTS) plays a vital role in the reduction of noise produced by VRTS. An observational trial to obtain practical data is a convinced method. The noise testing experiments were conducted in 15 patches of greenery along Beijing Subway Line 13. Based on the data analysis on correlation between excessive noise attenuation and six factors, suggestions on green plant configuration and the mathematical model to forecast the attenuation effect are worked out. The results showed that green plant community has obvious effect to reduce noise. The SPSS software analysis shows that P value of the correlation coefficient of the height of sound source, the width of greenbelt, the horizontal distance of test point and noise source, plant configuration index, canopy density and fitness are 0.632, 0.538, 0.126, 0.048, 0.024 and 0.143 respectively. Plant disposition index and canopy density showed a significant correlation. Thus, the design of noise reduction greenbelt should consider them.

  2. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP.

  3. Influence of Soilless Culture Medium Composed of Coal Gangue and Rape Straw on Growth and Yield of Leafy Vegetables%新型无土栽培基质配比对4种叶菜类蔬菜生长发育和产量的影响——以煤矸石、油菜秸秆等组成的栽培基质为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童贯和; 张科贵; 刘天骄; 罗勋

    2012-01-01

    采用煤矸石和腐熟油菜秸秆为无土栽培基质原料,以菜园土为对照(CK),无土栽培基质分别设T1、T2、T3、T4、T5共5个处理,各处理煤矸石与腐熟油菜秸秆配比(体积比,v/v)分别为2∶8、3∶7、4∶6、5∶5和6∶4.分析测定了各处理基质的理化特性,并在人工光照室内用盆栽方法栽培白菜、生菜、菠菜和苋菜4种叶菜类蔬菜,分别于定植后30d和55d测定株高、叶片数、根冠比及鲜重等生长指标.结果表明:5种混合无土栽培基质的容重较低,水气比合理,营养丰富,适合进行蔬菜栽培.在5种混合基质上栽培的4种蔬菜的株高、叶片数、根冠比及鲜重均显著高于CK,其中以T3混合基质上生长的4种蔬菜的各项指标均最高,其次为T2和T4,T1、T5较低.说明对于4种叶菜类蔬菜无土栽培基质的配比以T3处理最佳,且显著优于土壤栽培.%Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis), lettuce(Lactuca sativa), amaranth(Amarantusmangostanus) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were cultivated in the pot in the biotron, using soilless culture mediums composed of decomposed rape straw and coal gangue (named T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, the voliune ratios of decomposed rape straw and coal gangue were 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively), using garden soil as control. After 30 and 55 days cultivation, the growth of fresh weight, plant height, leaf number and ratio of root to crown of each culture were measured and the physiological characteristics of soilless culture mediums were studied to determine the best soilless culture medium for the four vegetable crops. The results showed that the growth of vegetable crops in soilless culture mediums was better than that in garden soil, and vegetable showed highest growth in T3 medium and lowest growth in T1 and T5 medium. It was concluded that T3 soilless culture medium was the best for the four vegetable crops.

  4. Towards Harmonious Green Urban Environments in Japan and Other Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Elgene O.; Miyawaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Kazue

    1987-01-01

    Natural vegetation and green environments have disappeared rapidly from cities since World War Ⅱ, replaced by concrete deserts with only sparse, unnatural vegetation. Japanese cities traditionally did not destroy the surrounding vegetation except as needed for city growth, but now even in Japan there is a great need for both the ecological and socializing functions of productive, traditional green environments in the otherwise largely abiotic urban areas. True green environments are more than...

  5. Modeling a Hydrologically Optimal Green Roof Media Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/MethodsA key environmental concern in managing urban ecosystems is controlling stormwater runoff to ameliorate pollution problems and sewage overflows. Vegetated green roofs have become an important green infrastructure tool to collect, store, and gradually r...

  6. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014-January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015-April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan's wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However, the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy.

  7. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014–January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015–April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan’s wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However, the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy. PMID:28228914

  8. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkhanloo Hamid; Mirzahosseini Seyed Alireza Hajiseyed; Shirkhanloo Nasrin; Moussavi-Najarkola Seyyed Ali; Farahani Hadi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the leve...

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Calcium — a must for protecting against stress fractures — ... Good sources of carbohydrates include fruits, vegetables, and grains. Choose whole grains (such as brown rice, oatmeal, ...

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Calcium — a must for ... affects performance. Good sources of carbohydrates include fruits, vegetables, and grains. Choose whole grains (such as brown ...

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Solazyme, engineered microalgae to produce oils tailored to customers’ needs that can mimic or enhance properties of traditional vegetable oils.

  12. Suitability analysis of fresh-cut vegetable processing for twenty main green capsicum cultivars in China%中国主栽青辣椒品种鲜切加工适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈月; 高美须; 杨丽; 赵鑫; 陈雪; 王志东; 李淑荣; 王丽

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the suitability for fresh-cut vegetable processing of green capsicum, 20 main cultivars of green capsicum in China were collected and planted in greenhouse, and fruits were picked at the similar maturity level. Seventeen indices of the fruits were measured, which included physical and chemical indices (L*,a* andb *value, sensory evaluation score, product yield ratio, fruit hardness, pulp thickness, moisture content, ratio of sugar to acid, soluble solids, titratable acid), and functional indices (vitamin C content, total phenolics content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH value), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP value), ABTS+·radical scavenging activity (ABTS value) and beta carotene content). Significance analysis of basic measured data was carried out by SAS 9.2. Main evaluation indices were filtered by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and variable cluster analysis. The weight of main evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The suitability for fresh-cut vegetable processing of the 20 tested green pepper cultivars was appraised by grey relational degree analysis method. The basic data of 17 indices on 20 green pepper cultivars were measured and analyzed. Results of significance analysis showed that all indices varied from one tested green capsicum cultivar to another one excepted for moisture content, and the 3 indices which had the top coefficient of variation wereb*value, beta carotene content and FRAP value. Among all the tested 20 cultivars, “Longjiao No. 5” had the highest content of vitamin C, “Jingla No. 2” had the highest content of beta carotene and “Jingyanzhoupila” had the strongest antioxidant capacity. Results of correlation analysis showed that fruit hardness had significantly negative correlation with sensory evaluation score and the correlation coefficient was -0.68, however it had positive correlation with soluble solid content and the

  13. 21 CFR 155.200 - Certain other canned vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned vegetable II—Source III—Optional forms of vegetable ingredient Artichokes Flower buds of the... of the celery plant Cut; hearts. Collards Leaves of the collard plant Dandelion greens Leaves of the dandelion plant Kale Leaves of the kale plant Mustard greens Leaves of the mustard plant Okra Pods of the...

  14. Foliar glyphosate treatment alters transcript and hormone profiles in crown buds of leafy spurge and induces dwarfed and bushy phenotypes throughout its perennial life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an invasive weed of North America and its perennial nature is attributed to underground adventitious buds (UABs) that undergo seasonal cycles of para-, endo- and eco-dormancy. Recommended field rates of glyphosate (~1 kg/ha) destroys above-ground shoots of leafy spu...

  15. Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Dulk-Ras, A D; Hooykaas, P J

    2000-01-01

    In a screen for leaf developmental mutants we have isolated an activator T-DNA-tagged mutant that produces leaves without a petiole. In addition to that leafy petiole phenotype this lettuce (let) mutant shows aberrant inflorescence branching and silique shape. The LEAFY PETIOLE (LEP) gene is loca...... activity in the marginal meristem or patterning along the proximodistal axis....

  16. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Prof Richard P. Wool of the University of Delaware, created high-performance materials using vegetable oils, feathers, and flax. Can be used as adhesives, composites, foams, and circuit boards.

  18. 点播灌木绿化技术在南广铁路路基边坡植被防护中的应用%The Application of Dibble Seeding Shrubs Greening Technology in Subgrade Slope Vegetation Protection of Nanning-Guangzhou Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯尧

    2015-01-01

    近年来点播灌木绿化技术在公路绿化工程中应用较多,但在铁路边坡绿化工程中很少大面积应用。为实现“灌草结合,以灌为主”的植被目标,针对南广铁路的工程环境特点,结合路基边坡防护工程开展了点播灌木绿化技术的应用研究。通过对典型工点施工工艺和绿化效果的对比分析,总结了一般地区点播灌木的技术要点。%Recently, dibble seeding shrubs greening technology has been commonly used in highway greening engineering, but rarely in railway. In order to achieve the goal of"combination of shrub grass, shrub dominated vegetation ", study on the application of dibble seeding shrubs greening technology is carried out according to the environmental characteristics of the Nanning ~Guangzhou railway project. Through comparative analysis of the process and greening effect for some typical work sites, the application of dibble seeding shrubs greening technology in normal areas is summarized.

  19. Trend changes in global greening and browning: Contribution of short-term trends to longer-term change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Verbesselt, J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Bruin, de S.

    2012-01-01

    Field observations and time series of vegetation greenness data from satellites provide evidence of changes in terrestrial vegetation activity over the past decades for several regions in the world. Changes in vegetation greenness over time may consist of an alternating sequence of greening and/or

  20. Effects of Freezing Disaster on Green-up Date of Vegetation Using MODIS/EVI Time Series Data%基于MODIS/EVI时间序列数据分析冰冻灾害对植被绿叶始期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏浩铭; 毕远溥; 杨永国

    2009-01-01

    In the field of global changes, the relationship between plant phenology and climate, which reflects the response of terrestrial ecosystem to global climate change, has become a key subject that is highly concerned. Using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)/enhanced vegetation index(EVI) collected every eight days during January- July from 2005 to 2008 and the corresponding remote sensing data as experimental materials, we constructed cloud-free images via the Harmonic analysis of time series (HANTS). The cloud-free images were then treated by dynamic threshold method for obtaining the vegetation phenology in green up period and its distribution pattern. And the distribution pattern between freezing disaster year and normal year were comparatively analyzed for revealing the effect of freezing disaster on vegetation phenology in experimental plot. The result showed that the treated EVI data performed well in monitoring the effect of freezing disaster on vegetation phenology, accurately reflecting the regions suffered from freezing disaster. This result suggests that processing of remote sensing data using HANTS method could well monitor the ecological characteristics of vegetation.

  1. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  2. Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (pIodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (piodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate.

  3. Novel Microsatellite Loci Variation and Population Genetics within Leafy Seadragons, Phycodurus eques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques microsatellite loci were developed via standard cloning techniques and tested for use in population genetics studies. Six out of a total of twelve microsatellites tested were usable for population analysis. Seadragon samples from Western Australia (N = 6, Southern Australia (N = 11, and a captive group (N = 11 were analyzed. Here, we present leafy seadragon microsatellite primer sequences for all 12 loci and population genetics statistics for the six loci that amplified consistently and displayed adequate variability to estimate population parameters, such as diversity, population differences, and relatedness. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.225 to 0.926 and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.278 to 0.650. Pairwise differences among populations (FST estimates from samples collected off the southern coast of Western and South Australia, and captive animals ranged from a low of 0.188 between Southern Australia and captive animals, to a high of 0.212 between Western Australia and captive animals. Statistical assignment analyses suggested between one and three populations. Percent first order relatives among individuals was high and ranged from 40 within Western Australia to 55 within captive animals. These loci were tested on other species including weedy seadragons (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus, as well as assorted seahorses (Hippocampus reidi, H. erectus and pipefish (Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus, D. pessuliferus, Corythoichthys intestinalis, Syngnathus leptorhynchus with no success.

  4. [Sequence analysis of LEAFY homologous gene from Dendrobium moniliforme and application for identification of medicinal Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-Rui; Hou, Bei-Wei; Guan, Jing-Jiao; Luo, Jing; Ding, Xiao-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The LEAFY (LFY) homologous gene of Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) Sw. was cloned by new primers which were designed based on the conservative region of known sequences of orchid LEAFY gene. Partial LFY homologous gene was cloned by common PCR, then we got the complete LFY homologous gene Den LFY by Tail-PCR. The complete sequence of DenLFY gene was 3 575 bp which contained three exons and two introns. Using BLAST method, comparison analysis among the exon of LFY homologous gene indicted that the DenLFY gene had high identity with orchids LFY homologous, including the related fragment of PhalLFY (84%) in Phalaenopsis hybrid cultivar, LFY homologous gene in Oncidium (90%) and in other orchid (over 80%). Using MP analysis, Dendrobium is found to be the sister to Oncidium and Phalaenopsis. Homologous analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal amino acids were highly conserved. When the exons and introns were separately considered, exons and the sequence of amino acid were good markers for the function research of DenLFY gene. The second intron can be used in authentication research of Dendrobium based on the length polymorphism between Dendrobium moniliforme and Dendrobium officinale.

  5. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  6. Vegetable-transmitted parasites among inhabitants of El-Prince, Alexandria and its relation to housewives' knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Mohamed; El-Sahn, Amel A; Ibrahim, Hanan F; Shehata, Amany I

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, stool samples were obtained from 575 individuals from El-Prince, a suburban village of Alexandria, Egypt to detect helminthic eggs and protozoan cysts. The results showed that, 35.7% of the sample had at least one vegetable-transmitted parasite, the highest percentage (46.4%) was in the age group of 6 to less than 15 years. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent in 18.4%, followed by the protozoan Giardia lamblia in 10.4%. Fasciola eggs were found in 2.4% of samples. Knowledge and practices of housewives concerning Fasciola and its source of transmission and methods of washing leafy vegetables was obtained through house-to-house interviews with 303 housewives. Knowledge that leafy vegetables were a source of Fasciola infection was indirectly proportional with better in younger housewives and those of secondary or higher education. More than half of the interviewed housewives (57.7%) washed leafy vegetables under running tap water and 32.7% soaked them in tap water. Only 9.6% soaked them in water mixed with a substance as vinegar, lemon juice or common salt. Only 5% of those who were infected with vegetable transmitted parasites washed vegetables by soaking in water with an added substance compared to 19.6% of parasite free housewives. Most of those adding a substance to soaking water (89.7%) used vinegar. Results of the study revealed that a serious and consistent effort through public health activities is essential to educate housewives about vegetable-transmitted parasites, their transmission and ways of prevention.

  7. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  8. Transfer of radiocesium from rhizosphere soil to four cruciferous vegetables in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Han Phyo; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Aye, Yi Swe; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effect of Bacillus pumilus on the roots of four cruciferous vegetables with different root structures in regard to enhancement of (137)Cs bioavailability in contaminated rhizosphere soil. Results revealed that B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance the plant biomass of vegetables, although it increased root volume and root surface areas of all vegetables except turnip. The pH changes due to rhizosphere acidification by B. pumilus inoculation and root exudation did not affect the bioavailability of (137)Cs. However, concentrations of (137)Cs in plant tissues and soil-to-plant transfer values increased as a result of the larger root volume and root surface area of vegetables due to inoculation. Moreover, leafy vegetables, which possessed larger root volume and root surface areas, had a higher (137)Cs transfer value than root vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  10. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  11. Impact of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in soil and transfer rate to leafy vegetable spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, M Vassanda; Parihar, R S; Dwivedi, A K; Saha, J K; Rajendiran, S; Dotaniya, M L; Kundu, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of heavy metals in the environment by various anthropogenic activities has become a potential treat to life. Among the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) shows relatively high soil mobility and has high phyto-mammalian toxicity. Integration of soil remediation and ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration in soils through organic amendments, may provide an attractive land management option for contaminated sites. The application of biochar in agriculture has recently received much attention globally due to its associated multiple benefits, particularly, long-term carbon storage in soil. However, the application of biochar from softwood crop residue for heavy metal immobilization, as an alternative to direct field application, has not received much attention. Hence, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of pigeon pea biochar on cadmium mobility in a soil-plant system in cadmium-spiked sandy loam soil. The biochar was prepared from pigeon pea stalk through a slow pyrolysis method at 300 °C. The experiment was designed with three levels of Cd (0, 5, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil) and three levels of biochar (0, 2.5, and 5 g kg(-1) soil) using spinach as a test crop. The results indicate that with increasing levels of applied cadmium at 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) soil, the dry matter yield (DMY) of spinach leaf decreased by 9.84 and 18.29 %, respectively. However, application of biochar (at 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil) significantly increased the dry matter yield of spinach leaf by 5.07 and 15.02 %, respectively, and root by 14.0 and 24.0 %, respectively, over the control. Organic carbon content in the post-harvest soil increased to 34.9 and 60.5 % due to the application of biochar 2.5 and 5 g kg(-1) soil, respectively. Further, there was a reduction in the diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable cadmium in the soil and in transfer coefficient values (soil to plant), as well as its concentrations in spinach leaf and root, indicating that cadmium mobility was decreased due to biochar application. This study shows that pigeon pea biochar has the potential to increase spinach yield and reduce cadmium mobility in contaminated sandy soil.

  12. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrnáčová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  13. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  14. Analysis Of Heavy Metal Contents In Soil And Vegetables Grown Near Gautam Budh Nagar U.P. India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Saxena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyses the heavy metal contents of soil and leafy vegetables grown near Gautam budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh India. The heavy metals Pb Cd Mn Zn and Cu were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The soil and vegetable samples were collected from five different sites near GB Nagar district UP. The leafy vegetables taken for study are cabbage and spinach which are commonly grown in this area. The vegetable samples were collected from the varying distances from the roadside. The results of the study showed that the Pb content in most of the vegetable samples were higher than the permissible limits as defined by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954. The concentration of other heavy metals were within the safe limits in both the vegetables. Among the heavy metals studied Pb concentration was highest at three sites and at other two sites Cu concentration was the highest. The results also indicated that heavy metal concentration tend to slightly decrease as the distance from the roadside increases.

  15. Impact of urban gardening in equatorial zone on soils and metal transfer to vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondo Aubin Jean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the impact of urban agriculture on physicochemical soil properties and the metal uptake by some leafy vegetables cultivated in urban soils of Libreville, Gabon. Cultivated and uncultivated top-soil and vegetable samples were collected on two urban garden sites, and analyzed. The results showed that there was strong acidification and a decrease of nutrient and metal concentrations in soils due of agricultural practices. The metal transfer to plants was important, with the exception of iron. The non-essential metal cadmium and lead were not detectable in plant tissues. Amaranth accumulated more metals than other vegetables. Amaranth and Roselle were vegetables that preferentially concentrated metals in their leaves and can therefore be used for metal supplementation in food chain.

  16. Green Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  17. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... is made to estimate the global cost of drought....

  18. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  19. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  20. Risk A nalysis of Pesticide Residues in Seven Categories of Vegetables%7类重要蔬菜中农药残留风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小中; 魏小春; 朱香玲; 董森森

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide residues in vegetables were monitored in order to comprehensively investigate the current status in Zhengzhou ,Henan province ,in 2010-2012 ,and to provide the basis for its manage-ment .We carried the pesticide residue analysis of 21 kinds of vegetables ,belonging to seven categories in Zhengzhou vegetable production base .The results showed that among 32 pesticides monitored ,30 kinds were detected from the vegetable samples ,and the pesticides with detection rate of more than 5% were deltamethrin ,chlorothalonil ,triadimefon ,procymidone and PCNB .The exceeding rate of pesticide residues had a tendency of Sinusoidal line with seasons ,whose tendency from higher to lower was bulb vegeta-bles ,green leafy vegetables ,brassica vegetables ,bean-like vegetables ,melon-like vegetables ,tuber-like vegetables and eggplant-like vegetables .Meanwhile ,the risk factor of omethoate residue was more than 2 .5 in vegetables ,which was thought high risk ;and that of chlorpyrifos and phorate was between 1 .5 and 2 .5 ,which were thought middle risk ;the risk factor of the rest pesticide residues was lower than 1.5 ,which were thought low risk .%为全面了解和掌握郑州市蔬菜农药残留现状,为政府和相关部门的管理提供依据,2010-2012年对郑州市蔬菜生产基地七大类21种蔬菜开展了农药残留监测工作,采用危害物风险系数法评估农药残留的风险性。结果表明:所检测的32种农药中有30种农药被检出,检出率大于5%的农药有溴氰菊酯、百菌清、三唑酮、腐霉利及五氯硝基苯。农药残留超标率随季节呈“正弦线”的变化趋势,不同类蔬菜农药残留平均超标率大小表现为鳞茎类>绿叶菜类>芸薹类>豆类>瓜类>根茎类>茄果类。蔬菜中氧化乐果的风险系数大于2.5,为高度风险;毒死蜱、甲拌磷的风险系数介于1.5~2.5,为中度风险;其余检测的农药残留风险系数均小于1.5,为低度风险。

  1. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  2. [Research progress on urban green space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Hong-Yuan; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-Lin

    2007-07-01

    Nature, diversity, and openness are what we demand from urban green space in the 21st century. Based on the summary of urban green space connotation, types and significance, this paper reviewed the research hotspots of urban green space, i.e., conservation and planning of urban-rural fringe, restoration and preservation of natural areas and indigenous vegetation, ecological restoration and planning of green way, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem structure and services, and management policy. The difference between foreign and domestic urban green space researches and practices were summarized, and some preferential urban green space research aspects in the future were proposed. It was suggested that in China, urban green space strategy should be integrated into urban planning and land use planning.

  3. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, G.R.K.; Balaji, T. [Department of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati (India); Denschlag, H.O.; Mauerhofer, E.; Porte, N. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed.

  4. Uso da poda seca e da poda verde para obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em três cultivares de videira Use of winter pruning and green pruning for obtaining two harvests by vegetative cicle of three vine cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas épocas de poda seca e de poda verde visando ao alcance de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo nas videiras 'Niagara Branca', 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord', cultivadas em sistema de espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental da UFRG, em Eldorado do Sul - RS, na safra de 2007/2008. As plantas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, T2 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07; T3 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, e T4 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07, sendo a poda de inverno feita em cordão esporonado, e a poda verde, mediante desponte do sarmento a partir da quarta gema acima do último cacho. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta, a massa dos cachos, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT, a relação SST/ATT, o potencial da água na folha e a relação folha:fruto, de ambas as safras. Os resultados demonstraram que a execução de uma poda seca associada a uma poda verde permitiu obter duas safras de uva por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca', Niagara Rosada e 'Concord', sendo mais eficiente quando a poda seca foi realizada em agosto, associada à poda verde em novembro. A 'Niagara Branca' apresentou maior potencial para produzir uma segunda colheita, comparativamente à 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord'. Os frutos oriundos da poda verde apresentaram menor valor de SST, maior ATT e menor relação SST/ATT em relação aos obtidos na safra normal.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of winter and green pruning for obtaining two harvests per vegetative cycle for Niagara Branca, Niagara Rosada and Concord grapevine cultivars conducted by cordon training. The experiment was performed at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during the 2007/2008 harvest. Grapevines were submitted to the following treatments: T1 (winter pruning on 07/20/07 and

  5. Green Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LING

    2010-01-01

    @@ World Expo's China Pavilion is a large crimson building,but it's green at heart.The pavilion,a magnificent symbol of Chinese culture,is also a "green landmark" on the world stage,thanks to German company Siemens' energy-saving solutions.

  6. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  7. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  9. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  10. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  11. Remote sensing of vegetation dynamics in drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring long-term biomass dynamics in drylands is of great importance for many environmental applications including land degradation and global carbon cycle modeling. Biomass has extensively been estimated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of the vegetation...... greenness. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived from satellite passive microwave observations is mainly sensitive to the water content in total aboveground vegetation layer. VOD therefore provides a complementary data source to NDVI for monitoring biomass dynamics in drylands, yet further evaluations...... based on ground measurements are needed for an improved understanding of the potential advantages. In this study, we assess the capability of a long-term VOD dataset (1992-2011) to capture the temporal and spatial variability of in situ measured green biomass (herbaceous mass and woody plant foliage...

  12. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  13. Investigation and Heath Risk Assessment of Quinolone Antibiotics in Vegetables:Taking Supermarket Vegetables of Guangzhou City for an Exemple%蔬菜中喹诺酮类抗生素污染探查与风险评价:以广州市超市蔬菜为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小莲; 莫测辉; 李彦文; 王纪阳; 苏青云; 黄显东; 屈相龙

    2011-01-01

    Quinolones ( QNs ) including norfloxacin ( NOR ) , enrofolxacin ( ENR ), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and lomefloxacin ( LOM ) in vegetables sampled from supermarkets of Guangzhou were determined using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detected frequencies of four quinolone compounds in vegetables were all above 90%. The maximum concentration of individual compounds was about 150 μg/kg. Total concentrations of quinolones ( ∑ QNs ) ranged from 10.16 to 193.25 μg/kg( D. W. ), with the average of 74.38 μg/kg and the orders for different kinds of vegetables as followed: melon-fruit vegetable ( 91.29 μg/kg ) > rhizome vegetable ( 82. 09 μg/kg ) > leafy vegetable ( 52.30 μg/kg ), and green vegetable ( 104.49 μg/kg) > pollution-free vegetable( 79.06 μg/kg) > organic vegetable ( 62.38 μg/kg) > routinely cultivated vegetable( 61.23 μg/kg).The average intake and the maximum intake of CIP + ENR for human body via vegetable consumption were 1.8 μg and 3.7 μg respectively,which were lower than those with the maximum intake limit (10 μg) via meat consumption. So it can be concluded that quinolone antibiotics in vegetables were frequently detected. Though their concentrations and health risks to human body were relatively lower, potential health risk should not be neglected for long term intake and synergism of various antibiotics.%基于超声提取-固相萃取(MW-SPE)预处理方法和高效液相色谱-串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)分析技术,对广州市超市蔬菜中4种喹诺酮类抗生素(QNs)的污染状况进行探查与健康风险评价.结果表明,4种喹诺酮类化合物的检出率均大于90%,蔬菜(干重,下同)中单个化合物最高含量约150μg/kg,总含量(∑QNs)在10.16~193.25μg/kg之间,平均为74.38μg/kg,其中瓜果类(91.29μg/kg)>根茎类(82.09μg/kg)>叶菜类(52.30μg/kg),绿色蔬菜(104.49μg/kg)>无公害蔬菜(79.06μg/kg)>有机蔬菜(62.38μg/kg)>普通蔬菜(61.23μg/kg

  14. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  15. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat lean (not much fat) meat, fish, and poultry; green, leafy vegetables; and iron-fortified cereals. Calcium — ... sources of protein are fish, lean meats and poultry, eggs, dairy, nuts, soy, and peanut butter. Carb ...

  16. Anti-ulcerogenic mechanism of magnesium in indomethacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Animals were sacrificed 6 hours after ulcer induction and their stomachs were ... Keywords: Magnesium, Ulcer, Parietal Cell, Mucus Cell ... whole grains, green leafy vegetables, almonds, .... tests to determine significant difference between.

  17. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts, whole grains, dark green leafy vegetables and cold water fish. People who have diabetes or AMD or are at risk for these diseases can also benefit by following a low-glycemic (low-GI) index ...

  18. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oranges, grapefruits, broccoli, strawberries, brussels sprouts, papaya and pineapples. Vitamin C Dark green leafy vegetables such as ... Legumes) While beans contain calcium, beans contain magnesium, fiber and other nutrients, they are also high in ...

  19. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium and 400 to 600 I.U. of vitamin D daily in food and supplements. Milk products, cooked dark green leafy vegetables, dried beans, canned sardines or salmon and calcium-fortified juices and cereals are rich ...

  20. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iron-rich foods include lean meat, chicken, tuna, salmon, eggs, dried fruits, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ... Hype? How Much Food Should I Eat? Dehydration Vitamins and Minerals Calcium Sports Center Sports Supplements A ...

  1. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development - Vol 11, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Storage on the Shelf life of Dehydrated Fermented Locust Beans · EMAIL ... in Blanched and Unblanched Selected Green Leafy Vegetables Consumed in ... Effect of Buchholzia coriacea (Wonderful kola) on Microflora of Fresh Fruits ...

  2. Mineral Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body. Symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include weakness and fatigue, lightheadedness, and shortness of breath. Iron-rich foods include red meat, pork, fish and shellfish, poultry, lentils, beans and soy foods, green leafy vegetables, and ...

  3. Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ups say this? One big reason is that milk contains calcium , an important ingredient in building strong bones . And ... well-balanced diet, especially with foods rich in calcium (like milk, cheese, yogurt, green leafy vegetables, and citrus fruit) ...

  4. Ergol et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(3):27-32

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abundant water and fluid food (94.0%), green leafy vegetables (such as lettuce) ... papaya, squash, red clover, red raspberry, rice, sage, seaweed soup, sesame seeds, ..... breastfeeding and breast milk of mothers of 0-24 months old babies,.

  5. Managing menopause at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be relieved by using a water-soluble vaginal lubricant during intercourse. DO NOT use petroleum jelly. Over ... Eat high calcium foods, such as cheese, leafy green vegetables, low-fat milk and other dairy, salmon, ...

  6. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B-complex vitamin needed by the body to manufacture red blood cells. A deficiency of this vitamin ... prepared from dried yeast, fruit, and fresh leafy green vegetables to increase the folic acid in your ...

  7. Diabetes Superfoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rid of as much sodium as possible. Dark Green Leafy Vegetables Spinach, collards, and kale – these powerhouse ... Give Vacation for Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back to the Association. » « Connect ...

  8. Risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables around non-ferrous metals mining and smelting sites, Baiyin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; WANG Yan-bin; GOU Xin; SU Yi-bing; WANG Gang

    2006-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the metal and arsenic contamination in soils and vegetables on four villages (Shuichuan (SCH), Beiwan (BWA), Dongwan (DWA) and Wufe (WFE)) located along, Baiyin, China, and to evaluate the possible health risks to local population through foodchain. Results show that the most significantly contaminated soils occurred upstream at SCH where Cd, Cu and As concentrations exceeded maximum allowable concentrations for Chinese agricultural soil. Further downstream the degree of contamination semi-systematically decreased in concentrations of metal. Generally, the leafy vegetables were more heavily contaminated than non-leafy vegetables. Chinese cabbage is the most severely contaminated, the concentrations of Cd exceeded the maximum permit levels (0.05 mg/kg) by 4.5 times. Bio-accumulate factor also shows that an entry of Cd to food chain plants is the greatest potential. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake amounts of the considered toxic elements (Cd, Pb and Cu) from the vegetables grown at SCH and BWA and DWA have exceeded the recommended dietary allowance levels. Thus, the vegetables grown in three villages above, which affected by Baiyin mining and smelting have a health hazard for human consumption.

  9. The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhanloo Hamid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray. The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg. In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

  10. Development of a breeding strategy for nitrogen use efficiency in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan Navarrete, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most consumed leafy vegetables worldwide and it is considered to be highly nutritious. Spinach is a short-cycle leafy crop that has a high demand for nitrogen in order to rapidly come to a harvestable product that has the required dark green colour within

  11. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  12. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ), transport (typically roads, rail and airports), and telecommunications. The focus of this chapter will be on greening bulk services and roads. Despite the importance of infrastructure to economic growth and social wellbeing, many countries struggle to meet...

  13. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee ...

  14. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  15. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying reasons include the powers...... of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...... defaults, choice architects should consider consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point in their direction. But when choice architects lack...

  16. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  17. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  18. Green Kidz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto, Melina; Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Arcuri, Maria Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    Projektet "Green Kidz. Intercultural environmental citizenship in the English language classroom in Argentina and Denmark" er en del af et internationalt udviklingsprojekt, der er ledet af Michael Byram, Durham University. Projektet belyser, hvordan interkulturelt medborgerskab kan styrkes i...

  19. Genetic Diversity of Porang Populations (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume) In Central Java and West Java Based on LEAFY Second Intron Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Arofatun Nikmah; Rodiyati Azrianingsih; Didik Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is dispersed and grew well in Java island. This research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of porang populations in Central Java and West Java based on LEAFY second intron (nuclear genome encoding flower development). DNA samples of porang were from previous study, which were obtained from Central Java (Pamedaran, Grobogan, Wonogiri, Karangtengah) and West Java (Cisompet) as in-group. Amorphophallus variabilis from Pamedaran Brebes, Amorphophallus...

  20. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  1. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  2. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  3. Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

  4. Molecular evolution of Adh and LEAFY and the phylogenetic utility of their introns in Pyrus (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jiashu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Pyrus belongs to the tribe Pyreae (the former subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae, and includes one of the most important commercial fruit crops, pear. The phylogeny of Pyrus has not been definitively reconstructed. In our previous efforts, the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS revealed a poorly resolved phylogeny due to non-concerted evolution of nrDNA arrays. Therefore, introns of low copy nuclear genes (LCNG are explored here for improved resolution. However, paralogs and lineage sorting are still two challenges for applying LCNGs in phylogenetic studies, and at least two independent nuclear loci should be compared. In this work the second intron of LEAFY and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (Adh were selected to investigate their molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility. Results DNA sequence analyses revealed a complex ortholog and paralog structure of Adh genes in Pyrus and Malus, the pears and apples. Comparisons between sequences from RT-PCR and genomic PCR indicate that some Adh homologs are putatively nonfunctional. A partial region of Adh1 was sequenced for 18 Pyrus species and three subparalogs representing Adh1-1 were identified. These led to poorly resolved phylogenies due to low sequence divergence and the inclusion of putative recombinants. For the second intron of LEAFY, multiple inparalogs were discovered for both LFY1int2 and LFY2int2. LFY1int2 is inadequate for phylogenetic analysis due to lineage sorting of two inparalogs. LFY2int2-N, however, showed a relatively high sequence divergence and led to the best-resolved phylogeny. This study documents the coexistence of outparalogs and inparalogs, and lineage sorting of these paralogs and orthologous copies. It reveals putative recombinants that can lead to incorrect phylogenetic inferences, and presents an improved phylogenetic resolution of Pyrus using LFY2int2-N. Conclusions Our study represents the first phylogenetic analyses based

  5. Genetic analysis and gene mapping of leafy head (lhd), a mutant blocking the differentiation of rachis branches in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yuanlin; MAO Damei; LI Weiming; XUE Yongbiao; WU Weiren; LIU Huaqing; ZHANG Danfeng; ZHOU Yuanchang; PAN Runsheng; LIN Lihui; CHEN Zhiwei; GUAN Huazhong

    2003-01-01

    A rice mutant called leafy head (lhd), in which the differentiation of rachis branches is blocked, was identified in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived through F1 anther culture from a cross between rice (Oryza sativa L.) indica cultivar Gui-630 and japonica cultivar Taiwanjing. The mutant is shorter in plant height, possessing smaller and clumpy leaves, and always stays at the vegetative growth stage. Genetic analysis suggests that lhd is controlled by a single recessive gene, which is temporarily named lhd(t). The phenotype of the mutant suggests that LHD(t) is a key gene controlling the differentiation of rachis branches. In order to map the gene, two F2 populations were constructed by crossing the lhd heterozygote with varieties Minghui-77 (indica) and Jinghua-8 (japonica). In the F2 of lhd heterozygote ( Jinghua-8, some mutant plants appeared as the "medium type", suggesting that the lhd phenotype could be influenced by genetic backgrounds. With the published SSR markers of RM series and additional SSR markers developed by ourselves and using the methods of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and mutant analysis (with 498 mutant plants in total), LHD(t) gene was mapped onto the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 10. Markers SSR1, RM269, RM258, RM304 and RM171 were located on one side with distances of 6.4, 16.6, 18.4, 22.2 and 26.3 cM to LHD(t); whereas markers SSR4 and SSR5 were on the other side with distances of 0.6 and 2.2 cM to LHD(t). The results will facilitate the positional cloning and functional study of the LHD(t) gene.

  6. Trace Metals in Vegetables and Cereals- A Case Study of Indian Market-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaidya Nath Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables and Cereals are considered vital for properly-balanced diet given that they deliver vitamins, minerals, nutritional fiber, and phytochemicals. This study aimed to assess the concentration of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg in common vegetables and cereals in urban open markets in Varanasi district, India Materials & Methods: Total 260 edible portions of vegetable samples of 13 species were collected in March to October, 2016 from predefined market sites. These samples classified into roots, stems, leafy vegetables, fruits, and legumes. These samples (unwashed, acetic acid washed and boiled were assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical evaluations were carried out using the IBM SPSS 21. Results: The results obtained reveal that unwashed vegetables and cereals as compared to washed and boiled samples contain higher trace metal concentration. The order of heavy metal concentration was observed in Cu>Pb>Cd>As in vegetable and cereals samples. Hg and Cr were not detected in any samples. The mean value of Cu, Cd and Pb in unwashed and washed vegetables and cereals were lower than PFA standard except As, whereas in boiled vegetables and cereals are lower than PFA standard but the mean value of Cd and Pb were many folds higher than the EU standard at all the market site samples. Leafy vegetables were found to contain the highest metals values especially Spinacia oleracea followed by roots vegetable like Brassica rapa, at all the studied sites. The market sites MS3 located in the vicinity of industrial zone and in proximity to national highway showed elevated levels of trace metals concentration in the vegetables and cereals as compared to other market sites. Conclusions: The results showed that, the As, Cu, Cd and Pb concentration were reduced to about 12.5%, 5.87%, 11.36% and 10.42% of the initial concentrations by 2% acetic acid washing and to 25%, 21.87%, 20.45% and 16.67% of the initial

  7. Thermal insulation performance of green roof systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Serdar; Morgan, Susan; Retzlaff, William; Once, Orcun [southern Illinois University (United States)], e-mail: scelik@siue.edu, e-mail: smorgan@siue.edu, e-mail: wretzla@siue.edu, e-mail: oonce@siue.edu

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing costs of energy, good building insulation has become increasingly important. Among existing insulation techniques is the green roof system, which consists of covering the roof of a building envelop with plants. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of vegetation type and growth media on the thermal performance of green roof systems. Twelve different green roof samples were made with 4 different growth media and 3 sedum types. Temperature at the sample base was recorded every 15 minutes for 3 years; the insulation behavior was then analysed. Results showed that the insulation characteristics were achieved with a combination of haydite and sedum sexangulare. This study demonstrated that the choice of growth media and vegetation is important to the green roof system's performance; further research is required to better understand the interactions between growth media and plant roots.

  8. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and their disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, Shigeharu; Kiyonaga, Hiroko; Matsuzaka, Yuuki; Maeda, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuki; Tasaka, Katsuko; Aritomi, Sanae; Yamashita, Akiko; Kamiya, Akira

    2008-10-01

    We evaluated the microbial contamination of 17 types of vegetable and 10 types of fruit after 30-s washing with tap water with and without subsequent disinfection by 10-min immersion in 0.01% (100 ppm) sodium hypochlorite. The mean microbial contamination level of 9 types of leafy vegetable was 2.8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/g after washing with water and 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 8 types of nonleafy vegetable was 3.4 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.0 x 10(4) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The mean microbial contamination level of 10 types of unpeeled fleshy fruit was 9.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing with water and 1.3 x 10(3) CFU/g after washing followed by disinfection. The contaminants in vegetables and unpeeled fruit were similar after washing and after washing followed by disinfection, including Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The contamination did not markedly decrease even after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite. However, the flesh of each type of peeled fruit showed no or only low levels of contamination (

  9. Parasite egg contamination of vegetables from a suburban market in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, S; Hoa, N T V; Noda, S; Moji, K; Cong, L; Aoki, Y; Rai, S K; Fujimaki, Y

    2009-06-01

    Helminth egg contamination of vegetables purchased at suburban market in Hanoi, Vietnam was examined. A total of 317 vegetables were examined and 82 (26%) were revealed to be positive for parasite eggs. Of the 15 varieties, 13 were positive except for horseradish and cucumber. Contamination was highest in leafy vegetables (31%), followed by root vegetables (17%) and fruit vegetables (3%). Throughout the survey, five species of parasite eggs were found: Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., Toxocara sp., Taenia sp. and Ascaridia galli. In the interview with the villagers, 121 (81%) of 149 adult villagers stated that they usually use not only animal feces but also human feces as a fertilizer. Throughout the survey, a total of 453 eggs were recovered. Number of eggs recovered from vegetables was higher in the dry season (355 eggs) than in the rainy season (98 eggs). The study revealed that vegetables purchased at a market in suburban Hanoi (Vietnam) were highly contaminated with parasite eggs excreted by humans and animals. Considering the eating habits of the Vietnamese and the 17% embryonation rate of detected parasites, vegetables seem to play an important role in soil-transmitted helminth infection in this country.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a FLORICAULA/LEAFY ortholog, PFL, in polygamous papaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyi YU; Paul H. MOORE; Henrik H. ALBERT; Adrienne H.K. ROADER; Ray MING

    2005-01-01

    The homologous genes FLORICAULA (FLO) in Antirrhinum and LEAFY (LFY) in Arabidopsis are known to regulate the initiation of flowering in these two distantly related plant species. These genes are necessary also for the expression of downstream genes that control floral organ identity. We used Arabidopsis LFY cDNA as a probe to clone and sequence a papaya ortholog of LFY, PFL. It encodes a protein that shares 61% identity with the Arabidopsis LFY gene and 71% identity with the LFYhomologs of the two woody tree species: California sycamore (Platanus racemosa) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Despite the high sequence similarity within two conserved regions, the N-terminal proline-rich motif in papaya PFL differs from other members in the family. This difference may not affect the gene function of papaya PFL, since an equally divergent but a functional LFY ortholog NEEDLY of Pinus radiata has been reported. Genomic and BAC Southern analyses indicated that there is only one copy of PFL in the papaya genome. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that PFL is expressed at a relatively low level in leaf primordia,but it is expressed at a high level in the floral meristem. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that PFL was expressed in flower buds of all three sex types - male, female, and hermaphrodite with marginal difference between hermaphrodite and unisexual flowers. These data suggest that PFL may play a similar role as LFY in flower development and has limited effect on sex differentiation in papaya.

  11. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  12. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA. Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization. Two lines, D1232 and D1653, showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head. Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage, and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage. It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin. These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant organs and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  13. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEYUKE; WANXINXUE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA.Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization.Two lines,D1232 and D1653,showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head.Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage,and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage.It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin.These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant orgens and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  14. Fine Mapping and Cloning of Leafy Head Mutant Gene pla1-5 in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-neng FENG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We identified a leafy head mutant pla1-5 (plastochron 1-5 from the progeny of japonica rice cultivar Taipei 309 treated with 60Co-γ ray irradiation. The pla1-5 mutant has a dwarf phenotype and small leaves. Compared with its wild type, pla1-5 has more leaves and fewer tillers, and it fails to produce normal panicles at the maturity stage. Genetic analysis showed that the pla1-5 phenotype is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using the map-based cloning strategy, we narrowed down the location of the target gene to a 58-kb region between simple sequence repeat markers CHR1027 and CHR1030 on the long arm of chromosome 10. The target gene cosegregated with molecular markers CHR1028 and CHR1029. There were five predicted genes in the mapped region. The results from sequencing analysis revealed that there was one base deletion in the first exon of LOC_Os10g26340 encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A11 in the pla1-5 mutant, which might result in a downstream frame shift and premature termination. These results suggest that the P450 CYP78A11 gene is the candidate gene of PLA1-5.

  15. A variant of LEAFY reveals its capacity to stimulate meristem development by inducing RAX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahtane, Hicham; Vachon, Gilles; Le Masson, Marie; Thévenon, Emmanuel; Périgon, Sophie; Mihajlovic, Nela; Kalinina, Anna; Michard, Robin; Moyroud, Edwige; Monniaux, Marie; Sayou, Camille; Grbic, Vojislava; Parcy, Francois; Tichtinsky, Gabrielle

    2013-05-01

    In indeterminate inflorescences, floral meristems develop on the flanks of the shoot apical meristem, at positions determined by auxin maxima. The floral identity of these meristems is conferred by a handful of genes called floral meristem identity genes, among which the LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor plays a prominent role. However, the molecular mechanism controlling the early emergence of floral meristems remains unknown. A body of evidence indicates that LFY may contribute to this developmental shift, but a direct effect of LFY on meristem emergence has not been demonstrated. We have generated a LFY allele with reduced floral function and revealed its ability to stimulate axillary meristem growth. This role is barely detectable in the lfy single mutant but becomes obvious in several double mutant backgrounds and plants ectopically expressing LFY. We show that this role requires the ability of LFY to bind DNA, and is mediated by direct induction of REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1) by LFY. We propose that this function unifies the diverse roles described for LFY in multiple angiosperm species, ranging from monocot inflorescence identity to legume leaf development, and that it probably pre-dates the origin of angiosperms. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  17. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  18. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  19. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S VEGETABLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the micro regions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, AgraQuest, developed Serenade, an OMRI-listed biofungicide for fruits and vegetables based on Bacillus subtilis QST-713, a naturally occurring strain of bacteria.