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Sample records for leaf nutrient contents

  1. Weak leaf photosynthesis and nutrient content relationships from tropical vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Ishida, F. Y.; Feldpaush, T.; Saiz, G.; Grace, J.; Meir, P.; Lloyd, J.

    2015-12-01

    Evergreen rain forests and savannas are the two major vegetations of tropical land ecosystems, in terms of land area, biomass, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and rates of land use change. Mechanistically understanding ecosystem functioning on such ecosystems is still far from complete, but important for generation of future vegetation scenarios in response to global changes. Leaf photosynthetic rates is a key processes usually represented on land surface-atmosphere models, although data from tropical ecosystems is scarce, considering the high biodiversity they contain. As a shortcut, models usually recur to relationships between leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic rates. Such strategy is convenient, given the possibility of global datasets on leave nutrients derived from hyperspectral remote sensing data. Given the importance of Nitrogen on enzyme composition, this nutrient is usually used to infer photosynthetic capacity of leaves. Our experience, based on individual measurements on 1809 individual leaves from 428 species of trees and shrubs naturally occurring on tropical forests and savannas from South America, Africa and Australia, indicates that the relationship between leaf nitrogen and its assimilation capacity is weak. Therefore, leaf Nitrogen alone is a poor predictor of photosynthetic rates of tropical vegetation. Phosphorus concentrations from tropical soils are usually low and is often implied that this nutrient limits primary productivity of tropical vegetation. Still, phosphorus (or other nutrients) did not exerted large influence over photosynthetic capacity, although potassium influenced vegetation structure and function. Such results draw attention to the risks of applying universal nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships on biogeochemical models. Moreover, our data suggests that affiliation of plant species within phylogenetic hierarchy is an important aspect in understanding leaf trait variation. The lack of a strong single

  2. Leaf nutrient contents and morphology of invasive tamarisk in different soil conditions in the lower Virgin River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, S.; Acharya, K.; Tateno, R.; Yamanaka, N.

    2012-12-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling. To increase our understanding of nutrient use strategy of invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) on an arid riparian ecosystem, we examined leaf nutrient contents and morphology of Tamarix ramosissima and its relationship with soil properties in the lower Virgin River floodplain, Nevada, U.S. Leaves were collected in three different locations; near the river, near the stand edge (60-70 m from the river edge) and at 30-40 m from the river edge in the summer of 2011. Leaves were analyzed for carbon (C) and N contents, and specific leaf area (SLA). Soil samples at 10-20 cm depths and under the canopy were also collected for soil water, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and inorganic nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) analysis. Results suggested that tree size and SLA increased with decreasing distance from the river, whereas C isotope discrimination did not differ among the samples based on distance from the river. Nitrogen content per unit mass and N isotope discrimination (δ15N) were significantly higher in the trees near the river. Soil NO3- and total inorganic N had positive relationships with δ15N in leaves, which suggests that leaf δ15N may be influenced by N concentrations on the soil surface. Negative correlations were found between soil EC and leaf N contents, suggesting that high soil salinity may decrease Tamarix leaf N and thus limit tree growth.

  3. IMPACT OF PREPLANTING FERTILIZATION ON THE LEAF NUTRIENT CONTENT OF YOUNG SOUR CHERRY TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRISHKOV

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of seven variants of organic and mineral preplanting fertilization on the content of the main macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in the leaves of sour cherry trees, Erdi Bötermö cv., grafted on two types of rootstocks - seedling forms of Mahaleb (IK-M9 and Droganyellow bigarreau. The investigation was carried out during the period 2001-2003 in an experimental orchard at the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil. There was no significant effect of the different preplanting fertilization variants on leaf nitrogen content. The trees on rootstock Droganyellow bigarreau responded more pronouncedly to phosphorous and potassium fertilization, which corresponded to the higher leaf phosphorous and potassium content, compared to those on IK-M9. In all variants, there was a trend for a higher calcium concentration in the leaves of the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau. Leaf magnesium level decreased over experimental years, which was more strongly manifested by the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau, whereas in the variants on the Mahaleb rootstock it was of higher values.

  4. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

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    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  5. Effect of different day and night nutrient solution concentrations on growth, photosynthesis, and leaf NO3- content of aeroponically grown lettuce

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    Francisco Albornoz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate content in leafy green vegetables has raised concerns among consumers and policy makers worldwide. Several cultural practices have been evaluated to manipulate NO3- content in fresh leaves with varying degrees of success. The present study was conducted to evaluate different concentrations of the nutrient solution applied during the day (D and night (N to aeroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in Davis, California, USA, in the spring of 2012 with the objective of assessing the effect on growth, leaf photosynthesis, and nitrate accumulation in leaves. Two different treatments in the nighttime solution concentration (D25/N75, EC: 1.8 dS m-1; and D25/N50, EC: 1.2 dS m-1, a day nutrient solution of EC 0.6 dS m-1, plus a day and night treatment with constant EC (D50/N50, EC: 1.2 dS m-1 were applied. Plant growth, leaf photosynthesis, and leaf nutrient content were evaluated after 3 wk of growth. Mean shoot weight was 106.3 g with no differences among treatments. Root biomass was lower with D25/N75 (0.14 vs. 0.85 g in the other treatments. The maximum rate of leaf photosynthesis was 66% lower with D25/N75 than in the other treatments. Nitrogen, P, K, Ca, and Mg were lower in leaf tissue in the treatments with different solution concentrations where leaf NO3- content was reduced by approximately 75%. Switching nutrient solution concentration between day and night is a viable practice to reduce NO3- in lettuce leaves with no detriment to leaf production.

  6. Higher peroxidase activity, leaf nutrient contents and carbon isotope composition changes in Arabidopsis thaliana are related to rutin stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2014-09-15

    Rutin, a plant secondary metabolite that is used in cosmetics and food additive and has known medicinal properties, protects plants from UV-B radiation and diseases. Rutin has been suggested to have potential in weed management, but its mode of action at physiological level is unknown. Here, we report the biochemical, physiological and oxidative response of Arabidopsis thaliana to rutin at micromolar concentrations. It was found that fresh weight; leaf mineral contents (nitrogen, sodium, potassium, copper and aluminum) were decreased following 1 week exposure to rutin. Arabidopsis roots generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species after rutin treatment, consequently increasing membrane lipid peroxidation, decreasing leaf Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+) contents and losing root viability. Carbon isotope composition in A. thaliana leaves was less negative after rutin application than the control. Carbon isotope discrimination values were decreased following rutin treatment, with the highest reduction compared to the control at 750μM rutin. Rutin also inhibited the ratio of CO2 from leaf to air (ci/ca) at all concentrations. Total protein contents in A. thaliana leaves were decreased following rutin treatment. It was concluded carbon isotope discrimination coincided with protein degradation, increase lipid peroxidation and a decrease in ci/ca values may be the primary action site of rutin. The present results suggest that rutin possesses allelopathic potential and could be used as a candidate to develop environment friendly natural herbicide.

  7. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

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    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  8. Leaf litter nutrient uptake in an intermittent blackwater river: influence of tree species and associated biotic and abiotic drivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehring, Andrew S; Kuehn, Kevin A; Thompson, Aaron; Pringle, Catherine M; Rosemond, Amy D; First, Matthew R; Lowrance, R Richard; Vellidis, George; Whitehead, David

    2015-01-01

    .... During leaf litter decomposition, microbial biomass and accumulated inorganic materials immobilize and retain nutrients, and therefore, both biotic and abiotic drivers may influence detrital nutrient content...

  9. Short-term effect of nutrient availability and rainfall distribution on biomass production and leaf nutrient content of savanna tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, E.R.; Tomlinson, K.W.; Carvalheiro, L.G.; Kirkman, K.; Bie, de S.; Prins, H.H.T.; Langevelde, van F.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in land use may lead to increased soil nutrient levels in many ecosystems (e.g. due to intensification of agricultural fertilizer use). Plant species differ widely in their response to differences in soil nutrients, and for savannas it is uncertain how this nutrient enrichment will affect

  10. Assessing the effects of soil liming with dolomitic limestone and sugar foam on soil acidity, leaf nutrient contents, grape yield and must quality in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olego, M.A.; Visconti, F.; Quiroga, M.J.; Paz, J.M. De; Garzón-Jimeno, E.

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium toxicity has been recognized as one of the most common causes of reduced grape yields in vineyard acid soils. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two liming materials, i.e. dolomitic lime and sugar foam, on a vineyard cultivated in an acid soil. The effects were studied in two soil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm), as well as on leaf nutrient contents, must quality properties and grape yield, in an agricultural soil dedicated to Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Mencía’ cultivation. Data management and analysis were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). As liming material, sugar foam was more efficient than dolomitic limestone because sugar foam promoted the highest decrease in soil acidity properties at the same calcium carbonate equivalent dose. However, potassium contents in vines organs, including leaves and berries, seemed to decrease as a consequence of liming, with a concomitant increase in must total acidity. Soil available phosphorus also decreased as a consequence of liming, especially with sugar foam, though no effects were observed in plants. For these reasons fertilization of this soil with K and P is recommended along with liming. Grape yields in limed soils increased, although non-significantly, by 30%. This research has therefore provided an important opportunity to advance in our understanding of the effects of liming on grape quality and production in acid soils. (Author)

  11. Effect of harvesting frequency, variety and leaf maturity on nutrient composition, hydrogen cyanide content and cassava foliage yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

    2012-12-01

    The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  12. Leaf nutrient resorption, leaf lifespan and the retention of nutrients in seagrass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Marbà, N.; Stapel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient nutrient resorption from senescing leaves, and extended leaf life spans are important strategies in order to conserve nutrients for plants in general. Despite the fact that seagrasses often grow in oligotrophic waters, these conservation strategies are not strongly developed in seagrasses.

  13. Photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency in three fast-growing tropical trees with differing leaf longevities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, A J

    2000-08-01

    Differences in nutrient-use efficiency have been attributed to differences in leaf habit. It has been suggested that evergreens, with their longer-lived leaves, and therefore longer nutrient retention, are more efficient than deciduous species in their use of nutrients. In tropical trees, however, leaf life span is not always a function of whole-tree deciduousness, leading to the proposal that nutrient-use efficiency is better related to leaf life span than to leaf habit. It was predicted that potential photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency (maximum potential photosynthesis/leaf nutrient content) would decrease with increasing leaf life span, whereas cumulative photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency (carbon assimilated over a leaf's life span/total nutrients invested in a leaf) would increase with increasing leaf life span. Potential and cumulative photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiencies (with respect to nitrogen and phosphorus) were measured for three fast-growing tropical trees: Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Cordia alliodora (R. & P.) Cham. (Boraginaceae), and Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão (Euphorbiaceae). Mean leaf life spans of the three species varied about threefold and ranged from 50 to 176 days. The predictions were partially supported: Cedrela odorata had the shortest-lived leaves and the highest potential nitrogen-use efficiency, whereas Hyeronima alchorneoides had the longest-lived leaves and the highest cumulative nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies. Potential phosphorus-use efficiency, however, was invariant among species. It is suggested that there are potential tradeoffs between leaf characteristics that lead to high potential and cumulative nutrient-use efficiencies. High potential nutrient-use efficiency may be beneficial in high-nutrient environments, whereas high cumulative nutrient-use efficiency may be of greater benefit to species in low-nutrient environments.

  14. Dry-Matter Partitioning,Yield and Leaf Nutrient Contents of Tomato Plants as Influenced by Shading at Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XIANZHAO; KANG SHAOZHONG; YI HUAPENG; ZHANG JIANHUA

    2003-01-01

    Pot-grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Maofen) was used to study the effects ofthree shading levels (0, 75% and 40%) for 8 days on dry matter partitioning, contents of nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in leaves and yield at three growth stages (early flowering (EF), peakflowering (PF) and later flowering (LF)). Shading reduced the dry weight of root and stem tissues at the EFand PF stages, but the 40% shading increased root dry weight and stem dry weight by 43.2% and 21.6%,respectively, at the LF stage. The influence of shading on the dry weight of leaves was very small at mostgrowth stages. Shading had no effects on total leaf N, P and K contents at the EF and PF stages, showingthat N, P and K absorption were regulated by the carbon assimilation at these two stages. The leaf N, Pand K contents of 40% shaded plants at the LF stage were significantly increased. There were no obviousdifferences in leaf N and K contents between 75% and 40% shading treatments, but significant difference inleaf P contents was found between them at the LF stage. Shading significantly enhanced the fruit yield of40% shaded tomato plants at the LF stage, but failed to affect the fruit yield of shaded plants at the EFstage. These showed that tomato could grow well and a better yield could be obtained if some moderateshading (i.e., 40% shading) was applied at the LF stage at summer midday.

  15. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  16. RESPONSE OF SOILD FOLIAR APLICATION OF SILICON AND MICRO NUTRIENTS ON LEAF NUTRIENT STATUS OF SAPOTA

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    K. A. LATHIYA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was conducted to know the response of soil and foliar application of silicon and micronutrients on nutrient status of sapota at College of Horticulture Mudigere, Chikamagalur district during the year 2010- 2012. Silicon sources like potassium silicate and calcium silicate and micronutrient contents like solubor and kiecite –G were used. Macro nutrients like nitrogen (1.583 %, phosphorous (0.175 % and the potassium (1.20 % and silicon content (1.20 % in leaf were recorded highest with potassium silicate spray with 8 ml per litre. Whereas micronutrient content has not increased considerably with respect to application of silicon sources. The maximum content of iron (179.89 ppm, copper (7.61 ppm, zinc (35.13 ppm and manganese (91.16 ppm was recorded in the leaf due to foliar spray of micronutrients at 4 ml per litre. As macro nutrient and silicon content was more in the treatment with foliar application of potassium silicate at 8 ml per litre resulted in more yield and quality of fruits.

  17. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  18. Leaf chlorophyll content as a proxy for leaf photosynthetic capacity.

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    Croft, Holly; Chen, Jing M; Luo, Xiangzhong; Bartlett, Paul; Chen, Bin; Staebler, Ralf M

    2017-09-01

    Improving the accuracy of estimates of forest carbon exchange is a central priority for understanding ecosystem response to increased atmospheric CO2 levels and improving carbon cycle modelling. However, the spatially continuous parameterization of photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax) at global scales and appropriate temporal intervals within terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) remains unresolved. This research investigates the use of biochemical parameters for modelling leaf photosynthetic capacity within a deciduous forest. Particular attention is given to the impacts of seasonality on both leaf biophysical variables and physiological processes, and their interdependent relationships. Four deciduous tree species were sampled across three growing seasons (2013-2015), approximately every 10 days for leaf chlorophyll content (ChlLeaf ) and canopy structure. Leaf nitrogen (NArea ) was also measured during 2014. Leaf photosynthesis was measured during 2014-2015 using a Li-6400 gas-exchange system, with A-Ci curves to model Vcmax. Results showed that seasonality and variations between species resulted in weak relationships between Vcmax normalized to 25°C (Vcmax25) and NArea (R(2)  = 0.62, P models to derive ChlLeaf . TBMs largely treat photosynthetic parameters as either fixed constants or varying according to leaf nitrogen content. This research challenges assumptions that simple NArea -Vcmax25 relationships can reliably be used to constrain photosynthetic capacity in TBMs, even within the same plant functional type. It is suggested that ChlLeaf provides a more accurate, direct proxy for Vcmax25 and is also more easily retrievable from satellite data. These results have important implications for carbon modelling within deciduous ecosystems. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.

  19. Teores foliares de nutrientes em mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘smooth cayenne’ em resposta à adubação Leaf nutrient contents on ´smooth cayenne´ planting material as response to fertilization

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    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mudas do abacaxizeiro ‘Smooth Cayenne’ obtidas por seccionamento de caule foram submetidas à adubação foliar com soluções em diferentes concentrações de uréia, KCl e H3BO3, em pulverizações semanais, num total de vinte e seis para a uréia e o KCl e aplicações mensais num total de quatro, para o H3BO3. Todos os tratamentos foram iniciados na nona semana após o plantio das secções. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial fracionado do tipo (1/553, com três tipos de adubo (uréia, KCl e H3BO3 e cinco concentrações num total de 25 tratamentos. Cada parcela constituiu-se de 50 secções. Os tratamentos consistiram nas combinações das seguintes concentrações em g L-1: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 para a uréia e o KCl, e 0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2,0 de H3BO3. Análises das amostras de folhas “D” revelam efeitos da uréia e H3BO3 sobre os teores foliares de S, Cl e B e efeito do KCL sobre K e Cl foliar. A uréia não apresentou efeito sobre o teor de N foliar, porém influencia significativamente o conteúdo de N nas mudas.‘Smooth Cayenne’ planting material obtained through stem sectioning were trea-ted with foliar fertilization with different concentrations of urea, KCl, in weekly pulverizations, and H3BO4, totalizing twenty-six for urea and KCL pulverizations and four for H3BO3, which was applied monthly The treatments were began nine weeks after planting thestem sections. The experimental scheme was a fractionated factorial (1/55³ with three types of fertilizers (urea, KCl and H3BO3 and five concentrations in a total of 25 treatments. There were 50 sections per plot. Treatments were a combination of concentrations in g L-1: 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 of urea and KCl, and 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2,0 of H3BO3. Sample analyses of ‘D’ leaves showed urea and H3BO3 effect on S, Cl and B leaf contents whereas KCL affected leaf K and Cl contents. Urea did not affect N leaf content, however it strongly influenced N content in planting material.

  20. Spatial variability of leaf nutrient contents in a drip irrigated citrus orchard Variabilidade espacial dos teores foliares de nutrientes em um pomar de citros sob irrigação localizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson A. Armindo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of leaf content of macro and micronutrients. The citrus plants orchard with 5 years of age, planted at regular intervals of 8 x 7 m, was managed under drip irrigation. Leaf samples were collected from each plant to be analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analyzed using the software R, version 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, along with geostatistics package GeoR. All contents of macro and micronutrients studied were adjusted to normal distribution and showed spatial dependence.The best-fit models, based on the likelihood, for the macro and micronutrients were the spherical and matern. It is suggest for the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur the minimum distances between samples of 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 and 15 m respectively, while for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc, the distances suggests are 29; 9; 113; 35 and 14 m, respectively.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de macro e micronutrientes foliares. O pomar com plantas de 5 anos de idade, plantado com espaçamento regular de 8 x 7 m, foi manejado sob irrigação localizada. Foram coletadas amostras foliares de cada planta do pomar para serem analisadas em laboratório. Os dados foram analisados por meio do programa computacional R, versão 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, juntamente com o pacote GeoR. Todos os teores de macro e micronutrientes estudados ajustaram-se à distribuição normal e apresentaram dependência espacial. Os modelos de melhor ajuste, com base na verosimilhança, para os macro e micronutrientes, foram esférico e matern. Para os macronutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre, sugerem-se distâncias mínimas entre amostras de 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 e 15 m, respectivamente, enquanto para os micronutrientes boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco, essas distâncias são de 29; 9; 113; 35 e 14 m, respectivamente.

  1. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

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    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  2. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  4. Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment Jennifer Firn1, James McGree2, Eric Lind3, Elizabeth Borer3, Eric Seabloom3, Lauren Sullivan3, Kimberly Lapierre4 and the Nutrient Network 1Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Earth, Environmental and Biological Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 2Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 3Universtiy of Minnesota, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 1479 Gortner Avenue, 140 Gortner Laboratory, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA 4Department of integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Functional trait research has developed with the aim of finding general patterns in how the function of plant assemblages changes with respect to different land-uses. Most studies have compared sites within and across regions with variations in land-use history, but not necessarily with standardized treatments in an experimental framework. The trends that have emerged from this research is that characteristics of leaf traits such as specific leaf area (SLA) correlate with carbon acquisition strategies known to influence ecosystem functioning. SLA has been found to represent a plant's investment in growing light-capturing area per dry mass content. Species with a relatively high SLA tend to have a higher rate of return on the resources invested into making tissue (cheaper leaves in terms of energy and resources needed to produce them) when compared to species with a lower SLA (more expensive leaves to produce). Few studies have examined quantitatively measured traits in an experimental framework. The Nutrient Network experiment, globally distributed experiment, presents a unique opportunity to examine the response of functional traits across grassland ecosystems characterised by a diverse range of

  5. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  6. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical montane tree species in relation to leaf nutrients, successional strategy and growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Niyonzima, Felix; Adolfsson, Lisa; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of tree leaves is typically positively related to nutrient content and little affected by changes in growth temperature. These relationships are, however, often poorly supported for tropical trees, for which interspecific differences may be more strongly controlled by within-leaf nutrient allocation than by absolute leaf nutrient content, and little is known regarding photosynthetic acclimation to temperature. To explore the influence of leaf nutrient status, successional strategy and growth temperature on the photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees, we collected data on photosynthetic, chemical and morphological leaf traits of ten tree species in Rwanda. Seven species were studied in a forest plantation at mid-altitude (~1,700 m), whereas six species were studied in a cooler montane rainforest at higher altitude (~2,500 m). Three species were common to both sites, and, in the montane rainforest, three pioneer species and three climax species were investigated. Across species, interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity was not related to leaf nutrient content. Instead, this variation was related to differences in within-leaf nitrogen allocation, with a tradeoff between investments into compounds related to photosynthetic capacity (higher in pioneer species) versus light-harvesting compounds (higher in climax species). Photosynthetic capacity was significantly lower at the warmer site at 1,700 m altitude. We conclude that (1) within-leaf nutrient allocation is more important than leaf nutrient content per se in controlling interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity among tree species in tropical Rwanda, and that (2) tropical montane rainforest species exhibit decreased photosynthetic capacity when grown in a warmer environment.

  7. Nutrient value of leaf versus seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Marvin; Holt, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin and mineral concentrations and omega 6 / omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea) are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed). An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on “So why do we eat mainly seeds?”

  8. Nutrient value of leaf versus seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Edelman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Major differences stand out between edible leaves and seeds in protein quality, vitamin and mineral concentrations and omega 6 / omega 3 fatty acid ratios. Data for seeds (wheat, rice, corn, soy, lentil, chick pea are compared with corresponding data for edible green leaves (kale, spinach, broccoli, duckweed. An x/y representation of data for lysine and methionine content highlights the group differences between grains, pulses, leafy vegetables and animal foods. Leaves come out with flying colors in all these comparisons. The perspective ends with a discussion on So why do we eat mainly seeds?

  9. QTLs for Rice Leaf Chlorophyll Content Under Low N Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ping; YU Xiao-Min; ZHU Ri-Qing; WU Ping

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chlorophyll content of a rice leaf were mapped on to the molecular marker linkage nutrient solution and soil culture experiments to detect rice nitrogen nutrition status under low N stress. A chlorophyll meter was used to measure the soil plant analysis development (SPAD) value of the topmost fully expanded leaf as the index of chlorophyll content that expressed nitrogen status in rice plants. Totally 3 QTLs for SPAD values, two on chromosome 3 located at interval RG179-CDO337 and RG348-RZ329, respectively, and one on chromosome 10 at interval RZ500-RG134, were detected under stressed conditions of low N in the soil and/or nutrient solution culture experiments.One QTL located at interval RG179-CDO337 on chromosome 3 associated with a relative change in SPAD value from a high N level to a low N level in the soil culture experiment was also detected. Based on the different responses to low N stress between the two parents, it was supposed that the QTLs identified in this study associated with nitrogen efficiency in rice at low N levels might be useful in applying marker technology to rice breeding programs.

  10. Nutrient allocation among stem, leaf and inflorescence of jatropha plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane L. S. de Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInformation on the partitioning of nutrients among various organs in jatropha plants, as a complementary tool for the recommendation of fertilization, is still not available. This study aimed to evaluate the contents of macro and micronutrients in stems, leaves and inflorescences of jatropha branches at the beginning of flowering. At the beginning of flowering, adult jatropha plants were sampled and divided into five compartments: inflorescences, leaves from vegetative branches, leaves from flowering branches, stems from vegetative branches and stems from flowering branches. Jatropha inflorescences are a drain of nutrients. Leaves are important sources of nutrients demanded by the inflorescences at the beginning of flowering. The higher allocation of nutrients in the inflorescences suggests the need for preventive/corrective fertilizations, which must be performed at least 30 days before flowering, providing plants with nutrients in adequate amounts for a good yield.

  11. Diurnal Leaf Starch Content: An Orphan Trait in Forage Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Ruckle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes have a relatively high biomass yield and crude protein content, but their grazed and harvested biomass lacks the high-energy carbohydrates required to meet the productivity potential of modern livestock breeds. Because of their low carbohydrate content, forage legume diets are typically supplemented with starch rich cereal grains or maize (Zea mays, leading to the disruption of local nutrient cycles. Although plant leaves were first reported to accumulate starch in a diurnal pattern over a century ago, leaf starch content has yet to be exploited as an agronomic trait in forage crops. Forage legumes such as red clover (Trifolium pratense have the genetic potential to accumulate up to one third of their leaf dry mass as starch, but this starch is typically degraded at night to support nighttime growth and respiration. Even when diurnal accumulation is considered with regard to the time the crop is harvested, only limited gains are realized due to environmental effects and post-harvest losses from respiration. Here we present original data for starch metabolism in red clover and place it in the broader context of other forage legumes such as, white clover (T. repens, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. We review the application of recent advances in molecular breeding, plant biology, and crop phenotyping, to forage legumes to improve and exploit a potentially valuable trait for sustainable ruminant livestock production.

  12. Effect of Stem Density on Leaf Nutrient Dynamics and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Dwarf Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fu-Zhong; YANG Wan-Qin; WANG Kai-Yun; WU Ning; LU Ye-Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The monthly dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and stocks in leaves,resorption efficiency,and resorption proficiency as well as leaf-level use efficiency,nutrient productivity,and mean residence time were studied to understand the effect of stem density of dwarf bamboo (Fargesia denudata Yi) on leaf-level N and P use efficiency in three dwarf bamboo stands with different stem densities under bamboo-fir (Picea purpurca Mast.) forest over one growing period in the Wanglang National Nature Reserve,Sichuan,China.Dwarf bamboo density had little effect on the dynamics pattern of both N and P concentrations,stocks,resorption efficiency,and resorption proficiency,but strongly affected their absolute values and leaf-level use efficiency.Higher density stands stored more nutrients but had lower concentrations.There was a clear difference in the resorption of limiting nutrient (N) and non-limiting nutrient (P) among the stands.Phosphorus resorption efficiency,N resorption proficiency,and P resorption proficiency increased with increase of stem density,but no significant variation of N resorption efficiency was found among the stands.Moreover,the higher density stands used both N and P more efficiently with higher N productivity and higher P mean residence time,respectively.Higher P productivity was found in the lower density stands,but there was no clear variation in the N mean residence time among stands.These suggested that the higher density stands may have more efficient strategies for utilizing nutrients,especially those which axe limiting.

  13. Nutrient resorption is associated with leaf vein density and growth performance of dipterocarp tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.L.; Zhang, S.B.; Chen, Y.J.; Zhang, Y.P.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    1.Nutrient resorption is important for the nutrient budget of plants, but little is known about which plant traits mediate nutrient resorption, how resorption efficiency is associated with other leaf traits and whether nutrient resorption has an impact on plant growth. 2.In this study, 17 dipterocar

  14. Effects of snow damage on the leaf litter' s nutrient content and return amount of constructive species in evergreen broadleaved forest in Gutianshan National Natural Reserve,East China%雪灾对古田山常绿阔叶林建群种养分含量及归还量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏丽蓉; 刘会; 李铭红; 张磊; 于明坚

    2013-01-01

    在古田山国家级自然保护区24 hm2长期监测样地设置凋落物收集框,对常绿阔叶林的养分归还量进行动态监测.2008年初南方发生特大雪灾,为研究雪灾对建群种甜槠和木荷凋落叶中主要养分含量、归还量的影响提供了契机.结果表明:(1)虽然建群种凋落叶中碳含量受雪灾影响不显著,但雪灾导致其凋落量明显下降,因此碳的归还量在灾后明显减少.(2)建群种凋落叶氮含量在雪灾前后有显著差异,表现为灾前<灾后;但因受凋落量的影响,其归还量仍表现为灾前>灾后.(3)建群种凋落叶磷含量在雪灾前后存在极显著差异(P<0.01),表现为灾前<灾后,导致其归还量也表现为灾前<灾后.%A 24-hm2 plot was installed in the Gutianshan National Natural Reserve, East China to dynamically monitor the leaf litter' s nutrient content and return amount of evergreen broad-leaved forest. In 2008, a serious snow damage event happened in southern China, which gave us an opportunity to study the effects of snow damage on the leaf litter' s nutrient content and return amount of two constructive species (Castanopsis eyrei and Schima superba) in the evergreen broadleaved forest. No obvious difference was observed in the leaf litter' s C content of the constructive species before and after the snow damage, but the leaf litter' s production after the snow damage showed an obvious decrease, and thus, the leaf litter' s C return amount after the snow damage also showed an obvious decrease. As compared with that before the snow damage, the leaf litter' s N content of the constructive species after the snow damage was significantly larger, but the litter' s N return amount was smaller, due to the decrease of the litter' s production after the snow damage. Same as the leaf litter' s N content, the leaf litter' s P content of the constructive species after the snow damage was significantly larger than that before the snow damage ( P< 0

  15. Nutrient element contents of cutting seedlings of hybrid species ( Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiao-ping; FANGYan-ming; DINGYu-long

    2003-01-01

    The cutting seedlings of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were treated with the different concentrations of auxin (treatmenh: IBA of 50 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1; treatment2- IBA of 100 g·kg-1 + NAA of 300 g·kg-1). The biomass and the nutrient element contents for different organs (root, stem, leaf) of cutting seedling of Liriodendron chinense x tulipifera were measured by the dry method, Kjeldahl method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. The result showed that the biomass of root, stem, and leaf of the cutting seedling treated with auxin was all remarkably increased. The contents of element C in root, stem and leaf had no significant difference between the control and auxin treatments, while the contents of N, P, K and Ca in stem were much lower than that in leaf and root. Variance analysis showed that for the same organ with different concentration treatment of auxin, the four nutrient elements (N, P, K, and Ca) had no significant difference in contents, while there existed significant or very significant difference in contents of the four nutrient elements in different organs with the same concentration auxin treatment. The N, P, K and Ca contents were very low in cutting seedlings; as a result, additional fertilizer should be applied to the seedlings when they were planted in the field.

  16. Estado nutricional de diferentes cultivares de pereira nas condições edafoclimáticas de Guarapuava-PR Leaf content and nutrient extraction by fruit harvest of pear trees cultivars grafted on quince 'CP'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2010-09-01

    of 2.500 plants ha-1. Samples of leaves and fruits were collected in 2006 and 2007 for chemical analysis of nutrient contents. Complete and normal leaves were sampled in the end of January, token from the middle part of one-year shoots. The fruits were collected when the total soluble solids content reached 10º Brix. The pear cultivars showed differences in relation to nutrient content in leaves and fruits, indicating distinct nutritional requirements. The cv. Cascatense presented the highest N and P contents in fruits at least in one of the years, and the cv Hosui the highest K content. The nutrient extraction by fruits ranged from 0.366 to 0.825 kg N; 0.097 to 0.205 kg P, 0.996 to 1.302 kg K, 0.049 to 0.085 kg Ca and 0.041 to 0.095 kg Mg per fruit ton.

  17. Standard sampling method of Longkong leaf for evaluation of plant nutrient status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-lim, M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaf analysis is a tool for effective fertilizer recommendations in fruit trees. To achieve this goal, suitable leaf sampling method is a very important step. This study aimed to investigate leaf age, leaflet from different compound leaf positions and number of trees to be sampled as a representative sample for plant nutrient status of Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. tree. The middle pair of leaflets from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th compound leaves from growing twigs at the lower canopy of Longkong trees were separately sampled and the following nutrients were determined: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg. The effect of soil fertility management and leaf age collected from twigs flushed at flowering and post harvest stages on nutrient concentration was investigated. Results showed that concentrations of plant nutrients in leaflets collected from different compound leaf positions were not significantly different. The leaf nutrient concentration depended on soil fertility management, higher fertilizer input resulting in higher leaf nutrient concentration. As leaf age increased, concentrations of N, P and K tended to decrease. In contrast, concentrations of Ca and Mg increased with leaf age. However, concentrations of most nutrients showed minimum variation with leaf aged 3-6 months. It is, thus, suggested that the middle pair leaflet of the 2nd compound leaf position aged 3-6 months of the lower twig should be sampled at post harvest stage from 25-35 trees to be used as a composite sample for plant nutrient analysis.

  18. Evaluation of leaf removal as a means to reduce nutrient concentrations and loads in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R

    2016-11-15

    While the sources of nutrients to urban stormwater are many, the primary contributor is often organic detritus, especially in areas with dense overhead tree canopy. One way to remove organic detritus before it becomes entrained in runoff is to implement a city-wide leaf collection and street cleaning program. Improving our knowledge of the potential reduction of nutrients to stormwater through removal of leaves and other organic detritus on streets could help tailor more targeted municipal leaf collection programs. This study characterized an upper ideal limit in reductions of total and dissolved forms of phosphorus and nitrogen in stormwater through implementation of a municipal leaf collection and street cleaning program in Madison, WI, USA. Additional measures were taken to remove leaf litter from street surfaces prior to precipitation events. Loads of total and dissolved phosphorus were reduced by 84 and 83% (premoval program. Without leaf removal, 56% of the annual total phosphorus yield (winter excluded) was due to leaf litter in the fall compared to 16% with leaf removal. Despite significant reductions in load, total nitrogen showed only minor changes in fall yields without and with leaf removal at 19 and 16%, respectively. The majority of nutrient concentrations were in the dissolved fraction making source control through leaf removal one of the few treatment options available to environmental managers when reducing the amount of dissolved nutrients in stormwater runoff. Subsequently, the efficiency, frequency, and timing of leaf removal and street cleaning are the primary factors to consider when developing a leaf management program.

  19. Aplicação foliar de cálcio em pessegueiro na Serra Gaúcha: avaliação do teor de nutrientes na folha, no fruto e produção Foliar application of calcium in peach in Serra Gaúcha: evaluation of content of nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2008-06-01

    calcium in Peach tree in the Southern Brasil is used during productive cycle, without any information about calcium content and other nutrients in the leaves, fruits and yield. Two experiments were carried out in 2003/2004 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different sources of calcium in its content and other nutrients in the leaf, fruit and yield of peach trees, Chimarrita cultivar, at an Haplumbrept soil in Southern Brazil, Pinto Bandeira city. The treatments in the experiment 1 were three foliar applications of calcium chloride, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%.Experiment 2 were three foliar applications of calcium nitrate, concentrations 0 (water, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications and three plants for treatment. Leaves were collected, oven-dried and analyzed total calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. In the maturation, fruits were collected and determined the mass, yield and total content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. The results showed that foliar applications of calcium in the form of chloride and nitrate in peach tree, increase calcium content in the leaves, but did not affect the content of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the leaves, content of calcium, nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in the fruit and yield.

  20. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the... term; (2) The claim is made in accordance with the general requirements for nutrient content claims...

  1. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the... term; (2) The claim is made in accordance with the general requirements for nutrient content claims...

  2. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a... general requirements for nutrient content claims in § 381.413; and (3) The product for which the claim is...

  3. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a... general requirements for nutrient content claims in § 317.313; and (3) The product for which the claim is...

  4. 氮磷配施对青冈、苦槠幼苗生物量分配及叶片养分含量的影响%Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Biomass Allocation and Leaf Nutrient Content of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis sclerophylla Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹意婷; 白尚斌; 程艳艳; 王楠; 周沁萍; 潘丽思; 黄梦迪

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth of the evergreen broad leaved tree species,the effects of different amount of nitrogen and phosphorus application on leaf nutrient content, root,stem and leaf biomass of Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Castanopsis sclerophylla were studied with pot experiment. Results showed that both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer could increase leaf nitrogen content of the two species. Phosphorus fertilizer increased the phosphorus content in the leaves,while a high concentration of nitrogen fertilizer reduced phosphorus content.Low concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer might slow the decline of leaf phosphorus content of Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings.Nitrogen and phosphorus promoted leaf carbon content of Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings increasing,but had no significant effects on that of Castanopsis sclerophylla seed-ling.For Cyclobalanopsis glauca,the biomass allocation in a descending order was root,leaf and branch,after nitro-gen application,and the order was root,branch and leaf after phosphorus application,while for Castanopsis sclero-phylla seedlings,the orders both were root,branch and leaf after nitrogen and phosphorus application.Cyclobalanop-sis glauca and Castanopsis sclerophylla seedling were sensitized to nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer,so,suitable ni-trogen and phosphate fertilizer would benefit their growth.%为了解 N、P 配施对常绿阔叶树生长的影响,采用盆栽试验,研究不同氮磷施量对青冈、苦槠幼苗叶片养分含量及幼苗根、茎、叶生物量的影响。结果表明:施氮、施磷均能增加两树种幼苗叶片的氮含量;施磷能增加幼苗叶片磷含量,而高浓度施氮会降低叶片磷含量;低浓度施氮及施磷均可减缓青冈生长过程中叶片磷含量的下降;施氮、磷对青冈幼苗叶片碳含量表现出促进作用,而对苦槠幼苗叶片碳含量没有显著影响。施氮后青

  5. Deeper snow alters soil nutrient availability and leaf nutrient status in high Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Amtorp, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) mineralization, nutrient availability, and plant growth in the Arctic are often restricted by low temperatures. Predicted increases of cold-season temperatures may be important for plant nutrient availability and growth, given that N mineralization is also taking place during the cold...... season. Changing nutrient availability may be reflected in plant N and chlorophyll content and lead to increased photosynthetic capacity, plant growth, and ultimately carbon (C) assimilation by plants. In this study, we increased snow depth and thereby cold-season soil temperatures in high Arctic...... for some species. Responses to cold-season soil warming are vegetation type- and species-specific, with potentially stronger responses in moister vegetation types. This study therefore highlights the contrasting effect of snow in a tundra landscape and has important implications for projections of whole...

  6. The effects of leaf litter nutrient pulses on Alliaria petiolata performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Heckman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient pulses can facilitate species establishment and spread in new habitats, particularly when one species more effectively uses that nutrient pulse. Biological differences in nutrient acquisition between native and exotic species may facilitate invasions into a variety of habitats including deciduous forest understories. Alliaria petiolata (Bieb. Cavara & Grande is an important invader of deciduous forest understories throughout much of North America. These understory communities contain many species which perform the majority of their growth and reproduction before canopy closure in spring. Because A. petiolata is a wintergreen biennial that can be active during autumn and winter, it may utilize nutrients released from decaying leaf litter before its competitors. To investigate this we manipulated the timing of leaf litter addition (fall or spring and experimentally simulated the nutrient pulse from decaying leaves using artificial fertilizer. To determine whether A. petiolata affected the abundance of understory competitors, we also removed A. petiolata from one treatment. A. petiolata that received early nutrients exhibited greater growth. Treatments receiving fall leaf litter or artificial nutrients had greater A. petiolata adult biomass than plots receiving spring nutrient additions (leaf litter or artificial nutrients. However, fall leaf litter addition had no effect on the richness of competitor species. Thus, wintergreen phenology may contribute to the spread of A. petiolata through deciduous forest understories, but may not explain community-level impacts of A. petiolata in deciduous forests.

  7. SOIL EXCHANGEABLE ALUMINUM INFLUENCING THE GROWTH AND LEAF TISSUE MACRONUTRIENTS CONTENT OF CASTOR PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSIANE DE LOURDES SILVA DE LIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three castor ( Ricinus communis genotypes were studied regarding tolerance to high exchange factorial distribution of five doses of exchangeable aluminum added to the soil (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 cmol c dm - 3 and three castor genotypes (BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, and Lyra. The plants were raised in pots in a greenhouse. At 53 days after emergence, data were taken on plant height, leaf area, dry mass of shoot and root, and leaf tissue content of macronutrients. The most sensitive genotype was the cv. BRS Nordestina, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the highest aluminum content were reduced to 12.9% and 16.2% of the control treatment, respectively. The most tolerant genotype was the hybrid Lyra, in which the shoot and root dry weight in the maximum content of aluminum were reduced to 43.5% and 42.7% of the control treatment, respectively.The increased exchangeable aluminum affected the leaf nutrient content, and the intensity of the response was different among cultivars. The aluminum toxicity increased N, Ca, and Mg contents and reduced on P, K, and S contents. The cv. BRS Nordestina had a drastic shoot dry weight reduction associated with an intense increment in the N leaf content. Thus, the N increment was caused by a concentration effect caused by the limited growth.

  8. Leaf structure vs. nutrient relationships vary with soil conditions in temperate shrubs and trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Kull, Kalevi

    2003-09-01

    Often there are significant positive interspecific relationships between leaf area per unit dry mass (SLA) and foliar phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations ([P] and [N]). Most of these studies have been conducted on moderately acidic soils, and little is known of the generality of these relations as potentially affected by soil characteristics. We investigated foliage mineral composition in relation to leaf structure in a wooded meadow on calcareous alkaline soil, in a bog on strongly acidic soil, and in a flood plain on moderately acidic soil. Foliar nutrient contents and fertilization experiments indicated that foliage physiological activity was co-limited by both P and N availabilities in the wooded meadow, by P in the bog, and by N in the flood plain. In the wooded meadow and in the bog, there were positive relationships between SLA and P concentration ([P]), and no relationship between SLA and nitrogen concentration [N]. Given that the fraction of support tissues generally increases with decreasing SLA, the requirement for mineral nutrients is lower at low SLA. Thus, these contrasting relations between mineral nutrients and SLA suggest that P was distributed in a more "optimal" manner among the leaves with varying structure than N in P-limited communities. In the flood plain, SLA was positively related to both [P] and [N], possibly manifesting a strategy to cope with N limitations by enhancing N turnover, and accordingly, greater P requirement for nucleic acid formation in N-limited soils. Total variation in foliar structural and chemical characteristics was similar in all sites, and was mainly determined by variation among the species. Part of this variability was explained by life form and plant size. [P] was higher in trees than in shrubs, and [P] and P/N ratio increased with increasing total plant height, indicating that P nutrition was improved relative to N nutrition with increasing plant size. Since the capture of less mobile soil elements such as P is

  9. SOIL CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND LEAF NUTRIENTS OF ‘PACOVAN’ BANANA UNDER TWO COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EGÍDIO FLORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, which is grown in most tropical countries. The objective of this work was to evaluate the main attributes of soil fertility in a banana crop under two cover crops and two root development locations. The work was conducted in Curaçá, BA, Brazil, between October 2011 and May 2013, using a randomized block design in split plot with five repetitions. Two cover crops were assessed in the plots, the cover 1 consisting of Pueraria phaseoloides, and the cover 2 consisting of a crop mix with Sorghum bicolor, Ricinus communis L., Canavalia ensiformis, Mucuna aterrima and Zea mays, and two soil sampling locations in the subplots, between plants in the banana rows (location 1 and between the banana rows (location 2. There were significant and independent effects for the cover crop and sampling location factors for the variables organic matter, Ca and P, and significant effects for the interaction between cover crops and sampling locations for the variables potassium, magnesium and total exchangeable bases. The cover crop mix and the between-row location presented the highest organic matter content. Potassium was the nutrient with the highest negative variation from the initial content and its leaf content was below the reference value, however not reducing the crop yield. The banana crop associated with crop cover using the crop mix provided greater availability of nutrients in the soil compared to the coverage with tropical kudzu.

  10. Estimating potato leaf chlorophyll content using ratio vegetation indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Clevers, Jan G.P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyll content at leaf level is an important variable because of its crucial role in photosynthesis and in understanding plant functioning. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the ratio of a vegetation index (VI) for estimating canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) and one for estimating le

  11. 9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the product, or not include the nutrient in the product, may bear such a claim (e.g., “low sodium... attaches (e.g., “chicken breast meat, a low sodium food”). (f) A nutrient content claim shall be in type... (mg) sodium per serving, not a low sodium product.” The disclaimer must be in easily legible print...

  12. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from some feedstocks also could adversely affect crop quality by changing soil pH and reducing nutrients (e.g., Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, and P) in plant tissues. To evaluate effects of biochar on the nutrient quality of four crops, we conducted a greenhouse study using pots with: carrot (Daucus carota cv. Tendersweet), corn (Zea mays, cv. Golden Bantam), lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Black-Seeded Simpson) and soybean (Glycine max cv. Viking 2265). Plants were grown in one of two South Carolina sandy Coastal Plain soils (Norfolk and Coxville Soil Series), along with biochar (1% by weight) produced from pine chips (PC), poultry litter (PL), swine solids (SS), switchgrass (SG), and two blends of pine chips plus poultry litter (PC/PL, 50/50% and 80/20%). Each of the feedstocks and feedstock blends was pyrolyzed at 350, 500, and 700 ̊ C to produce the biochar used to amend the Norfolk and Coxville soils. Effects of biochar on leaf nutrients (% dry weight) statistically varied with species, soil, feedstock and temperature and nutrient. For carrot and lettuce, the PL, PL/PC, and SS biochars generally decreased leaf N, Ca, Mg, and P; while PL and PL/PC increased K and Na. Biochars had little effect on lea

  13. Effects of vegetable drying techniques on nutrient content: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of vegetable drying techniques on nutrient content: a case study of ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... out in South Western Uganda, to identify the traditional methods of preservation of food plants.

  14. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and... Nutrient Content Claims § 101.62 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of... accordance with the general requirements for nutrient content claims in § 101.13; (3) The food for which the...

  15. Variation in leaf litter production and resorption of nutrients in abundant tree species in Nyungwe tropical montane rainforest in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirambangutse, Brigitte; Mirindi Dusenge, Eric; Nsabimana, Donat; Bizuru, Elias; Pleijel, Håkan; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    African tropical rainforests play many roles from local to global scale as providers of resources and ecosystem services. Although covering 30% of the global rainforest, only few studies aiming to better understand the storage and fluxes of carbon and nutrients in these forests have been conducted. To answer questions related to these issues, we have established 15 permanent 0.5 ha plots where we compare carbon and nutrient fluxes of primary and secondary forest tree communities in a tropical montane forest in central Africa. The studies are conducted in Nyungwe montane tropical rain forest gazetted as a National Park to protect its extensive floral and faunal diversity covering an area of 970 km2. Nyungwe is located in Southwest Rwanda (2o17'-2o50'S, 29o07'-29o26A'E). The forest is ranging between 1600-2950 m.a.s.l. and is one of the most biologically important rainforest in Albertine Rift region in terms of Biodiversity. Nyungwe consists of a mixture of primary and secondary forest communities supporting a richness of plant and animal life. More than 260 species of trees and shrubs have been found in Nyungwe, including species endemic to the Albertine Rift. The forest has a climate with a mean annual temperature of 15.5oC and annual rainfall of ca 1850 mm yr-1, with July and August being the only months when rainfall drops. A part of this study is focusing on the dynamics of nutrients through leaf turnover. This turnover of leaves is regulated to maximize the carbon gain through canopy photosynthesis and resource-use efficiency of the plant. It is known that about half of leaf nitrogen is invested in photosynthetic apparatus and that there normally is a strong correlation between the photosynthetic capacity and leaf nitrogen per unit area. Hence leaf nitrogen is an important factor for canopy photosynthesis. However, leaves are produced, senesce and fall. Some nitrogen in the leaf is lost when leaves senesce but other is resorbed. The resorption of nitrogen

  16. Leaf nutrient contents of rangpur lime rootstock as afected by N, P, K, Ca and S fertilization Concentrações foliares do porta-enxerto limoeiro 'cravo' em função da adubação N, P, K, Ca e S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ruschel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of leaf nutrient contents can demonstrate plant nutritional status, identify symptoms of deficiency and toxicity, and evaluate the need to adjust fertilization programs. This research determined N:P:K:Ca:S rates for optimal nutrition of Rangpur lime - RL (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock, in an experiment arranged in a fractional factorial design of the (¹/25 5(4 type, with 25 treatments distributed within five blocks. Seedlings of RL were transplanted into 3.8-dm³ containers filled with commercial growing media, when plant height = 10 cm, in a nursery. Treatments consisted of the following nutrient rates (g per plant: N = 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; K = 0.4, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5; P = 0.35, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0; and Ca = 3.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0. Phosphorus and Ca were applied to the compost before transplant of seedlings, while N and K were applied later and total amounts were split into 20 weekly applications via fertigation. Nutrient sources were triple super phosphate, gypsum, NH4NO3 and KCl. Leaf nutrient concentrations of five-mo-old plants were high or in excess for N, P, K and S. Calcium and Mg concentrations were low. Greater dry mass of plants were observed at nutrient rates of N = 3.5, P = 2.7, K = 2.0, and Ca = 6.5 g per plant.A determinação das concentrações foliares representa o estado nutricional das plantas, identifica deficiências e/ou excessos e avalia a necessidade de ajustar as adubações. Este trabalho objetivou determinar a melhor combinação de doses NPKCa e S que proporcione a concentração foliar responsável pela maior quantidade de matéria seca total das plantas de porta-enxerto limoeiro `Cravo', em um experimento fatorial fracionário (¹/25 5(4, com 25 tratamentos, repartidos em cinco blocos de cinco tratamentos. As mudas do limoeiro `Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osb. foram transplantadas para recipientes (3,8 dm³ com substrato comercial, em viveiro telado, quando atingiram 10 cm. Os tratamentos

  17. Evaluation of leaf removal as a means to reduce nutrient concentrations and loads in urban stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, William R.

    2016-01-01

    While the sources of nutrients to urban stormwater are many, the primary contributor is often organic detritus, especially in areas with dense overhead tree canopy. One way to remove organic detritus before it becomes entrained in runoff is to implement a city-wide leaf collection and street cleaning program. Improving our knowledge of the potential reduction of nutrients to stormwater through removal of leaves and other organic detritus on streets could help tailor more targeted municipal leaf collection programs. This study characterized an upper ideal limit in reductions of total and dissolved forms of phosphorus and nitrogen in stormwater through implementation of a municipal leaf collection and street cleaning program in Madison, WI, USA. Additional measures were taken to remove leaf litter from street surfaces prior to precipitation events.

  18. Grapevine leaf stripe disease symptoms (esca complex) are reduced by a nutrients and seaweed mixture.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco CALZARANO; Di Marco, Stefano; Vincenzo D'AGOSTINO; Silvia SCHIFF; Mugnai, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine leaf stripe disease (GLSD) seriously reduces the quality and quantity of grape production, and results in a shorter lifespan of vineyards. Recent research has shown that foliar applications of nutrients influence the development of GLSD foliar symptoms. Based on this knowledge the effect of foliar applications of a mixture of calcium chloride, magnesium nitrate and Fucales seaweed extract on the development of leaf symptoms was evaluated over a 3-year period from 2010 to 2012. Nine ...

  19. Interspecific variation in leaf pigments and nutrients of five tree species from a subtropical forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIA BÜNDCHEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the nutrient and pigment content of leaves from five tree species - of which three are perennial (Cupania vernalis, Matayba elaeagnoides and Nectandra lanceolata and two are deciduous (Cedrela fissilis and Jacaranda micrantha - in an ecotone between a Deciduous Seasonal Forest and a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons of the year to determine the content of macronutrients (N, K, P, Mg, Ca, S and photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chlb, Chltot, Cartot, Chla:Chlb and Cartot:Chltot. The principal component analysis showed that leaf pigments contributed to the formation of the first axis, which explains most of the data variance for all species, while leaf nutrient contribution showed strong interspecific variation. These results demonstrate that the studied species have different strategies for acquisition and use of mineral resources and acclimation to light, which are determinant for them to coexist in the forest environment.

  20. Nutrient content of Prosopis africana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Maina, H M; Ali, J

    1998-01-01

    The proximate and mineral compositions of Prosopis africana seeds used in the preparation of a local condiment in Nigeria and as animal feed were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and fiber values were comparable to Parkia africana seeds. However, the crude lipid content was lower than Parkia filicoidea seeds and decorticated groundnut. Phosphorus, potassium and calcium were the major mineral elements of the seeds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute partially to the overall daily intake of these elements.

  1. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially...... in degradative, metabolic and regulatory processes that could be used in future strategies aimed at modifying the senescence process. The breeding of crops for characters related to senescence processes, e.g. higher yields and better nutrient use efficiency, is complex. Such breeding has to cope with the dilemma...

  2. [Nutrient content and health effects of nuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías-Rangil, I; García-Lorda, P; Torres-Moreno, M; Bulló, M; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2004-06-01

    Nuts are foods with a high energy density, due in part to its small water content. They also present a low saturated fat content (unsaturated fat contribution (40-60%). They represent one of the richest sources of dietary fiber, which is basically of the insoluble type. The effects of nut intake on health have been widely studied. Several prospective epidemiological studies performed on large cohorts have consistently shown that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts is negatively related to the risk of cardiovascular disease and to the risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. From these studies can be concluded that regular consumption of small amounts of nuts leads to a 30-50% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, intervention studies have shown a positive effect of nut intake on lipid profile with significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels and small or null effects on the HDL fraction. More recently, some studies have focused on the effect of nuts on body weight. At present, no evidences support a detrimental effect of nut consumption on body weight. On the contrary some weight loss studies suggest a beneficial effect of nut intake on body weight regulation.

  3. Leaf habit and woodiness regulate different leaf economy traits at a given nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, J.C.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Witte, J.P.M.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Dobben, van H.F.; Aerts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The large variation in the relationships between environmental factors and plant traits observed in natural communities exemplifies the alternative solutions that plants have developed in response to the same environmental limitations. Qualitative attributes, such as growth form, woodiness, and leaf

  4. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin

    2015-07-01

    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  5. Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

    2011-10-01

    Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment.

  6. Effects of Different Levels of Supplementary Nitrogen and Potassium in Nutrient Solution on Yield and Leaf N and K Concentrations of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farzaneh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L and potassium (125, 250 and 375 mg/L on yield and leaf N and K concentrations of tomato were investigated in perlit culture using a factorial randomized design with three replications. The highest fruit yield was obtained with 200 mg/L N. Higher levels of nitrogen decreased tomato yield. With increasing nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, N content of leaf increased significantly whereas leaf K concentration decreased. Different potassium levels had no significant effect on tomato yield. With increasing potassium levels of nutrient solution, concentration of leaf N decreased significantly whereas concentration of leaf K increased. The greatest and the least fruit yields were obtained from N200K250 and N400K375 treatments, respectively. The highest and the lowest concentrations of leaf N were observed in N400K125 and N100K375 treatments, respectively. The greatest and the least concentrations of leaf K were observed in N100K375 and N400K125 treatments, respectively.

  7. [Effects of stand density on Oligostachyum lubricum leaf carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry and nutrient resorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zi-Wu; Chen, Shuang-Lin; Yang, Qing-Ping; Li, Ying-chun

    2013-04-01

    Taking pure Oligostachyum lubricum forest as test object, this paper studied the matured and withered leaves carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and N and P resorption patterns of 1-3 years old stands at the densities of 24600-29800 stem hm-2 (D, ), 37500-42600 stem hm-2 (D2 ), 46500 - 52800 stem hm-2 (D3), and 76500 - 85500 stem hm-2 (D4). With increasing stand density, the matured leaves C, N, and P contents and withered leaves C and P contents had an overall decrease, the withered leaves N content decreased after an initial increase, and the matured leaves C content at density )4 decreased dramatically. The leaf C/N and C/P ratio increased with increasing stand density, whereas the leaf N/P ratio increased first but decreased then. At stand densities D3 and D4, the leaf N and P utilization efficiencies were significantly higher than those at D, and D2. With increasing stand density, the leaf N resorption capacity increased after an initial decrease, while the leaf P resorption capacity increased steadily. At stand densities D,-D3, the matured leaves N/P ratio was 16.24-19.37, suggesting that the P limitation occurred, leaf establishment increased, and population increase and expansion enhanced. At density D4, the matured leaves N/P ratio was 13.42-15.74, implying that the N limitation strengthened, leaf withering and defoliation increased, and population increase inhibited. All the results indicated that O. lubricum could regulate its leaf C, N and P contents and stoichiometry and enhance the leaf N and P utilization efficiency and resorption capacity to adapt to the severe competition of environment resources at high stand density. In our experimental condition, 46500-52800 stem hm-2 could be the appropriate stand density for O. lubricum management.

  8. Leaf nutrient variation in mature carob (Ceratonia siliqua) trees in response to irrigation and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P J; Martins-Loução, M A

    1997-12-01

    Seasonal variations in leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations were studied in a mature carob (Ceratonia siliqua L. cv "Mulata") orchard subjected to a 4-year irrigation and fertilization experiment. Three irrigation regimes (0, 50 and 100%), based on the evaporation values obtained from a class A pan, were tested in combination with two nitrogen (N) supply regimes in which 21 kg ha(-1) year(-1) (low-N) and 63 kg ha(-1) year(-1) (high-N) were supplied as ammonium nitrate. Leaf nitrogen concentration increased throughout the experiment, independently of treatments. There were no significant differences in leaf N concentration between trees in the high-N and low-N treatments. Irrigation regimes had no effect on leaf mineral concentration but influenced the amount of leaves shed and slightly modified the pattern of leaf shedding that occurred during the summer drought period. Nutritional balances between N and P and N and K were both closely and significantly correlated. Potassium was translocated from leaves to fruits during spring, independently of treatments. Severe water stress periods occurring during spring or autumn induced shedding of leaves leading to nutrient mobilization. Nutrient retranslocation during these drought periods may represent an adaptive mechanism. Nitrogen retranslocation was higher for trees in the high-N treatments than for trees in the low-N treatments, whereas phosphorus retranslocation was independent of the irrigation and fertilization treatments.

  9. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  10. Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content, and radial water and nutrient transport in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hannah M; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Postma, Johannes A; Brown, Kathleen M; Lücke, Andreas; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2017-02-06

    The functional implications of root cortical senescence (RCS) are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that RCS in barley: (1) reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue; (2) decreases radial water and nutrient transport; (3) is accompanied by increased suberization to protect the stele. Genetic variation for RCS exists between modern germplasm and landraces. Nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency increased the rate of RCS. Maximal RCS, defined as the disappearance of the entire root cortex, reduced root nitrogen content by 66%, phosphorus content by 63%, and respiration by 87% compared to root segments with no RCS. Roots with maximal RCS had 90%, 92%, and 84% less radial water, nitrate, and phosphorus transport, respectively compared to segments with no RCS. The onset of RCS coincided with 30% greater aliphatic suberin in the endodermis. These results support the hypothesis that RCS reduces root carbon and nutrient costs and may therefore have adaptive significance for soil resource acquisition. By reducing root respiration and nutrient content, RCS could permit greater root growth, soil resource acquisition, and resource allocation to other plant processes. RCS merits investigation as a trait for improving the performance of barley, wheat, triticale, and rye under edaphic stress.

  11. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dalbó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of rootstocks can affect nutrient uptake and the nutrient status of grapevines. The rootstock influence on nutrient content in grape petioles was evaluated on three rootstocks competition experiments carried out at Vale do Rio do Peixe region, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the cultivars Niagara Rosada, Concord, and Isabella, grafted on different rootstocks. Two soil liming depths were also evaluated in the Isabella experiment. The greatest rootstock effect was observed on K and Mg content and K/Mg ratio in the petioles. The Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks VR 043-43 and VR 044-4 provided the highest K/Mg values and self rooted Isabella the lowest K/Mg ratio. The other tested rootstocks resulted in intermediate values. There was also significant effect on P content, but only in Niagara Rosada and Concord experiments. The depth of soil liming did not significantly affect K and Mg content in the Isabella experiment. The results indicate that rootstock must be considered for nutritional status evaluation and fertilizer recommendation regarding to K and Mg.

  12. Nutrient solution aeration and growing cycles affect quality and yield of fresh-cut baby leaf red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Conesa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of nutrient solution aeration [no aeration (NA, low aeration (LA or high aeration (HA] and growing cycle (autumn, winter and summer on the yield, quality, and shelf life of red lettuce as a fresh-cut product grown in a floating system. The specific leaf area, yield and root diameter were affected by the growing cycle. The percentage of dry matter and the nitrate content were affected by growing cycle and aeration, total phenolics and mesophilic microorganism by aeration and storage time, hue angle and chromacity by growing cycle and storage time, and antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, lightness and psychrophilic microorganisms were affected by all three factors. NA conditions increased the antioxidant capacity in summer and vitamin C content in winter. The lowest mesophilic and psychrophilic count was observed in autumn. The effect of aeration on most of the quality parameters measured was influenced by the growing cycle.

  13. 9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... product, e.g., “low sodium” or “contains 100 calories.” (2) An implied nutrient content claim is any claim...) sodium per serving, not a low sodium product.” The disclaimer must be in easily legible print or type and... shall be followed by the criteria for the claim as required by § 317.312(f) (e.g., “very low sodium,...

  14. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  16. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  17. Leaf Morpho–physiology and Leaf-Fe Content of Selected Quince Genotypes from Different Parts of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Mirabdulbaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare genotype variability of leaf morphophysiology and leaf-Fe content, as well as to select quince genotypes possessing desirable characteristics for possible use in breeding projects. Leaves were sampled from 28 quince genotypes that were selected from different parts of Iran. Selected genotypes were grown under the same environmental conditions in nursery of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute. The results suggest that estimated variations of studied leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were slight, but statistically significant. The highest variability was estimated for the leaf area, and somewhat lower for the specific leaf area. The leaves of genotype KM1 had the smallest amount of leaf area and leaf laminar length. Leaf chlorophyll (SPAD-Values and leaf laminar petiole were the highest for the genotype NB2. The genotype SHAI had the highest minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0. The highest value of fluorescence variable (FV and chlorophyll fluorescence (FM belonged to Moghavem2. The lowest minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0 and the highest value of photochemical capacity of photosystem 2 (FV/FM belonged to the Khosro. The highest amount of leaf laminar width, leaf dry weight and leaf area belonged to sahelborgmoghavem. The leaves of genotype KVD1 had the highest amount of specific leaf area. Simple correlation analysis showed significant negative and positive correlations for some important characteristics. Factor analysis revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence (FM, fluorescence variable (FV, minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (F0 and leaf area were related to the main factor components. Cluster analysis for selective factors divided quince genotypes to five main groups.

  18. Nutrient solution cooling and its effect on temperature of leaf lettuce in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, S W; Kim, M K; Son, J E

    1996-12-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of a hydroponic system were experimentally verified after theoretical establishment and the effect of nutrient solution cooling on the plant temperature was investigated. About 96 percent of the total heat flow transferred from culture bed to nutrient solution was the conductive heat through planting board and partitioning materials. The average and maximum temperatures of the leaf lettuce decreased 0.6 and 1.5 degrees C., respectively, with cooling of nutrient solution by 6 degrees C. A numerical model for prediction of cooling load of nutrient solution in a hydroponic greenhouse was developed, and the results from the simulation model showed a good agreement with those from experiments. A mechanical cooling system using the counter flow type with double pipes was developed for cooling the nutrient solution. Also the heat transfer characteristics of the system were analyzed experimentally and theoretically, and compared with the other existing cooling systems of nutrient solution. The cooling capacities of three different systems, which used polyethylene tube in solution tank, stainless tube in solution tank, and the counter flow type with double pipes, were comparatively evaluated.

  19. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  20. Estimation of rice leaf nitrogen contents based on hyperspectral LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Zhu, Bo; Song, Shalei

    2016-02-01

    Precision agriculture has become a global research hotspot in recent years. Thus, a technique for rapidly monitoring a farmland in a large scale and for accurately monitoring the growing status of crops needs to be established. In this paper, a novel technique, i.e., hyperspectral LIDAR (HL) which worked based on wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector was introduced, and its potential in vegetation detection was then evaluated. These spectra collected by HL were used to classify and derive the nitrogen contents of rice under four different nitrogen content levels with support vector machine (SVM) regression. Meanwhile the wavelength selection and channel correction method for achieving high spectral resolution were discussed briefly. The analysis results show that: (1) the reflectance intensity of the selected characteristic wavelengths of HL system has high correlation with different nitrogen contents levels of rice. (2) By increasing the number of wavelengths in calculation, the classification accuracy is greatly improved (from 54% with 4 wavelengths to 83% with 32 wavelengths) and so the regression coefficient r2 is (from 0.51 with 4 wavelengths to 0.75 with 32 wavelengths). (3) Support vector machine (SVM) is a useful regression method for rice leaf nitrogen contents retrieval. These analysis results can help farmers to make fertilization strategies more accurately. The receiving channels and characteristic wavelengths of HL system can be flexibly selected according to different requirements and thus this system will be applied in other fields, such as geologic exploration and environmental monitoring.

  1. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. II. Nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The factors influencing leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release patterns were investigated for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forests in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia–fir forest was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendrongiganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abiesconcolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinuslambertiana Dougl.). The fir–pine forest was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens (Torr.) Florin). Initial concentrations of nutrients and percent lignin, cellulose, and acid detergent fiber vary considerably in freshly abscised leaf litter of the studied species. Giant sequoia had the highest concentration of lignin (20.3%) and the lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.52%), while incense cedar had the lowest concentration of lignin (9.6%) and second lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.63%). Long-term (3.6 years) foliage decomposition rates were best correlated with initial lignin/N (r2 = 0.94, p r2 = 0.92, p r2 = 0.80, p incense cedar immobilized N and to a lesser extent P, while sugar pine immobilized Ca. Strong linear or negative exponential relationships existed between initial concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and percent original mass remaining of those nutrients after 3.6 years. This suggests efficient retention of these nutrients in the litter layer of these ecosystems. Nitrogen concentrations steadily increase in decomposing leaf litter, effectively reducing the C/N ratios from an initial range of 68–96 to 27–45 after 3.6 years.

  2. Nutrient content in maize fertilized with tannery sludge vermicompost and irrigated with domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the macro and micronutrient content of maize leaves (Zea mays L. grown in soil containing tannery sludge vermicomposting and irrigated with wastewater. The arrangement of the treatments consisted of a factorial 2x6 (two types of irrigation and six kinds of fertilizer in a completely randomized design, with five repetitions, totaling sixty experimental units. The following experimental units, irrigated with supply water (A and household wastewater (R, were established: (T1 Control Soil, with no chemical fertilization and no vermicomposting; (T2 Soil + NPK; (T3 Soil + primary sludge vermicompost; (T4 Soil + P + primary sludge vermicompost; (T5 Soil + P + liming sludge vermicompost; and (T6 Soil + liming sludge vermicompost. For the leaf-tissue analysis, the opposite whole leaf below the first (upper ear was collected from each plant, excluding the midrib at the onset of the female inflorescence. The results showed that both wastewater and the tannery sludge vermicomposts can be a good source of nutrients for maize plants, since the macro and micronutrients in the leaves of plants were satisfactory and no signs or symptoms of toxicity were observed. While leaf analysis alone is insufficient to assess the nutritional status of plants, this study innovatively suggests the potential beneficial use of a combination of wastewater and tannery sludge vermicompost in the cultivation of corn, motivating new research.

  3. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101.67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a) Claims may be made to characterize the level of...

  4. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  5. Canopy and leaf composition drive patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine L; Lawrence, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In a coffee agroforest, the crop is cultivated under the shade of fruit-bearing and nitrogen (N)-fixing trees. These trees are periodically pruned to promote flowering and fruiting as well as to make nutrients stored in tree biomass available to plants. We investigated the effect of canopy composition and substrate quality on decomposition rates and patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest located in Costa Rica's Central Valley. Initial phosphorus (P) release was enhanced under a canopy composed solely of N-fixing, Erythrina poeppigiana compared to a mixed canopy of Erythrina and Musa acuminata (banana). Both initial and final N release were similar under the two canopy types. However, after five months of decomposition, a higher proportion of initial N had been released under the single canopy. Although patterns of decomposition and nutrient release were not predicted by initial substrate quality, mass loss in leaf mixtures rates were well predicted by mean mass loss of their component species. This study identifies specific pruning regimes that may regulate N and P release during crucial growth periods, and it suggests that strategic pruning can enhance nutrient availability. For example, during the onset of rapid fruit growth, a two-species mixture may release more P than a three-species mixture. However, by the time of the harvest, the two- and three-species mixtures have released roughly the same amount of N and P. These nutrients do not always follow the same pattern, as N release can be maximized in single-species substrates, while P release is often facilitated in species mixtures. Our study indicates the importance of management practices in mediating patterns of nutrient release. Future research should investigate how canopy composition and farm management can also mediate on-farm nutrient losses.

  6. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Medina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatán, México and South America (State of Pará, Brazil. The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large differences in nutrient availability and rainfall regimes. Nutrient concentrations of leaves and soils were determined spectrophotometrically, and isotope ratios were measured using mass spectrometric techniques.In Pará soils were sandier, and acidic, receiving above 2000 mm of rain, whereas in Quintana Roo soils were predominantly clayey, with neutral to alkaline pH due to the underlying calcareous substrate, with about 1300 mm of rain. Leaf area/weight ratio was similar for both sites, but leaves from Quintana Roo were significantly smaller. Average N and K concentrations of adult leaves were similar, whereas Ca concentration was only slightly lower in Pará in spite of large differences in Ca availability. Leaves from this site had slightly higher P and lower Al concentrations. Differences in water use efficiency as measured by the natural abundance of 13C were negligible, the main effect of lower rainfall in Quintana Roo seemed to be a reduction in leaf area. The N isotope signature (δ15N was more positive in Pará than in Quintana Roo, suggesting higher denitrification rates in the former. Results reveal a calciotrophic behavior and a remarkable capacity of mahogany to compensate for large differences in soil texture and nutrient availability.

  7. Lack of Impact of Posidonia oceanica Leaf Nutrient Enrichment on Sarpa salpa Herbivory: Additional Evidence for the Generalist Consumer Behavior of This Cornerstone Mediterranean Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Wessel, Caitlin; Scheffel, Whitney; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis; Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Cebrián, Just; Heck, Kenneth L; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The fish Sarpa salpa (L.) is one of the main macroherbivores in the western Mediterranean. Through direct and indirect mechanisms, this herbivore can exert significant control on the structure and functional dynamics of seagrass beds and macroalgae. Past research has suggested nutritional quality of their diet influences S. salpa herbivory, with the fish feeding more intensively and exerting greater top down control on macrophytes with higher internal nutrient contents. However recent findings have questioned this notion and shown that herbivores do not preferentially feed on macrophytes with higher nutrient contents, but rather feed on a wide variety of them with no apparent selectivity. To contribute to this debate, we conducted a field fertilization experiment where we enriched leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, a staple diet for S. salpa, and examined the response by the herbivore. These responses included quantification of leaf consumption in fertilized and non-fertilized/control plots within the bed, and food choice assays where fertilized and non-fertilized/control leaves were simultaneously offered to the herbivore. Despite the duration of leaf exposure to herbivores (30 days) and abundant schools of S. salpa observed around the plots, leaf consumption was generally low in the plots examined. Consumption was not higher on fertilized than on non-fertilized leaves. Food choice experiments did not show strong evidence for selectivity of enriched leaves. These results add to a recent body of work reporting a broad generalist feeding behavior by S. salpa with no clear selectivity for seagrass with higher nutrient content. In concert, this and other studies suggest S. salpa is often generalist consumers not only dictated by diet nutrient content but by complex interactions between other traits of nutritional quality, habitat heterogeneity within their ample foraging area, and responses to predation risk.

  8. Relationship of 2 100-2 300 nm Spectral Characteristics of Wheat Canopy to Leaf Area Index and Leaf N as Affected by Leaf Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chun-Jiang; WANG Ji-Hua; LIU Liang-Yun; HUANG Wen-Jiang; ZHOU Qi-Fa

    2006-01-01

    The effects of leaf water status in a wheat canopy on the accuracy of estimating leaf area index (LAI) and N were determined in this study using extracted spectral characteristics in the 2 000-2 300 nm region of the short wave infrared (SWI) band. A newly defined spectral index, relative adsorptive index in the 2 000-2 300 nm region (RAI2000-2300), which can be calculated by RAI2000-2300 = (R2224 - R2054) (R2224 + R2054)-1 with R being the reflectance at 2 224 or2 054 nm, was utilized. This spectral index, RAI2000-2300, was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with green LAI and leaf N concentration and proved to be potentially valuable for monitoring plant green LAI and leaf N at the field canopy scale. Moreover, plant LAI could be monitored more easily and more successfully than plant leaf N. The study also showed that leaf water had a strong masking effect on the 2 000-2 300 nm spectral characteristics and both the coefficient between RAI2000-2300 and green LAI and that between RAI2000-2300 and leaf N content decreased as leaf water content increased.

  9. Effects of Purple Blotch Infection on the Proximate and Mineral Contents of Onion Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Alternaria porri Ell. ( Ciferri associated with purple blotch disease in onion on the proximate and mineral composition of onion leaves was investigated. Samples of both healthy and purple blotch - infected onion leaves were dried and analyzed for the nutritional components except moisture content. The mineral contents ( Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe , Zn were determined by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The infected leaf showed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in the quantity of the crudeprotein, fat, fibre and ash. The moisture content was. significantly (p < 0.05 lower in healthy onion leaves (88.0% than in the infected leaves (94.7%. Similarly, carbohydrate content was lower in diseased leaves than in healthy onion leaves. The levels of minerals were ignificantly (p < 0.05 lower in diseased leaves compared to the healthy (control leaves indicating that the infection of onion leaves by purple blotch pathogen (Alternaria porri had a significant impact in reducing the nutritional value of the onion leaves. It is important to avoid fungal contamination with a view to enhance nutrient bioavailability for human consumption.

  10. Effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in Pummelo cultivar Thong Dee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee growing in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, were studied during January-August 2013. The results showed that 50% fruit thinning by hand at 1 month after fruit set increased percent of fruit retention throughout fruit development. At 2 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave 62% of fruit retention, which were significantly higher than no thinning (36.60%, whereas, 50% fruit thinning gave 40% of fruit retention at 6 month after fruit set, which significantly higher than no thinning (20.2%. A significant difference in leaf carbohydrate concentration was found in 3-6 month after fruit set. At 3 months after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (81.80 mg.g-1 than no thinning (73.56 mg.g-1, whereas, at 6 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (128.92 mg.g-1 than no thinning (102.90 mg.g-1. Although, 50% fruit thinning gave no effect on peel and pulp dry weight including peel and pulp carbohydrates concentration during fruit development. For plant nutrient analysis, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K concentration than no thinning during 3-6 month after fruit set. However, 50% fruit thinning had no effect on fruit weight, fruit circumstance, fruit diameter, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solid (TSS. It was concluded that 50% fruit thinning increased percent of fruit retention and may have an effect on the accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, leaf N, leaf P and leaf K concentrations in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee.

  11. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing or Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05 in feed, dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001, meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  12. No evidence for leaf-trait dissimilarity effects on litter decomposition, fungal decomposers, and nutrient dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frainer, André; Moretti, Marcelo S; Xu, Wenjing; Gessner, Mark O

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity and ecosystem-functioning theory suggest that litter mixtures composed of dissimilar leaf species can enhance decomposition due to species trait complementarity. Here we created a continuous gradient of litter chemistry trait variability within species mixtures to assess effects of litter dissimilarity on three related processes in a natural stream: litter decomposition, fungal biomass accrual in the litter, and nitrogen and phosphorus immobilization. Litter from a pool of eight leaf species was analyzed for chemistry traits affecting decomposition (lignin, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and assembled in all of the 28 possible two-species combinations. Litter dissimilarity was characterized in terms of a range of trait-diversity measures, using Euclidean and Gower distances and dendrogram-based indices. We found large differences in decomposition rates among leaf species, but no significant relationships between decomposition rate of individual leaf species and litter trait dissimilarity, irrespective of whether decomposition was mediated by microbes alone or by both microbes and litter-consuming invertebrates. Likewise, no effects of trait dissimilarity emerged on either fungal biomass accrual or changes during decomposition of nitrogen or phosphorus concentrations in individual leaf species. In line with recent meta-analyses, these results provide support for the contention that litter diversity effects on decomposition, at least in streams, are less pronounced than effects on terrestrial primary productivity.

  13. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

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    Lívia de Matos Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, percentage and rate of emergence, and dry matter weight of the shoots and roots. Nitrogen levels and chlorophyll content index were evaluated in leaves of the same four genotypes grown in a greenhouse under different nitrogen supply systems and methods of inoculation with A. brasilense. The genotypes differ with regard to inoculation with A. brasilense. The hybrids were responsive to inoculation with A. brasilense for root dry matter weight. The V2 variety had a lower performance as regards root dry matter weight, with the opposite being seen for the dry matter weight of the shoots. V4 displayed no significant differences when inoculated. The results of the chlorophyll content index were not significant. Each genotype under evaluation displayed a different response for leaf nitrogen levels. It is possible to infer that the hybrids responded better to inoculation with the bacteria, with the greater root development leading to a better utilisation of water and nutrients.

  14. Leaf litter decomposition of four different deciduous tree species - resource stoichiometry, nutrient release and microbial community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, S.; Keiblinger, K. M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of microbial communities for ecosystem processes like litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. For example, fungi are thought to be key players during litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems because they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds like lignin and also dominate the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas bacteria seem to play an important role for lignin decomposition especially under anaerobic conditions. However, our knowledge about the contribution of bacteria and fungi to decomposition is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the microbial decomposer community is affected by resource stoichiometry and how changes in community composition affect litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. To this end, we collected leaf litter of four deciduous tree species (beech (Fagus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and ash tree (Fraxinus)) at four different seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in an Austrian forest (Schottenwald, 48°14'N16°15'E; MAT=9°C; soil type: dystric cambiosol; soil C:N=16) in 2010. We determined litter nutrient content (micro- and macronutrients) and extractable nutrients and assessed the microbial community by PFLA analysis to test the following hypotheses: (i) tree species affects microbial community composition, (ii) microbial community composition changes over the course of the year, and (iii) narrow litter C:nutrient ratios favour nutrient release. Our data show that litter of different tree species varied in their stoichiometry, with C:N ratios between 16 (alder) and 46 (beech) and C:P ratios between 309 (ash) and 1234 (alder). Tree species had a significant impact on microbial community composition: highest amounts of actinomycetes and protozoa were observed for alder, while arbuscular mycorrhizae were lowest for oak. Bacteria were favoured by litter with narrow C:N shortly after litterfall. During litter decomposition

  15. Concentração foliar de nutrientes e produtividade de tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes substratos e doses de ácidos húmicos Leaf nutrient content and yield of tomato grown in different substrates and doses of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Lima

    2011-03-01

    -day intervals, and the first application was carried out eight days after transplanting. There was no significant effect of the treatments on the content of N, K and S in leaves and on non-marketable fruits yield. However, there was a significant effect of the substrates on the content of P, Ca, Mg and on the total and marketable fruit yield. Increasing doses of AH reduced linearly the content of B and Cu (on S1, but increased the content of Zn in leaves. Humic acid doses of 31 to 49 L ha-1 provided the highest contents of Fe, Cu, and the lowest content of Mn. The highest marketable yields were obtained using coconut fiber, with an average of 5.6 kg/plant, showing an average yield increase of 22.9%, 38.7% and 49.7% in comparison to S2, S3 and S4, respectively.

  16. Relations among Valencia orange yields with soil and leaf nutrients in Northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Valencia orange orchards established on soils of low fertility in the Northwest region of Paraná State, Brazil, have showed symptoms of Mg deficiency and reduced fruit yields. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between yield with soil and leaf nutrients during 1996/97 growing season. Two sites of low and high productivity were selected in seven orchards. Leaf and soil samples (fertilized rows and interrows were collected in 1996. The results showed that the citrus yields were negatively related with soil Mg/K and Ca+Mg/K ratios in the fertilized rows, and fruit weight positively correlated with leaf Zn in the low productivity orchards. The fruit weight was positively related with leaf Ca and soil Ca in the fertilized rows of the high productivity orchards. The results suggested an adequate lime and K fertilization managements in the fertilized rows, as well as an adequate Zn supply.Os pomares de laranja Valência (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck estabelecidos em solos de baixa fertilidade da região noroeste do Paraná, tem apresentado sintomas de desequilíbrio nutricional, principalmente deficiência de Mg e redução da produção e do tamanho dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as relações da produção e peso dos frutos com os nutrientes das folhas e do solo de sete pomares de laranja Valência na safra de 1996/97, em talhões de produtividade inferior e superior. Em 1996, foram coletadas amostras de folha e de solo nas faixas de adubação e nas entrelinhas. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de frutos correlacionou-se negativamente com as relações dos cátions Mg/K e Ca+Mg/K do solo das faixas de adubação dos pomares de baixa produtividade e, o peso dos frutos, correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores foliares de Zn. Nos pomares de produtividade superior, o peso dos frutos correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores de Ca das folhas e do solo nas faixas de adubação. Estes

  17. Comparison of leaf color chart observations with digital photographs and spectral measurements for estimating maize leaf chlorophyll content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop nitrogen management is important world-wide, as much for small fields as it is for large operations. Developed as a non-destructive aid for estimating nitrogen content in rice crops, leaf color charts (LCC) are a numbered series of plastic panels that range from yellowgreen to dark green. By vi...

  18. Patterns of leaf morphology and leaf N content in relation to winter temperatures in three evergreen tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Sonia; Gallardo-López, Victoria; González-Zurdo, Patricia; Escudero, Alfonso

    2012-09-01

    The competitive equilibrium between deciduous and perennial species in a new scenario of climate change may depend closely on the productivity of leaves along the different seasons of the year and on the morphological and chemical adaptations required for leaf survival during the different seasons. The aim of the present work was to analyze such adaptations in the leaves of three evergreen species ( Quercus ilex, Q. suber and Pinus pinaster) and their responses to between-site differences in the intensity of winter harshness. We explore the hypothesis that the harshness of winter would contribute to enhancing the leaf traits that allow them to persist under conditions of stress. The results revealed that as winter harshness increases a decrease in leaf size occurs in all three species, together with an increase in the content of nitrogen per unit leaf area and a greater leaf mass per unit area, which seems to be achieved only through increased thickness, with no associated changes in density. P. pinaster was the species with the most intense response to the harshening of winter conditions, undergoing a more marked thickening of its needles than the two Quercus species. Our findings thus suggest that lower winter temperatures involve an increase in the cost of leaf production of evergreen species, which must be taken into account in the estimation of the final cost and benefit balance of evergreens. Such cost increases would be more pronounced for those species that, like P. pinaster, show a stronger response to the winter cold.

  19. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, S.; Skidmore, A.K.; Naeem, M.; Schlerf, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid

  20. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullah, S.; Skidmore, A.K.; Naeem, M.; Schlerf, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid

  1. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  2. ACUMULAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES NO LIMBO FOLIAR DE GUANDU E ESTILOSANTES NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION IN PIGEON PEA AND STYLO LEAF BLADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto José Kliemann

    2007-09-01

    ="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm;" align="JUSTIFY">Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and stylo plants (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão are two legumes cultivated in cerrado soils of central-west Brazil and cultivates for green manure, seed production, and pasture. The objective of this study was to evaluate accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in leaf blades as a function of days after emergence. The experiment was developed in a dystrophic Oxisol at Embrapa Rice and Bean Research Center, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. Plot size was 6.0 m wide and 20.0 m long. Planting fertilization was 400 kg ha-1 of a 5-30-15 formula. Sowing was done in December 2001. During crop growth, nine random leaf blades samples were collected on the different days after sowing for chemical analysis. Nutrient accumulation (Y was determined and data were adjusted as a function of days after emergence (X using a quadratic exponential regression model Y = a exp(bx + cx2. Pigeon pea showed higher dry matter and, generally, higher nutrient accumulation than stylo plants until 98 days. Among macronutrients, N had the highest accumulation and P the lowest. Among micronutrients, Fe had the highest accumulation and Cu the lowest in the leaf laminas of the two legumes.

    KEY-WORDS: Legumes, nutrient content, mineral nutrition, Cajanus cajan,

  3. Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin Salehi; Hamidreza Tasdighi; Majid Gholamhoseini

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of drought stress and organic fertilizer on German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) nutrient uptake, leaf chlorophyll content and os-motic adjustment under field conditions. Methods: This experiment was carried out through a randomized complete block design with a split factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications. The main plots were subjected to the following irrigation treatments: irrigation after 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mm evaporation from Class A pan. The sub-plots were treated with three vermi-compost doses (0, 5 and 10 t/ha). Results: Although drought stress reduced the nutrient percentages in the shoots, appli-cation of vermicompost enhanced the nutrient percentages, particularly when the plants were subjected to moderate to severe drought stress conditions. Moreover, the results of this study showed that the interaction between irrigation treatments and vermicompost rates on leaf chlorophyll content was significant. Comparison between the combined treatments indicated that under normal irrigation and moderate drought stress conditions chamomile plants received 5 and 10 t/ha vermicompost showed significantly higher leaf chlorophyll content comparing to the control treatment. Conclusions: Totally, organic fertilization by vermicompost could partly alleviate the effect of drought stress on chamomile by increasing N, P and K uptake and leaf soluble sugar, especially in stressed treatments.

  4. 9 CFR 317.363 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âhealthy.â... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.363 Nutrient... diluent containing an insignificant amount, as defined in § 317.309(f)(1), of all nutrients, the...

  5. 9 CFR 381.463 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âhealthy.â... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.463 Nutrient... containing an insignificant amount, as defined in § 381.409(f)(1), of all nutrients, the per-50-g...

  6. Generation of Nutrients and Detoxification: Possible Roles of Yeasts in Leaf-Cutting Ant Nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Pagnocca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The possible roles played by yeasts in attine ant nests are mostly unknown. Here we present our investigations on the plant polysaccharide degradation profile of 82 yeasts isolated from fungus gardens of Atta and Acromyrmex species to demonstrate that yeasts found in ant nests may play the role of making nutrients readily available throughout the garden and detoxification of compounds that may be deleterious to the ants and their fungal cultivar. Among the yeasts screened, 65% exhibited cellulolytic enzymes, 44% exhibited pectinolytic activity while 27% and 17% possess enzyme systems for the degradation of protease and amylase, respectively. Galacturonic acid, which had been reported in previous work to be poorly assimilated by the ant fungus and also to have a negative effect on ants’ survival, was assimilated by 64% and 79% of yeasts isolated from nests of A. texana and Acromyrmex respectively. Our results suggest that yeasts found in ant nests may participate in generation of nutrients and removal of potentially toxic compounds, thereby contributing to the stability of the complex microbiota found in the leaf-cutting ant nests.

  7. Dynamics of Environmental Humidity and Water Content in Tobacco Leaf and Metabolism of Starch During Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; YUAN Hong-tao; CHEN Jiang-hua; WANG Na

    2003-01-01

    Effect of environmental humidity and water content in tobacco leaf on starch metabolism was studied by using the electric-heated auto-controlled flue-curing barn supplied by Henan Agricultural University, China. The results indicated that the degradation of starch and decrease of water content in tobacco leaf during early yellowing at low humidity was the most rapid, and the water loss was the highest while the lowest under high humidity. The duration for starch degradation under low humidity was longer than that of CK. So the starch residue in cured leaf of different treatment took the order of high humidity yellowing treatment>low humidity yellowing treatment> CK. When the leaf water content was decreased to around 50%, the starch degradation became slow and the content of starch was stable. Starch degradation and decrease of leaf water content was not synchronous. Starch in tobacco leaf during yellowing degraded more rapidly when humidity was decreased at a high speed, but the degradation stopped earlier at late stage. There was a quicker and higher degradation of starch under high environmental humidity. When the humidity decreased to 70 %,the content of starch was stable. The activity of amylase began to decrease when relative humidity was below 75 %, but it kept a high level of activity when the environmental humidity was below 70 %.

  8. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) landraces in Mali: Nutrient and phytate content, genetic diversity and effect of processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koreissi, Y.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess i) the genetic diversity of fonio (Digitaria exilis) landraces in Mali, ii) the nutrient and phytate content in fonio products and iii) the effect of processing on nutrient content of fonio products. Twelve fonio landraces were collected from farmers in central and southern

  9. Influence of nutrient level on methylmercury content in water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Dabrowska, Beata

    2010-08-01

    Widely consumed vegetables are often cultivated in sewage waters with high nutrient levels. They can contain high levels of methylmercury (MeHg), because they can form MeHg from inorganic Hg in their young shoots. We determined whether the MeHg uptake and the MeHg formation in the shoots of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were affected by the presence of a high nutrient level in the growth medium. Water spinach shoots were rooted and pretreated in growth medium containing 7% (low) or 70% (high) Hoagland nutrient solution; thereafter, the plants were treated with either 0.02 microM MeHg or 0.2 microM HgCl2 for 3 d. Half the plants were then analyzed for total Hg and MeHg. The remaining plants were transferred to mercury-free medium with low or high nutrient levels and posttreated for 3 days before analysis of total Hg and MeHg in order to measure MeHg formation in the absence of external Hg. The results indicate that nutrient level did not influence MeHg uptake, but that a high nutrient level reduced the distribution of MeHg to the shoots 2.7-fold versus low nutrient level. After treatment with HgCl2, MeHg was found in roots and new shoots but not in old shoots. The MeHg:total-Hg ratio was higher in new shoots than in roots, being 13 times higher at high versus low nutrient levels. Thus, MeHg formation was the same in new shoots independent of inorganic Hg concentration, since the total Hg level decreased at a high nutrient level.

  10. Effect of Cultural Measures on Nutrient Contents in Rice Plants with Erect Panicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBOLUN; ZOUBANGJItffu

    1999-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out with rice variety of Shenong 91 of short culms and erect panicles to study nutrient contents in high-yiedlding rice plants and to increase rice yield by appropriate fertilization.Nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium,magnesium,zinc,manganese,iron and copper contents in rice plants varied with different treatment factors.The relationship between the nutrient contents and treatment factors could be simulated using a multiple quadratic equation.The nutrient contents in plants should be appropriate for high-yielding rice.If the mean nutrient content in rice plants producuing 11 t ha-1 or more of grain (uj) was set as the standard value and the standard deviation (σj) was set as the range of variation,the nutrient content in high-yielding rice plants should be μj±1.99σj.Rice leaves were sensitive to the nutrient elements.Heavy nitrogen dressing increased the content of nitrogen in rice plants.Sparse transplanting also increased nitrogen content,Improper application of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium could affect the nutrient contents and decrease the grain yield.

  11. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense.

  12. Variations in leaf soluble amino acids and ammonium content in subtropical seagrasses related to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, W M

    1986-01-01

    A survey of leaf soluble amino acids was conducted for four subtropical seagrasses grown at several salinities. Proline functioned as an organic osmoticum in Halodule wrightii Aschers., Thallasia testudinum Banks ex Koenig, and Ruppia maritima L., while alanine functioned in an osmoregulatory capacity in Halophila engelmanni Aschers. When light-and salinity-induced variations in leaf NH(4) and amide-N levels were compared in Halodule, Thalassia, and Halophila, ability to regulate leaf NH(4) levels was correlated with osmoregulatory capacity and maintenance of selected amino acid contents.

  13. Nutrient Contents and Fatty Acids Profiles of Leaves and Seeds of Croton zambesicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muibat Olabisi Bello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Croton zambesicus leaves and seeds were investigated for nutrient contents and fatty acids of their oils. Proximate analysis showed that the leaves and seeds contained (g/100 g moisture (7.88, 7.94; crude protein (13.13, 9.64; crude fibre (16.63, 15.45, crude fat (15.42, 26.73; ash (9.28, 4.15 and carbohydrate (55.35, 67.09, respectively. The seed contained higher level of potassium (2.2 g/100 g; iron (467.53 mg/100 g and strontium (869.27 mg/100 g while the leaf contained higher level of calcium (3.04 g/100 g. The leaves and seeds oils have iodine value above 100 mg/g oil and peroxide value below 10 Meq/kg. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acids were higher in concentrations in both the leaves and seeds oil among the saturated, mono unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids detected. The oils contained more polyunsaturated than saturated fatty acids. Both parts could be explored as food supplements.

  14. Direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content of terrestrial plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai; Dong, Dan; Zeng, Xuetong; Sun, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Xiaofei; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors in China have resulted in widespread acid rain since the 1980s. Although efforts have been made to assess the indirect, soil mediated ecological effects of acid rain, a systematic assessment of the direct foliage injury by acid rain across terrestrial plants is lacking. Leaf chlorophyll content is an important indicator of direct foliage damage and strongly related to plant productivity. We synthesized data from published literature on experiments of simulated acid rain, by directly exposing plants to acid solutions with varying pH levels, to assess the direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content across 67 terrestrial plants in China. Our results indicate that acid rain substantially reduces leaf chlorophyll content by 6.71% per pH unit across the recorded plant species. The direct reduction of leaf chlorophyll content due to acid rain exposure showed no significant difference across calcicole, ubiquist or calcifuge species, implying that soil acidity preference does not influence the sensitivity to leaf injury by acid rain. On average, the direct effects of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll on trees, shrubs and herbs were comparable. The effects, however varied across functional groups and economic use types. Specifically, leaf chlorophyll content of deciduous species was more sensitive to acid rain in comparison to evergreen species. Moreover, vegetables and fruit trees were more sensitive to acid rain than other economically used plants. Our findings imply a potential production reduction and economic loss due to the direct foliage damage by acid rain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of organic substrates on available elemental contents in nutrient solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Y.S.; Sun, M.; Li, Y.Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School for Agriculture & Biology

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the changes of available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts of organic substrates (peat moss, charred rice husk, chicken manure, sawdust, turfgrass clipping and weathered coal) were studied and compared with that in the water extracts. Results showed that available elemental contents in the nutrient solution extracts are significantly different between organic substrates, whereas ionic concentrations are basically under steady condition after treatment for 36-108 h. Ionic contents in the nutrient solution extracts are not equal to the value of adding ionic concentrations in the supplied nutrient solution to that in the water extract. Thus, a mathematical model was proposed for adjusting the composition of supplied nutrient solution to match plant requirements in the organic soilless culture system.

  16. Variability of leaf Cadmium content in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic trace metal pollutant for humans, animals, and plants. It is a heavy metal present in soils from natural and anthropogenic sources. Much of the Cd taken up by plants is retained in the root, but a portion is translocated to the aerial portions of the plant and into the seed. The objective of this research was to determine the variability and diversity of Cd content in the leaves of 30 wheat cultivars with different ploidy level, during two years. Analyses of Cd content (ppm in the leaves at heading stage were performed with an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Significant differences between the mean values of the genotypes in Cd content were found. Tetraploid wheat genotypes had higher Cd content than hexaploid genotypes. Cd content was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (73%. The influence of genotype on Cd content amounted 16% and the interaction genotype × year 11%. The cluster of the genotypes consists of four groups. In the groups three and four were some of the genotypes (Kalyan Sona, Partizanka and NS Rana 5 with lowest Cd content in the leaves. They could be chosen as parents in the hybridization for lower cadmium concentration.

  17. Growth, morphometrics and nutrient content of farmed eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin), in New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    When harvested, oysters represent a removal from the ecosystem of nutrients such as nitrogen (N)and carbon (C). A number of factors potentially affect nutrient content, but a quantitative understanding across the geographical range of the eastern oysters is lacking. This study wa...

  18. The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Gibbons, Shannon; Koelliker, Yvonne; Civille, Gail V.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2017-01-01

    Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this rel

  19. The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Gibbons, Shannon; Koelliker, Yvonne; Civille, Gail V.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2017-01-01

    Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this

  20. 21 CFR 101.56 - Nutrient content claims for “light” or “lite.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for âlightâ or âlite.â 101... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101.56 Nutrient content claims for “light” or “lite.” (a) General requirements. A claim...

  1. [The content of nutrient elements of plant in KCl fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Rui, Yu-Kui; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-03-01

    Potassium is one of the three most important plant nutrient elements, so many researchers pay attention on its fertilizer efficiency. But fertilizers were all industrial products containing many other nutrient elements in most experiments of fertilizer efficiency. All the other nutrient elements, including necessitous elements and beneficial elements in potassium fertilizer (KCl) were analyzed by method of ICP-MS. The results showed that KCl fertilizer contained many necessitous elements (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo), the concentrations of them are 50.51, 1 309.48, 5.44, 500.83 microg x g(-1) and 65.54, 238.85, 212.44, 10.40 ng x g(-1) respectively; beneficial elements (Na, Al, Si, Co and Se) are 25 095.89, 3.83, 3.40 microg x g(-1) and 13.12, 23.25 ng x g(-1) respectively. All the above elements could influence the results of potassium fertilizer efficiency experiments, so pure fertilizer should be used in the future potassium fertilizer efficiency experiments.

  2. Effects and Mechanisms of P and K Nutrients on Yield and Protein Content of Fodder Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiang-ru; YU Tie-qiao

    2002-01-01

    Effects and mechanisms of P and K nutrients on yield and protein content of Weiyou 56, a fodder hybrid rice combination, were studied through pot experiment and biochemical analysis. The results showed that the increase of P and K nutrients enhanced the activities of PEP carboxylase (PEPC), glutamine synthase (GS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in leaves, sucrose synthase (SS), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGP) and GS in grains, and the chlorophyll content in leaves, soluble sugar and starch content in grains,protein N and total N content in leaves and grains. Howerer, they decreased soluble sugar content in leaves and led to an increase of protein content in brown rice, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. Excessive P nutrients slightly reduced SPS and ADPG activity in leaves and grains respectively.

  3. Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a 47-year-old Douglas-fir plantation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ranger; Gelhaye, D.

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Biomass and nutrient content of the root system of a Douglas-fir stand were calculated using the regression technique. Nine trees, evenly distributed in the girth classes of the stand, were felled for measurements and sampling. Results were compared to published data. Statistically significant relationships between tree circumference at 1.30 m and root biomass or nutrient content were observed. The root biomass was 58 t of dry matter, which was 18% of the total stand b...

  4. Nutrient content of biomass components of Hamlin sweet orange trees Conteúdo de nutrientes em componentes da biomassa de laranjeira hamlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Mattos Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient distribution in trees is important to establish sound nutrient management programs for citrus production. Six-year-old Hamlin orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] on Swingle citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.] rootstock, grown on a sandy Entisol in Florida were harvested to investigate the macro and micronutrient distributions of biomass components. The biomass of aboveground components of the tree represented the largest proportion of the total. The distribution of the total tree dry weight was: fruit = 30.3%, leaf = 9.7%, twig = 26.1%, trunk = 6.3%, and root = 27.8%. Nutrient concentrations of recent mature leaves were in the adequate to optimal range as suggested by interpretation of leaf analysis in Florida. Concentrations of Ca in older leaves and woody tissues were much greater than those in the other parts of the tree. Concentrations of micronutrients were markedly greater in fibrous root as compared to woody roots. Calcium made up the greatest amount of nutrient in the citrus tree (273.8 g per tree, followed by N and K (234.7 and 181.5 g per tree, respectively. Other macronutrients comprised about 11% of the total nutrient content of trees. The contents of various nutrients in fruits were: N = 1.20, K = 1.54, P = 0.18, Ca = 0.57, Mg = 0.12, S = 0.09, B = 1.63 x 10-3, Cu = 0.39 x 10-3, Fe = 2.1 x 10-3, Mn = 0.38 10-3, and Zn = 0.40 10-3 (kg ton-1. Total contents of N, K, and P in the orchard corresponded to 66.5, 52.0, and 8.3 kg ha-1, respectively, which were equivalent to the amounts applied annually by fertilization.A compreensão da distribuição de nutrientes na árvore é importante para o estabelecimento de programas de manejo nutricional eficientes para a produção de citros. Árvores de laranjeira Hamlin [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb.] em citrumelo Swingle [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. x Citrus paradisi Macfad.], com 6 anos de idade, cultivadas num Entisol da Fl

  5. Leaf Chlorophyll Content Estimation of Winter Wheat Based on Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Wenting; Huang, Lvwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Yimian; Hu, Yamin

    2016-03-25

    The leaf chlorophyll content is one of the most important factors for the growth of winter wheat. Visual and near-infrared sensors are a quick and non-destructive testing technology for the estimation of crop leaf chlorophyll content. In this paper, a new approach is developed for leaf chlorophyll content estimation of winter wheat based on visible and near-infrared sensors. First, the sliding window smoothing (SWS) was integrated with the multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) or the standard normal variable transformation (SNV) to preprocess the reflectance spectra images of wheat leaves. Then, a model for the relationship between the leaf relative chlorophyll content and the reflectance spectra was developed using the partial least squares (PLS) and the back propagation neural network. A total of 300 samples from areas surrounding Yangling, China, were used for the experimental studies. The samples of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy at the wavelength of 450,900 nm were preprocessed using SWS, MSC and SNV. The experimental results indicate that the preprocessing using SWS and SNV and then modeling using PLS can achieve the most accurate estimation, with the correlation coefficient at 0.8492 and the root mean square error at 1.7216. Thus, the proposed approach can be widely used for winter wheat chlorophyll content analysis.

  6. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Saleem, E-mail: ullah19488@itc.nl [Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Skidmore, Andrew K. [Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Naeem, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan (AWKUM), KPK (Pakistan); Schlerf, Martin [Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann (CRPGL), L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2012-10-15

    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0 {mu}m) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R{sup 2} = 0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R{sup 2} = 0.88, RMSE = 8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mid and thermal infrared spectra are sensitive to variation in leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous wavelet analysis detected the variation caused by leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selected wavelet features are highly correlated with leaf water content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mid wave and thermal infrared spectra have the potential to estimate leaf water content.

  7. Impact of mycorrhization on the abundance, growth and leaf nutrient status of ferns along a tropical elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Michael; Güdel, Ramona; Salazar, Laura; Homeier, Jürgen; Kluge, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are crucial for the ecological success of land plants, providing their hosts with nutrients in exchange for organic C. However, not all plants are mycorrhizal, especially ferns, of which about one-third of the species lack this symbiosis. Because the mycorrhizal status is evolutionarily ancestral, this lack of mycorrhizae must have ecological advantages, but what these advantages are and how they affect the competitive ability of non-mycorrhizal plants under natural conditions is currently unknown. To address this uncertainty, we studied terrestrial fern assemblages and species abundances as well as their mycorrhization status, leaf nutrient concentration and relative annual growth along an elevational gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes (500-4,000 m). We surveyed the mycorrhizal status of 375 root samples belonging to 85 species, and found mycorrhizae in 89% of the samples. The degree of mycorrhization decreased with elevation but was unrelated to soil nutrients. Species with mycorrhizae were significantly more abundant than non-mycorrhizal species, but non-mycorrhizal species had significantly higher relative growth and concentrations of leaf N, P, Mg, and Ca. Our study thus shows that despite lower abundances, non-mycorrhizal fern species did not appear to be limited in their growth or nutrient supply relative to mycorrhizal ones. As a basis for future studies, we hypothesize that non-mycorrhizal fern species may be favoured in special microhabitats of the forest understory with high soil nutrient or water availability, or that the ecological benefit of mycorrhizae is not related to nutrient uptake but rather to, for example, pathogen resistance.

  8. Fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied in lanolin paste on the bottom surface of intact tulip leaves causes a rapid and intense its senescence. The aim of this work was to study the effect of JA-Me on free and bound fatty acid and sterol contents during tulip leaf senescence. The main free and bound fatty acids of tulip leaf, in decreasing order of their abundance, were linolenic, linoleic, palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acids. Only the content of free linolenic acid decreased after treatment with JA-Me during visible stage of senescence. ß-Sitosterol (highest concentration, campesterol, stigmasterol and cholesterol were identified in tulip leaf. Methyl jasmonate evidently increased the level of ß-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol during induced senescence. It is suggested that the increase in sterol concentrations under the influence of methyl jasmonate induced changes in membrane fluidity and permeability, which may be responsible for senescence.

  9. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  10. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Pabian

    Full Text Available Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  11. Retrieval of leaf water content spanning the visible to thermal infrared spectra

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ullah, S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the entire spectra (from visible to the thermal infrared; 0.390 µm -14.0 µm) to retrieve leaf water content in a consistent manner. Narrow-band spectral indices (calculated from all possible two band...

  12. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Homolova, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukes, P.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate combined continuum removal and radiative transfer (RT) modeling to retrieve leaf chlorophyll a & b content (Cab) from the AISA Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer data of sub-meter (0.4 m) spatial resolution. Based on coupled PROSPECT-DART RT simulations of a Norway spruce (Picea

  13. Effect of Processing Methods on Nutrient Contents of Six Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (p≤0.05) differences between varieties in protein, fat, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, total carotenoids, ... carotenoids, moisture and mineral contents analyses. .... oxidation, isomerization and/or free radical .... Changes in lipid, fatty acids.

  14. Varietal Difference in Leaf Nitrogen Content and Leaf Area and Their Effects to Ripening Rate During Mature Period of japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differ- ences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripen ing rate. The results showed that(1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matue period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC de- crease. (2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase. There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2. The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2. It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity. (3)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature peri- od. (4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.

  15. Varietal Difference in Leaf Nitrogen Content and Leaf Area and Their Effects to Ripening Rate During Mature Period of japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiRong-tian; KojimaNobuyoshi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripening rate.The results showed that (1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matur period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC decrease.(2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase.There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2.The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2.It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity.(2)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature period.(4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.

  16. Joint leaf chlorophyll content and leaf area index retrieval from Landsat data using a regularized model inversion system (REGFLEC)

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-01-19

    Leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) represent key biophysical and biochemical controls on water, energy and carbon exchange processes in the terrestrial biosphere. In combination, LAI and Chll provide critical information on vegetation density, vitality and photosynthetic potentials. However, simultaneous retrieval of LAI and Chll from space observations is extremely challenging. Regularization strategies are required to increase the robustness and accuracy of retrieved properties and enable more reliable separation of soil, leaf and canopy parameters. To address these challenges, the REGularized canopy reFLECtance model (REGFLEC) inversion system was refined to incorporate enhanced techniques for exploiting ancillary LAI and temporal information derived from multiple satellite scenes. In this current analysis, REGFLEC is applied to a time-series of Landsat data.A novel aspect of the REGFLEC approach is the fact that no site-specific data are required to calibrate the model, which may be run in a largely automated fashion using information extracted entirely from image-based and other widely available datasets. Validation results, based upon in-situ LAI and Chll observations collected over maize and soybean fields in central Nebraska for the period 2001-2005, demonstrate Chll retrieval with a relative root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) on the order of 19% (RMSD=8.42μgcm-2). While Chll retrievals were clearly influenced by the version of the leaf optical properties model used (PROSPECT), the application of spatio-temporal regularization constraints was shown to be critical for estimating Chll with sufficient accuracy. REGFLEC also reproduced the dynamics of in-situ measured LAI well (r2 =0.85), but estimates were biased low, particularly over maize (LAI was underestimated by ~36 %). This disparity may be attributed to differences between effective and true LAI caused by significant foliage clumping not being properly accounted for in the canopy

  17. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status and growth of maize (Zea mays L. upon MgSO4 leaf-application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eJezek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The major plant nutrient magnesium is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K] and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with magnesium and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season.

  18. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status, and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) upon MgSO4 leaf-application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Mareike; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Bayer, Anne; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The major plant nutrient magnesium (Mg) is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K], and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with Mg and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season.

  19. Health and Nutrient Content Claims in Food Advertisements on Hispanic and Mainstream Prime-Time Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatangelo-Gray, Jodie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Austin, S. Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Characterize frequency and type of health and nutrient content claims in prime-time weeknight Spanish- and English-language television advertisements from programs shown in 2003 with a high viewership by women aged 18 to 35 years. Design: Comparative content analysis design was used to analyze 95 hours of Spanish-language and 72 hours…

  20. 9 CFR 381.456 - Nutrient content claims for “light” or “lite.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âlightâ or... § 381.456 Nutrient content claims for “light” or “lite.” (a) General requirements. A claim using the... for that term; (2) The claim is made in accordance with the general requirements for nutrient...

  1. 9 CFR 317.356 - Nutrient content claims for “light” or “lite.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âlightâ or... Labeling § 317.356 Nutrient content claims for “light” or “lite.” (a) General requirements. A claim using... for that term; (2) The claim is made in accordance with the general requirements for nutrient...

  2. Azospirillum brasilense affects the antioxidant activity and leaf pigment content of Urochloa ruziziensis under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Guilherme Bulegon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water stress leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in degradation of leaf pigments and cell death. This study aimed at assessing the oxidative enzyme activity and photosynthetic pigment content in seeds and/or leaves of Urochloa ruziziensis (syn. Brachiaria inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense under water stress. Assessments of soluble proteins, chlorophylls a and b and carotenoid contents, as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT enzymes, were conducted at the beginning of the water stress process and also under severe water stress and during plant rehydration. Seed inoculation showed a reduction in the action of SOD, under water stress, with an increase after rehydration. POD exhibited an activity greater than CAT in all the assessments, but it did not differ statistically under severe water stress. CAT activity increased under severe stress in all treatments, particularly for leaf inoculation. Chlorophyll a was slightly degraded, maintaining the levels of the irrigated control, while the chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents, in plants subjected to leaf inoculation with A. brasilense, were higher under water stress. It was concluded that the leaf inoculation of U. ruziziensis with A. brasilense makes the plant more efficient at removing reactive oxygen species and protecting chlorophyll a.

  3. Fatty acid and sterol contents during methyl jasmonate-induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found previously that methyl jasmonate (JA-Me induced leaf abscission in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. In present studies it was showed that JA-Me did not affect or only slightly affected the content of free and bound fatty acids in petioles and blades. ß-Sitosterol, campesterol and ß-amyrin were identified in petioles and blades of K. blossfeldiana; JA-Me decreased the content of campesterol in petioles and increased the content of ß-sitosterol in blades. In blades of plants treated with JA-Me disappearance of olean-12-one was indicated but appearance of 2H-cyclopropa[a]-naphthalen-2-one,l, la, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7a, 7b-octahydro-l, 1, 7, 7a-tetramethyl (aristolone was documented. The significance of these findings in leaf abscission induced by methyl jasmonate in K. blossfeldiana is discussed.

  4. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  5. An accurate retrieval of leaf water content from mid to thermal infrared spectra using continuous wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saleem; Skidmore, Andrew K; Naeem, Mohammad; Schlerf, Martin

    2012-10-15

    Leaf water content determines plant health, vitality, photosynthetic efficiency and is an important indicator of drought assessment. The retrieval of leaf water content from the visible to shortwave infrared spectra is well known. Here for the first time, we estimated leaf water content from the mid to thermal infrared (2.5-14.0 μm) spectra, based on continuous wavelet analysis. The dataset comprised 394 spectra from nine plant species, with different water contents achieved through progressive drying. To identify the spectral feature most sensitive to the variations in leaf water content, first the Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) spectra were transformed into a wavelet power scalogram, and then linear relations were established between the wavelet power scalogram and leaf water content. The six individual wavelet features identified in the mid infrared yielded high correlations with leaf water content (R(2)=0.86 maximum, 0.83 minimum), as well as low RMSE (minimum 8.56%, maximum 9.27%). The combination of four wavelet features produced the most accurate model (R(2)=0.88, RMSE=8.00%). The models were consistent in terms of accuracy estimation for both calibration and validation datasets, indicating that leaf water content can be accurately retrieved from the mid to thermal infrared domain of the electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Reflectance variation within the in-chlorophyll centre waveband for robust retrieval of leaf chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhou, Qifa

    2014-01-01

    The in-chlorophyll centre waveband (ICCW) (640-680 nm) is the specific chlorophyll (Chl) absorption band, but the reflectance in this band has not been used as an optimal index for non-destructive determination of plant Chl content in recent decades. This study develops a new spectral index based solely on the ICCW for robust retrieval of leaf Chl content for the first time. A glasshouse experiment for solution-culture of one chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant and six wild types of rice genotypes was conducted, and the leaf reflectance (400-900 nm) was measured with a high spectral resolution (1 nm) spectrophotometer and the contents of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and chlorophyll a+b (Chlt) of the rice leaves were determined. It was found that the reflectance curves from 640 nm to 674 nm and from 675 nm to 680 nm of the low-chlorophyll mutant leaf were drastically steeper than that of the wild types in the ICCW. The new index based on the reflectance variation within ICCW, the difference of the first derivative sum within the ICCW (DFDS_ICCW), was highly sensitive (r = -0.77, n = 93, P0.05) to Chlt when the leaf Chlt was higher than 200 mg/m(2). The best equations of R-ICCW and DFDS_ICCW yielded an RMSE of 78.7, 32.9 and 107.3 mg/m(2), and an RMSE of 37.4, 16.0 and 45.3 mg/m(-2), respectively, for predicting Chla, Chlb and Chlt. The new index could rank in the top 10 for prediction of Chla and Chlt as compared with the 55 existing indices. Additionally, most of the 55 existing Chl-related VIs performed robustly or strongly in simultaneous prediction of leaf Chla, Chlb and Chlt.

  7. Factors that affect leaf extracellular ascorbic acid content and redox status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, K.O.; Fiscus, E.L. [North Carolina State Univ., United States dept. og Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and Dept. of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC (United States); Eason, G. [North Carolina, State Univ., United States Dept. of Plant Pathology, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Leaf ascorbic acid content and redox status were compared in ozone-tolerant (Provider) and ozone-sensitive (S156) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in pots for 24 days under charcoal-filtered air (CF) conditions in open-top field chambers and then maintained as CF controls (29 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone) or exposed to elevated ozone (71 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone). Following a 10-day treatment, mature leaves of the same age were harvested early in the morning (06:00-08:00 h) or in the afternoon (13:00-15:00 h) for analysis of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Vacuum infiltration methods were used to separate leaf AA into apoplast and symplast fractions. The total ascorbate content [AA + DHA] of leaf tissue averaged 28% higher in Provider relative to S156, and Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain [AA + DHA] content under ozone stress. Apoplast [AA + DHA] content was 2-fold higher in tolerant Provider (360 nmol g{sup 1} FW maximum) relative to sensitive S156 (160 nmol g1 FW maximum) regardless of sampling period or treatment, supporting the hypothesis that extracellular AA is a factor in ozone tolerance. Apoplast [AA + DHA] levels were significantly higher in the afternoon than early morning for both genotypes, evidence for short-term regulation of extracellular ascorbate content. Total leaf ascorbate was primarily reduced with AA/[AA + DHA] ratios of 0.81-0.90. In contrast, apoplast AA/[AA + DHA] ratios were 0.01-0.60 and depended on genotype and ozone treatment. Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain extracellular AA/[AA + DHA] ratios under ozone stress, suggesting that ozone tolerance is associated with apoplast ascorbate redox status. (au)

  8. Nutrient dynamics associated with leaf litter decomposition of three agroforestry tree species (Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sissoo, and Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Hossain; Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique; Md. Saidur Rahman; Md. Zaber Hossain; Md. Mahedi Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss,Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.,and Melia azedarach L.are little studied species in nutrient return capabilities from leaf litter decomposition to maintenance of the soil fertility despite their importance in agroforestry practices of Bangladesh.A leaf litter decomposition experiment was conducted using a litterbag technique to assess the nutrient return efficiency of these species.The decomposition rate of leaf liter was highest for M.azedarach and lowest for D.sissoo.Rainfall and temperature of study sites showed a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship with the rate of leaf litter decomposition.The highest decay constant was observed for M.azedarach (6.67).Nitrogen and Phosphorus concentration in leaf litter showed a decreased trend sharply at the end of the first month,whereas rapid decrease of Potassium concentration was reported within 10 days.Conversely,higher concentration of nutrient was observed at the later stages of decomposition.All three species showed a similar pattern of nutrient release (K > N> P) during the decomposition process of leaf litter.Among the studied species,D.sissoo was best in terms of N and P return and A.indica was best in terms of K return.

  9. Pigment content and leaf plastid ultrastructure in the tomato mutant lutescent-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, R B; Bonatti, P M

    1985-03-01

    The non-lethal tomato mutant «lutescent-2» shows an early yellowing of normal developed leaves. Its ripe fruits display a yellow colouring, red pigment synthesis being delayed by up to two weeks. Typical pigment synthesis, related to leaf maturation, does not occur in mutant leaves. Both the concentration of chl a and chl b start to decrease very quickly at the end of leaf expansion. Early yellowing of «1-2» leaves appears to be related to the reduced car(470) content, which leads to chlorophyll photooxidation. Structural evidence of a deficiency in car(470) content in young «1- 2» plastids is given by a reduction of stroma thylakoids as well as by a limited grana stacking. The altered balance between the two pigment classes determined an active, even if incomplete, conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplast-like organelles.

  10. Aescin Content in Embryogenic Callus and in Embryoids from Leaf Explants of Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profumo, P; Caviglia, A M; Gastaldo, P; Dameri, R M

    1991-02-01

    HPLC determinations of the aescin contents in calli and embryoids from leaf explants of AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. were carried out in order to determine whether it was possible to obtain aescin-forming proliferations IN VITRO. The results indicate that embryogenic calli and embryoids derived from them produce an amount of active principle higher than that of horse-chestnut seeds. The data are discussed in terms of the relation between tissue differentiation and secondary metabolites biosynthesis.

  11. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  12. Analysis of cellulose content in stalks and leaves of large leaf tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulić Gordana J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco stalks are an under-utilized material that remains after the harvest of leaves. Given the share of large leaf tobacco in total production in Serbia (more than 85% stalks could be easily available as well as payable raw material in the fabrication of cellulose. The aim of this study was to determine cellulose content in leaves and more importantly in stalks of large leaf tobacco and to provide necessary data to processors engaged in processing of biomass. Stalks and leaves of two types of tobacco, Burley and Virginia, reared in Srem, were used as experimental material samples. Two parallel methods were applied for determining cellulose content: method by Kürschner-Hanack and method by Updegraff. It can be concluded that both methods are applicable to tobacco, but the method by Kürschner-Hanack was found to be simpler, more convenient, faster and economically more cost-effective. Thus, it should be recommended for use. Results showed that stalks of large leaf tobacco contain on average 30.50% to 34.30% of cellulose. There was no statistically significant difference in the cellulose content between the two applied methods. Given the number of plants that lag behind in fields after harvesting leaves, 28,000 tons of cellulose could be used.

  13. Some quantitative relationships between leaf area index and canopy nitrogen content and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou; Lantinga, Egvert A; Schapendonk, Ad H C M; Zhong, Xuhua

    2003-06-01

    In a previous study (Yin et al. 2000. Annals of Botany 85: 579-585), a generic logarithmic equation for leaf area index (L) in relation to canopy nitrogen content (N) was developed: L=(1/ktn)1n(1+ktnN/nb). The equation has two parameters: the minimum leaf nitrogen required to support photosynthesis (nb), and the leaf nitrogen extinction coefficient (ktn). Relative to nb, there is less information in the literature regarding the variation of ktn. We therefore derived an equation to theoretically estimate the value of ktn. The predicted profile of leaf nitrogen in a canopy using this theoretically estimated value of ktn is slightly more uniform than the profile predicted by the optimum nitrogen distribution that maximizes canopy photosynthesis. Relative to the optimum profile, the predicted profile is somewhat closer to the observed one. Based on the L-N logarithmic equation and the theoretical ktn value, we further quantified early leaf area development of a canopy in relation to nitrogen using simulation analysis. In general, there are two types of relations between L and N, which hold for canopies at different developmental phases. For a fully developed canopy where the lowest leaves are senescing due to nitrogen shortage, the relationship between L and N is described well by the logarithmic model above. For a young, unclosed canopy (i.e. L < 1.0), the relation between L and N is nearly linear. This linearity is virtually the special case of the logarithmic model when applied to a young canopy where its total nitrogen content approaches zero and the amount of nitrogen in its lowest leaves is well above nb. The expected patterns of the L-N relationship are discussed for the phase of transition from young to fully developed canopies.

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Energy Cost, and Nutrient Content of Supermarket Food Purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Johnson, Tricia J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Whited, Matthew C.; Ventrelle, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative affordability of energy-dense versus nutrient-rich foods may promote socioeconomic disparities in dietary quality and obesity. Although supermarkets are the largest food source in the American diet, the associations between SES and the cost and nutrient content of freely chosen food purchases have not been described. Purpose To investigate relationships of SES with the energy cost ($/1000 kcal) and nutrient content of freely chosen supermarket purchases. Methods Supermarket shoppers (n=69) were recruited at a Phoenix AZ supermarket in 2009. The energy cost and nutrient content of participants’ purchases were calculated from photographs of food packaging and nutrition labels using dietary analysis software. Data were analyzed in 2010–2011. Results Two SES indicators, education and household income as a percentage of the federal poverty guideline (FPG), were associated with the energy cost of purchased foods. Adjusting for covariates, the amount spent on 1000 kcal of food was $0.26 greater for every multiple of the FPG, and those with a baccalaureate or postbaccalaureate degree spent an additional $1.05 for every 1000 kcal of food compared to those with no college education. Lower energy cost was associated with higher total fat and less protein, dietary fiber, and vegetables per 1000 kcal purchased. Conclusions Low-SES supermarket shoppers purchase calories in inexpensive forms that are higher in fat and less nutrient-rich. PMID:22424253

  15. 21 CFR 101.61 - Nutrient content claims for the sodium content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food (e.g., “leaf lettuce, a sodium free food”). (2) The terms “very low sodium,” or “very low in... merely to the particular brand to which the label attaches. (4) The terms “low sodium,” or “low in sodium... particular brand to which the label attaches (e.g., “fresh spinach, a low sodium food”); and (5) The...

  16. Seasonal profiles of leaf ascorbic acid content and redox state in ozone-sensitive wildflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, Kent O. [Plant Science Research Unit, USDA-ARS and North Carolina State University, 3127 Ligon Street, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States)]. E-mail: koburkey@unity.ncsu.edu; Neufeld, Howard S. [Appalachian State University, Boone, NC (United States); Souza, Lara [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chappelka, Arthur H. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Davison, Alan W. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, England (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.), crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis Walt.), and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.) are wildflower species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S.A.). Natural populations of each species were analyzed for leaf ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to assess the role of ascorbate in protecting the plants from ozone stress. Tall milkweed contained greater quantities of AA (7-10 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight) than crown-beard (2-4 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight) or cutleaf coneflower (0.5-2 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight). DHA was elevated in crown-beard and cutleaf coneflower relative to tall milkweed suggesting a diminished capacity for converting DHA into AA. Tall milkweed accumulated AA in the leaf apoplast (30-100 nmol g{sup -1} fresh weight) with individuals expressing ozone foliar injury symptoms late in the season having less apoplast AA. In contrast, AA was not present in the leaf apoplast of either crown-beard or cutleaf coneflower. Unidentified antioxidant compounds were present in the leaf apoplast of all three species. Overall, distinct differences in antioxidant metabolism were found in the wildflower species that corresponded with differences in ozone sensitivity. - Wildflower species exhibit differences in ascorbic acid content and redox status that affect ozone sensitivity.

  17. Switchgrass harvest time management can impact biomass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a dedicated energy crop native to much of North America. While high-biomass yield is of significant importance for the development of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop, nutrient content in the biomass as it relates to biofuel conversion efficiency is also critical...

  18. Nutrient content of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour prepared commercially and domestically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Faik A; Torun, Hülya; Glew, Robert H; Bak, Zehra D; Chuang, Luther T; Presley, Jack M; Andrews, Ronnie

    2009-12-01

    Although the fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae) is nutritious and widely available in Turkey, especially in West and South Anatolia, much remains to be learned about its nutrient composition. The main goal of our study was to determine if there are differences in the content of certain nutrients in commercially-prepared carob flour (CPCP) and domestic or home-prepared carob powder (HPCP). Sucrose was the main sugar in CPCP and HPCP. Total protein was 40% lower in CPCP than HPCP due mainly to decreases in the content of several essential amino acids. However, except for lysine in CPCP, HPCP and CPCP compared favourably to a WHO protein standard. There were large differences in terms of their content of the two essential fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, and the linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio was 3.6 for CPCP, and 6.1 for HPCP. Manganese and iron were 2.5-fold higher in HPCP than CPCP. This study demonstrates that carob flour prepared in either the household or industrially is a good source of many, but not all essential nutrients, and that commercial processing of carob fruit into flour seems to affect its content of several important nutrients.

  19. Nutrient Content of Consumed Elementary School Lunches: A Pilot Study from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Ulla; Rumpunen, Kimmo; Lindmark-Mansson, Helena; Gullberg, Bo; Paulsson, Marie; Holm, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Purpose was to investigate the nutrient content of Swedish school meals consumed by students in the context of national recommendations regarding food composition and intake. Methods: Composite samples of lunch meals consumed by six students during a five-day period were collected using the double portion method and analyzed…

  20. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  1. An examination of the nutrient content and on-package marketing of novel beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachner, Naomi; Mendelson, Rena; Sacco, Jocelyn; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2015-02-01

    Changing regulatory approaches to fortification in Canada have enabled the expansion of the novel beverage market, but the nutritional implications of these new products are poorly understood. This study assessed the micronutrient composition of energy drinks, vitamin waters, and novel juices sold in Canadian supermarkets, and critically examined their on-package marketing at 2 time points: 2010-2011, when they were regulated as Natural Health Products, and 2014, when they fell under food regulations. We examined changes in micronutrient composition and on-package marketing among a sample of novel beverages (n = 46) over time, compared micronutrient content with Dietary Reference Intakes and the results of the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey to assess potential benefits, and conducted a content analysis of product labels. The median number of nutrients per product was 4.5, with vitamins B6, B12, C, and niacin most commonly added. Almost every beverage provided at least 1 nutrient in excess of requirements, and most contained 3 or more nutrients at such levels. With the exception of vitamin C, there was no discernible prevalence of inadequacy among young Canadian adults for the nutrients. Product labels promoted performance and emotional benefits related to nutrient formulations that go beyond conventional nutritional science. Label graphics continued to communicate these attributes even after reformatting to comply with food regulations. In contrast with the on-package marketing of novel beverages, there is little evidence that consumers stand to benefit from the micronutrients most commonly found in these products.

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Liang SONG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Zhi-Guo HAN; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G.barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content,were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD ≥.3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.

  3. The effects of some organic fertilizers on nutrient contents in hybrid Gladiolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit Sönmez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effects of organic fertilizers on nutrient contents in leaves and corms of hybrid Gladiolus sp. used as a cut flower in landscape arrangement. This study was conducted in a randomized experimental design with three replications. Chicken manure, farmyard manure, peat and waste mushroom compost were used as organic fertilizers. As a result, while the highest mean contents of nitrogen (1.97%, iron (160 ppm and manganese (128 ppm in leaves were obtained in chicken manure application, the highest mean contents of potassium (2.01%, calcium (1.80% and magnesium (0.25 ppm were determined in waste mushroom compost application. The highest mean contents of phosphorus (0.30%, zinc (25.3 ppm and copper (9.29 ppm in leaves were found with peat, control and farmyard manure applications, respectively. The highest mean contents of phosphorus (0.83%, potassium (1.47%, calcium (0.57%, manganese (73 ppm and zinc (67.3 ppm in corms were obtained in farmyard manure applications. While the highest mean contents of nitrogen (4.86% and copper (20.9 ppm in corms were determined in chicken manure application, the highest mean contents of iron (17.6 ppm and magnesium (0.20 % in corms were obtained in peat and waste mushroom compost applications, respectively. Application of organic fertilizers increased macro and micro nutrient contents in leaves and corms of hybrid Gladiolus sp.

  4. Seasonal changes in microbial community structure and nutrients content in rhizospheric soil of Aegle marmelos tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital M. Patel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary investigation was carried out on dominance of different types of microbial communities at different monsoon seasons in rhizospheric soils of Aegle marmelos tree. Nutrients content of soil were also determined simultaneously to correlate with the microbial population. Results show that the rhizosphere of Aegle marmelos contains gram-negative bacteria, Rhizobium, Azotobacter,Actinomycetes and Yeast and major plant nutrients and their count as well as dominance changes with moisture content in rhizosphere.Except actinomycetes all the microorganisms were found highest duringmonsoon season whereas in post-monsoon season Actinomycetes were dominant. Amount of water in rhizosphere soil also affects soil chemical properties. Soil pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio, available nitrogen and available phosphorus were recorded maximum in monsoon, whereas electrical conductivity and total nitrogen content were found maximum in post-monsoon.

  5. Nutrient content affecting Spodoptera frugiperda and Dalbulus maidis occurrence in corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CRISTINA SCHETINO BASTOS; JO(A)O CARLOS CARDOSO GALV(A)O; MARCELO COUTINHO PICANCO; PAULO ROBERTO GOMES PEREIRA; PAULO ROBERTO CECON

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of the nutrient contents in the leaves of corn on the incidence of Spodopterafrugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Dalbulus maidis (Delong & Wolcott) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). The treatments were represented by unfertilized corn plants and corn plants fertilized with 250 kg of the formulation 4-14-8 (N-P-K) +100 kg of ammonium sulfate (AS)/ha and 500 kg of the formulation 4-14-8 (N-P-K) +200 kg of AS/ha, arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates. Attacks by S.frugiperda and D. maidis were higher as the nitrogen, sulfur, calcium and copper content in the leaves of corn increased. The effects of calcium and copper found in this study were not consistent with that of lower susceptibility associated with higher levels of these nutrients mentioned in the literature. We believe that there was a cumulative effect of the nutrients altogether, building up a nutritiously better vegetable which in turn had less reserve for defense, or that the content of both nutrients in the leaves were not high enough to induce such effects.

  6. NUTRIENT AND ANTINUTRIENT CONTENT OF AN UNDEREXPLOITED MALAWIAN WATER TUBER NYMPHAEA PETERSIANA (NYIKA)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nymphaea petersiana Klotzsch (Nyika) is an important wild tuber eaten in some districts of Malawi. The tubers were processed by boiling/freeze-drying(BFD) and sun-drying(USD). The tuber's nutrient and antinutrient composition was determined to produce a preliminary nutrient data base for use in sub-Saharan Africa.There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in protein content of BFDand USD samples. Sun-dried samples were significantly (P < .05) higher in ash than boiled samples while boiled...

  7. Mineral and Nutrient Leaf Composition of Two Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cultivars Defoliated at Varying Phenological Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adigun DADA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defoliation on mineral and food value of two cassava varieties defoliated at varying phenological phases was studied to ascertain the appropriate phenological phase when harvested leaves would contain the optimum mineral and proximate composition, gross energy and the least cyanide content. Two cassava cultivars were subjected to defoliation at varying phenological stages including logarithmic, vegetative and physiological maturity phases. The mineral content was highest at the logarithmic phase than any other phases. The proximate composition of the cassava leaves showed that crude protein was highest at physiological maturity, while the least HCN was observed in cassava defoliated at logarithmic phase. Analysis of mineral and proximate content showed that leaf of the �TMS30572� cultivar had the highest mineral content, fat, fibre, ash, dry matter and gross energy at the logarithm phase while �Oko-Iyawo� had the highest crude protein and HCN at physiological maturity. This study indicates the high potential of cassava leaf as an unconventional source of protein for both humans and animals when defoliated at logarithmic growth phase.

  8. Effects of Amazonian Dark Earths on growth and leaf nutrient balance of tropical tree seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero Vallejo, Estela; Pena Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are ancient anthropogenic soils distributed in the Amazon basin. They are characterized by high nutrients such as phosphorus, calcium, potassium and nitrogen. We studied the effect of ADE on growth, morphology and physiology of 17 tree species from a

  9. [MTCARI: A kind of vegetation index monitoring vegetation leaf chlorophyll content based on hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-ye; Dong, Heng; Qin, Qi-ming; Wang, Jin-liang; Zhao, Jiang-hua

    2012-08-01

    The chlorophyll content of plant has relative correlation with photosynthetic capacity and growth levels of plant. It affects the plant canopy spectra, so the authors can use hyperspectral remote sensing to monitor chlorophyll content. By analyzing existing mature vegetation index model, the present research pointed out that the TCARI model has deficiencies, and then tried to improve the model. Then using the PROSPECT+SAIL model to simulate the canopy spectral under different levels of chlorophyll content and leaf area index (LAI), the related constant factor has been calculated. The research finally got modified transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MTCARI). And then this research used optimized soil background adjust index (OSAVI) to improve the model. Using the measured data for test and verification, the model has good reliability.

  10. [Nutrient content in litterfall and its translocation in plantation forests in south China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Lin, Y; Peng, S

    2000-06-01

    The amounts of litterfall, nutrient content in it and leaves of five plantation forests in south China were determined. The order of litterfall biomass was in sequence of Acacia mangium (11.1 t.hm-2) > Pinus elliotii (7.3 t.hm-2) > Schima superba (6.5 t.hm-2) > Acacia auriculaiformis (4.8 t.hm-2) > Eucalyptus citriodora (2.6 t.hm-2). A. mangium returned soil much more nutrient to soil through litterfall than other forests did. N, P and K were largely translocated from senescing leaves for all the five forests, and especially for A. mangium. Nutrient translocated varied greatly with seasons. The translocation of other elements was not definite.

  11. Effects of SeleniumFertilizers on SeleniumContent and Nutrient Quality of Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Hong-qin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different fertilization methods on selenium content and nutrition quality of kiwifruits were employed for selenium fortification. The fertilization methods were root fertilization, foliar fertilization and combined fertilization on their corresponding fertilizing periods. The results demonstrated that selenium content of these three experimental groups was in the order of foliar fertilization>combined fertilization>root fertilization. Foliar fertilization with the dose of 0.5 kg was optimal, whose selenium content of kiwifruits increased by 103.5%. The vitamin C content of these three experimental groups was in the order of root fertilization>combined fertilization>foliar fertilization. Root fertilization with the dose of 0.5 kg was optimal, whose vitamin C content increased by 23%. However, the vitamin C content decreased as a result of foliar fertilization. The soluble solid content of these three experimental groups was in the order of foliar fertilization>combined fertilization>root fertilization. Foliar fertilization with the dose of 0.5 kg was optimal, whose the soluble solid content increased by 37.2%. Taking selenium content, nutrition quality, growth of plants and management costs of orchard into account, root fertilization at blossoming leaf stage with the dose of 0.5 kg selenium fertilizers was choosed as the optimal seleniumfortification technology.

  12. Short-term impacts of nutrient manipulations on leaf gas exchange and biomass partitioning in contrasting 2-year-old Pinus taeda clones during seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Tyree; John R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a 1-year greenhouse experiment to assess the impact of nutrient manipulations on seedling growth, biomass partitioning, and leaf gas exchange between two fast growing Pinus taeda clones that differed in growth efficiency. After 1 year we observed significant treatment and treatment by clone effects on growth, biomass partitioning, and...

  13. Yield, fruit quality traits and leaf nutrient concentration of sapodilla cv ‘Prolific’ grafted onto 16 rootstocks in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on sapodilla has been very limited. A field study was conducted to determine the yield potential, fruit quality traits, leaf nutrient composition and scion/rootstock compatibility of cultivar ‘Prolific’ grafted onto 16 sapodilla rootstocks. For this purpose cultivars ‘Adelaide’, ‘Arcilago’...

  14. Protein and Chlorophyll Contents of Solanum melongena on Diesel Oil Polluted Soil Amended with Nutrient Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Akujobi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the remediation effect of nutrient amendments of diesel oil polluted soil on protein and chlorophyll contents of eggplant (Solanum melongena. Soil samples were polluted and amended separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples were also polluted with diesel oil without amendment to achieve 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% pollution. Samples were analyzed at two weeks interval for sixteen weeks. The plant protein and chlorophyll were affected adversely by the diesel oil pollution and the higher the level of pollution, the more the effect. The nutrient amendments were able to remedy the effect of the diesel oil pollution. The remediation effect was nutrient weight dependent and the best remediation effect was observed in poultry waste amended samples. This study has shown that diesel oil contaminated soil may have adverse effect on the protein and chlorophyll contents of plants, but this can be remedied by addition of organic nutrient supplements especially poultry waste.

  15. Relationship between Major Mineral Nutrient Elements Contents and Flower Colors of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhong Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a famous ornamental plant with bright flowers and lush leaves. The flower petal can be used as a fragrant food additive. Understanding the mineral nutrient contents in P. lactiflora is necessary for guiding its cultivation practices as well as its use as a food additive. In this study, we investigated the mineral contents including Calcium (Ca, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Copper (Cu, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in petals and leaves of 20 selected herbaceous peony cultivars in four groups according to their flower colors and the relationship between major mineral nutrient elements contents and flower colors was assessed. In petals, the contents of minerals were in this order K>Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu; while in leaves were: Ca>K>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu. Major element contents in petals and leaves among 4 cultivar groups were different at statistically significant levels. Petals in red or purple have higher amount of most major minerals than those in white or pink colors. The wide range of mineral element contents among cultivars is attributed to genotypic variations. The correlations of major mineral elements in the petals and leaves of herbaceous peony cultivars indicate that mineral ions compete for the same absorption sites. The results provided some scientific support for petal nutrition of herbaceous peony and selecting herbaceous peony flowers with dark colors for edible is feasible.

  16. STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT GROUNDCOVER MATTER ON MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF LEAF IN APPLE ORCHARD IN EAST HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter NAGY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different groundcover materials on soil and plant nutrition. Trees of apple cv. ‘Idared’/MM.106 (Malus domestica Borkh. were planted into lowland chernozem soil in the spring of 1999. Applied treatments can be divided into two groups: different livestock manures and mulches. Soil strips of 150 cm width were covered either with straw, different livestock manure, black plastic foil, pine bark mulch or were without cover i.e. clean cultivation as a check. Leaf and soil samples were collected for chemical analysis. It was found that all groundcover treatments induced an increase in leaf nitrogen, sulphur and calcium. Leaf magnesium was not affected so obviously by different groundcover treatments. Leaf potassium was not affected by applying different livestock manures, except horse manure but lower in mulch treatments compared to the control. Leaf phosphorous was decreased by treatments except using horse manure. Examination of ratios of nutrients showed that there were disharmonies in the available nutrients supply of soil. The best results were obtained by applying horse manure.

  17. Nutrient Content and pH of Honey Propolis Trigona from Masamba, South Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nilawati Usman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Honey and propolis have nutritional components that are beneficial to health, but data concerning nutrient components of honey mixed propolis is still lacking. This study aims to determine the nutrient components and PH honey given addition of propolis, that is honey propolis from Masamba Trigona bees, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This type of research is laboratory research with sample85 grams Trigona honey mixed with 15 gram Propolis Trigona. The results showed that honey propolis Trigona of Masamba has low pH, high total phenols and quercetin content. Examination vitamin A, C and E show that vitamin C content is the highest while the mineral from 3 types examined, namely Magnesium, calcium and zinc, the highest is calcium. Further research is needed on the benefits of honey Propolis Trigona Masamba for health.

  18. Contribution of Leaf Litter to Nutrient Export during Winter Months in an Urban Residential Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Anika R; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E; Janke, Benjamin D; Worm, Adam C; Kemmitt, Kathrine L

    2017-03-03

    Identification of nonpoint sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in urban systems is imperative to improving water quality and better managing eutrophication. Winter contributions and sources of annual N and P loads from urban watersheds are poorly characterized in northern cities because monitoring is often limited to warm-weather periods. To determine the winter export of N and P, we monitored stormwater outflow in a residential watershed in Saint Paul, Minnesota during 2012-2014. Our data demonstrate that winter melt events contribute a high percentage of annual N and P export (50%). We hypothesized that overwintering leaf litter that is not removed by fall street sweeping could be an important source to winter loads of N and P. We estimated contributions of this source by studying decomposition in lawns, street gutters, and catch basins during two winters. Rates of mass and N loss were negligible during both winters. However, P was quickly solubilized from decomposing leaves. Using mass balances and estimates of P leaching losses, we estimated that leaf litter could contribute 80% of winter total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) loading in this watershed (∼40% of annual TDP loading). Our work indicates that urban trees adjacent to streets likely represent a major source of P pollution in northern cities. Management that targets important winter sources such as tree leaves could be highly effective for reducing P loading and may mitigate eutrophication in urban lakes and streams in developed cities.

  19. Evaluation of a Leaf Collection and Street Cleaning Program as a Way to Reduce Nutrients and Organic Carbon in Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.

    2016-12-01

    Organic detritus can be major sources of nutrients and organic carbon in urban stormwater, especially in areas with dense overhead tree canopy. In order to meet impending regulation to reduce nutrient loads, many cities will require information on structural and non-structural stormwater control measures that target organic detritus. Most cities already conduct some level of leaf collection and existing street cleaning programs; however, few studies have quantified their water-quality benefits. The U.S Geological Survey measured the water-quality benefits of a municipal leaf collection program coupled with street cleaning in Madison, WI, USA during the months of October through November of 2014 and 2015. The calibration phase of the study (2014) characterized nutrient and organic carbon concentrations and loads in runoff from two paired basins without leaf collection or street cleaning. During the treatment phase (2015), leaf collection and street cleaning was done in the test basin by city personnel on a weekly basis. Additionally, prior to each precipitation event, USGS personnel removed as much organic debris from the street surface as reasonably possible. The control remained without street cleaning or leaf collection for the entire monitoring period. During the fall, leaf collection and street cleaning was able to remove the increased amount of organic debris from the curb and street surface which resulted in statistically significant (pmunicipal programs, results from this study suggest a significant reduction of nutrient and organic carbon loads in urban stormwater is feasible when leaves and other organic detritus are removed from streets prior to precipitation events.

  20. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures

    OpenAIRE

    BOHNENBERGER,JULIANA E.; LUCIANE O. CROSSETTI

    2014-01-01

    The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another...

  1. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  2. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... condition without the benefit of special processing, alteration, formulation, or reformulation to lower the caloric content, it is labeled to disclose that calories are not usually present in the food (e.g., “cider...). (ii) If a food meets these conditions without the benefit of special processing,...

  3. Reaction of Leaf Weevil Phyllobius arborator (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Manganese Content in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, P; Kula, E; Hedbávný, J

    2017-02-01

    Reaction of leaf weevil (Phyllobius arborator (Herbst)) to increased concentration of manganese in diet was investigated in laboratory rearing with controlled temperature, humidity, and light conditions. Food for leaf weevils in rearing (leaves of birch Betula pendula Roth) was contaminated by soaking the leaves in solutions of MnCl2.4H2O with graded concentration of manganese. Direct influence of food was characterized by the consumed amount of leaves, period of feeding, and weight of P. arborator adults. At the same time, the levels of manganese in unconsumed food, excrement, and bodies of adults were determined.Even very high content of manganese in food did not cause significantly different reaction of P. arborator adults in comparison to individuals in control treatment. No significant difference in the quantity of the consumed food, weight of adults, and duration of their feeding period was found between the treatments within the experiment. The content of manganese found in food, excrement, and adult beetles indicate that P. arborator avoided manganese intoxication through food by both-voiding manganese through the feces and sequestering it at relatively high concentrations in unspecified parts of their body. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  5. Integrating species composition and leaf nitrogen content to indicate effects of nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enzai

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has been increasing globally and has arisen concerns of its impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Ecological indicators play an important role in ecosystem monitoring, assessment and management in the context of an anthropogenic transformation of the global N cycle. By integrating species composition and leaf N stoichiometry, a new community N indicator was defined and validated in the understory plots of an N enrichment (as NH4NO3) experiment in an old-growth boreal forest in Northeast China. Three-year N additions showed no significant effect on the understory species richness, but an obvious shift in species composition occurred. The response of leaf N content to N additions was generally positive but varied by species. Overall, the community N indicator increased significantly with higher N addition level and soil available N content, being in the shape of a non-linear saturation response curve. The results suggest that the community N indicator could be an effective tool to indicate changes in ecosystem N availability. Critical values of the community N indicator for specific vegetation type could potentially provide useful information for nature conservation managers and policy makers.

  6. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases.

  7. Predicting leaf gravimetric water content from foliar reflectance across a range of plant species using continuous wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Rivard, Benoit; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo G; Féret, Jean-Baptiste; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Ustin, Susan L

    2012-08-15

    Leaf water content is an important variable for understanding plant physiological properties. This study evaluates a spectral analysis approach, continuous wavelet analysis (CWA), for the spectroscopic estimation of leaf gravimetric water content (GWC, %) and determines robust spectral indicators of GWC across a wide range of plant species from different ecosystems. CWA is both applied to the Leaf Optical Properties Experiment (LOPEX) data set and a synthetic data set consisting of leaf reflectance spectra simulated using the leaf optical properties spectra (PROSPECT) model. The results for the two data sets, including wavelet feature selection and GWC prediction derived using those features, are compared to the results obtained from a previous study for leaf samples collected in the Republic of Panamá (PANAMA), to assess the predictive capabilities and robustness of CWA across species. Furthermore, predictive models of GWC using wavelet features derived from PROSPECT simulations are examined to assess their applicability to measured data. The two measured data sets (LOPEX and PANAMA) reveal five common wavelet feature regions that correlate well with leaf GWC. All three data sets display common wavelet features in three wavelength regions that span 1732-1736 nm at scale 4, 1874-1878 nm at scale 6, and 1338-1341 nm at scale 7 and produce accurate estimates of leaf GWC. This confirms the applicability of the wavelet-based methodology for estimating leaf GWC for leaves representative of various ecosystems. The PROSPECT-derived predictive models perform well on the LOPEX data set but are less successful on the PANAMA data set. The selection of high-scale and low-scale features emphasizes significant changes in both overall amplitude over broad spectral regions and local spectral shape over narrower regions in response to changes in leaf GWC. The wavelet-based spectral analysis tool adds a new dimension to the modeling of plant physiological properties with

  8. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  9. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Contillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to estimate the N-status in flue-cured tobacco. The aims was to verify if a relationship exists between SPAD readings and leaf N content, and if a single leaf, in a well defined stalk position, could represent the nitrogen content of the whole plant. During the years 1995 and 1996, a pot experiment was conducted using two flue-cured tobacco varieties. SPAD values, total chlorophyll, total N contents and leaf area were measured throughout the growing season, on each odd leaf stalk position. SPAD values were well-correlated with both total chlorophyll and total N leaf concentration, and the regression coefficients were higher when relationships were calculated on a leaf-area basis. For both relationships, SPAD-total chlorophyll and SPAD-total N, the best fittings were obtained with quadratic equations. One leaf stalk position alone is able to monitor the N-status of the whole plant during the first six weeks after transplanting, without distinction of year and variety effects. The SPAD measurement of one leaf per plant, throughout the vegetative growing season, is therefore a valid tool to test the N-status of the crop in a period when a required N supply is still effective.

  10. Seasonal Difference in Antioxidant Capacity and Active Compounds Contents of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EU is a Traditional Chinese Medicine and a functional food in China. Antioxidant contents of EU leaves, which were collected monthly during the period of May–October in three years, were determined. Samples’ antioxidant capacity was characterized by DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating ability, and antioxidant capacity in linoleic acid emulsion and in rapeseed oil assays. The results showed that contents of some active compounds and antioxidant activity were related to a certain time of the year. Samples collected in August showed high content of phenolics, and the samples collected in May contained higher amount of flavonoids than other samples. Leaves collected in May or June exhibited high contents of rutin, quercetin, geniposidic acid and aucubin. The August leaves showed stable and high DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferrous chelating ability. May samples showed strong inhibitory effects on oxidation of rapeseed oil and linoleic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was related to the total phenolics content. Flavonoids played an important role in the inhibitory effects on rapeseed oil and linoleic acid oxidation. Therefore, August and May were indicated as the best months to harvest EU leaves for industry.

  11. Effects of Different Levels of Water Stress on Leaf Water Potential, Stomatal Resistance, Protein and Chlorophyll Content and Certain Anti-oxidative Enzymes in Tomato Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatem Zgallai; Kathy Steppe; Raoul Lemeur

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed in order to investigate the effects of different levels of water stress on leaf water potential (ψw), stomatal resistance (rs), protein content and chlorophyll (Chi) content of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Nikita). Water stress was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG 6 000) to the nutrient solution to reduce the osmotic potential (ψs). We investigated the behavior of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), during the development of water stress. Moderate and severe water stress (i.e.ψs= -0.51 and -1.22 MPa, respectively) caused a decrease in ψw for all treated (water-stressed) plants compared with control plants, with the reduction being more pronounced for severely stressed plants. In addition, rs was significantly affected by the induced water stress and a decrease in leaf soluble proteins and Chi content was observed. Whereas CAT activity remained constant, SOD activity was increased in water-stressed plants compared with unstressed plants. These results indicate the possible role of SOD as an anti-oxidant protector system for plants under water stress conditions. Moreover, it suggests the possibility of using this enzyme as an additional screening criterion for detecting water stress in plants.

  12. [Responses of Agriophyllum squarrosum phenotypic plasticity to the changes of soil nutrient and moisture contents and population density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-xin; Zhao, Xue-yong; Zhang, Hong-xuan; Luo, Ya-yong; Mao, Wei

    2008-12-01

    This paper studied the phenotypic plasticity of Agriophyllum squarrosum under effects of soil nutrient and moisture contents and population density. The results showed that with the increase of soil nutrient content, the root/shoot ratio of A. squarrosum was decreased from 0.135 to 0.073. However, soil moisture content and population density had less effect on the root/shoot ratio. The plasticity of reproductive allocation of A. squarrosum as responding to the changes of soil nutrient and moisture contents was a "real plasticity", and the allocation was negatively correlated with soil nutrient content but positively correlated with soil moisture content. When soil nutrient content was high or moisture content was low, the reproductive allocation of A. squarrosum changed larger with plant size. Population density had no effects on the reproductive allocation, while plant size conditioned the allocation. Among the three test affecting factors, soil nutrient content had the greatest effects on the morphological characters and biomass of A. squarrosum.

  13. Variations in Leaf Soluble Amino Acids and Ammonium Content in Subtropical Seagrasses Related to Salinity Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, Warren M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of leaf soluble amino acids was conducted for four subtropical seagrasses grown at several salinities. Proline functioned as an organic osmoticum in Halodule wrightii Aschers., Thallasia testudinum Banks ex Koenig, and Ruppia maritima L., while alanine functioned in an osmoregulatory capacity in Halophila engelmanni Aschers. When light-and salinity-induced variations in leaf NH4 and amide-N levels were compared in Halodule, Thalassia, and Halophila, ability to regulate leaf NH4 levels was correlated with osmoregulatory capacity and maintenance of selected amino acid contents. PMID:16664600

  14. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Leaf Yield, Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ebadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic fertilizers with beneficial effects on soil structure and nutrient availability help maintain yield and quality, and they are less costly than synthetic fertilizers. Vermicompost and vermiwash are two organic fertilizers that they contain a biologically active mixture of bacteria, enzymes and phytohormones, also these organic fertilizers can supply the nutritional needs of plants. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora Kunth, Verbenaceae is an evergreen perennial aromatic plant. The lemon-scented essential oil from the lemon verbena has been widely used for its digestive, relaxing, antimalarial and lemony flavor properties. In order to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers for reduction of environmental pollution, this research was undertaken to determine effects of vermicompost and vermiwash in comparison with chemical fertilizer on leaf yield, essential oil content and composition of lemon verbena. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment based on a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications on Lemon verbena was carried out in the experimental greenhouse of the Department of Horticulture Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 2012. Treatments consisted of 10, 20 and 30 % by volume of vermicompost and vermiwash (with an addition to irrigation in three steps, including: two weeks after the establishment of plants in pots, the appearing of branches and three weeks before harvest, complete fertilizer and control without any fertilizer. Each replication contained six pots and each pot contained one plant of Lemon verbena provided from Institute of Medicinal Plants, Karaj, therefore 108 pots were used in this experiment. The pots were filled up by a mixture contained 3/5 soil and 2/5 sand (v/v. After three months, plant aerial parts were harvested concomitantly at starting of the flowering stage. Aerial parts were dried at room temperature for 72 hours and dry weights of dried branches and leaves were

  15. NUTRIENTS CONTENT AND ALLOCATION IN Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton Willd. PLANTATIONS IN DOM FELICIANO, RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Witschoreck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812350This study had as objective to evaluate nutrients content and allocation pattern in different biomasscomponents of Platanus x acerifolia, in a 5.5 year stand, located in Dom Feliciano, Rio Grande do Sul state.Twenty-four trees were sampled, based on diametric amplitude, with biomass determination in the followingcomponents: leaves, fruits, stem bark, wood and roots. To study the variation of nutrients concentration,wood and bark samples were collected in different positions along the stem. Nutrients stock estimation, ineach component, was based on biomass average values and nutrients content, by the number of trees perdiametric classes per hectare. Nutrients content variation along the stem, in bark and in wood was studiedbased on regression equations adjustment, correlating nutrients concentration and the point of collection.Considering all biomass components, the following sequence according to nutrients concentration was: N> Ca > K > Mg > P > S > Fe > Mn > B > Zn > Cu. The highest contents, for most nutrients, were observedin leaves and the lowest, for all nutrients, were observed in the wood. Total nutrients stock in Platanus xacerifolia biomass was 574.72 kg ha-1, according to the following allocation order, among the components:wood ~ branches > roots ~ leaves > bark > fruits. Regarding to nutrients, the accumulation sequence was feasfollows: N > K > Ca > Mg > S > P > Fe > Mn > B > Zn > Cu, where N, K and Ca represent 82.9% fromthe total. It was verified a great variance in nutrient concentration along the stem, bark and wood, withdistinction of basic patterns: growing, decreasing and invariable, from the base of the tree towards to thetop.

  16. The evaluation of fish farming impact by nutrient content and chlorophyll A in Mala Lamljana bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelic-Mrcelic Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief review of the impacts of fish farming on the nutrient content and chlorophyll a in Mala Lamljana Bay, Croatia. Local loading of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds in fish farms can be very significant and can represent the largest source of N and P in a given area. Low N and P concentrations, low chlorophyll a concentration and a great variety of phytoplankton species were found in the bay, despite the high nutrient loading during the long history of farming in the bay. The phytoplankton community consisted mostly of diatoms and partly of dinoflagellates. Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros compressus were the dominant species (90% in summer chlorophyll, which is typical for Middle Adriatic oligotrophic coastal waters. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine changes in water column factors and planktonic communities in this area.

  17. MONITORING FEED NUTRIENT CONTENT OF AVAILABLE COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEEDS IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. AGANGA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient quality in a feedstuff is the concentration of that nutrient in quantities that are sufficient for normal metabolic activities of a particular animal. Hence the study was carried out to determine nutrient quality of various locally available concentrate poultry feeds in the market and compare determined feed contents with nutrient values on labels. The samples were obtained from broiler farmers in Gaborone region. Mean analysis values from manufacturer A feeds were 19.64, 3.29, 0.19 and 0.43 for starter, 16.39, 3.98, 0.11 and 0.57 for grower, and 16.94, 4.27, 0.16 and 0.48 for finisher in g/100g on dry matter basis, crude protein, fats, phosphorus and calcium respectively. Feed label stated 22, 2.5, 0.6 and 8 for starter, 20, 2.5, 0.55 and 0.8 for grower and 18, 2.5, 0.5 and 0.8 for finisher in g/100g on dry matter basis for crude protein, fats, phosphorus and calcium respectively. Grower feeds from manufacturer B contained 18.33, 2.65, 0.24 and 0.66 in g/100g as compared to feed label values of 18.0, 2.5, 0.55 and 0.7 in g/100g on dry matter basis for crude protein, fats, phosphorus and calcium respectively. Manufacturer C finisher feed also contained 18.16, 4.1, 0.17 and 0.52 in g/100g on dry matter basis for crude protein, fats, phosphorus and calcium respectively. The quantity of minerals was found to be lower in all feeds from all manufacturers with manufacturer A lower in almost all other organic nutrients (except fats compared to values stated on feed labels.

  18. Influence of perennial colonies of piscivorous birds on soil nutrient contents in a temperate humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Ehlers-Koch, Camilla; Gregersen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    conductivity and content of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium in a reference area and in two cormorant sub-colonies. In general, the soils exposed to cormorant guano had lower pH and higher contents of plant available phosphorus, calcium and potassium compared to the control reference soil......, but the bird’s influence on the soil conditions has only in few cases been studied in detail. In this study the influence of perennial colonies of piscivorous birds on soil nutrient contents and accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a humid climate has been determined by measuring pH, electric......During the last decades, the number of perennial colonies of piscivorous birds especially cormorant colonies in North-western Europe has grown rapidly due to protection. Their impact on vegetation has been recognized, as many trees containing perennial colonies of piscivorous birds have collapsed...

  19. Impact of Microbial Inoculants on Microbial Quantity, Enzyme Activity and Available Nutrient Content in Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-jie; Duan Xue-jiao; Ma Na; Sun Tao; Xu Jing-gang

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the impact of application of microbial inoculants, compared with no microbial fertilizer, on enzyme activity, microbial biomass and available nutrient contents in paddy soil in Heilongjiang Province. The application ofsoil phosphorus activator was able to increase the quantity of bacteria and fungi in soil, but its effect on actinomycetes in soil was not significant. The application of microbial inoculants increased the urease and sucrase activities in soil over the growing season, but only at the maturing stage soil acid phosphatase activity was enhanced with the applying soil phosphorus activator. The application of soil phosphorus activator increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus contents in soil, but did not increase available potassium content in soil. The optimal microbial inoculant application rate as applied as soil phosphorus activator was 7.5 kg•hm-2.

  20. Family food purchases and home food consumption: comparison of nutrient contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Dyson, P A; Paul, A A

    1985-09-01

    Estimates of nutrient intakes based on food purchasing records modelled on the National Food Survey (NFS) were compared with nutrient intakes calculated from food consumption records based on a semi-weighted method, a combination of weighing and household measurement techniques. Of eighty-two families in Cambridge who completed the study, thirty-two were volunteers and fifty were from a random sample in which the co-operation rate was 73%. The estimated energy and nutrient contents of the Cambridge food purchases were very similar to those reported by the NFS for families of similar composition and income. The energy intakes obtained by the semi-weighed method were compared with results from twenty-five studies of energy intake based on quantitative measurements of food consumption: there was no evidence to suggest that the semi-weighed method consistently under- or overestimated intakes in the Cambridge subjects. Purchases adjusted to allow for waste and consumption of food by visitors contained significantly more energy, protein, carbohydrate, calcium, iron and dietary fibre than measured home food consumption. There was no significant difference in the nutrient content of purchases and consumption per 4.184 MJ (1000 kcal), with the exception of Fe and ascorbic acid. Measured wastage of edible food in thirty-one families averaged 3.2% of purchases. Estimate of wastage in all eighty-two families was 3.8%, and consumption of food by visitors accounted for 3.0% of purchases. The excess of purchases over measured home food energy intake is probably accounted for by a net increase in larder stocks rather than wastage, consumption of food by visitors, or under-recording of intakes.

  1. Determination of persimmon leaf chloride contents using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José Miguel; Visconti, Fernando; Chiaravalle, Mara; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis of specific chloride toxicity in persimmon trees requires the reliable and fast determination of the leaf chloride content, which is usually performed by means of a cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming wet analysis. A methodology has been developed in this study as an alternative to determine chloride in persimmon leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with multivariate calibration techniques. Based on a training dataset of 134 samples, a predictive model was developed from their NIR spectral data. For modelling, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method was used. The best model was obtained with the first derivative of the apparent absorbance and using just 10 latent components. In the subsequent external validation carried out with 35 external data this model reached r(2) = 0.93, RMSE = 0.16% and RPD = 3.6, with standard error of 0.026% and bias of -0.05%. From these results, the model based on NIR spectral readings can be used for speeding up the laboratory determination of chloride in persimmon leaves with only a modest loss of precision. The intermolecular interaction between chloride ions and the peptide bonds in leaf proteins through hydrogen bonding, i.e. N-H···Cl, explains the ability for chloride determinations on the basis of NIR spectra.

  2. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  3. Effect of fermented noni leaf (Morinda citrifolia L. in diets on cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Syahruddin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken meat is very nutritious. It is sometimes blamed to cause strock attack and coronary heart disease in human, because of high fat and cholesterol contents in the chicken meat. Therefore, the aim of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of fermented noni leaf levels in diets on the cholesterol content of broiler chicken carcass. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with eight experimental diets containing 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21% of fermented noni leaf powder. All diets were formulated to contain 22% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg. Each treatment had three replicates with ten chickens per replicate. Two hundred and forty day old unsex broiler chicks Arbor Acress were fed ad lib. for eight weeks and then sacrificed. Feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and cholesterol content of carcass were taken as variable responses. Data were analyzed based on analysis of variance and orthogonal comparisons. Results showed that feed consumption, daily weight gain, FCR and carcass content were not affected by the levels of fermented noni leaf in the diet. However, cholesterol content of broiler carcass was significantly (P < 0.05 affected by the dietary treatments. Cholesterol content of the carcass was reduced processed 26.18% 73.06 to 53.76 mg/100g mg/100g chicken meat. The lowest cholesterol level was obtained by feeding the chickens with diets containing 21% fermented noni leaf.

  4. [Determination of soil available nutrient contents using multi-element hollow cathode lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-kun; He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Wang, Yu-chang

    2011-07-01

    The soil available nutrient determination based on atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-element hollow cathode lamp (HCL) is improved from the instrument using single-element HCLs via modifying the software and hardware. As a test, available Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg and Ca contents of 30 fluvo-aquic soil samples measured by atomic absorption spectrometry using a multi-element HCL were compared with that measured by using single-element HCLs for 3 replications. A significant linear relationship with the slope close to 1 was found in soil available Cu, Fe, Zn and Ca contents measured by using multi-element HCL and single-element HCLs. The linear correlation coefficient of 0.86 and the slope of 0.85 were found in soil available Mg content. No significant difference was revealed from the above comparison data via analysis of variance. Therefore, the soil available nutrient determination based on atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-element HCL has the same measurement accuracy and is 50%-60% time-saving compared to that by using single-element HCLs.

  5. Evaluation of quality and nutrient contents of table eggs from different sources in the retail market

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    Youssef A. Attia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Table egg quality and nutrient contents from four sources in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were evaluated using straight run experimental design and compared with the recommended daily allowance (RDA, 2002/2005 profiles. Egg source had a noticeable effect (P<0.05 on shell weight per unit of surface area, albumen percentage, Haugh unit, yolk percentage, index and colour. Differences in dry matter, protein, and lipid profiles of eggs were significant (P<0.05 among various sources, while variability in egg cholesterol and low density lipoprotein reached 51 and 17.6% (P<0.05, respectively. Egg sources had an effect (P<0.05 on total antioxidant capacity and lipid malonaldehyde. Mineral contents (mg/egg of the whole edible parts of eggs showed a significant difference (P<0.05 among different egg sources in most of the minerals except for potassium. In conclusion, eggs in the retail market had variable quality and nutrition contents that may affect the fulfillment of the RDA for human and may possibly improve the quality of eggs and their nutritional values. Such diversity indicates the need for uniform of production and husbandry practice, the enforcement of quality control regulations based on egg quality and nutrient profiles by the authorities in the market, and the impact this may have on the health of the consumer.

  6. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    SUSI KRESNATITA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to determine the diversity of indigenous vegetables in Central Kalimantan, its use as a vegetable and nutrient content some vegetables. The method used was the exploration and interviews. Exploration carried out in three districts namely Palangkaraya, Pulang Pisau, and Seruyan. Sampling of plants was randomly and selectively. Data analysis was performed descriptively. The results showed that we recorded 42 plant species belonging to 30 families. There were many vegetables processing: stir-fry, clear soup, a light coconut milk soup, acidic soup, or just consumed as fresh vegetables. The result of nutritional value analyzed, Helminthostachys zeylanica (L. Hook had a potential to further develop whether as vegetables or medicinal plant. It had the highest protein, carbohydrate and mineral P, Fe, Na and K content among the vegetables analyzed.

  7. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; HAO Yan-shu; Lei, Jing; JIANG Cun-cang

    2016-01-01

    To find out the effect of potassium(K) and boron(B) on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1), B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1) hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane rela...

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing of crop leaf chlorophyll content using reflectance simulation model and field data in open canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Yanhong; Liu, Liangyun; Zhang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content -a and -b content (Cab) is an indicator for crop nutrition status and photosynthetic capacity. Remote sensing of Cab plays an important role in crop growth monitoring, pest and disease diagnosis, and crop yield assessment, yet the feasibility and stability of such estimation has not been assessed thoroughly for mixed pixels when crop canopies are not closed. This study analyzes the influence of spectral mixing on leaf chlorophyll content estimation using canopy spectra simulated by the PROSAIL reflectance model and the spectral linear mixture concept. It is observed that the accuracy of leaf chlorophyll content estimation would be degraded for mixed pixels using the well accepted approach of the combination of TCARI and OSAVI. A two-step method was thus developed for winter wheat chlorophyll content estimation by taking into consideration the fractional vegetation cover using a look-up table approach. The two methods were validated using ground spectra, airborne hyperspectral data and leaf chlorophyll content measured the same time over experimental winter wheat fields. Using the two-step method, the leaf chlorophyll content of the open canopy was estimated from the airborne hyperspectral imagery with a root mean square error of 5.18 μg cm-2, which is an improvement of about 8.9% relative to the accuracy obtained using the TCARI/OSAVI ratio directly. This implies that the method proposed in this study has great potential for hyperspectral applications in agricultural management, particularly for applications before crop canopy closure. This study, therefore, offers a feasible technique that might be applied to crop chlorophyll content estimation using large-scale remote sensing data.

  9. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Schulz, Elke; Schloter, Michael; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P) and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity) had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients) than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (Pforest management (low forest management intensity) exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, Pforest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the nutrient content of preterm and term breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast milk nutrient content varies with prematurity and postnatal age. Our aims were to conduct a meta-analysis of preterm and term breast milk nutrient content (energy, protein, lactose, oligosaccharides, fat, calcium, and phosphorus); and to assess the influence of gestational and postnatal age. Additionally we assessed for differences by laboratory methods for: energy (measured vs. calculated estimates) and protein (true protein measurement vs. the total nitrogen estimates). Me...

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-06-10

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS.

  12. Grouping sunflower genotypes for yield, oil content, and reaction to Alternaria leaf spot using GGE biplot

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    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitability of the multivariate method of principal component analysis (PCA using the GGE biplot software for grouping sunflower genotypes for their reaction to Alternaria leaf spot disease (Alternariaster helianthi, and for their yield and oil content. Sixty-nine genotypes were evaluated for disease severity in the field, at the R3 growth stage, in seven growing seasons, in Londrina, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using a diagrammatic scale developed for this disease. Yield and oil content were also evaluated. Data were standardized using the software Statistica, and GGE biplot was used for PCA and graphical display of data. The first two principal components explained 77.9% of the total variation. According to the polygonal biplot using the first two principal components and three response variables, the genotypes were divided into seven sectors. Genotypes located on sectors 1 and 2 showed high yield and high oil content, respectively, and those located on sector 7 showed tolerance to the disease and high yield, despite the high disease severity. The principal component analysis using GGE biplot is an efficient method for grouping sunflower genotypes based on the studied variables.

  13. Significance for humans of the nutrient contents of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, E U; Izunwane, B C; Aremu, C Y; Eka, O U

    1994-01-01

    The nutritional quality of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera, a tropical deciduous forest tree with characteristic fruits, used as a spice, was assessed. The fruit shell, fruit pulp and seed contained varying amounts of nutrients such as protein, lipids and minerals, which were comparable and some were even higher than popular spices such as red pepper, onion, curry and ginger. The crude fibre content of the fruit shell was noteworthy and can be considered a good source of this nutritional factor. The distribution of crude lipids which indicated the location of the aroma of the spice, would enhance the processing of the fruit and improve its use.

  14. Iron and nutrient content of wind-erodible sediment in the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, A. P.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Thomas, D. S. G.

    2017-08-01

    Research concerning the global distribution of aeolian dust sources has principally focussed on salt/clay pan and desiccated lacustrine emission areas. In southern Africa such sources are identified as Etosha Pan in northern Namibia and Makgadikgadi Pans in northern Botswana. Dust emitting from ephemeral river valleys, however, has been largely overlooked. Rivers are known nutrient transport pathways and the flooding regimes of ephemeral river valleys frequently replenish stores of fine sediment which, on drying, can become susceptible to aeolian erosion. Such airborne sediment may be nutrient rich and thus be significant for the fertilisation of marine waters once deposited. This study investigates the dust source sediments from three ephemeral river valleys in Namibia in terms of their particle size distribution and their concentrations of bioavailable N, P and Fe. We compare the nutrient content of these sediments from the ephemeral river valleys to those collected from Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans and consider their relative ocean fertilising potential. Our results show that the ephemeral river valleys contain fine grained sediment similar in physical character to Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans yet they have up to 43 times greater concentrations of bioavailable iron and enriched N and P macronutrients that are each important for ocean fertilisation. The known dust-emitting river valleys of Namibia may therefore be contributing a greater fertilisation role in the adjacent marine system than previously considered, and not-yet investigated. Given this finding a re-assessment of the potential role of ephemeral river valleys in providing nutrient-rich sediment into the aeolian and marine systems in other dryland areas is necessary.

  15. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary) productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  16. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Pakeman

    Full Text Available This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  17. Fungal endophyte (Epichloe festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

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    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  18. Macro-fungal diversity and nutrient content of some edible mushrooms of Nagaland, India

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    RAJESH KUMAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kumar R, Tapwal A, Pandey S, Borah RK, Borah DP, Borgohain J. 2013. Macro-fungal diversity and nutrient content of some edible mushrooms of Nagaland, India. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 1-7. The northeast region of India abounds in forest wealth, including variety of flora and fauna. The high humidity during monsoon period provides ideal atmospheric conditions for the growth of diverse group of macrofungal fruit bodies. Nagaland, the northeastern state of India is rich in biodiversity and encompasses large numbers edible and non-edible mushroom species. Young and matured carpophores of 15 wild edible mushroom species were collected from 12 locations in different districts of Nagaland. Out of these four species belongs to family Agaricaceae, two belongs to Tricholomataceae and rest belongs to Boletaceae, Cantherallaceae, Russulaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae, Auriculariaceae, Polyporaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Pleurotaceae and Lyophyllaceae. The selected species were analyzed for proximate analysis of nutritional values. The protein content varies from 22.50-44.93% and carbohydrates were recorded 32.43-52.07% in selected species. The documentation of wild edible mushrooms is very scanty in Northeast India. The key objective of the present study was to generate a database on macrofungal diversity, ecology, ethnomycology, utilization and nutrient status of important wild edible mushroom species of Nagaland, which forms a part of the food culture of the native peoples.

  19. Content of nutrient and antinutrient in edible flowers of wild plants in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Angela; López-García, Semeí; Basurto-Peña, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Nutrient and antinutritional/toxic factors present in some edible flowers consumed in Mexico were determined. The edible flowers were: Agave salmiana, Aloe vera, Arbutus xalapensis, Cucurbita pepo (cultivated), Erythrina americana, Erythrina caribaea, Euphorbia radians benth and Yucca filifera. The nutrient content in the flowers studied is similar to that of the edible leaves and flowers studied mainly in Africa. The moisture content of the flowers varied from 860 to 932 g kg(-1). Crude protein (CP) was between 113 to 275 g kg(-1) DM, crude fiber, 104 to 177 g kg(-1) DM and the nitrogen free extract, between 425 to 667 g kg(-1) DM. The highest chemical score (CS) was found in E. americana and A. salmiana; in five samples the limiting amino acid was lysine, and in three of them it was tryptophan. Trypsin inhibitors and hemaglutinnins had a very low concentration. Alkaloids were present in both the Erythrina species and the saponins in A. salmiana and Y. filifera. Cyanogenic glucosides were not found in the studied flowers. The traditional process of preparing these specific flowers before consumption is by cooking them and discarding the broth; in this way the toxic substances are diminished or eliminated. These edible flowers from wild plants consumed in local areas of the country play an important role in the diet of the people at least during the short time of the season where they are blooming.

  20. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witoon Purahong

    Full Text Available Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (P<0.05. The site with near-to-nature forest management (low forest management intensity exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, P<0.0001; manganese peroxidase (MnP, P = 0.0260. Our results also indicate that lignin decomposition is the rate limiting step in leaf litter decomposition and that MnP is one of the key oxidative enzymes of litter degradation. We demonstrate here that forest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  1. Retrieval of vertical leaf water content using terrestrial full-waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-10-01

    The vertical distribution of leaf water content (LWC) within plant canopy plays an important role in light penetration and scattering, thus affecting reflectance simulation with radiative transfer models. Although passive remote sensing techniques have been widely applied to estimate LWC, they are unable to retrieve the LWC vertical distribution within canopy. By providing vertical information, terrestrial LiDAR can potentially overcome this limitation. In this paper we investigated the applicability of the terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR to estimate the LWC vertical profile within the canopy of individual plants. A standard radiometric calibration was applied to convert the amplitude and the echo width to a physically well-defined radiometric quantity, namely the backscatter coefficient. However, the backscatter coefficient is strongly affected by the incidence angle between the laser beam and the leaf normal. In order to compensate for incidence angle effects, reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to calibrated the backscatter coefficient. Our results showed that the backscatter coefficient had a strong correlation (R2 = 0.66) with LWC after correcting for the incidence angle effect. Good agreements were achieved between the predicted vertical profile of LWC and the measured vertical profile of LWC with a mean RMSE (root mean square error) value of 0.001 g/cm2 and a mean MAPE (mean absolute percent error) value of 4.46 %. Our study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of retrieving LWC vertical distribution within plant canopy from a terrestrial full-waveform LiDAR.

  2. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  3. Evaluation of Leaf Total Nitrogen Content for Nitrogen Management in a Malaysian Paddy Field by Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter

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    A. Gholizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Laboratory plant testing is usually time-consuming and high-costing. Hence, plant nutrient variability must be measured rapidly and the information made known to the farmers before the new season starts. Site-specific crop management, well-established in some developed countries, is now being considered in other places such as Malaysia. Approach: The application of site-specific management principles and techniques to diverse crops and small-scale farming systems in Malaysia will present new challenges. Describing within-field variability in typical Malaysian production settings is a fundamental first step toward determining the size of management zones and the inter-relationships between limiting factors, for establishment of site-specific management strategies. Results: Measurements of rice SPAD readings and nitrogen content were obtained in a Malaysian rice paddy field. SPAD reading data was manually collected on 80DAT and measured using a Minolta SPAD 502. Leaf samples were collected at 60 points at the same time to compare results from sampling with SPAD reading values. Samples nitrogen content was analyzed in a laboratory. Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of the measured parameters and also their relationship. SPAD reading and nitrogen content maps were created on the interpretation of the data was investigated. Conclusion/Recommendations: Finally the research indicated that SPAD readings are closely related to leaf N content which means the potential for technology of precision farming to understand and control variation in Malaysian production fields and also SPAD chlorophyll meter ability to monitor the N status of rice and recommend the amount of N fertilization. Additional research is needed to confirm the results with data from other fields and crops.

  4. Remote Estimation of Leaf and Canopy Water Content in Winter Wheat with Different Vertical Distribution of Water-Related Properties

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    Shishi Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the vertical distribution of gravimetric water content (GWC, relative water content (RWC, and equivalent water thickness (EWT in winter wheat during heading and early ripening stages, and evaluated the position of leaf number at which Vegetation Indexes (VIs can best retrieve canopy water-related properties of winter wheat. Results demonstrated that the vertical distribution of these properties followed a near-bell-shaped curve with the highest values at the intermediate leaf position. GWC of the top three or four leaves during the heading stage and the top two or three leaves during the early ripening stage can represent the GWC of the whole canopy, but the RWC and EWT of the whole canopy should be calculated based on the top four leaves. At leaf level, the analysis demonstrated strong relationships between EWT and VIs for the top leaf layer, but for GWCD, GWCF, and RWC, the strongest relationships with VIs were found in the intermediate leaf layers. At canopy level, VIs provided the most accurate estimation of GWCfor the top three or four leaves. Water absorption-based VIs could estimate canopy EWT of winter wheat for the top four leaves, but the suitable bands sensitive to water absorptions should be carefully selected for the studied species.

  5. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  6. [Effects of long-term different fertilizations on biomass and nutrient content of maize root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Miao; Meng, Yan; Mohammad Amin, Ahmadzai; Zhou, Jian-bin

    2015-08-01

    Taking two long-term local field trials at the south edge of the Loess Plateau, which were found in 1990 and 2003, respectively, as test subjects, the effects of different fertilization practices on the maize root biomass and nutrient content were investigated in this paper. Maize roots in the 0-20 cm top soil post-maize harvest from the different fertilization practices were collected by hand in October 2011. The results showed that compared with control without fertilization and N, NK, or PK treatments, the NP, NPK, fertilizers plus manure (M1NPK and M2NPK) or plus straw return (SNPK) treatments significantly increased the dry mass of maize root. The C, N, P and K contents in maize roots in the NP, NPK, M1 NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments were also significantly higher than those of control, especially in the NPK plus organic manure treatments (M1 NPK and M2NPK) in the trial. Compared with the N fertilizer free treatment (N0), root biomass in the 120 kg N · hm(-2) (N120) and 240 kg N · hm(-2) ( N240) fertilization treatments increased by 38% and 45%, respectively, but there was no significant difference between N120 and N240 treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer application (N120 and N240) also improved the C, N, P and K contents in maize root. The water soluble organic C and total soluble N contents of maize root in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, SNPK and the N120 and N240 treatments were greater than those of control and other treatments. Otherwise, the cellulose and lignin contents in maize roots declined in the NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK, and SNPK treatments compared with other treatments. So the root C/N and lignin/N ratios in the control, PK and N0 treatments were significantly higher than those in the NP, NPK, M1NPK, M2NPK and SNPK treatments. We concluded that the optimum fertilization (e. g., NP, NPK, MNPK and SNPK treatments) could increase maize root growth and nutrient content and improve soil fertility and carbon sequestration through root residue into soil.

  7. Shelters of leaf-tying herbivores decompose faster than leaves damaged by free-living insects: Implications for nutrient turnover in polluted habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zverev, Vitali; Zvereva, Elena L

    2016-10-15

    Leaf-eating insects can influence decomposition processes by modifying quality of leaf litter, and this impact can be especially pronounced in habitats where leaf-eating insects reach high densities, for example in heavily polluted areas. We hypothesized that the decomposition rate is faster for shelters of leaf-tying larvae than for leaves damaged by free-living insects, in particular due to the accumulation of larval frass within shelters. We exposed litter bags containing samples of three different compositions (shelters built by moth larvae, leaves damaged by free-living insects and intact leaves of mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) for one year at two heavily polluted sites near the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk in north-western Russia and at two unpolluted sites. The decomposition rate of leaves damaged by free-living insects was 91% of that of undamaged leaves, whereas the mass loss of leaves composing shelters did not differ of that of undamaged leaves. These differences between leaves damaged by different guilds of herbivorous insects were uniform across the study sites, although the decomposition rate in polluted sites was reduced to 77% of that in unpolluted sites. Addition of larval frass to undamaged leaves had no effect on the subsequent decomposition rate. Therefore we suggest that damaged leaves tied by shelter-building larvae decompose faster than untied damaged leaves due to a looser physical structure of the litter, which creates favourable conditions for detritivores and soil decomposers. Thus, while leaf damage by insects per se reduces litter quality and its decomposition rate, structuring of litter by leaf-tying insects counterbalances these negative effects. We conclude that leaf-tying larvae, in contrast to free-living defoliators, do not impose negative effects on nutrient turnover rate even at their high densities, which are frequently observed in heavily polluted sites.

  8. A stoichiometric producer-grazer model incorporating the effects of excess food-nutrient content on consumer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Angela; Zhao, Yuqin; Loladze, Irakli; Elser, James J; Kuang, Yang

    2013-08-01

    There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. For example, modeling under this framework allows food quality to affect consumer dynamics. While the effects of nutrient deficiency on consumer growth are well understood, recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that consumer dynamics are not only affected by insufficient food nutrient content (low phosphorus (P): carbon (C) ratio) but also by excess food nutrient content (high P:C). This phenomenon is known as the stoichiometric knife edge, in which animal growth is reduced not only by food with low P content but also by food with high P content, and needs to be incorporated into mathematical models. Here we present a Lotka-Volterra type model to investigate the growth response of Daphnia to algae of varying P:C ratios capturing the mechanism of the stoichiometric knife edge.

  9. Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration, Time and Frequency of Foliar Application on Growth of Leaf and Daughter Corms of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khorasani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of nutrient solution concentration and times and frequencies of foliar applications on dry weight, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm of saffron, a pot experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications under open door conditions in research garden of ferdowsi university, faculty of agriculture. The experimental treatments were included 4 levels of solution concentration (0, 4, 8 and 12 per 1000 and 7 levels of time and frequency of foliar applications (F1: foliar application on 3th February, F2: foliar application on 18th February, F3: foliar application on 5th March, F4: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February, F5: foliar applications on 3th February and 5th March, F6: foliar applications on 18th February and 5th March, F7: foliar applications on 3th and 18th February and 5th March. Results of variance analysis showed that fresh and dry weight of corm and leaf were not influenced by concentration, time and frequency of foliar applications. Also, comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of leaf and corm showed that there was no significant difference between levels of foliar treatments and control. Therefore, it seems that due attention to pattern of leaf and low nutrient demand of saffron, foliar applications in different levels of nutrient solution concentrations and times and frequencies of foliar applications could not increase vegetative growth and consequently, could not improve the growth and nutritional properties of saffron corms.

  10. Effects of nutrient content claims, sports celebrity endorsements and premium offers on pre-adolescent children's food preferences: experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, H; Scully, M; Niven, P; Kelly, B; Chapman, K; Donovan, R; Martin, J; Baur, L A; Crawford, D; Wakefield, M

    2014-04-01

    To assess pre-adolescent children's responses to common child-oriented front-of-pack food promotions. Between-subjects, web-based experiment with four front-of-pack promotion conditions on energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods: no promotion [control]; nutrient content claims; sports celebrity endorsements (male athletes) and premium offers. Participants were 1302 grade 5 and 6 children (mean age 11 years) from Melbourne, Australia. Participants chose their preferred product from a randomly assigned EDNP food pack and comparable healthier food pack then completed detailed product ratings. Child-oriented pack designs with colourful, cartooned graphics, fonts and promotions were used. Compared to the control condition, children were more likely to choose EDNP products featuring nutrient content claims (both genders) and sports celebrity endorsements (boys only). Perceptions of nutritional content were enhanced by nutrient content claims. Effects of promotions on some product ratings (but not choice) were negated when children referred to the nutrition information panel. Premium offers did not enhance children's product ratings or choice. Nutrient content claims and sports celebrity endorsements influence pre-adolescent children's preferences towards EDNP food products displaying them. Policy interventions to reduce the impact of unhealthy food marketing to children should limit the use of these promotions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Seasonal Changes in Forage Nutrients and Mineral Contents in Water Resources,Forage and Yak Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate the concentrations of seven mineral elements in yak blood, forage and water resources around the Qinghai Lake in Qinghai Province in different seasons. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions of the forage were also surveyed. The results suggest that the mineral elements and the forage nutrients change in a seasonal pattern. In yak blood,the sodium(Na)concentration varies from 0.291 to 0.034 mg/mL,and this is lower than the normal value. In the forage,the ratio calcium(Ca)to phosphorus(P)is 4.06~7.47:1 and potassium(K)to Na 30~27:1. These results indicate that the nutrition of the yak in the area is deficient in Na but high in K. For the withered forage sampled in February,the protein content is only 31.14% of the total protein in the forage growing at puerile stage in June. The severe loss of protein by 68. 9% and decrease of effective nutrients in the wintered forage are considered to be the reasons resulting in the poor condition of yak in winter and spring seasons.

  12. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  13. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  14. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-06-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R2 of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R2 of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies.

  15. Serapilheira e teores de nutrientes em argissolo sob diferentes manejos no norte do Piauí Litter and nutrient contents in argisol under different managements in northern Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o estoque de serapilheira acumulada e quantificar os teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg em sistemas agroflorestais com seis (SAF6 e dez (SAF10 anos de adoção, sistema com base ecológica de três anos (SE3, agricultura de corte e queima (ACQ e floresta nativa (FN no Município de Esperantina, norte do Piauí. As coletas foram realizadas nos períodos chuvoso e seco do ano 2007, sendo a serapilheira separada nas frações folhas e galhos para a estimativa dos estoques acumulados sobre o solo. Os maiores estoques da fração folhas foram observados na FN (3,8 Mg(t ha-1, período seco; e da fração galhos no SAF10 (2,2 Mg(t ha-1, no período chuvoso. Os SAFs apresentaram os maiores teores de nutrientes nas frações da serapilheira e entre os nutrientes, e a concentração de N foi superior à dos demais nutrientes, em ambos os períodos. A estimativa de transferência dos nutrientes pela serapilheira obedeceu à sequência N>Ca>K>P>Mg. Os valores de estoques da serapilheira, teores e aportes de nutrientes nos SAFs evidenciam a contribuição do manejo agroflorestal para a qualidade do solo e a sustentabilidade econômica do sistema.This work aimed to evaluate litter deposition and quantify contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in agroforest systems six (AFS6 and ten (AFS10 years after implantation, in three-year old ecological based systems (ES3, slash-and-burn agriculture (SBA and native forest (NF, all located in Esperantina, northern region of Piauí, Brazil. Collections were carried out in the wet and dry seasons of 2007. The litter was separated into leaves and branches and weighted to estimate the deposition on the soil. The highest leaf depositions were found in NF (3.8 Mg ha-1, in the dry season, whereas for branches, in the AFS10 (2.2 Mg ha-1, in the wet season. AFS showed the highest nutrient contents in the litter fractions, and, among them the N concentration was higher than the others, in both seasons

  16. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut V. Mechanisms of immunologic sensation of intestinal contents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Immune perception of intestinal contents reflects a functional dualism with systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens and resident microflora (oral tolerance) and active immune responses to mucosal pathogens. This facilitates optimal absorption of dietary nutrients while conserving immunologic resources for episodic pathogenic challenge. Discrimination between dangerous and harmless antigens within the enteric lumen requires continual sampling of the microenvironment by multiple potential pathways, innate and adaptive recognition mechanisms, bidirectional lymphoepithelial signaling, and rigorous control of effector responses. Errors in these processes disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are associated with food hypersensitivity and mucosal inflammation. Mechanisms of mucosal immune perception and handling of dietary proteins and other antigens have several practical and theoretical implications including vaccine design, therapy of systemic autoimmunity, and alteration of enteric flora with probiotics.

  17. Nutrient release from decomposing leaf mulches of karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré (Parkia biglobosa) under semi-arid conditions in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayala, J.; Mando, A.; Teklehaimanot, Z.; Ouedraogo, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Information on decomposition and nutrient release from leaf litter of trees in agroforestry parkland systems in Sub-Saharan Africa is scarce despite the significant role of these trees on soil fertility improvement and maintenance. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns from pruned leaves of th

  18. Relationship Between Changes in Leaf Endogenous Hormone Contents and Senescence During Grain Filling Stage of a Rice Hybrid and its Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin-juan; LI Xue-mei; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Li-jun

    2004-01-01

    A major problem in hybrid rice production is the occurrence of leaf senescence during the grain filling stage that can result in reduction of yield. Changes in contents of several endogenous hormones are related to leaf senescence. The relationship between endogenous hormones and leaf senescence in the rice hybrid Tiyou 418 and its parents Tijin and C418, was undertaken for investigation. Indicators of leaf senescence, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and chlorophyll content, as well as the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR), gibberellin (GA1/3) and auxin (IAA) in the leaves were determined. Different rates of leaf senescence were observed in the three materials. Senescence occurred earliest and fastest in Tijin, followed by Tiyou 418 and then C418. A similar trend was recorded in ABA, ZR, and IAA contents during the grain filling stage in the three materials. Changes in (GA1/3+ZR+IAA)/ABA ratios were also similar, being quite stable during the early stage of leaf senescence, and decreasing markedly during the late stage. The ratio declined more dramatically in Tijin, in accordance with its faster leaf senescence. The results suggest that the ratio of (GA1/3+ZR+IAA)/ABA regulates chlorophyll content, SOD activity, MDA content and membrane lipid peroxidation. It is postulated that endogenous hormones may play a role in the regulation of leaf senescence in a systematic way.

  19. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  20. Changes in pig diet particle size profile and nutrient content during on-farm storage and distribution to the feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, An; Maes, Dominiek; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of silo emptying and feed transport by conveyor systems on particle size and nutrient content of the feed delivered to the pigs. Experiment 1 sampled feed from four feeders along the conveyor system of two barns. Samples were taken immediately after filling the feed silo (Begin) and when the silo was almost empty (End). In Experiment 2, three barns with drag-type conveyors, three with auger-type conveyors and two with spiral-type conveyors were sampled. Along the different conveyors, samples at 10, 20, 50 and 85 m distance from the feed silo were taken from the feeders. In each barn, sampling was repeated for two subsequent batches of feed delivered. In all samples, particle size profile was determined and nutrient content was analysed. In Experiment 2, mineral content was also determined. In Experiment 1, the size of the different particle fractions decreased from Begin to End. An interaction (p conveyor type was detected for the 10% smallest particles. In Experiment 2, an effect of sampling time on the 10% largest particles was detected (p < 0.05). The effect of sampling time on several nutrients was observed in Experiments 1 and 2, but the affected nutrients differed between both experiments. Results implied that it was mainly emptying of the silo that affected mash particle size profile and nutrient content. The potential impact of these changes on pig performance requires further investigation.

  1. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  2. Leaf and soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability in a neotropical rain forest of nutrient-rich soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martínez-Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen and phosphorus supply in a lowland rain forest with a nutrient-rich soil was investigated by means of the leaf N/P quotient. It was hypothesised a high N and P supply to the forest ecosystem with a N and P rich soil. Total N and extractable P were determined in the surface (10 cm soil of three plots of the forest. Total N was analysed by the Kjeldahl method, and P was extracted with HCl and NH4F. The leaf N/P quotient was evaluated from the senesced leaves of 11 dominant tree species from the mature forest. Samples of 5 g of freshly fallen leaves were collected from three trees of each species. Nitrogen was analysed by microkjeldahl digestion with sulphuric acid and distilled with boric acid, and phosphorus was analysed by digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid, and determined by photometry. Concentrations of total N (0.50%, n = 30 and extractable P (4.11 μg g-1, n = 30 in the soil were high. As expected, P supply was sufficient, but contrary to expected, N supply was low (N/P = 11.8, n = 11. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 357-361. Epub 2006 Jun 01.A través del cociente foliar N/P, se investigó la disponibilidad de nitrógeno y fósforo en una selva húmeda tropical con suelo fértil. Como hipótesis se esperaba encontrar una alta disponibilidad de N y P en el ecosistema debido a un suelo rico en N y P. Se determinó el N total y el P extraible en el suelo superficial (10 cm en tres sitios de la selva. El N total se analizó por el método Kjeldahl y el P por extracción con HCl y NH4F. El cociente foliar N/P se evaluó a partir de hojas seniles de 11 especies arbóreas dominantes de la selva madura. Se recolectaron muestras de 5 g de hojas recién caídas de tres árboles de cada especie. El nitrógeno se analizó por digestión microkjeldahl con ácido sulfúrico y destilación con ácido bórico, y el fósforo por digestión con ácido nítrico y ácido perclórico, y determinación con fotometría. Las concetraciones de N

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Xiu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To find out the effect of potassium(K and boron(B on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1, B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1 hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane relative permeability, the content of MDA and Pro significantly increased compared with the normal B(0.2 mgB·L-1, and the relative concentration of bound B, R value, cell wall material and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B increased by 10.32%, 21.28%, 31.35% and 31.35%, respectively. In contrast, under low K(2 mgK·L-1 supply, B deficiency produced a very significant decrease in the relative concentration of bound B and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B. The above results showed that under either K-deficient or K-sufficient condition, B deficiency damaged the cotton leaf cell membrane and cell membrane permeability. In normal B-supplied plants, lacking of B induced more B into the cytoplasm, but increased the proportion of B that combined with the pectic polysaccharides in cell wall. However, under K-deficient treatment, the proportion of B cross-linked pectic polysaccharides in cell wall decreased.

  4. Scaling up Semi-Arid Grassland Biochemical Content from the Leaf to the Canopy Level: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Mui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery is being used intensively to estimate the biochemical content of vegetation (e.g., chlorophyll, nitrogen, and lignin at the leaf level. As a result of our need for vegetation biochemical information and our increasing ability to obtain canopy spectral data, a few techniques have been explored to scale leaf-level biochemical content to the canopy level for forests and crops. However, due to the contribution of non-green materials (i.e., standing dead litter, rock, and bare soil from canopy spectra in semi-arid grasslands, it is difficult to obtain information about grassland biochemical content from remote sensing data at the canopy level. This paper summarizes available methods used to scale biochemical information from the leaf level to the canopy level and groups these methods into three categories: direct extrapolation, canopy-integrated approach, and inversion of physical models. As for semi-arid heterogeneous grasslands, we conclude that all methods are useful, but none are ideal. It is recommended that future research should explore a systematic upscaling framework which combines spatial pattern analysis, canopy-integrated approach, and modeling methods to retrieve vegetation biochemical content at the canopy level.

  5. Investigation of the Biomass and Nutrient Content of Green Manuring Plants as Second Crops in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter MIKO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth, and the development and trends of the nutrient content parameters of three different plant species (Phacelia tanacecifolia,Sinapis alba, Raphanus sativus grown as secondary crops for green manure, as a function of two different fertiliser doses (0 kg/ha N; 50kg/ha N, was studied under unfavourable site conditions at the Crop Production and Biomass Utilisation Demonstration Centre of theSzent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary. The application of the small, 50 kg/ha dose of nitrogen increased the biomass yield in eachcase, to 2.78-3.11 times that of the control field. The dry matter content of the produce increased only by 2.11-2.66 times, as the watercontent of the green manure plants also increased as a result of the nitrogen supplement. The increased amount of nitrogen boosted theavailability of all of the other macro elements for the plants. In view of the present findings it can be recommend the application of somenitrogen fertiliser in the given site before growing some crop for use as green manure in all cases but where the straw after cereals is left onthe soil surface nitrogen should be applied to alleviate the pentosan effect and to increase the uptake of macro elements.

  6. [Contents of nutrient elements in NH4(+)-N fertilizer and urea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Rui; Qu, Gui-Qin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-03-01

    Fertilizer contains not only one compound or one element, so it is important to determine the contents of other elements necessitous and beneficial to plant. All the other nutrient elements for plant, including necessitous elements and beneficial elements in ammonia nitrogen fertilizer ((NH4)2SO4) and CO(NH2)2, were analyzed by method of ICP-MS. The results showed that ammonia nitrogen fertilizer ((NH4)2SO4) and CO(NH2)2 both contain many necessitous elements, Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo, thereinto the contents of Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn and Fe were on microg x g(-1) the level, and Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo were on the ng x g(-1) level; compared with CO(NH2)2, ammonia nitrogen fertilizer ((NH4)2SO4) contains more necessitous elements and beneficial elements except Mo and Si. All the above elements could influence the results of nitrogen fertilizer efficiency experiments, so pure fertilizer should be used in the future nitrogen fertilizer efficiency experiments and the comparative experiments of different form nitrogen fertilizer.

  7. Nutrient content in the muscle and skin of fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolé, A; Velasco, S; Rodríguez, M L; Treviño, J; Alzueta, C; Tejedor, J L; Ortiz, L T

    2015-05-01

    The nutrient content in the muscle and edible skin parts of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets, sampled at two growth stages, was evaluated. The average concentrations of protein and essential amino acids were higher in the muscle than in the skin. The chemical scores reached a value of 1.0 for the amino acids in the muscle and ranged from 0.40 (tryptophan) to 0.94 (threonine) in the skin. The average lipid content and the saturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratios were higher in the skin than in the muscle, whereas the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) was higher in the muscle. Significant differences were found for the essential minerals analysed, except for Cu. The concentrations of Na, K and Mg were higher and those of Ca, P, Fe, Mn and Zn were lower in the muscle than in the skin. Significant effects of the fish growth on the composition were detected.

  8. Comparison of Nutrient Content in Fruit of Commercial Cultivars of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Faik Ahmet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the most popular common major vegetable crops worldwide. This study evaluated the nutritional content of seven commercial eggplant fruits in terms of fatty acid, mineral, sugar, organic acid, amino acid and polyamine contents. The most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid (range, 39.14-53.81%, ave. 45%, and the most abundant mineral was K (range, 1556.2-3171.6 mg/kg fw, ave. 2331.9. The major organic acid was malic acid (range, 129.87-387.01 mg/g fw, ave. 157.49, and the major sugar was fructose (range, 1242.81- 1379.77 mg/100 g fw, ave. 1350.88. The major polyamine was putrescine (11.54 and 25.70 nmol/g fw, ave. 17.86, and the major amino acid was glutamine (148.4 and 298.75 mg/100 g fw, ave. 219.74. Overall, taking into account the export potential of eggplants, these results may contribute to further studies aiming to improve other nutrient-rich varieties of eggplant in breeding programs.

  9. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Michael C; Seiler, John R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H

    2009-09-01

    The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology and biochemistry will be necessary. This study measured the response of biomass partitioning, light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(Sat)) and photosynthetic capacity to a range in soil fertility and fertilization between two contrasting Pinus taeda L. clone ideotypes: a 'narrow crown' clone (NC) that allocates more resources to stem growth and a 'broad crown' clone (BC) that allocates more resources to leaf area (LA). Under field conditions, we found consistent clone by environment (i.e., varying nutrient regimes) interactions in biomass as well as leaf physiology. Nutrient limitations induced by logging residue incorporation resulted in a 25% loss in stem growth in BC, while NC showed no response. We postulated that the decrease in BC was due to the differences in canopy architecture leading to a reduced canopy CO(2) assimilation, as well as to increased belowground maintenance costs associated with fine-root production. In contrast, N and P additions resulted in a 21% greater increase in stem volume in NC relative to BC. Fertilization increased A(Sat) temporarily in both clones, but A(Sat) eventually decreased below control levels by the end of the study. Although we found a clone by fertilization interaction in leaf physiology, the greatest genotype by environment interaction was found in the LA that appeared to have a greater influence than A(Sat) on growth. This research demonstrates the potential importance of selecting appropriate clonal material and silvicultural prescription when implementing site-specific silviculture to maximize productivity in intensively managed southern pine forests.

  10. Screening of Less known Two Food Plants for Comparison of Nutrient Contents: Iranian and Indian Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greater consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancers. The most important nutrients present in plants are carbohydrates, such as the starch and free sugars, oils, proteins, minerals, ascorbic acid, and the antioxidant phenols. Plants are an essential component of the universe. Human beings have used those as medicine from the very beginning of time.Methods: The proximate composition and mineral constituents of Asparagus officinalis stem and Momordica dioica fruit were evaluated in order to scientific standard methods of Association for Official and Analytical Chemists (AOAC.Results: The stem contained ashes: 10.70% crude protein: 32.69%, crude lipid: 3.44%, crude fiber: 18.50%, and carbohydrates: 34.67%. Stem also have high energy value (384.27kcal/100g dry weight. Mineral ranges (mg/100g dry weight, DW were: K (10.94, Na (1.84, Ca (0.67, Fe (0.19, and Zn (2.60. The fruits contained ashes: 9.1%, crude protein: 5.44%, crude lipid: 3.25%, crude fiber: 22.9%, and carbohydrates: 59.31%. The fruits also have high energy value (288.25kcal/100g dry weight. Mineral ranges (mg/100g dry weight, DW were: K (4.63, Na (1.62, Ca (7.37, Fe (5.04, and Zn (3.83.Conclusion: Comparing proximate and minerals contents of the stem and the fruit, the results indicated that Asparagus officinalis stem could be a good supplement for some nutrients such as protein, lipid, potassium and zinc, fibre and carbohydrates while Momordica dioica fruit was good source of lipid, crude fiber, carbohydrates, iron and zinc.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:416-424

  11. Effect of Silicon on Leaf Ultrastructure,Chlorophyll Content and Photosynthetic Activity of Barley Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGYONGCHAO

    1998-01-01

    Two contrasting cultivars of barley(Hordeum vulgare L.):Kepin No.7(salt sensitive),and Jian 4(salt tolerant)were grown in a hydropon ics system with 2 NaCl levels:60 mmol NaCl L-1 and 120 mmol NaCl L-1 ,and 3 Si levels:0 mmol Si L-1 ,0.5 mmol Si L-1 and 1.0 mmol Si L-1 (as silicic acid).Compared with the plants treated with 60 mmol NaCl L-1 alone,the leaf chlorophyll contents of plants rreated with salt and Si increased significantly ofr salt-sensitive cultivar at tillering stage,but for alt-tolerant cultivar,the addition of Si resulted in an obivous increase in the leaf chlorophyll content of plants exposed to 120 mmol NaCl L-1 ,However,this Si-enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content was also observed in the salttolerant plants at joninting stage,but not in the salt-sensitive plants.Moreover,leaf chlorophyll content was consistently higher for the salt-tolerant cultivar than for the salt-sensitive cultivar irrespective of salt and/or Si treatment .Compared with the plants treated with sal alont ,net CO2 assimilation rate in plant leaves increased significantly for both cultivars when treated with salt and Si, Teh addition of Si to the salt teatment was found to improve the cell ultrastructure of leaves.Under salt stress condition,the double membranes of chloroplasts disappeared,but membrane integrity was markedly improved in the salt treatment supplemented with Si.Silicon was also found to ameliorate the damage to the ultrasturcture of chloroplast granae which appeared to be disintegrated and vague in salt treatments without added Si.The results support previous work which showed that Si decreases the permeability of plasma membranes of salt-stressed barley,thus mitigating salt damage.

  12. Changes in leaf area, nitrogen content and canopy photosynthesis in soybean exposed to an ozone concentration gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shimpei; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-01

    Influences of ozone (O3) on light-saturated rates of photosynthesis in crop leaves have been well documented. To increase our understanding of O3 effects on individual- or stand level productivity, a mechanistic understanding of factors determining canopy photosynthesis is necessary. We used a canopy model to scale photosynthesis from leaf to canopy, and analyzed the importance of canopy structural and leaf ecophysiological characteristics in determining canopy photosynthesis in soybean stands exposed to 9 concentrations of [O3] (37-116 ppb; 9-h mean). Light intensity and N content peaked in upper canopy layers, and sharply decreased through the lower canopy. Plant leaf area decreased with increasing [O3] allowing for greater light intensity to reach lower canopy levels. At the leaf level, light-saturated photosynthesis decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing [O3]. These data were used to calculate daily net canopy photosynthesis (Pc). Pc decreased with increasing [O3] with an average decrease of 10% for an increase in [O3] of 10 ppb, and which was similar to changes in above-ground dry mass production of the stands. Absolute daily net photosynthesis of lower layers was very low and thus the decrease in photosynthesis in the lower canopy caused by elevated [O3] had only minor significance for total canopy photosynthesis. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the decrease in Pc was associated with changes in leaf ecophysiology but not with decrease in leaf area. The soybean stands were very crowded, the leaves were highly mutually shaded, and sufficient light for positive carbon balance did not penetrate to lower canopy leaves, even under elevated [O3].

  13. Nutrient Content Claims: How They Impact Perceived Healthfulness of Fortified Snack Foods and the Moderating Effects of Nutrition Facts Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Irina A; Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda

    2017-08-18

    Nutrient content claims (NCCs) may inflate perceived healthfulness of nutritionally poor foods. The aim of this study is to experimentally test the effects of NCCs on consumers' perceptions of fortified snack foods in terms of the presence of both healthful and less healthful nutrients, as well as their intentions to consume such products. It also explores the potential moderating effects of reading Nutrition Facts Labels (NFL) on the influence of NCCs. Data for this study were collected through a web-based experiment (N = 5,076). Results indicated that the presence of an NCC on a fortified snack food product increased perceived healthfulness of that product, perceptions of the presence of healthful nutrients, and intentions to consume the product. The presence of NCCs also decreased perceptions of the presence of certain less healthful nutrients. Reading the NFL had mixed effects on the impact of NCCs.

  14. Leaf vegetables for use in integrated hydroponics and aquaculture systems: Effects of root flooding on growth, mineral composition and nutrient uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trang, Ngo Thuy Diem; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture and hydroponics systems, the waste products from fish production are used to produce vegetables or other crops of economic value, and the water is recirculated to the fish tanks. We studied growth, productivity and nutrient uptake of four leaf vegetable species (Lactuca...... sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Brassica rapa var. chinensis and Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) in a controlled growth experiment with three root flooding treatments (drained, half-flooded and flooded) to assess their preferred hydroponic growth requirements, biomass production and nutrient removal...... capacities. Growth of the two Brassica varieties was clearly best at drained root conditions, while L. sativa and I. aquatica grew best with half-flooded and flooded roots. I. aquatica took up 3 times more N, P and K per plant than L. sativa, and 4 to 6 times more than the two Brassica varieties. At a plant...

  15. Nutrient contents of vegetation and their allocation characteristics in main forests of Guizhou Province%贵州主要森林植被养分含量及其分配特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江平; 郭颖; 孙吉慧; 刘晓; 丁访军

    2015-01-01

    Based on the survey on the nutrient contents ( N, P, and K) of vegetation in nine major forests of Guizhou, the allocation characteristics of the nutrients in the arbors, shrubs and herbs were analyzed. The results revealed that the nutrient contents in undergrowth vegetations were higher than those in the tree layer, and overall the highest in herb layer. The nutrient contents in shrub layer and tree layer varied among communities. The nutrient contents in mixed forests were higher than those in pure forests, higher in natural forests than in artificial forests, and higher in fast-growing tree species than in slow-growing tree species. In all these forest vegetations, the contents of N and K were more than those of the P with N 3.0-24.1 times and K 3.6-16.8 times as high as P. The allocation of nutrient contents in the tree layers was shown as leaf > bark > branch > root > timber, in the shrub layers as leaf > root > stem, and in the herb layers as aboveground > underground.%通过对贵州9种主要森林类型植被层养分含量( N、P、K)的调查,分析了养分在乔木层、灌木层和草本层中的分配特征. 结果表明:林下植被层养分含量均高于乔木层,总体上草本层养分含量最高,灌木层和乔木层因群落不同而异. 混交林养分含量高于纯林,天然林高于人工林,速生树种大于慢生树种. 各种森林类型植被层中,N、K元素相对P元素含量较多,N含量是P含量的3.0~24.1倍,K含量是P含量的3.6~16.8倍. 乔木层不同器官养分含量总体上表现出叶>皮>枝>根>木材的趋势;灌木层不同器官养分含量基本表现为叶>根>枝干;草本层养分含量均表现为地上>地下.

  16. THE INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FARM AND UNIT LEVEL NUTRIENT BALANCES FOR THE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T SOMOGYI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The farm gate balance is well known from the environmental literature. This method is not suitable in every case to show the nutrient load for the environment of agricultural companies that is the reason why unit level internal nutrient balances are applied to express the level of nutrient pollution on the environment. These also help to determine the source of the pollution. With the survey of the nutrient flows within the farm we determine the keystones of nutrient management to control the nutrient load of the pollution sources. On the basis of the results and the controlled data of the unit level internal balances we make recommendations for the most appropriate environmental policy instrument to reduce the nutrient pollution.

  17. Detrital stoichiometry as a critical nexus for the effects of streamwater nutrients on leaf litter breakdown rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David W P; Rosemond, Amy D; Kominoski, John S; Gulis, Vladislav; Benstead, Jonathan P; Maerz, John C

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations are elevated in many freshwater systems, stimulating breakdown rates of terrestrially derived plant litter; however, the relative importance of N and P in driving litter breakdown via microbial and detritivore processing are not fully understood. Here, we determined breakdown rates of two litter species, Acer rubrum (maple) and Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron), before (PRE) and during two years (YR1, YR2) of experimental N and P additions to five streams, and quantified the relative importance of hypothesized factors contributing to breakdown. Treatment streams received a gradient of P additions (low to high soluble reactive phosphorus [SRP]; ~10-85 µg/L) crossed with a gradient of N additions (high to low dissolved inorganic nitrogen [DIN]; ~472-96 µg/L) to achieve target molar N:P ratios ranging from 128 to 2. Litter breakdown rates increased above pre-treatment levels by an average of 1.1-2.2x for maple, and 2.7-4.9x for rhododendron in YR1 and YR2. We used path analysis to compare fungal biomass, shredder biomass, litter stoichiometry (nutrient content as C:N or C:P), discharge, and streamwater temperature as predictors of breakdown rates and compared models containing streamwater N, P or N + P and litter C:N or C:P using model selection criteria. Litter breakdown rates were predicted equally with either streamwater N or P (R2 = 0.57). In models with N or P, fungal biomass, litter stoichiometry, discharge, and shredder biomass predicted breakdown rates; litter stoichiometry and fungal biomass were most important for model fit. However, N and P effects may have occurred via subtly different pathways. Litter N content increased with fungal biomass (N-driven effects) and litter P content increased with streamwater P availability (P-driven effects), presumably via P storage in fungal biomass. In either case, the effects of N and P through these pathways were associated with higher shredder biomass and breakdown

  18. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixation and capability to restore fertility of degraded lands. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 60 days under controlled conditions to validate the carbon and nutrients mineralization potential of alder litter. Soil fertility indicators, i.e. soil organic carbon (SOC, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K were analyzed using standard procedures. Significant differences were observed in the soil properties after addition of litter. Nutrient composition of alder litter was found superior by providing significantly higher organic matter and helped in better nutrient cycling. Therefore, alder based land use system may be replicated in other degraded lands or areas for productivity enhancement which is important for sustaining biodiversity and soil fertility.

  19. Nutrient content and yield in relation to top breakover in onion developed from greenhouse-grown transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) generally are harvested based on percentage of tops broken over. Since plant metabolism changes over time, percentage of tops broken over may be used to determine a harvest time to deliver marketable bulbs with the best nutrient content. The cultivars Candy and Texas Grano ...

  20. O relevo na interpretação da variabilidade espacial dos teores de nutrientes em folha de citros Landrelief in the interpretation of spatial variability of nutrient content in citrus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol G. A. de Leão

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A diagnose foliar é um critério para avaliação do estado nutricional das culturas agrícolas, que auxilia na compreensão da fertilidade do solo e na aplicação racional de adubos, levando em conta aspectos econômicos e ambientais. O trabalho teve como objetivo utilizar as formas do relevo como regra para auxiliar na interpretação da variabilidade espacial dos teores de nutrientes da folha de citros. Coletas de folhas foram realizadas em intervalos regulares de 50 m, totalizando 332 pontos de amostragem. Os dados foram analisados pela estatística descritiva, geoestatística e indução da árvore de decisão. Com o auxílio do modelo digital de elevação (MDE e do perfil planialtimétrico, a área foi dividida em diferentes formas do relevo e segmentos de vertente. Os maiores valores para os nutrientes da folha de citros foram observados no topo em relação aos segmentos de meia encosta e encosta inferior. Os nutrientes da folha de citros apresentaram altos valores de correlação (>0,05 com a altitude da área estudada, acima de 0,5. A técnica de geoestatística e a indução pela árvore de decisão demonstram que o relevo é a variável com maior potencial para interpretar os mapas de variabilidade espacial dos nutrientes da folha de citros comparada com outras variáveis de campo como comprimento de rampa e declive.Foliar diagnosis is a method for assessing the nutritional status of agricultural crops, which helps in the understanding of soil fertility and rationalized application of fertilizers taking into account economic and environmental criteria. The study aimed to use the landrelief as criteria to assist in interpreting the spatial variability of nutrient content of the citrus leaf. The leaves were collected at regular intervals of 50 m, totaling 332 sampling points. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, geostatistics and induction of decision tree. With the aid of digital elevation model (MDE and the profile

  1. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenberger, Juliana E; Crossetti, Luciane O

    2014-09-01

    The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate). The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control) and 37°C for eight days (n=3). Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform) method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  2. Influence of temperature and nutrient content on lipid production in freshwater microalgae cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA E. BOHNENBERGER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of biomass by microalgae is considered a clean alternative compared to other plant crops that require large areas for cultivation and that generate environmental impacts. This study evaluated the influence of temperature and nutrients on lipid contents of cultured species of freshwater microalgae, with a view toward using these lipids for biodiesel production. Two strains of Monoraphidium contortum, a culture containing Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus quadricauda and another strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were maintained in the laboratory for six days, in five culture media: modified ASM-1 (control, with high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate; phosphorus-deficient; non-limiting phosphate; nitrogen-deficient; and non-limiting nitrate. The cultures were then exposed to temperatures of 13°C, 25°C (control and 37°C for eight days (n=3. Lipids were extracted by the cold-solvent (methanol and chloroform method. On average, the highest total lipid yields were observed when the strains were maintained at 13°C and in the non-limiting nitrate medium. The lipid percentage varied depending on the concentration of algal biomass. This study showed that manipulation of controlling factors can increase the lipid concentration, optimizing the total production in order to use this raw material for biodiesel.

  3. Manothermosonication of foods and food-resembling systems: effect on nutrient content and nonenzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercet, A; Burgos, J; López-Buesa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manothermosonication (MTS), an emergent technology for food preservation, on thiamin, riboflavin, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid was evaluated in milk and orange juice. The effect of both heat treatment and MTS on several compounds produced in nonenzymatic browning in model systems was also studied. MTS does not affect significantly the nutrient content studied. However, it changes the behavior of nonenzymatic browning. No formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) was detected in fruit juice model systems after heat and MTS treatments at the experimental conditions used. In a milk-resembling system, free HMF formation by MTS is higher compared to that by heat treatment. As the MTS temperature increases, free HMF production by both treatments equaled on another. For bound HMF the production rate is lower by MTS than by heat treatment under the experimental conditions used. Formation kinetics of brown pigments and that of fluorescent compounds are different for both treatments. Fluorescence and brown pigment production are faster in MTS.

  4. TEORES FOLIARES E EXPORTAÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES DO MAMOEIRO BAIXINHO DE SANTA AMÁLIA TRATADO COM BIOFERTILIZANTES LEAF NUTRIENT STATUS AND NUTRIENT EXPORTATION OF “BAIXINHO DE SANTA AMÁLIA” PAPAYA CULTIVAR TREATED WITH BIOFERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante

    2009-12-01

    ="font-size: small;">sódio, macro e micronutrientes, nas folhas das plantas e na exportação dos respectivos nutrientes, com a colheita dos frutos do mamoeiro em todas as doses de insumos aplicados ao solo. As plantas, no início da floração, estavam com teores adequados de nitrogênio, potássio, enxofre, boro, cobre e zinco e deficientes em fósforo, cálcio, magnésio, ferro e manganês. O potássio (dentre os macronutrientes e o ferro (dentre os micronutrientes foram os mais exportados, com a colheita dos frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Carica papaya L.; biofertilizante; composição mineral.

    Papaya tree is a crop with expressive economic importance in Brazil, where it has been traditionally cultivated with mineral soil fertilizing, although, for the last two decades, the world market has required lower levels of synthetic products use for food production and higher levels of the natural ones. In this way, one experiment was carried out in Remígio, Paraíba State, Brazil, to evaluate the leaf nutrient status, at the beginning of the blooming stage, and the exportation of sodium, macro, and micronutrients of the “Baixinho de Santa Amália” papaya cultivar. A complete randomized blocks experimental design was used in a

  5. Starch Content in Leaf Sheath Controlled by CO2-Responsive CCT Protein is a Potential Determinant of Photosynthetic Capacity in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ryutaro; Inoue, Kanako; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Misoo, Shuji; Fukayama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    CO2-responsive CCT protein (CRCT) is the suggested positive regulator of starch synthesis in vegetative organs, particularly the leaf sheath of rice. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the starch level in the leaf sheath on the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade using CRCT overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown transgenic rice grown under ambient (38 Pa) or elevated (100 Pa) CO2 conditions. In leaf sheath, the starch content was markedly changed in relation to CRCT expression levels under both CO2 conditions. In contrast, the soluble sugar and starch contents of the leaf blade were markedly increased in the knockdown line grown under elevated CO2 conditions. The overexpression or RNAi knockdown of CRCT did not cause large effects on the photosynthetic rate of the transgenic lines grown under ambient CO2 condition. However, the photosynthetic rate of the overexpression line was enhanced, while that of the knockdown line was substantially decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. These photosynthetic rates were weakly correlated with the nitrogen contents and negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate contents. Thus, the capacity for starch synthesis in leaf sheath, which is controlled by CRCT, can indirectly affect the carbohydrate content, and then the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade of rice grown under elevated CO2 conditions.

  6. Nutrient content and nutrient availability of sorghum wet distiller's grain in comparison with the parental grain for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Ana I; Bruni, María; Chilibroste, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare wet sorghum distiller's grain (WSDG) with sorghum grain (SG) in terms of: (i) chemical composition; (ii) in situ rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF); (iii) crude protein (CP) sub-fractions; (iv) in situ disappearance at 12 and 48 h; and (v) energy values. The WSDG intestinal digestibility (ID) of undegradable crude protein (UCP) was compared to soybean meal (SBM). Compared to SG, WSDG exhibited: (i) lower (P < 0.01) dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrate content, whereas the other chemical components were higher (P < 0.01); (ii) higher (P < 0.01) degradation rates of OM and NDF and lower (P < 0.01) degradable fraction of OM and NDF; (iii) lower (P < 0.05) contents of CP sub-fractions A, B1 and B2, and higher (P < 0.05) contents of B3 and C; (iv) lower (P < 0.05) protein disappearance at 12 and 48 h and higher UCP; and (v) lower (P < 0.05) energy content. The ID of UCP for WSDG was lower (P < 0.05) compared to SBM. The WSDG as a supplement provides a good source of energy. To enable its use as a protein supplement, further studies should be performed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer with 5 - ALA on the growth, flowering and nutrient content of Chinese rose%含5-氨基乙酰丙酸等养分水溶肥料对月季生长、开花及体内养分元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任忠秀; 聂立水; 张强; 孙兆地; 郝利峰

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the co - effects of both plant growth regulator 5 - ALA and balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer on the growth, flowering and nutrient contents of Chinese rose (Rosa hybrida), a pot experiment was conducted. Three treatments were balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer, 5 - ALA solution and balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer with 5 -ALA, while water served as a check. All treatments were applied by foliar spray. There were three replications. The results showed that the application of balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer with 5 - ALA had positive effects in promoting the growth of Chinese rose, increasing the Chinese rose flowering rate and improving the color of Chinese rose flower. Single application of 5 - ALA solution could increase chlorophyll content of per unit area of leaf by about 6. 6% , while single application of balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer could lead to significant decrease in the chlorophyll content of per unit area of leaf. Balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer was more conducive to increase nitrogen content, phosphorus content and potassium content than that of the balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer with 5 - ALA. Nitrogen content, phosphorus content and potassium content of per single plant were increased by applying the three different fertilizers, among them the balanced nutrient soluble fertilizer with S - ALA had the best yield improving effect with total primary nutrient increased by 43. 5%.%选用月季盆栽试验,以等养分水溶肥料、5-氨基乙酰丙酸盐溶液和含5-氨基乙酰丙酸等养分水溶肥料为试验材料,用清水做对照,研究了三者对月季生长、开花及植株体内养分含量的影响.结果表明,含5-氨基乙酰丙酸等养分水溶肥料更有利于月季花、茎、叶的生长,有利于促进月季开花率的增加和花色的改善;5-氨基乙酰丙酸有利于单位叶面积叶绿素含量的增加,叶绿素总量增加6.6%,而等养分水溶肥料使单位

  8. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles Influência do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes nos pecíolos de videiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dalbó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of rootstocks can affect nutrient uptake and the nutrient status of grapevines. The rootstock influence on nutrient content in grape petioles was evaluated on three rootstocks competition experiments carried out at Vale do Rio do Peixe region, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the cultivars Niagara Rosada, Concord, and Isabella, grafted on different rootstocks. Two soil liming depths were also evaluated in the Isabella experiment. The greatest rootstock effect was observed on K and Mg content and K/Mg ratio in the petioles. The Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks VR 043-43 and VR 044-4 provided the highest K/Mg values and self rooted Isabella the lowest K/Mg ratio. The other tested rootstocks resulted in intermediate values. There was also significant effect on P content, but only in Niagara Rosada and Concord experiments. The depth of soil liming did not significantly affect K and Mg content in the Isabella experiment. The results indicate that rootstock must be considered for nutritional status evaluation and fertilizer recommendation regarding to K and Mg.A diversidade genética dos porta-enxertos de videira pode afetar a absorção de nutrientes e o estado nutricional dos vinhedos. A influência do porta-enxerto nos teores de nutrientes em pecíolos de videira foi avaliada em três experimentos de competição de porta-enxertos instalados na região do Vale do Rio do Peixe-SC. As cultivares-copa foram Niagara Rosada e Concord, enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos. Para a cultivar Isabel, além do efeito do porta-enxerto, avaliou-se também a influência de duas profundidades de calagem do solo. Os maiores efeitos do porta-enxerto foram verificados nos teores de K e Mg e na relação K/Mg nos pecíolos. Os porta-enxertos híbridos de Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia (VR 043-43 e VR 044-4 induziram as maiores relações K/Mg, ao passo que a cultivar Isabel (pé-franco resultou nos menores valores

  9. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  10. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-07-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1-3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  11. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION ON EARLY GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF TWO PEAT­ SWAMP FOREST TREE SPECIES SEEDLINGS, Calophyllum hosei AND Ploiarium alternifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat-swamp forests are one of  the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon,  but rnany peat-swamp forest tree species decreased due over-exploitation, forest fire and conversion of natural forests into agricultural lands. Among those species are slow-growing Calophyllum  hoseiand Ploiarium  alternifolium, two species are good for construction of boats, furniture, house building and considerable attention from pharmacological viewpoint for human healthly. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on early growth of  C. hosei and P.alternifoliumunder greenhouse condition. Seedlings of C. hosei and P.alternifoliumwere inoculated with AM fungi: Glomus clarum and Glomus aggregatum ,or uninoculated under greenhouse condition during 6 months. AM colonization,   plant growth,  survival rate and  nutrient  content  (P, Zn  and B were measured. The percentage of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium ranged from 27-32% and 18-19%,  respectively. Both inoculated seedling species had greater plant  height, diameter, leaf number, shoot and root dry weight than control  seedlings.   Nutrient  content  of  inoculated  plants  were increased with AM colonization- Survival rates of  inoculated plants were higher (100%  than those of  control plants (67%. The results suggested that inoculation of AM fungi could improve the early growth of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium grown in tropical peat-swamp forest therefore  this finding has greater potential impact if this innovative technology applied in field scales which are socially acceptable, commercially profitable and environmentally friendly.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Himalayan Region of Kashmir and their Effect on Improving Growth and Nutrient Contents of Maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish eZahid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available IIntroduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L. from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK, Pakistan. A total of one hundred isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8 were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA including phosphorus solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L. under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 µgmL−1. The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3 and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9−5.39 µgmL−1 and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies

  13. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies.

  14. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  15. Invasiveness of Cut-Leaf Ground-Cherry (Physalis angulata L. Populations and Impact of Soil Water and Nutrient Availability Potencial Invasor de Poblaciones de Tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L. e Impacto del Contenido de Agua y Disponibilidad de Nutrientes del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias S Travlos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to natural ecosystems and agroecosystems, while weed flora is noticeably changing globally. In this study we evaluated the potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry (Physalis angulata L., a species native to America, to invade the semi-arid regions of Greece. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different environmental resources (nutrient and water availability on seedling growth, biomass production, fecundity, and seed germination of four populations of cut-leaf ground-cherry. Our results suggest that cut-leaf ground-cherry does not tolerate extreme drought during the first growth stages, while it can survive and produce adequate and rapidly germinated seed (> 85% under low soil moisture conditions. Moreover, high water and nutrient availability results in high growth and biomass production and ensures high seed production, reaching more than 4000 seeds plant-1. We suggest that soil water content and nutrient availability are the two critical factors affecting the invasive potential of cut-leaf ground-cherry in semi-arid environments. Understanding the plant's ecological features through a study conducted at an early stage rather than a late stage of invasion will help us to take appropriate control measures for this species, which should primarily target frequently fertilized fields after precipitation events.Las invasiones biológicas son una amenaza importante para los ecosistemas naturales y agroecosistemas, mientras que, globalmente, la flora de malezas parece cambiar notablemente. En este estudio se evaluó el potencial de una especie nativa de América, tomatillos de Brihuega (Physalis angulata L., para invadir las regiones semiáridas de Grecia. Se realizaron experimentos de invernadero y laboratorio para evaluar los efectos de diferentes recursos ambientales (disponibilidad de nutrientes y agua, crecimiento de las plántulas, producción de biomasa, fecundidad

  16. 9 CFR 317.354 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âgood... Nutrition Labeling § 317.354 Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.” (a) General requirements. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, a claim about the level of a nutrient in...

  17. 9 CFR 381.454 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âgood... Nutrition Labeling § 381.454 Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.” (a) General requirements. Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, a claim about the level of a nutrient in...

  18. Evolution of nutrients element content in soils dedicated to onion crop Evolución del contenido de elementos nutrientes en suelos cultivados con cebolla de bulbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Sonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the evolution of nutrient content in soils dedicated to commercial onion crop (Allium. cepa in the municipality of Tibasosa, Boyacá,Colombia, in a Sulfic endoaquepts soil, three treatments established: Without fertilization (T1, conventional fertilization used in the area (T2 and fertilization according to analysis of soils (T3. Samples were collected for analysis 20 days before plantation and 45, 90 and 120 days after sowing. The of contents macroelements showed the following order N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P and those of micronutrients, Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B. There were positive interactions among N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn and Cu/Mn and negative interactions among N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn and Zn/Mn affecting their concentration and availability. The results evidence that a balanced content of nutrients can increase the yield. Key words: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertility.El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la evolución del contenido de nutrientes en suelos destinados al cultivo comercial de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa en el municipio de Tibasosa, Boyacá. En un suelo sulfic endoaquepts se establecieron tres tratamientos: Sin fertilización (T1, con fertilización convencional de la zona (T2 y fertilización con base en el análisis de suelos (T3. Se recolectaron muestras para análisis 20 días antes de la siembra y a los 45, 90 y 120 días después de la siembra (DDS. Los contenidos de macroelementos se presentaron en el orden N>Ca>K>Mg>S>P y los de micronutrientes Mn>Fe>Zn>Cu>B existiendo interacciones positivas entre N/Fe, P/K, P/Ca, P/Mg, K/Mg, K/S, Mg/S, B/Zn y Cu/Mn y negativas entre N/K, N/S, P/Fe, K/Fe, Mg/Fe, B/Fe, S/Fe, Cu/Zn y Zn/Mn afectando su concentración y disponibilidad. Los análisis permitieron inducir que un contenido adecuado de nutrientes incrementa el rendimiento en la zona. Palabras claves: Allium cepa, Sulfic endoaquepts, Fertilidad.

  19. [Effect of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on growth, physiological characteristics and content of active constituents of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wan, Chunyang; Wang, Wenquan; Gu, Bin; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Wenjie; Hou, Songnian; Han, Zhongwen

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of Tongfeng trace elements nutrient balance agent on the various growth indicators, physiological indicators, and the contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in one-year old Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The plants of G. uralensis growing in Chifeng of Inner Mongolia and medicinal garden of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were fertilized for two times, respectively. The photosynthetic physiological indicators were measured by LI-6400 photosynthetic instrument. The pigments and antioxidase activities of the leaves were determined. Then contents of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in the plants were determined by HPLC. The application of this trace element nutrient balance agent could significantly improve the height, chla and chlb, and the photosynthetic physiology indicator such as P(n), C(i), and G(s). Similarly, it could significantly increase the fresh weight of shoots and dry weight of the roots. Compared with control block (CK), the fertilizer which was diluted by 300 times (T(1)) and 600 times (T(2)) significantly increased the content of glycyrrhizic acid by 24.72% and 20. 23%. There was significant difference between different treatments (P elements nutrient balance agent could promote growth, physiology and the content of active constituents of G. uralensis, especially the effect of T(1) was superior to T(2).

  20. Identification of Nutrient Contents in Six Potential Green Biomasses for Developing Liquid Organic Fertilizer in Closed Agricultural Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Fahrurrozi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid organic fertilizer in closed agricultural production system must be combined with foliar application to improve fertilizing effectiveness.  Nutrient contents in tissues of green biomass determine the quality of liquid organic fertilizer. Six potential green biomasses, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, Gliricidia sepium  (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk. de Wit, Ageratum conyzoides L., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.  Solms,  and banana corms were identified its nutrient contents.  Samples were dried at 60oC for 48 hours, grinded, analyzed for N, P, K, Ca-ex, Mg-ex, C, cellulose and lignin contents. Results indicated that T. diversifolia and A. conyzoides had the highest N content compared to other biomasses.  A. conyzoides had the highest P content, followed by T. diversifolia.   A. conyzoides had the highest K content, followed by G. sepium.  The highest Ca-ex content was in L. leucocephala, followed by A. conyzoides. The highest Mg-ex content was found in A. conyzoides, followed by L. leucocephala. The highest C content was found in E.crassipes, followed by G. Sepium.  T. diversifolia had the highest cellulose content, followed by E.crassipes.  Lignin content of all biomasses was similar.  Lastly, E.crassipes had the highest C/N compared to other biomass, and both  T. diversifolia and A. conyzoides had the lowest C/N. It is concluded that  A. conyzoides  is the most promising green biomass for production of liquid organic fertilizer, followed by T. diversifolia and G. sepium.

  1. Effects of prey macronutrient content on body composition and nutrient intake in a web-building spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Hawley

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients.

  2. Effects of prey macronutrient content on body composition and nutrient intake in a web-building spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J; Wilder, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients.

  3. Nutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaf meal at three ages of the plant Nutrientes na farinha de folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz em três idades da planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The high number of cassava cultivars adapted to many different regions provides a wide variation in the chemical composition of cassava leaves meal (CLM. Therefore, the contents of some nutrients in CLM from five cultivars at three ages of the plant were investigated in order to select the cultivars and ages with superior levels of these nutrients. When the plants were 12 months old, the highest levels of crude protein (CP, beta-carotene, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur were observed. The IAC 289-70 cv. showed the highest levels of magnesium, as well as considerable contents of CP, beta-carotene, iron, zinc and sulfur, which did not differ statistically from the cultivars showing the highest levels of these nutrients.O número elevado de cultivares de mandioca adaptados às mais diversas regiões confere ampla variação na composição química da farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM. Portanto, foram investigados os teores de alguns nutrientes nas FFM de cinco cultivares em três idades da planta, a fim de selecionar cultivares e idades com níveis superiores destes nutrientes. Aos 12 meses de idade da planta, observaram-se os maiores níveis de proteína bruta (PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, magnésio, fósforo e enxofre. O cultivar IAC 289-70 apresentou os maiores níveis de magnésio, assim como teores apreciáveis de PB, beta-caroteno, ferro, zinco e enxofre, pois não diferiu estatisticamente dos cultivares com os níveis mais elevados destes nutrientes.

  4. Chloroplast avoidance movement as a sensitive indicator of relative water content during leaf desiccation in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauš, Jan; Šmecko, Slavomír; Špundová, Martina

    2016-08-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought is one of the major stress factors with negative effect on photosynthesis and plant productivity. Currently, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are widely used as indicators of plant stress, mainly owing to the rapid, non-destructive and simple measurements this technique allows. However, these parameters have been shown to have limited sensitivity for the monitoring of water deficit as leaf desiccation has relatively small effect on photosystem II photochemistry. In this study, we found that blue light-induced increase in leaf transmittance reflecting chloroplast avoidance movement was much more sensitive to a decrease in relative water content (RWC) than chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in dark-desiccating leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Whereas the inhibition of chloroplast avoidance movement was detectable in leaves even with a small RWC decrease, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F V/F M, V J, Ф PSII, NPQ) changed markedly only when RWC dropped below 70 %. For this reason, we propose light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement as a sensitive indicator of the decrease in leaf RWC. As our measurement of chloroplast movement using collimated transmittance is simple and non-destructive, it may be more suitable in some cases for the detection of plant stresses including water deficit than the conventionally used chlorophyll fluorescence methods.

  5. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  6. Assessing nutrient adequacy from the crop contents of free-ranging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22379916

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... deficiencies, and that a risk of toxicity would depend on the bioavailability of ... covered by similar studies in which the assessment of nutrient ..... overcome Fe deficiency in developing countries. .... Prod., Porto Allegro, Brazil.

  7. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Onion bulbs and stalks, proximate, nutrient elements, vitamins A and C; oxalate. INTRODUCTION ... In addition, onion is among the food plants to which moderate ..... by change of colour or taste and cost of fortified iron products, the ...

  8. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food insec

  9. Differential Impact of Message Appeals, Food Healthiness, and Poverty Status on Evaluative Responses to Nutrient-Content Claimed Food Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-01-01

    A 2 × 3 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design was used to examine how three message appeals (benefit-seeking vs. risk-avoidance vs. taste appeals), food healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy foods), and consumer poverty status (poverty vs. nonpoverty groups) impact evaluative responses to nutrient-content claimed food advertisements. Subjects were partitioned into two groups, those below and those above the poverty line, and exposed to nutrient-content claimed advertisement treatments for healthy and unhealthy foods featuring the three appeals. The findings reaffirmed the interaction effects between perceivably healthy and unhealthy foods and different appeals reported in previous studies, and found interaction effects between consumer poverty level and response to the message appeals featured in the experimental food advertisements. Age, body mass index, current dieting status, education, and gender were examined as covariates.

  10. Nutrient Content And Acceptability Of Snakehead-Fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) And Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Based Complementary Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Noer, Etika; Candra, Aryu; Panunggal, Binar

    2017-02-01

    Poor nutrient-dense complementary foods is one of the common factors contributed for decline growth pattern in children. Snakehead-fish and Pumpkin Complementary Feeding (SPCF) base on locally food can help to reduce child malnutrition. Specifically, high protein and vitamin A in SPCF may improve immunity and nutrition status of malnutrition children. This study aimed to formulate low-cost, nutritive value and acceptable of SPCF on malnutrition children in coastal area. Carbohydrate content was determined by difference, protein by Kjeldahl, betacaroten by spectofotometri and sensory evaluation using a five point hedonic scale. Fe and zinc was determined by AAS. There is an effect of the substitution of snake-head fish flour and yellow pumpkin flour toward the nutrient content and the acceptability

  11. Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edypo Jacob Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of leaf-cutting ant queens before the nuptial flight and during the post-claustral phase. This study evaluated the crude protein content of queens of Atta sexdens before the nuptial flight and after the claustral phase in laboratory and field colonies. The hypothesis was that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth during the claustral phase. Additionally, the nest morphology, live biomass and adult population of field colonies were evaluated. Crude protein was determined by digestion of the organic material with sulfuric acid at high temperatures. The mean crude protein content was 123.23 ± 11.20 mg for females before the nuptial flight and 70.44 ± 12.21 mg for laboratory-reared queens after the claustral phase. The post-claustral crude protein content of field-collected queen was 55.90 ± 9.18 mg. With respect to the loss of crude protein as a function of duration of the claustral phase, laboratory-reared queens lost 52.79 mg and field-collected queens lost 67.33 mg compared to females before the nuptial flight. A positive linear correlation was observed between the weight of field-collected queens (256.4 ± 36.3 mg and colony biomass (13.02 ± 9.12 g, but there was no correlation between biomass and nest depth (13.11 ± 3.82 cm. As expected, the present results support the hypothesis that protein is used for survival of the queen and for early colony growth, as demonstrated by the reduction in crude protein content as a function of duration of the claustral phase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide data of the dynamics of protein reserves in leaf-cutting ant queens during the claustral phase.

  12. Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë festucae) Alters the Nutrient Content of Festuca rubra Regardless of Water Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R; Antonia García-Ciudad; Balbino García-Criado; Santiago Vicente-Tavera; Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. S...

  13. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  14. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  15. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea and chickpea seeds enhances early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Harsharn S; Maheshwari, Basant L

    2011-01-01

    The effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea (Pisum sativum L var. macrocarpon) and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) seeds on the emergence, early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings were investigated under glasshouse conditions. The treatments included (i) magnetic treatment of irrigation water (MTW), (ii) magnetic treatment of seeds (MTS), (iii) magnetic treatment of irrigation water and seeds (MTWS) and (iv) no magnetic treatment of irrigation water or seeds as control treatment. A magnetic treatment device with two permanent magnets (magnetic induction: 3.5-136 mT) was used for the above treatments. Seeds were sown in washed sand and seedlings were harvested at 20 days. The results showed that MTW led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in emergence rate index (ERI; 42% for snow pea and 51% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (25% for snow pea and 20% for chickpea) and contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe and Mn in both seedling varieties compared to control seedlings. Likewise, there were significant increases in ERI (33% for snow peas and 37% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (11% for snow pea and 4% for chickpea) and some nutrients of snow pea and chickpea seedlings with MTS in comparison with the controls. The results of this study suggest that both MTW and MTS have the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

  16. Influence of data preprocessing on the quantitative determination of nutrient content in poultry manure by near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L J; Xing, L; Han, L J

    2010-01-01

    With increasing concern over potential polltion from farm wastes, there is a need for rapid and robust methods that can analyze livestock manure nutrient content. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method was used to determine nutrient content in diverse poultry manure samples (n=91). Various standard preprocessing methods (derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, Savitsky-Golay smoothing, and standard normal variate) were applied to reduce data systemic noise. In addition, a new preprocessing method known as direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) was tested. Calibration models for ammonium nitrogen, total potassium, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were developed with the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results showed that all the preprocessed data improved prediction results compared with the non-preprocessing method. Compared with the other preprocessing methods, the DOSC method gave the best results. The DOSC method achieved moderately successful prediction for ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. However, all preprocessing methods did not provide reliable prediction for total potassium. This indicates the DOSC method, especially combined with other preprocessing methods, needs further study to allow a more complete predictive analysis of manure nutrient content.

  17. Nitrogen addition affects leaf nutrition and photosynthesis in sugar maple in a nutrient-poor northern Vermont forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Ellsworth

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple-dominated forest ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. have been receiving precipitation nitrogen (N) inputs of 15 -20 kg N ha1 year1 since at least the mid 1980s sustained chronic N inputs of this magnitude into nutrient-poor forest ecosystems may cause eutrophication and affect ecosystem functioning as well as...

  18. Effect of nitrogen on growth, nutrient assimilation, essential oil content, yield and quality attributes in Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple randomized pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of nitrogen (N on growth, biochemical, quality and yield attributes of Zingiber officinale Rosc. a medicinally important spice plant. Plants were supplied with five levels of basal nitrogen viz. 0 (Control, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N per ha. The performance of the crop was adjudged in terms of various parameters viz. plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of shoot and rhizome, total chlorophyll content, leaf and rhizome NPK content, rhizome carbohydrate and protein content, and analysed at 120 and 180 days after planting (DAP. The data revealed that nitrogen application significantly stimulated most of the studied attributes. Of the five N concentrations, 120 kg N per ha soil proved optimum for most of the parameters studied as compared to the control at both crop stages.

  19. Nutrient concentrations in Upper and Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and associated outlet streams, California and Nevada, 2002-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    Five lakes and their outlet streams in the Lake Tahoe Basin were sampled for nutrients during 2002-03. The lakes and streams sampled included Upper Echo, Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and Echo, Taylor, and Marlette Creeks. Water samples were collected to determine seasonal and spatial concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, and total bioreactive iron. These data will be used by Tahoe Regional Planning Agency in revising threshold values for waters within the Lake Tahoe Basin. Standard U.S. Geological Survey methods of sample collection and analysis were used and are detailed herein. Data collected during this study and summary statistics are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  20. Recycling coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes to improve the yield and mineral content of grains of paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio K; Saigusa, M

    2011-08-30

    Coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes exhibit strong affinity for metals such as Fe and Zn. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of top-dressing application of Fe- and Zn-enriched coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes at the panicle initiation stage on the mineral content of rice grains and the yield of paddy rice. The Fe and Zn contents of brown rice grains increased significantly on application of both coffee and tea waste materials. The concentration of Mn was increased by top-dressing application of coffee waste material only. For Cu, no significant (P coffee and tea waste materials led to a significant (P coffee grounds and tea wastes from coffee shops. Use of these novel materials would not only reduce the waste going to landfill but would also benefit the mineral nutrition of rice consumers at low cost by increasing Fe and Zn levels of rice grains as well as grain yield. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Analysis of quantitative trait loci underlying the traits related to chlorophyll content of the flag leaf in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua YANG; Sansi TU; Shaoqing LI; Lingling FENG; Jin KONG; Hui LI; Yangsheng LI

    2008-01-01

    A population of 117 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross of Zhaiyeqing 8 (indica) x Jingxi 17 (japonica) was employed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying four physiological traits related to chlorophyll contents of the flag leaf. There were significantly positive correlations among chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+ b content. Chlorophyll a/b ratio was significantly negatively correlated with chlorophyll b content. These four traits were normally distributed with transgressive segregation, suggesting that they were controlled by multiple minor genes. A total of 11 QTLs were detected for the four traits and they lay on six chromosomes. Each of them explained 9.2%-19.6% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Of these, two QTLs controlling chlorophyll a content were mapped on chromosomes 2 and 5; four QTLs underlying chlorophyll b content were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 5 and 9; three QTLs underlying chlorophyll a+b amount were mapped on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9; two QTLs under-lying chlorophyll a/b ratio were mapped on chromosomes 6 and 1 1. The intrinsic relationship among the four traits and the practical implication in rice breeding are discussed.

  2. Teores de nutrientes em cultivares de café arábica submetidos à deriva de glyphosate Nutrient content in arabica coffee cultivars subjected to glyphosate drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C França

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se, neste trabalho, os efeitos do glyphosate sobre os teores foliares de nutrientes em três cultivares de café (Coffea arabica. Utilizou-se o esquema fatorial (3 x 5 em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos compostos por três cultivares de café: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 e Topázio (MG-1190; e cinco doses de glyphosate (0; 57,6; 115,2; 230,4; e 460,8 g ha-1. Aos 45 e 120 DAA, coletaram-se folhas (terceiro par de ramos plagiotrópicos, contidos na parte mediana das plantas. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram caracterizados por clorose e estreitamento do limbo foliar para os três cultivares de café. Houve redução nos teores foliares de N, P, K, Cu e Zn aos 45 DAA e de N, K, Mn e Zn aos 120 DAA nas plantas de café tratadas com glyphosate, independentemente do cultivar utilizado. O cultivar Topázio apresentou as maiores reduções nos teores foliares de Fe e Mn, aos 45 DAA, e de P e Fe, aos 120 DAA.The effects of glyphosate on the foliar levels of nutrients in three coffee cultivars (Coffea arabica were evaluated in this work. A factorial (3 x 5 was used in a randomized block design with four replications, with treatments consisting of three coffee varieties: Catucaí Amarelo (2 SL, Oeiras (MG-6851 and Topázio (MG-1190 and five glyphosate doses (0, 57.6, 115.2, 230.4 and 460.8 g ha-1. At 45 and 120 DAA, leaves (third pair from plagiotrophic branches were collected from the medium part of the plants. Glyphosate intoxication symptoms were characterized by chlorosis and leaf narrowing for the three coffee varieties. There was a reduction in foliar levels of N, P, K, Cu and Zn at 45 DAA, and N, K, Mn and Zn at 120 DAA, in coffee plants treated with glyphosate, regardless of the cultivar used. Cultivar Topázio showed the greatest reductions in the foliar levels of Fe and Mn, at 45 DAA and P and Fe, at 120 DAA, when treated with glyphosate.

  3. Nutrient Content in Soils and Adaptability of Corn n Yuanzhou District, Guyuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research rational fertilization of corn in Yuanzhou District, Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. [Method] Nutrient con- tents in soils in Yuanzhou District were measured with conventional analysis method and the suitable fertilization scheme of corn growth was proposed based on fertiliz- er-application rule of corn growth and nutrient balance. [Result] Soil in farmlands in Yuanzhou District was of alkalinity; organic matter, N, P and Zn were shortage; S was extremely insufficient; Fe and Mn were moderate; K was abundant; Cu would satisfy crop growth, [Conclusion] The research provides references for yield increase, reduction of chemical fertilizer and related pollution for corn growth.

  4. Soil microbial activity and nutrients of evergreen broad-leaf forests in mid-subtropical region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan Zeng; Silong Wang; Canming Zhang; Hong Tang; Xiquan Li; Zijian Wu; Jia Luo

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the effects of forest suc-cession on soil microbial activity, a comparison of soil microbial properties and nutrients was conducted between three forest types representing a natural forest succession chronosequence. The study compared a pine (Pinus mas-soniana) forest (PF), a pine and broadleaf mixed forest (MF) and an evergreen broadleaf forest (BF), in the Yingzuijie Biosphere Reserve, Hunan Province, China. Results showed that soil nutrients in the MF and BF plots were higher than in the PF plots. The range in microbial biomass carbon followed a similar pattern with BF having the greatest values, 522–1022 mg kg-1, followed by MF 368–569 mg kg-1, and finally, PF 193–449 mg kg-1. Soil nutrients were more strongly correlated with microbial biomass carbon than basal respiration or metabolic quo-tient. Overall, forest succession in the study site improved soil microbial properties and soil fertility, which in turn can increase primary productivity and carbon sequestration.

  5. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes.

  6. 21 CFR 101.65 - Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... no preservatives,” “no artificial colors;” (3) A claim about the presence of an ingredient that is... apple,” “Contains the same amount of Vitamin C as an 8 oz glass of orange juice.”). (3) Claims may be..., iron, protein or fiber 1 May include ingredients whose addition does not change the nutrient profile...

  7. 21 CFR 101.13 - Nutrient content claims-general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., valid data base; an average value determined from the top three national (or regional) brands, a market... the same business entity or by one entitled to use its trade name. The nutrient values used to... must also bear: (A) Clear and concise quantitative information comparing the amount of the subject...

  8. 9 CFR 317.369 - Labeling applications for nutrient content claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nutrient. This explanation shall also state what nutritional benefit to the public will derive from use of... accurate and complete English translation. The labeling application shall state the applicant's post office... or her knowledge, it is a representative and balanced submission that includes...

  9. 9 CFR 381.469 - Labeling applications for nutrient content claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... level of a nutrient. This explanation shall also state what nutritional benefit to the public will... accurate and complete English translation. The labeling application shall state the applicant's post office... or her knowledge, it is a representative and balanced submission that includes...

  10. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  11. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  12. Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from ten Algerian Ficus carica L. varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Souhila Mahmoudi; Mustapha Khali; Abderahim Benkhaled; Karima Benamirouche; Imen Baiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic leaf extracts of ten Algerian fig(Ficus carica L.)varieties(uniferous, biferous and caprifig tree).Methods: Phenolics were extracted by Soxhlet method and analyzed by the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Flavonoids were determined by aluminum trichloride assay and the antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied with the disc diffusion method and a macrodilution broth method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations.Results: The mean extract yield was 14.10% ± 0.66%(n = 10). Leaf extract of biferous followed by uniferous varieties had the highest total phenolic contents [(52.296 ± 5.232)and(48.973 ± 2.015) mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry plant extract respectively], flavonoids [(14.388 ± 0.333) and(14.136 ± 1.082) mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry plant extract] and antioxidant capacity [IC50(798.754 ± 108.590) and(825.004 ± 110.835) mg/m L]. Antioxidant capacity of fig leaves was significantly correlated with phenolic contents(r = 0.748). These extracts showed bactericidal activity and moderate antifungal activity, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal lethal concentrations were determined on Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusions: All tested extracts contain phenolic compounds and exhibited an antioxidant activity and an antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further researches on identification and purification of phenolic compounds are required.

  13. Dynamic contents of energy and organic nutrient in steppe growths of the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Veselý

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the dynamics in the content of organic nutrients, ash and energy in dry matter of growths within the Mohelenská Serpentine Steppe National Nature Reserve (NPR, and to document their initial nutritive value before the intended grazing. Plant samples in 1995 and 1996 during the growing season in 14-days intervals from the area of 3 × 1 m2. Amounts of dry matter, fibre, nitrogen substances, fat and ashes were determined in growths according to the ANONYM (2001. Nitrogen-free extract substances (BNLV were determined by final calculating; BE, ME, NEL, NEV, PDIN and PDIE were calculated using the regression equations (VESELÝ and ZEMAN, 1995, 1997. Combining ratio (SP was calculated according to the relation: SP = PDIN (g/NEL (MJ. The dynamics of the contents of dry matter, organic nutrients, ashes and energy were assessed in the growth during the vegetation period and the dynamics was compared with standardized requirements of sheep (no pregnant ewe. Regression and correlation relations for nutrition value of the growths during vegetation period were calculated by use of mathematical-statistical analysis. Only statistically significantly (P<0.05 different parameters form the zero are presented in the paper. The content of dry matter in the growths culminated in summer months (places D8, E13, B17 and it was accompanied by depression in autumn months. After the highest content of crude protein, PDIN and PDIE recorded in spring months summer depression (August followed, this depression was partly balanced by autumn growth of vegetation. The content of ash in steppe growths increased during evaluated period. Similar tendency was registered for fat. Also the contents of fibre and BNLV linearly increased. The contents of nitrogen nutrients and energy corresponded with standardized requirements for sheep during whole vegetation period. Conversely the content of fibre highly exceeded the requirement except in spring

  14. 侧柏与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对养分释放的影响%IMPACTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF MIXTURE OF LEAF LITTERS FROM PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS AND OTHER TREES ON NUTRIENT RELEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓曦; 刘增文; 祝振华; 杜良贞

    2013-01-01

    constant temperature and humidity for 345 days on end.The litters were analyzed for quality and nutrient contents before and after the incubation.Results show that 1) among the nutrients released during decompostion of the leaf litters,K was the most active and easy to get released,while P was generally dull and difficult to get released,and C and N was moderate and often synchronous in releasing,and the recycle period of these nutrients was 1 ~ 2 a; 2) leaf litter of Ulmus pumila in the mixture acted positively,while that of Amorpha fruticosa,Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis negatively on C release ; leaf litter of Populus simonii did positively,while that of B.platyphylla,Q.liaotungensis and A.fruticosa negatively on N release; litters of P.simonii and U.pumila did positively,while litters from all the other trees negatively on P release; and litter of U.pumila did positively,while that of A.fruticosa did negatively on K release;3) the Principal Component Analysis of comprehensive effects of decomposition of various mixtures of leaf litters on releasing of C,N,P and K revealed that leaf letter of U.Pumila and P.simonii in the mixture was the most significant in promoting nutrient release,and litters from Caragana microphylla and Q.liaotungensis followed,Litter from A.fruticosa,followed by litter from B.platyphylla,H.rhamnoides and R.Pseudoacacia,showed obvious inhibitive effects on nutrient release.

  15. Field Spectroscopy in the VNIR-SWIR Region to Discriminate between Mediterranean Native Plants and Exotic-Invasive Shrubs Based on Leaf Tannin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rudolf Karl Lehmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive shrub, Acacia longifolia, native to southeastern Australia, has a negative impact on vegetation and ecosystem functioning in Portuguese dune ecosystems. In order to spectrally discriminate A. longifolia from other non-native and native species, we developed a classification model based on leaf reflectance spectra (350–2500 nm and condensed leaf tannin content. High variation of leaf tannin content is common for Mediterranean shrub and tree species, in particular between N-fixing and non-N-fixing species, as well as within the genus, Acacia. However, variation in leaf tannin content has not been studied in coastal dune ecosystems in southwest Portugal. We hypothesized that condensed tannin concentration varies significantly across species, further allowing for distinguishing invasive, nitrogen-fixing A. longifolia from other vegetation based on leaf spectral reflectance data. Spectral field measurements were carried out using an ASD FieldSpec FR spectroradiometer attached to an ASD leaf clip in order to collect 750 in situ leaf reflectance spectra of seven frequent plant species at three study sites in southwest Portugal. We applied partial least squares (PLS regression to predict the obtained leaf reflectance spectra of A. longifolia individuals to their corresponding tannin concentration. A. longifolia had the lowest tannin concentration of all investigated species. Four wavelength regions (675–710 nm, 1060–1170 nm, 1360–1450 nm and 1630–1740 nm were identified as being highly correlated with tannin concentration. A spectra-based classification model of the different plant species was calculated using a principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA. The best prediction of A. longifolia was achieved by using wavelength regions between 1360–1450 nm and 1630–1740 nm, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 98.9%. In comparison, selecting the entire wavelength range, the best user accuracy only reached 86

  16. Yield performance and leaf nutrient levels of coffee cultivars under different plant densities Produtividade e níveis foliares de nutrientes em cultivares de café sob diferentes populações de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea Arabica L. plantations using adapted cultivars to regional environmental conditions with optimal plant population density and adequate nutrition are expected to show high yield responses. The triennial production and leaf macronutrient concentrations of four coffee cultivars were studied under different plant population densities. Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, Obatã (IAC 1669-20, Acaiá (IAC 474-19 and Icatu Amarelo (IAC 2944 were planted in densities of 2,500; 5,000; 7,519; and 10,000 plants ha-1 with one plant per hole and two plants per hole in the 2,500 plant ha-1. Plants were homogeneously fertilized without liming. As the population density increased the triennial coffee productivity increased, the yield per plant decreased, and leaf concentrations of phosphorus (P, potassium (K and sulfur (S increased. Coffee plants under dense systems presented equal or higher leaf macronutrient concentrations compared to the plants under conventional population. Taller cultivars presented the highest nutrient concentration values, and Obatã, a dwarf cultivar, the lowest values. Higher coffee yields and lower leaf P, Ca and S concentrations were observed in plots with one plant compared to the plots with two plants. In general, the coffee cultivars had leaf N and S concentrations above the reference limits reported in the literature, but leaf concentrations of other macronutrients were within adequate ranges.Cultivares de cafeeiro (Coffea Arabica L. adaptadas às regiões de cultivo, com população de plantas otimizada e adequado estado nutricional são premissas para a obtenção de produções elevadas de café. Estudou-se a produção trienal de café e o teor foliar de macronutrientes de cultivares de cafeeiro em função das densidades de plantio. Foram utilizados os cultivares Catuaí Amarelo (IAC 47, Obatã (IAC 1669-20, Acaiá (IAC 474-19 e Icatu Amarelo (IAC 2944 nas populações de 2.500 plantas ha-1 com duas plantas por cova; e, 5

  17. Influência de doses crescentes de chumbo sobre o teor e o conteúdo de nutrientes e Pb em mudas de ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. Influence of increasing lead levels on nutrient and Pb content and accumulation in ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Nogueira de Paiva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da aplicação de chumbo sobre o teor e o conteúdo de nutrientes e Pb na raiz, no caule e nas folhas de mudas de ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. foi estudado em um experimento realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras. As mudas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Clark e submetidas a doses crescentes de Pb: 0, 48, 96, 192 e 288 mimol/l. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso, e após 60 dias de exposição ao metal pesado foram feitas avaliações do teor e do conteúdo de macro, micronutrientes e chumbo na matéria seca de raiz, caule e folha. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de chumbo aumentou o teor de P e praticamente não afetou os teores de S, Ca e Mg nas mudas. De modo geral os teores de Cu, Fe e Mn sofreram redução, o teor de Zn não foi afetado, enquanto o conteúdo de macro e de micronutrientes sofreu redução. O teor de Pb na matéria seca de raiz, caule e folha aumentou com as doses aplicadas, principalmente na raiz, e se mostrou pouco móvel nas plantas analisadas.The effect of lead application on nutrient and Pb content and accumulation in ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standl. seedlings was studied in an experiment conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras. The seedlings were cultivated in Clark nutrient solution and submitted to increasing Pb levels: 0, 48, 96, 192 and 288 mumol/l. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design and after 60 days of exposure to the heavy metals, evaluations of macro and micronutrient and lead content and accumulation in the root, stem and leaf dry matter were made. The results showed that lead application increased P content and practically did not affect S, Ca and Mg contents. Cu, Fe and Mn contents, in general, presented a reduction; Zn content was not affected while macro

  18. Nutrient content in macrophyta collected from southern Baltic Sea beaches in relation to eutrophication and biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholc, K.; Szymczak-Żyła, M.; Lubecki, L. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Zamojska, A. [University of Gdańsk, Department of Econometrics, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Hapter, P. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Tjernström, E. [Environmental Department, Trelleborg Municipality, Algatan 13, 231 83 Trelleborg (Sweden); Kowalewska, G. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland)

    2014-03-01

    One of the signs of eutrophication is the excessive growth of opportunistic macroalgae, a worldwide phenomenon also observed in the Baltic Sea. Mats of macroalgae may drift long distances and accumulate at the seashore, considerably decreasing the recreational value of beaches. The matter accumulating at the shore is treated usually as waste. However, it could be used, for example, as a resource for biogas production. The aim of this work was to verify the hypothesis that collecting of macrophyta accumulating on the beach and potential usage of this material for biogas production will decrease nutrient reserves in the sea to counteract eutrophication and the increase in greenhouse effects. Samples of macrophyta were collected in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their C, N, and P contents, and degree of degradation (% Chl-a in the sum of chloropigments-a); the results were analysed statistically. The nutrient content was studied in macrophyta accumulating on the beach (Sopot, Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland) and for comparison, macrophyta collected from their habitats in less nutrient polluted area (off the Skåre coast, Trelleborg, Sweden). The nutrient content (N, P) in macrophyta depends primarily on their morphology and only secondarily on environmental nutrient pollution. Collecting the macrophyta biomass accumulating on beaches will not significantly change the eutrophication of the Baltic as a whole; any improvements in this respect are likely to be on a local scale only. Collecting macrophyta removes more nitrogen than phosphorous, so this would decrease the N/P ratio in seawater. This macrophyta biomass is a substantial reserve of renewable energy, which could be utilized with the appropriate technology for biomass collection/preservation and biofuel production as an additive to other carbon-rich biomasses. And the biofuel production should be evaluated not only from the standpoint of economic efficiency but also from the environmental point of view. - Highlights:

  19. Water and carbohydrate content at leafs of plants used in medicine during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of carbohydrate content with cryoprotective function to the end of vegetation period was shown. The accumulation of carbohydrates in plants on Lake Baikal shores region was greater than it in Irkutsk region.

  20. Quantitative trait loci analysis of chlorophyll content for flag leaf in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chlorophyll contents are one of important physiological traits, which affect photosynthesis in plants. There were significant differences in chlorophyll contents between Zhaiyeqing 8(ZYQ 8), an indica variety and Jingxi 17(JX 17), a japonica variety (Table 1). In 117 DH lines of the cross of ZYQ 8/ JX 17, these parameters distributed conTwo neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice LU Chuangen and ZOU Jiangshi, Jiangsu Acad of Agri Sci, Nanjing 210014, China

  1. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHASEMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  2. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  3. Effects of Pig Manure Organic Fertilizer Application on Available Nutrient Content and Soil Aggregate Distribution in Fluvo-aquic Soil

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    SHI Wen-xuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on environmental risk caused by livestock manure disorderly discharged from integrated livestock and poultry industry. 2-year pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of pig manure organic fertilizer on fluvo-aquic soil organic carbon, available nutrient content and soil aggregate distribution, which designed in 5 levels of organic fertilizer application(0, 6.7, 13.3, 26.7, 40.0 g·kg-1 soil. The results showed that the organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available P and available K contents in soil were enhanced with organic fertilizer application increasing, and the indicators of soil were increased significantly in second year, such as organic carbon content was 2.7%~54.0% higher than that of the first year, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content was higher 6.7%~34.6%, available P content was higher 36.8%~159.5% and available K content was higher 20.3%~35.7%. There was a significant linear relationship between soil organic carbon content and external organic carbon input. Organic fertilizer application could significantly improve lettuce yield, and it had a significant effect. The soil micro-aggregate contents for 0.053~0.25 mm and 0.5 mm soil macro-aggregates were increased with organic fertilizer application increasing. Organic fertilizer application could promote soil macro-aggregates formation, when the pig manure organic fertilizer applied 40.0 g·kg-1 soil, the contents of >0.25 mm soil aggregates reached maximum, and also the mean weight diameter(MWD and geometric average diameter(GWD of soil aggregates were higher than that of other treatments, the soil agglomeration became more stronger and the soil structure became more stable.

  4. Plant leaf chlorophyll content retrieval based on a field imaging spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yue, Yue-Min; Li, Ru; Shen, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ke-Lin

    2014-10-23

    A field imaging spectrometer system (FISS; 380-870 nm and 344 bands) was designed for agriculture applications. In this study, FISS was used to gather spectral information from soybean leaves. The chlorophyll content was retrieved using a multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machine (SVM) regression. Our objective was to verify the performance of FISS in a quantitative spectral analysis through the estimation of chlorophyll content and to determine a proper quantitative spectral analysis method for processing FISS data. The results revealed that the derivative reflectance was a more sensitive indicator of chlorophyll content and could extract content information more efficiently than the spectral reflectance, which is more significant for FISS data compared to ASD (analytical spectral devices) data, reducing the corresponding RMSE (root mean squared error) by 3.3%-35.6%. Compared with the spectral features, the regression methods had smaller effects on the retrieval accuracy. A multivariate linear model could be the ideal model to retrieve chlorophyll information with a small number of significant wavelengths used. The smallest RMSE of the chlorophyll content retrieved using FISS data was 0.201 mg/g, a relative reduction of more than 30% compared with the RMSE based on a non-imaging ASD spectrometer, which represents a high estimation accuracy compared with the mean chlorophyll content of the sampled leaves (4.05 mg/g). Our study indicates that FISS could obtain both spectral and spatial detailed information of high quality. Its image-spectrum-in-one merit promotes the good performance of FISS in quantitative spectral analyses, and it can potentially be widely used in the agricultural sector.

  5. The effect of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba Small

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of growing media and concentration of nutrient solution on growth, flowering, evapotranspiration and macroelement content of media and leaves of Tymophylla tenuiloba were evaluated under ebb-and-flow conditions. Two media: peat and peat + perlite (3:l, v/v, and four concentrations of nutrient solution: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 mS cm-1 were applied. High quality plants were produced in both media and all concentration of nutrient solution. The lowest evapotranspiration was measured at the highest concentration of nutrient solution. N concentration of leaves was high in all treatments. Concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg decreased with increasing concentration of nutrient solution. Opposite was found for P. At the end of cultivation the lowest pH was measured in the upper layer of growing media. The highest total soluble salt level was measured in the upper layers. Upper layers accumulated more N-NO3, P, Ca, and Mg. Mineral element content of both media was high in all concentrations of nutrient solution. Low concentration of nutrient solution at 1.0 mS cm-1 is recommended, although -1Tymophylla tenuiloba-1 can be also cultivated at higher concentrations of nutrient solution up to 2.5mS cm-1, if placed on the same bench with other bedding plants requiring more nutrients.

  6. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock.

  7. Available content, surface runoff and leaching of phosphorus forms in a typic hapludalf treated with organic and mineral nutrient sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of animal manure to soil can increase phosphorus availability to plants and enhance transfer of the nutrient solution drained from the soil surface or leached into the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of successive applications of organic and mineral nutrient sources on the available content, surface runoff and leaching of P forms in a Typic Hapludalf in no-tillage systems. Experiment 1 was set up in 2004 in the experimental area of UFSM, in Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: control (without nutrient application and application of pig slurry (PS, pig deep-litter (PL, cattle slurry (CS, and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The rates were determined to meet the N crop requirements of no-tillage black oat and maize, grown in the 2010/2011 growing season. The soil solution was collected after each event (rain + runoff or leaching and the soluble, particulate and total P contents were measured. In November 2008, soil was collected in 2 cm intervals to a depth of 20 cm, in 5 cm intervals to a depth of 40 cm, and in 10 cm intervals to a depth of 70 cm. The soil was dried and ground, and P determined after extraction by anion exchange resin (AER. In experiment 2, samples collected from the Typic Hapludalf near experiment 1 were incubated for 20, 35, 58, 73 and 123 days after applying the following treatments: soil, soil + PS, soil + PL, soil + CS and soil + NPK. Thereafter, the soil was sampled and P was analyzed by AER. The applications of nutrient sources over the years led to an increase in available P and its migration in the soil profile. This led to P transfer via surface runoff and leaching, with the largest transfer being observed in PS and PL treatments, in which most P was applied. The soil available P and P transfer via surface runoff were correlated with the amounts applied, regardless of the P source. However, P transfer by leaching was not correlated with the applied nutrient

  8. Detecting leaf-water content in Mediterranean trees using high-resolution spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Doelman, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Water content of the vegetation canopy or individual leaves is an important variable in physiological plant processes. In Mediterranean regions where water availability is an important production limiting factor, it is a strong indicator of vegetation stress. Spectroscopic earth-observation techniqu

  9. Evaluation of the nitrate content in leaf vegetables produced through different agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnin, S G; Rath, S; Reyes, F G R

    2005-12-01

    The nitrate content of leafy vegetables (watercress, lettuce and arugula) produced by different agricultural systems (conventional, organic and hydroponic) was determined. The daily nitrate intake from the consumption of these crop species by the average Brazilian consumer was also estimated. Sampling was carried out between June 2001 to February 2003 in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Nitrate was extracted from the samples using the procedure recommended by the AOAC. Flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection at 460 nm was used for nitrate determination through the ternary complex FeSCNNO+. For lettuce and arugula, the average nitrate content varied (p < 0.05) between the three agricultural systems with the nitrate level in the crops produced by the organic system being lower than in the conventional system that, in turn, was lower than in the hydroponic system. For watercress, no difference (p < 0.05) was found between the organic and hydroponic samples, both having higher nitrate contents (p < 0.05) than conventionally cultivated samples. The nitrate content for each crop species varied among producers, between different parts of the plant and in relation to the season. The estimated daily nitrate intake, calculated from the consumption of the crops produced by the hydroponic system, represented 29% of the acceptable daily intake established for this ion.

  10. Spectroscopic analysis of seasonal changes in live fuel moisture content and leaf dry mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Philip E. Dennison; W. Matt Jolly; Rachael C. Kropp; Simon C. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Live fuel moisture content (LFMC), the ratio of water mass to dry mass contained in live plant material, is an important fuel property for determining fire danger and for modeling fire behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFMC often relies on an assumption of changing water and stable dry mass over time. Fundamental understanding of seasonal variation in plant water...

  11. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae) alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-de-Aldana, Beatriz R; García-Ciudad, Antonia; García-Criado, Balbino; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+) and non-infected (E-) plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB) were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%), Zn (58%) and N (19%) than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  12. The sum of its parts--effects of gastric distention, nutrient content and sensory stimulation on brain activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje S Spetter

    Full Text Available During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention, naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients, or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure. Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This

  13. Seed quality, chlorophyll content index and leaf nitrogen levels in maize inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Matos Pereira; Elise de Matos Pereira; Lucas Tadeu Mazza Revolti; Sonia Marli Zingaretti; Gustavo Vitti Môro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between maize genotypes in relation to the germination response of the seeds and the growth of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, as well as the effect of inoculation on nitrogen levels and the chlorophyll content index of the leaves. The physiological seeds quality from the single-cross hybrids AG7098 and 2B707, and from the experimental synthetic varieties V2 and V4, inoculated with A. brasilense, was tested for germination, ...

  14. 21 CFR 101.54 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” “more,” and “high potency.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for âgood source,â âhigh,â... Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101.54 Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” “more... claim about the level of a nutrient in a food in relation to the Reference Daily Intake...

  15. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  16. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Takao

    Full Text Available Abstract There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna. In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum. Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL−1, with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL−1. The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24–8.75 µg·mL−1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  17. [Research on hyperspectral information parameters of chlorophyll content of rice leaf in Cd-polluted soil environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Cheng, Cheng-Qi

    2009-10-01

    The remote sensing pollution mechanism in Cd-polluted soil is discussed depending on the research into the chlorophyll content of Cd-polluted rice leaf in the present paper. The response models of remote sensing information parameters, which reflected chlorophyll content variety of rice canopy with soil Cd pollution degree, were established based on Hyperion satellite data and a great number of ground experiment data. To extract sensitive remote sensing parameters for Cd pollution, multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) was applied to the reflectivity of 447-925 nm in Hyperion data and five remote sensing information parameters, including MCARI, NPCI, RVSI, NDVI and Depth671. Experiments indicated that MCARI is the most sensitive parameter to the chlorophyll content of Cd-polluted rice, whose response coefficient is 0.59. In the extent of 1.0-2.0 mg x kg(-1) of Cd pollution concentration in soil, MCARI curve shows a small decline. In the extent of 2.0-3.0 mg x kg(-1) of Cd pollution concentration in soil, MCARI curve is horizontal. Above 3.0 mg x kg(-1), MCARI shows a significant drop trend and so on. The research results showed that the chlorophyll content is a good indicator for nutrition situation of plant, capacity of photosynthesis and each developmental stage. And the chlorophyll remote sensing parameters in crop have a great significance for monitoring heavy metal pollution This study will help improve the precision and limitation of statistical methods and provide theoretical basis for and technical approach to monitoring soil Cd pollution in large area using hyperspectral remote sensing technology. However, the precision of pollution model needs to be improved.

  18. Nutrient and cell wall fraction digestibility of growing WAD ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ekeocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After a previous 84-d performance phase on growing WAD ewe, Studies was conducted using sixteen West African dwarf (WAD ewe-lambs weighing between 17.50 and 17.88kg on a basal diet of Panicum maximum were allotted into 4 treatment groups A, B, C and D of 4 replicates each. The MSL replaced Wheat bran (WB gravimetrically at 0, 15, 30 and 45%. Treatment A served as control. The experiment lasted for one week. Digestibility was determined using a 6-d total fecal collection. Ewes were given ad libitum access to feed and water. Parameters measured were voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI, which comprised concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI and grass dry matter intake (GDMI, Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, Organic matter (OM and Energy . Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA .The VDMI (g/d varied from 392.30 - 695.00, CDMI (g/d varied from 181.80 - 536.80 and GDMI (g/d varied from 130.65 - 215.95 for ewe-lambs. Apparent Digestibility Coefficients of NDF, ADF, ADL, organic matter (OM and Energy were similar. Approximately 75.5 ±1.1% of the VDMI came from the supplement. Diets containing 15% MSLM was superior to others for CDMI (181.80 – 536.80 g/day, CP intake (17.72 – 32.40 g/day/kgW0.75, Digestible DMI (49.45 - 80.68 g/day/kgW0.75 and Digestible CPI (13.68 - 27.16 g/day/kgW0.75 while GDMI (130.65 – 215.95 g/day for diets containing 30% and 45% MSLM were significant (p Inclusion of up to 45% Mexican Sunflower Leaf in the diets of growing ewe to replace Wheat bran was adequate.

  19. Effects of SeleniumFertilizers on SeleniumContent and Nutrient Quality of Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Hong-qin; Chen, Yue; Fang, Yong; ZHANG, JUN; Zong, Liang-Gang; SUN Hong-jie; Chen, Xi; Xue, Mei; Zhao, Fang-Jie; HU Qiu-hui

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different fertilization methods on selenium content and nutrition quality of kiwifruits were employed for selenium fortification. The fertilization methods were root fertilization, foliar fertilization and combined fertilization on their corresponding fertilizing periods. The results demonstrated that selenium content of these three experimental groups was in the order of foliar fertilization>combined fertilization>root fertilization. Foliar fertilization with the dose of 0.5 k...

  20. Effects of SeleniumFertilizers on SeleniumContent and Nutrient Quality of Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Hong-qin; Chen, Yue; Fang, Yong; Zhang, Jun; ZONG Liang-gang; SUN Hong-jie; Chen, Xi; Xue, Mei; Zhao, Fang-Jie; HU Qiu-hui

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different fertilization methods on selenium content and nutrition quality of kiwifruits were employed for selenium fortification. The fertilization methods were root fertilization, foliar fertilization and combined fertilization on their corresponding fertilizing periods. The results demonstrated that selenium content of these three experimental groups was in the order of foliar fertilization>combined fertilization>root fertilization. Foliar fertilization with the dose of 0.5 k...

  1. Interactive effects of UV radiation and reduced precipitation on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and the antioxidant activity of naturally growing Arbutus unedo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2015-12-01

    The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter.

  2. Examining the Influence of Seasonality, Condition, and Species Composition on Mangrove Leaf Pigment Contents and Laboratory Based Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-de-Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seasonal relationships (dry vs. rainy between reflectance (400–1000 nm and leaf pigment contents (chlorophyll-a (chl-a, chlorophyll-b (chl-b, total carotenoids (tcar, chlorophyll a/b ratio in three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans (A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa (L. racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle (R. mangle according to their condition (stressed vs. healthy. Based on a sample of 360 leaves taken from a semi-arid forest of the Mexican Pacific, it was determined that during the dry season, the stressed A. germinans and R. mangle show the highest maximum correlations at the green (550 nm and red-edge (710 nm wavelengths (r = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively for both chl-a and chl-b and that much lower values (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively were recorded during the rainy season. Moreover, it was found that the tcar correlation pattern across the electromagnetic spectrum was quite different from that of the chl-a, the chl-b, and chl a/b ratio but that their maximum correlations were also located at the same two wavelength ranges for both seasons. The stressed L. racemosa was the only sample to exhibit minimal correlation with chl-a and chl-b for either season. In addition, the healthy A. germinans and R. mangle depicted similar patterns of chl-a and chl-b, but the tcar varied depending on the species. The healthy L. racemosa recorded higher correlations with chl-b and tcar at the green and red-edge wavelengths during the dry season, and higher correlation with chl-a during the rainy season. Finally, the vegetation index Red Edge Inflection Point Index (REIP was found to be the optimal index for chl-a estimation for both stressed and healthy classes. For chl-b, both the REIP and the Vogelmann Red Edge Index (Vog1 index were found to be best at prediction. Based on the results of this investigation, it is suggested that caution be taken as mangrove leaf pigment contents from spectroscopy data

  3. [Effects of root-knot nematodes on cucumber leaf N and P contents, soil pH, and soil enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Ruan, Wei-Bin; Gao, Yu-Bao; Song, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Yu-Kun

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculation with root-knot nematodes on the cucumber leaf N and P contents, and the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil pH and enzyme activities. The rhizospheric soil pH didn't have a significant decrease until the inoculation rate reached 6000 eggs per plant. With the increase of inoculation rate, the leaf N and P contents, rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity, and rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil polyphenol oxidase activity all decreased gradually, rhizospheric soil catalase activity was in adverse, non-rhizospheric soil pH decreased after an initial increase, and non-rhizospheric soil catalase activity had no regular change. After inoculation, rhizospheric soil urease activity decreased significantly, but rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil phosphatase activity and non-rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity only had a significant decrease under high inoculation rate. In most cases, there existed significant correlations between rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents; and in some cases, there existed significant correlations between non-rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents.

  4. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under salinity stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parsa-Motlagh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of leaf nutrients and photosynthetic pigments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in condition of irrigation with saline water, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran during 2010. The studied factors were water salinity (500 (control, 2000, 4000 and 6000 s.cm-1, phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 mg.kg-1 soil in form of Triple super phosphate and mycorrhizal fungi with three levels (GLOMUS MOSSEAE AND GLOMUS INTRARADICES AND no fungi (control. The results showed that the concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoeids, K, Ca and P were decreased with increasing of salinity levels. But salinity increased the concentration of Na and Na/K ratio. Mycorrhizal fungi had no significant effect on concentration of Ca and chlorophyll a. The interaction of salinity and phosphorus fertilizer on concentration of chlorophyll b, Na and P was significant. Results demonstrated that GLOMUS INTRARADICES had better effect on improvement of photosynthetic pigments concentration and concentration of nutrition elements. In low levels of salinity stress, use of MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI WITH PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER, can reduce the negative effects of salt by increasing of concentration of photosynthetic pigments and nutrition elements.

  5. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Pattanaik, A K; Sharma, K

    2013-10-01

    The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups' i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (pCT significantly (pCT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep.

  6. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (pgoats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137

  7. The effects of N,P, K, and Ca on plant growth and nutrient content of Lily leaves%氮、磷、钾、钙对香水百合生长及叶片养分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峤; 潘远智; 赵莉

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different fertilizations on plant height, leaf number, leaf area, and chlorophyll and on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium changes in leaf indexes of potted lilies were studied using an orthogonal design to explore fertilizer requirements and provide a basis for standardizing cultivation of lilies. 1) Nitrogen fertilizer had significant effects and was generally highly significantly positively correlated with plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Plant height, leaf number, leaf area and chlorophyll were highest when nitrogen was 300 mg/kg. Phosphorus and calcium were positively correlated with plant height, leaf number, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Leaf area and chlorophyll content were highest when phosphorus was 100-150 mg/kg, potassium wasl50 mg/kg, and calcium was 120 mg/kg. 2) During the whole growth period, total leaf nutrient content was highest when nitrogen was 200-300 mg/kg, phosphorus was 100 mg/kg and potassium was 0-150 mg/kg. There was an increase to a maximum at budding or initial bloom stages, and then either a slight or a strong decrease. Under different fertilization ratios, the contents of leaf nutrition differed significantly after the budding stage. 3) The best combination was: N, 300 mg/kg; P, 100 mg/kg; K, 150 mg/kg; and Ca, 120 mg/kg. This ratio led to optimal growth conditions, highest growth speed, best leaf quality, highest leaf nutrient content and longest period of P, K, and Ca accumulation of the Lily.%以盆栽香水百合为试验材料,采用氮、磷、钾、钙四因素四水平L16(44)正交试验设计方法,研究了不同肥料配比对香水百合株高、叶片数、叶面积、叶绿素和叶片中氮、磷、钾、钙含量变化的影响,旨在揭示香水百合需肥规律,为其规范化栽培提供依据.结果表明,1)氮肥对株高、叶面积、叶绿素影响显著,基本呈极显著正相关,氮肥为300mg/kg时株高、叶片数、叶面积和叶

  8. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  9. Phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from Pistacia atlantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigane, Ghayth; Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Ben Salem, Ridha; Nasr, Zouheir

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary metabolites related to Pistacia atlantica Desf as well as their biological activities. Results show that using ethanol as a solvent exhibited the highest content of total phenolics and flavonoids (68.23 mg GAE g(-1) of DW and 44 mg RE g(-1) of DW), followed by aqueous one (20.07 mg GAE g(-1) of DW and 15 mg RE g(-1) of DW). Good correlation (Data not shown) was obtained between the DPPH radical-scavenging activities and total phenolics contents. Many similarities were observed between the results of the DPPH (IC50 = 32 and 200 μg mL(-1)) and ABTS (IC50 = 42 and 300 μg mL(-1)) assays. All tested extracts contained phenolic compounds exhibited an antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Further, researches for identification and purification of phenolic compounds are required.

  10. Phenolic and flavonoid content of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (leaf and flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Saboonchian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Leaves and flowers ofElaeagnus angustifolia contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds. These compounds have antioxidant properties that protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze total phenolic and flavonoid content of leaves and flowers in two E. angustifolia variants using different solvents (ethanol and methanol. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant leaves and flowers were prepared. Experiments were carried out to measure their phenolic and flavonoid content using two solvents. Data were analyzed using Instat-N software. Results:Results showed that the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in both ethanolic and methanolic extracts was higher in Fariman variant compared with Mashhad variant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Fariman variant had the highest amount of phenolic compound (10.91±0.18, 10.28± 0.36 mgGAE/100gFW, respectively and also the highest amounts of flavonoids (5.80±0.10, 3.36±0.05 mgQE/100gFW, respectively. Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were better extracted using methanol and ethanol solvent. Conclusion: In both varieties and solvents, the amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds in leaves were higher than flowers. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoids compounds were higher in Fariman compared to Mashhad variants.

  11. [Research on zinc content in leaf of Olinda Valencia orange using visible near infrared spectroscopy model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shi-lai; Deng, Lie; He, Shao-lan; Zheng, Yong-qiang; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Xu-yang

    2010-11-01

    Olinda valencia orange leaves dry powder-like were taken as sample, and chemical analysis combined with technology of visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) was used, through the treatment process of second derivative spectrum of samples of the original spectrum and denoising (Noise). Meanwhile, method of partial least squares (PLS) and cross-validation were used to establish maths model of Zn concentration which applying band combination composited by 400-500 and 1201-1300 nm of characteristic wavelength band. The coefficient of establishing models is 0.9975, while the coefficient of correlation coefficient of prediction is 0.9920. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of cross-validation is 0.5868. Therefore, the means using visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) and the methods of cross-validation and PLS to establish the spectral correction model reflecting the Zn content in leaves and characteristic wavelength bands can detect the Zn content in citrus leaves quantitatively and quickly.

  12. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  13. Irrigation and Leaf Removal Effects on Polyphenolic Content of Grapes and Wines Produced from cv. ‘Agiorgitiko’ (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia HORTI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Agiorgitiko’ is one of the most important red grape varieties of Greece, cultivated almost exclusively in the region of Nemea in north-eastern Peloponnese. This work aimed to study the influence of some commonly applied viticultural practices on the polyphenolic composition of ‘Agiorgitiko’. Leaf removal at veraison, irrigation, and a combination of both, were applied and the phenolic content of the grapes and of the produced wines was compared. The results showed that leaf removal decreased berry size, enhanced total anthocyanin, total phenol and malvidin 3-O-monoglucoside accumulation in skins and increased the amount of extractable anthocyanins in the juice. The combination of irrigation and leaf removal caused a significant increase in total phenols in the skin and in the amount of extractable anthocyanins in juice. As far as the produced wines were concerned, color intensity, tannin content and total polyphenols were increased due to leaf removal. Both irrigation and leaf removal resulted in wines with the highest concentration of malvidin 3-O-monoglucoside, although neither practice resulted in any significant difference in anthocyanin concentration of the wines. Vines where only irrigation was applied produced berries with reduced extractable anthocyanins, increased seed total phenols and lower wine total tannins. The study showed that increasing cluster sun exposure of ‘Agiorgitiko’ vines may be, overall, beneficial to the quality of the produced wine.

  14. Juglone Content in Leaf and Green Husk of Five Walnut (Juglans regia L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Niculina COSMULESCU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone is a chemical compound released by walnut trees that can be toxic for surrounding plant species. In the present study, juglone was identified in leaves and green husk in five walnut cultivars: Germisara, Jupanesti, Franquette, Vina, Valcor by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-RP. Juglone was found predominant in green husk (average value of cultivars is about 31.308 mg/100 g. Significant differences in contents of identified juglone were observed among cultivars that ranged from 20.56 to 42.78 mg/100g for green husk, and 5.42 to 22.82 mg/100 g for leaves. It was also found that walnut green husk and leaves represent the most important source of walnut phenolics.

  15. Nutrient Contents per Serving of Twelve Varieties of Cooked Rice Marketed in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordan imports rice from different countries without any quality preferences. Twelve varieties of cooked rice marketed in Jordan were analyzed. The content per serving of these varieties were computed for energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and phosphorous. The protein content per serving found to range from 0.49 g for La Cigala rice to 6.2 g for Harvest rice. The fat content for all rice brands was less than 0.37 g per serving. The energy content ranged from 172.12 g/serving for Basmati rice to 212.25 g/serving for Sun White rice. Generally, all rice varieties contain significant amounts of minerals per serving. Ruzzana found to contain the highest level of calcium (38.2 mg/serving and Amber the lowest calcium content (6.7 mg/serving. Magnesium content found to range from 5.7 mg/serving for Royal Umberella rice to 16.3 mg/serving for Ruzzana rice. Consumption of one serving of Harvest cooked rice will cover 13.5% of the daily requirement of protein for females and 11.1% for males. Manganese content of one serving of Harvest, Sun White, Abu bent and La Cigala will cover 22.2% of the daily requirements for females and 14.7% for males, while consumption of one of Basmati, Sos rice or Amber will cover only 11.1% and 8.75 of requirement for females and males respectively. Planning a healthful diet is not a simple task. Dietary Reference Intake planning and assessing the diets of individuals or groups of healthy individuals according to their stage of life and sex. Food choice is a function of many factors, including personal preferences, habits, ethnic heritage and tradition. Dietary guidelines for Americans, consider whole grain products like rice are among the food groups that form the basis of a healthy diet. Including rice as part of a healthy, balanced diet can be linked to overall healthier eating patterns. Rice eaters are more likely to eat a diet consistent with the 2005 Dietary

  16. Do agricultural terraces and forest fires recurrence in Mediterranean afforested micro-catchments alter soil quality and soil nutrient content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Calsamiglia, Aleix; Fortesa, Josep; García-Comendador, Julián; Gago, Jorge; Estrany, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Bioclimatic characteristics and intense human pressure promote Mediterranean ecosystems to be fire-prone. Afforestation processes resulting from the progressive land abandonment during the last decades led to greater biomass availability increasing the risk of large forest fires. Likewise, the abandonment and lack of maintenance in the terraced lands constitute a risk of land degradation in terms of soil quantity and quality. Despite the effects of fire and the abandonment of terraced lands on soil loss and physico-chemical properties are identified, it is not clearly understood how wildfires and abandonment of terraces affect soil quality and nutrients content. Microbiological soil parameters and soil enzymes activities are biomarkers of the soil microbial communitýs functional ability, which potentially enables them as indicators of change, disturbance or stress within the soil community. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of terracing (abandoned and non-abandoned) on the soil enzyme activities, microbiological soil parameters and soil nutrients dynamics in three Mediterranean afforested micro-catchments (i.e., trend with higher values in terraced plots, although differences were weaker. We conclude that terraced landscapes present poorer soil quality parameters due to land abandonment and the lack of terraced management. In addition, forest fire recurrence exacerbates soil degradation processes due to the direct effects on vegetation and soil properties.

  17. Examination of the Food and Nutrient Content of School Lunch Menus of Two School Districts in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the diet quality of the school meals in two Mississippi school districts and compared them to the national guidelines. We examined the lunch menus of the two school districts that participated in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program focusing on food quality and assessing both healthy and unhealthy foods and eating behaviors. This analysis was completed through a computerized review used to accurately determine the nutrient content. Both the standard and the alternative meals provided by the cafeterias in the two school districts exceeded the minimum requirement for calories for all grade levels. The meals from the urban schools cafeteria provide more calories than meals from the cafeteria in the rural school district. Although schools believe that they are making positive changes to children’s diets, the programs are falling short of the nutrient recommendations. Poor nutrition and improper dietary practices are now regarded as important risk factors in the emerging problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other chronic diseases, with excessive energy intake listed as a possible reason. Dieticians, school professionals and other health care practitioners need to accurately assess energy intake and adequately promote a dietary responsible lifestyle among children.

  18. CHANGES IN NUTRIENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL CONTENTS OF SESAME SEEDS DURING FERMENTATION

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    Aderonke I. Olagunju

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sesame seeds were fermented using the traditional method for four days and samples taken for analysis each day till the last day of fermentation to monitor the compositional changes in the seeds as fermentation progressed. The viable count obtained ranged from 8.0×103 after 24 h to 2.93×106 cfu/g on the 4th day. The crude protein and fat content increased as fermentation progressed reaching 27.84% and 51.58% respectively. Fermentation yielded positive effect on the phytic acid, phytin phosphorus and oxalate content of the flour samples when compared with the control. Phytic acid content ranged from 31.59 mg/g for raw seed to 18.13 mg/g for fermented seed flour. Sesame seed are high in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and slight increases in values were obtained at the end of processing. Sesame seeds are rich in both essential and non-essential amino acids with leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine values higher than the recommended daily allowance. Processing significantly increased the amino acid values. Sesame flour demonstrated ability to scavenge free radicals. Fermentation of sesame seeds resulted in reduction in the antinutrients in the seed and the seed can serve as soup condiment and seasoning with improved nutritional composition with respect to protein and amino acid.

  19. Brachiaria sp yield and nutrient contents after nitrogen and sulphur fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reges Heinrichs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the production factors, adequate fertilization is an important tool to raise the productivity of pastoral systems and consequently increase the share of Brazil in the supply chain of primary agricultural products at the global level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization in BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS: Stapf. The experiment in pots with Dystrophic Oxisol was evaluated in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement, involving five N doses (0, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg dm-3 in the form of ammonium nitrate and three S doses (0, 20 and 80 mg dm-3 in the form of calcium sulfate, with a total of 15 treatments. In the treatments with low S dose, calcium was provided as calcium chloride, to ensure a homogeneous Ca supply in all treatments. The results showed that the tiller production and dry weight of green leaves and of stems + sheaths and total dry weight were favored by the combination of N and S fertilizer, while the proportion of dry leaves was reduced. Nitrogen fertilization raised the N contents in green leaves and stems + sheaths and reduced K contents in fresh and dry leaves. The response to S rates in the N content of green leaves was quadratic.

  20. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  1. Effect of Biofertilizers on Macro and Micro Nutrients Uptake and Essential Oil Content in Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimzadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigation the effect of different fertilization treatments on nutrient and essential oil contents in dragonhead drug (Dracocephalum moldavica L., an experiment was conducted in the station of agricultural research in Urmia on 2008. Treatments (nitroxin, barvar phosphate biofertilizer, biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer, barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, nitroxin+ biosulfur, nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur, chemical fertilizer, control were arranged based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Results indicated that uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Copper, Manganese and essential oil content were affected by studied treatments significantly but uptake of zinc by plant was not affected. Means comparison showed the highest values of Nitrogen (3.55%, Potassium (3.47% and Iron (4.56 ppm in Nitroxin treatment, Phosphorus (0.26% and Copper (0.33 ppm in barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment, Manganese (0.48 ppm in chemical origin of nitrogen+phosphorus+ potassium treatment and essential oil content (0.48% in nitroxin+ barvar phosphate biofertilizer + biosulfur treatment

  2. C:N:P Stoichiometry and Leaf Traits of Halophytes in an Arid Saline Environment, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lilong; Zhao, Guanxiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Mingting; Zhang, Lifang; Zhang, Xinfang; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC), leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry) based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody) to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem. PMID:25798853

  3. C:N:P stoichiometry and leaf traits of halophytes in an arid saline environment, northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilong Wang

    Full Text Available Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC, leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem.

  4. C:N:P stoichiometry and leaf traits of halophytes in an arid saline environment, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lilong; Zhao, Guanxiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Mingting; Zhang, Lifang; Zhang, Xinfang; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC), leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry) based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody) to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem.

  5. WATER EXTRACT OF SWEET POTATO LEAF IMPROVED LIPID PROFILE AND BLOOD SOD CONTENT OF RATS WITH HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sumardika

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Food stuffs with high flavonoids content  are believed to prevent various diseases caused by oxidative stress because of its antioxidants effect.  Purple sweet potato leaves have been proved containing high flavonoids, and can be developed very easily. To prove antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties of the water extract of purple sweet potato leaves, one research was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. The study design was randomized control group pre- and post-test.  Twenty adult male wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 rats. Both groups of rats were given high-cholesterol diet for three months to induce dyslipidemia. Control group of 10 rats were given only high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the treatment group also treated with purple sweet potato leaf water extract with a dose of 6 cc per day divided into two doses. Before treatment and after treatment, lipid profile and blood SOD levels were measured. The results showed a decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol significantly in the treated group (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group there was also an increase in HDL cholesterol and blood SOD which was significantly differ than the control group (P = 0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of water extract of purple sweet potato leaves can improve the lipid profile and increase blood SOD of rat given high-cholesterol diet.

  6. Genetic Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Contents of Mineral Nutrients in Rice Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luisa Garcia-Oliveira; Lubin Tan; Yongcai Fu; Chuanqing Sun

    2009-01-01

    In present study, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, P and K contents of 85 Introgression linee (ILs) derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were measured by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. Substantial variation was observed for all traits and most of the mineral elements were significantly positive correlated or independent except for Fe with Cu. A total of 31 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for these eight mineral elements by single point analysis. Wild rice (O. rufipogon) contributed favorable alleles for most of the QTLs (26 QTLs), and chromosomes 1, 9 and 12 exhibited 14 QTLs (45%) for these traits. One major effect of QTL for zinc content accounted for the largest proportion of phenotypic variation (11%-19%) was detected near the simple sequence repeats marker RM152 on chromosome 8. The co-locations of QTLs for some mineral elements observed in this mapping population suggested the relationship was at a molecular level among these traits and could be helpful for simultaneous improvement of these traits in rice grain by marker assisted selection.

  7. Nutrient contents and production of rocket as affected by nitrogen concentrations in the nutritive solution Teores de nutrientes e produção de rúcula em função das concentrações de nitrogênio em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Cavarianni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Empiricism in the use of nutrient solutions is frequent. Several times the same nutrient solution is used to grow different species based only on morphological similarities. This practice may lead to nutritional imbalances, affecting not only the production but also the quality of the product due to an accumulation of nitrate. An experiment under hydroponic conditions - the NFT system - was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effect of the concentration of nitrogen in the nutrient solution on the production and on the nutrient and nitrate contents of rocket (Eruca sativa salad leaves. The experiment was carried out in spring 2003, in a randomized block design and in a 4 x 3 factorial design, with four replicates. Four nitrogen concentrations in the nutrient solution (60.8; 121.6; 182.5; 243.5 mg L-1 and three rocket salad cultivars (Cultivada, Folha Larga and Selvática were evaluated. Cv. Cultivada produced the tallest plants and the highest leaf fresh fitomass, not differing from cv. 'Folha Larga' in the number of leaves, leaf nitrate content, root dry fitomass and root fresh fitomass. An increment in NO3, N, Ca and P and a reduction in Mg, K and S occurred when the concentration of N in the nutrient solution was increased. Cultivation of cv. Cultivada at the concentration of 93 mg L-1 is the most recommended as it provides the highest yield and low nitrate content.O empirismo no uso das soluções nutritivas é freqüente. Muitas vezes a mesma solução nutritiva é usada para diferentes espécies baseando-se apenas em semelhanças morfológicas. No entanto esta situação pode proporcionar desequilíbrio nutricional prejudicando tanto a produção quanto a qualidade do produto face o acúmulo de nitrato. Foi conduzido um trabalho em sistema hidropônico - NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva na produção, nos teores de nutrientes e de nitrato em folhas de rúcula (Eruca sativa

  8. Relationships between Canopy Temperature, Leaf Chlorophyll Content and Grain Yield in Wheat Genotypes under Different Nitrogen Levels and Post-Anthesis Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Modhej

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the canopy, spike and flag leaf temperature in wheat genotypes under optimum and post-anthesis heat stress conditions and canopy relationships with some morphological and physiological characters, two separate field experiments were conducted in delayed and optimum sowing dates in Ahvaz, Iran in 2007-2008. The experimental site had a moderate winter and dry, hot summer. Plants with delayed sowing date experienced heat stress post-anthesis. Each split-polt experiment had a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The N application rates were (50, 100, and 150 KgNha-1 assigned in the main-plots. Sub-plots consisted of six bread and durum wheat genotypes. Temperature of canopy, spikes and flag leaf were measured in two growth stages (anthesis and milk stage using a hand-held infrared thermometer. Results indicated that, organs temperature was affected by genotypeenvironment. Although, organs temperature increased as the N rate decreased, the effect of N treatments on organs temperature was not significant. In post-anthesis heat stress conditions, the genotypes that had higher flag leaf and canopy temperature due to higher growth stage duration (such as Star and D-84-5, lower ability in leaf rolling (such as Showa and D-84-5 and higher leaf width (such as Star and D-84-5, had higher chlorophyll reduction under post-anthesis heat stress conditions. Keywords: Wheat, Post-anthesis heat stress, Canopy temperature, Chlorophyll content

  9. Wavelength Selection of Hyperspectral LIDAR Based on Feature Weighting for Estimation of Leaf Nitrogen Content in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei; Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Mao, Feiyue

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) is a novel tool in the field of active remote sensing, which has been widely used in many domains because of its advantageous ability of spectrum-gained. Especially in the precise monitoring of nitrogen in green plants, the HSL plays a dispensable role. The exiting HSL system used for nitrogen status monitoring has a multi-channel detector, which can improve the spectral resolution and receiving range, but maybe result in data redundancy, difficulty in system integration and high cost as well. Thus, it is necessary and urgent to pick out the nitrogen-sensitive feature wavelengths among the spectral range. The present study, aiming at solving this problem, assigns a feature weighting to each centre wavelength of HSL system by using matrix coefficient analysis and divergence threshold. The feature weighting is a criterion to amend the centre wavelength of the detector to accommodate different purpose, especially the estimation of leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in rice. By this way, the wavelengths high-correlated to the LNC can be ranked in a descending order, which are used to estimate rice LNC sequentially. In this paper, a HSL system which works based on a wide spectrum emission and a 32-channel detector is conducted to collect the reflectance spectra of rice leaf. These spectra collected by HSL cover a range of 538 nm - 910 nm with a resolution of 12 nm. These 32 wavelengths are strong absorbed by chlorophyll in green plant among this range. The relationship between the rice LNC and reflectance-based spectra is modeled using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVMs) based on calibration and validation datasets respectively. The results indicate that I) wavelength selection method of HSL based on feature weighting is effective to choose the nitrogen-sensitive wavelengths, which can also be co-adapted with the hardware of HSL system friendly. II) The chosen wavelength has a high correlation with rice LNC which can be

  10. RNAi-mediated knocking- down of rlpk2 gene retarded soybean leaf senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoping; MA Yuanyuan; LI Pengli; ZHANG Liwen; WANG Yong; ZHANG Ren; WANG Ningning

    2005-01-01

    Leaf senescence that occurs in the last stage of leaf development is a genetically programmed process. It is very significant to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control the initiation and progression of leaf senescence and the way the senescence signal is transduced. In a previous study on artificially induced soybean leaf senescence, we cloned a novel gene designated rlpk2 (Genbank Accession No. AY687391) that encodes a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor like protein kinase. The expression level of rlpk2 gene was shown to be strongly up-regulated during both the natural leaf senescence process in this report and the artificially induced primary-leaf-senescence process in our previous work. The RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knocking-down of rlpk2 dramatically retarded both the natural and nutrient deficiency-induced leaf senescence in transgenic soybean. The transgenic leaves showed more cell-aggregated surface structure and higher content of chlorophyll.

  11. Effect of Temperature and Nutrient Limitation on the Growth and Lipid Content of Three Selected Microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp. and Scenedesmus sp. for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Rukminasari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae is one of potential source for biodiesel due to high efficiency of solar energy conversion to chemical energy. Several microalgae also have high lipid content per dry weight of biomass. The aims of the present work to study the effects of temperature and nutrient depletion on the growth and lipid content of three selected microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis sp. and Scenedesmus sp. in view of their possible utilization as raw materials for biodiesel production. In addition, various lipid analysis methods were applied, such as gravimetric, Nile Red staining and FTIR spectroscopy. Algal growth and lipid content was strongly influenced by the variation of tested parameters; indeed, an increase or decrease temperature from ambient temparature and nutrient depletion practically increase in lipid content. Nile Red staining and FTIR spectroscopy are effective tool to analyse rapidly of lipid content from selected microalgae.

  12. Analysis of aroma compounds and nutrient contents of mabolo (Diospyros blancoi A. DC., an ethnobotanical fruit of Austronesian Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diospyros blancoi A. DC. is an evergreen tree species of high-quality wood. Mabolo, the fruit of this plant, is popular among the natives in Taiwan, but its potential in economic use has not been fully explored. Mabolo has a rich aroma. Of the 39 different volatile compounds isolated, its intact fruit and peel were found to both contain 24 compounds, whereas the pulp contained 28 compounds. The most important aroma compounds were esters and α-farnesene. Our data show that mabolo is rich in dietary fiber (3.2%, and the contents of other nutrients such as malic acid, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and choline chloride were 227.1 mg/100 g, 0.075 mg/100 g, 0.157 mg/100 g, 0.623 mg/100 g, 0.19 mg/100 g, and 62.52 mg/100 g, respectively. Moreover, it is rich in calcium and zinc; the contents of which were found to be 42.8 mg/100 g and 3.6 mg/100 g, respectively. Our results show that D. blancoi has the potential to be bred for a novel fruit.

  13. Nutrient and heavy metal content of rapeseed (Brassica napus irrigated with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Lateef E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted in winter season in two sites located about 20km north east of Cairo; Gabal Asfar farm (fertile soil and Berka site (virgin soil.The trials aimed to evaluate the impact of rapeseed irrigation methods with secondary treated wastewater on yield ,quality trace elements and heavy metal content. The results clearly showed that rapeseed crop was not suited to the virgin soil as the crop produced 10% of the seed yield achieved at the fertile soil. There were significant increases in seed yield, straw and biological yields due to NPK application .Oil yields were 0.312 and 2.304 t ha-1 on virgin and fertile soils, respectively. Treated wastewater supplied rapeseed with 35,43and 156% of the recommended requirements of N, P and K, respectively in the virgin soil while the corresponding values in the fertile soil were 79,96 and191% for N,P and K, respectively. Trace elements and heavy metal additions from wastewater were very small Seed analysis indicated that the ranges of heavy metals were within the normal ranges expected and were far below levels that would be of concern due to the high pH of both sites.

  14. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

  15. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Castrillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis.The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps, Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp, Hyptis pectinata (Hp, H. sinuata (Hs, Leonorus japonicus (Lj, Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa Ocimum basilicum (Ocb, O.campechianum (Occ Origanum majorana (Orm, Rosmarinus officinali ,(Ro and Salvia officinalis (So. Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLMand fresh: dry weight (FW/DW ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Or. m, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM(Kg DMm-2 are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW: DW ratio, while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW: DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species,and the light environment affected sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may be shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(1-2:23-28.Epub 2005 Jun 24En once especies de la familia Lamiaceae: Plecthranthus

  16. Multiple nutrient imbalances in ear leaves of on-farm unfertilized maize in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Myaka, Fidelis A

    2009-01-01

     Maize is a major food crop in eastern and southern Africa and is often cultivated with insufficient supplies of nutrients. The current studies are aimed at diagnosing any potential nutrient limitation in maize under farmers' conditions using the nutrient content in ear leaf tissue at tasseling...... stage. The majority of the maize crops were considered below the critical nitrogen (N) content in the ear leaves with mean N content of 1.84%. Phosphorus (P), B and Cu content appeared critical low at three of the four sites. Unique fingerprinting by multivariate statistics was possible for each site...... when using the proportion of nutrients in the leaf tissue. The content of six macro elements (N, P, K, S, Mg, Ca) at the tasseling stage were found to be able to predict 83% of the variation in the grain yield at maturity whereas the inclusion of micronutrients only improved this prediction...

  17. Determinação de teores ótimos de nutrientes em soja pelos métodos chance matemática, sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação e diagnose da composição nutricional Determination of optimal nutrient contents for soybean by the mathematical chance, diagnosis and recommendation integrated system and compositional nutrient diagnosis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Oshiro Mocelin Urano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos têm demonstrado o uso promissor de métodos de diagnose nutricional para definição de teores ótimos e níveis críticos de nutrientes em tecidos vegetais. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os teores ótimos de nutrientes para soja, estimados por meio dos métodos Chance Matemática (ChM, Sistema Integrado de Diagnose e Recomendação (DRIS e Diagnose da Composição Nutricional (CND, a partir de dados provenientes de monitoramento nutricional de 111 lavouras comerciais de soja, da região sul do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Os teores ótimos de nutrientes estimados pelos métodos DRIS e CND foram idênticos ao teor médio observado na população de referência. Para o método ChM, exceto para os nutrientes Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, os teores ótimos estimados também foram idênticos ou muito próximos ao teor médio na população de referência. Os métodos ChM, DRIS e CND mostraram-se promissores na calibração de teores ótimos para a cultura da soja a partir de dados provenientes de monitoramentos nutricionais de lavouras comerciais.Several studies pointed out the promising use of nutritional diagnosis methods for the determination of optimum nutrient contents and critical levels in plant tissues. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the optimum nutrient content for soybean, estimated by the Mathematical Chance (ChM, Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS and Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND methods. The optimum nutrient contents estimated by DRIS and CND where identical to the mean content in the reference population. Apart from the nutrients Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, the optimum contents were also equal or in close proximity to the mean nutrient contents of the reference population by the ChM method. The ChM, DRIS and CND methods proved promising for the calibration of optimal nutrient contents for soybean based on data obtained from nutrient monitoring of commercial fields.

  18. [Characteristics of leaf carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in relation to plant size of Machilus pauhoi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei-lei; Zhong, Quan-lin; Cheng, Dong-liang; Zhang, Zhong-rui; Fei, Ling; Xu, Chao-bin; He, Li-zhong; Wang, Wei-jun

    2015-07-01

    To explore the effects of stand age on variation patterns of leaf C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics of Machilus pauhoi, two stands, i.e., 9 and 13 years old, were selected. The relationships between leaf nutrient contents (C, N and P) and diameters at breast height (DBH) of individual plants were analyzed. The data revealed that the individual variations of seedlings in M. pauhoi stands were strengthened with the stand development. The stand age had significant effects on leaf C, N, P contents and C:N ratio but not on C:P and N: P ratios. Specifically, the mean values of leaf C, N, P contents and N:P ratio in the 9-year-old stand were lower than those in the 13-year-old stand, whereas, inverse pattern of C:N and C:P ratios were found in the two stands. Furthermore, leaf N and P stoichiometry varied significantly within the stand. Specifically, leaf N and P contents, as well as their stoichiometric ratios, linearly correlated with DBH in the 9-year-old stand. On the contrary, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed quadratic correlation in 13-year-old stand (except leaf C:N which linearly correlated with DBH). Lastly, nutrient transfer rates of leaf N and P in the 9-year-old stand were higher than that in 13-year-old stand, and the discrepancies of leaf nutrient transfer strategy between growing and non-growing seasons were caused by the different growth phases and environmental conditions.

  19. [Citrus boron nutrient level and its impact factors in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Peng, Liang-Zhi; Chun, Chang-Pin; Jiang, Cai-Lun; Ling, Li-Li; Wang, Nan-Qi; Xing, Fei; Huang, Yi

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the level of boron nutrient in citrus and its impact factors, a total of 954 citrus leaf samples and 302 soil samples were collected from representative orchards in the 12 main citrus production counties in the Three Gorges Reservoir region of Chongqing to determine the boron content in citrus leaves, as well as the relationships between leaf boron content with soil available boron content, soil pH value, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree. Results indicated that the leaf samples from 41.6% orchards (boron insufficient. The correlation of leaf boron content and soil available boron content was not significant. The soil pH, cultivar, rootstock and the age of tree did affect the leaf boron content. The leaves from the orchards with soil pH of 4.5-6.4 demonstrated significantly higher boron contents than with the soil pH of 6.5-8.5. The leaf boron contents in the different cultivars was ranged as Satsuma mandarin > pomelo > valencia orange > sweet orange > tangor > navel orange. The citrus on trifoliate orange and sour pomelo rootstocks had significantly higher leaf boron contents than on Carrizo citrange and red tangerine rootstocks. Compared with the adult citrus trees (above 8 year-old), 6.6% more of leaf samples of younger trees (3 to 8 year-old) contained boron contents in the optimum range (35-100 mg x kg(-1)).

  20. 沿海沙地厚荚相思和木麻黄凋落叶分解及养分释放%Decomposition Dynamics and Nutrient Release of Leaf Litters for Acacia crassicarpa and Casuarina equisetifolia Forests in Southeast Coastal Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient release of 9-year-old Acacia crassicarpa and Casuarina equisetifolia plantations on a sandy coastal plain soil in southeast Fujian Province from November 2011 to October 2012 were examined using the litter bag method.The fastest decomposition rates of the two leaf litters were found in June to August.However,differences in residual rate were not significant (p>0.05).The analysis of Olson's exponential decay model showed that it would cost for about 1.10 and 4.73 years to decompose 50% and 95% of A.crassicarpa leaf litter,and to decompose 50% and 95% of C.equisetifolia leaf littler,the time would be 1.14 and 4.93 years.In the late stage of litter decomposition,the contents of the nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) increased with time,while the contents of carbon (C),potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) decreased.Release dynamics of nutrients differed in two forest types in different decomposition periods.The litter decomposition rate was significantly and negatively correlated to the initial C,Mg contents and the ratios of,C/N and C/P (p<0.01),and significantly and positively correlated to K content (p<0.05).The orders of releasing speeds of leaf litters were K>Mg>C> Ca>N>P for A.crassicarpa,and Mg>K>C>Ca>N>P for C.equisetifolia plantation.The A.crassicarpa had higher nutrient release rate in leaf litter,and it was more appropriate to be mixed with C.equisetifolia.%采用野外分解网袋法对沿海沙地9年生厚荚相思(Acacia crassicarpa)和木麻黄(Casuarina equisetifolia)林分凋落叶的分解速率和养分释放进行了研究.结果表明:厚荚相思和木麻黄凋落叶6-8月分解速率最快,但残留率差异不显著(p>0.05).用Olson衰减指数模型推算分解50%和95%所需时间,厚荚相思为1.10a和4.73a,木麻黄为1.14a和4.93a.2种凋落叶N、P和Ca元素在分解末期的质量分数均高于初始质量分数,C、K和Mg均低于初始质量分数.凋

  1. Effect of tanniferous leaf meal based multi-nutrient blocks on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes in Haemonchus contortus infected goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87 were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source. All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV levels were found to be highest (p<0.001, p<0.05 in T1 group followed by T3 group and lowest values were observed in T2 group. However, The PCV values between T1 and T3 groups were found to be statistically non-significant (p<0.05. The humoral and CMI response were significantly (p<0.036 higher in T3 group as compared to T2 group. MNB-CT supplementation significantly (p<0.001 reduced fecal egg counts in T3 group as compared to MNB supplemented T2 group. Conclusion: Supplementation of MNB-CT could be used as an alternative sustainable method to control H. contortus and maintained health status and performance of goats in face of parasitic challenge.

  2. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  3. Multiple nutrient imbalances in ear leaves of on-farm unfertilized maize in eastern and southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh; Kamalongo, Donwell; Myaka, Fidelis A;

    2009-01-01

     Maize is a major food crop in eastern and southern Africa and is often cultivated with insufficient supplies of nutrients. The current studies are aimed at diagnosing any potential nutrient limitation in maize under farmers' conditions using the nutrient content in ear leaf tissue at tasseling...... stage. The majority of the maize crops were considered below the critical nitrogen (N) content in the ear leaves with mean N content of 1.84%. Phosphorus (P), B and Cu content appeared critical low at three of the four sites. Unique fingerprinting by multivariate statistics was possible for each site...

  4. Epiphytes and nutrient contents influence Sarpa salpa herbivory on Caulerpa spp vs. seagrass species in Mediterranean meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis Miguel; Prado, Patricia; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean seagrass ecosystems are endangered by increased colonization of Caulerpa species, which may replace them, affecting key ecosystem processes. The fish Sarpa salpa (L.) is one of the main macroherbivores in the western Mediterranean seagrass meadows which is known to feed on a wide range of macroalgae such as Caulerpa species. In order to elucidate if this consumption could minimize the spread of invasive species, during summer-autumn 2012, we investigate the importance of S. salpa herbivory pressure on C. prolifera and C. cylindracea compared to Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa in a mixed meadow. A combination of field experiments and dietary analyses were used to investigate consumption rates, dietary contributions, and feeding preferences for the different macrophytes, including the role of epiphytes and nutrient contents in mediating fish herbivory. In summer, C. nodosa was the most consumed macrophyte (12.75 ± 3.43 mg WW·d-1), probably influenced by higher fish densities, higher nutritional quality of leaves and epiphytes, and by differences in epiphyte composition. Feeding observations suggest that fish may have a variable diet, although with a consistent selection of mixed patches with C. nodosa and C. prolifera. Indeed, food choice experiments suggest that when seagrass leaves are not epiphytized, fish prefer feeding on C. prolifera. Gut content and stable isotopic analyses supported the dietary importance of epiphytes and C. prolifera but also suggested that C. cylindracea could occasionally be an important food item for S. salpa. Our results highlight the role of epiphytes in S. salpa feeding decisions but also suggest that C. nodosa and C. prolifera may have an important contribution to fish diet. The variability in S. salpa diet confirm the need to carry out multiple approach studies for a better understanding of its potential influence over different macrophytes species.

  5. Fate of nutrient enrichment on continental shelves as indicated by the C/N content of bottom sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Whitledge, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The trajectory and fate of particulate matter are poorly understood processes in a spatially heterogeneous coastal ocean. Parameterization of appropriate hydrodynamics for a quantitative description of these loss processes must thus await definition of the important biological time and space scales. Since the bottom sands tend to record the history of the water column, we have selected the C/N content of shelf sediments as a possible tracer of (1) sites of nutrient introduction to the shelf by various physical mechanisms, of (2) areas of subsequent downstream utilization by the phytoplankton, and of (3) where loss of particulate matter might occur from the water column. An analysis is made of the C/N patterns of bottom surface sediments in relation to the nitrogen sources from upwelling, river runoff, and tidal mixing on the Peruvian, west African, Amazonian, Gulf of Mexico, eastern US, Bering, and North Sea shelves in an initial attempt to proscribe the particle trajectories of organic matter on the continental shelf.

  6. Characteristics of nutrient contents and storages i n Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides%红椎和西南桦营养元素的含量与储量特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玲; 何友均; 覃林; 陈绍志

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient elements in different organs of the plant and different contents or storages of nutrient elements in the same organs,not only reflect the plant’s own biological characteristics,but also reflect the plant under certain habitats capacity to absorb and accumulation of mineral from soil.To illustrate the characteristics of nutrient element contents and storages of different valuable local forestation hardwood species in the southern subtropical area of Chi-na,we studied the contents and storages of five nutrient elements (N,P,K,Ca and Mg)in Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides from the Experimental Centre of Tropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of Forestry located in Pingx-iang,Guangxi.We have got some meaningful results from collecting plant samples,laboratory test and statistical a-nalysis method.The total contents of these five nutrient elements in different organs of Castanopsis hystrix and Bet-ula alnoides were in the order of leaf>fine root>twig>medium root>thick root>bark>root tip>stem.The con-tents of N and K were the highest among the five elements,followed by Ca and Mg,while P was the lowest in various organs of the two trees.The contents of N and P in leaf were significantly higher than those in other organs for Cas-tanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides (Ptwig>bark>leaf>thick root>fine root>medium root.The nutrient utilization effi-ciency of Castanopsis hystrix was slightly higher than that of Betula alnoides.The study revealed that the nutritional requirements of Castanopsis hystrix and Betula alnoides would provide theoretical basis for adj usting and improving the two trees growing environment,as well as making forest land nutrient management strategies.%营养元素在植物不同器官及不同营养元素在同一器官中的含量与储量特征,不仅反映植物自身的生物学特性,而且还反映了植物在一定的生境下从土壤中吸收和蓄积矿质养分的能力.为了阐明我国南亚热带不同珍优乡土阔叶造

  7. Leaf life span and nitrogen content in semideciduous forest tree species (Croton priscus and Hymenaea courbaril Duração da vida da folha e conteúdo de nitrogênio em espécies arbóreas (Croton priscus e Hymenaea courbaril de floresta semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Baptista Haddad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to deciduous species, evergreen plants have lower leaf nutrient contents and higher leaf life span, important mechanisms for nutrient economy, allowing the colonization of low fertility soils. Strategies to conserve nitrogen in two semideciduous tropical forest tree species, with different leaf life spans were analyzed. The hypothesis was the fact that the two species would present different nitrogen conservation mechanisms in relation to chemical (total nitrogen, protein, chlorophyll, and proteolytic activity, functional (leaf life span, N-use efficiency, and N-resorption efficiency, morphological (specific leaf mass leaf characteristics, and total nitrogen in the soil. Hymenaea courbaril L. presented lower nitrogen compounds in leaves, longer leaf life span, higher N-use efficiency, and higher specific leaf mass, while absorbing proportionally less nitrogen from the soil than Croton priscus Croizat. These characteristics can contribute for a better nitrogen economy strategy of H. courbaril. No relationship was found between leaf life span and N resorption efficiency, nor between leaf life span, protease activity and nitrogen mobilization. The electrophoretic profiles of proteolytic enzymes in young leaves of the two species presented more bands with enzymatic activity than other kinds of leaves.Comparadas a espécies decíduas, as sempre-verdes têm menos nutrientes nas folhas, que também são mais longevas. Estes mecanismos são importantes para economia de nutrientes, e permitem a colonização de solos com baixa fertilidade. Foram analisadas estratégias de conservação de nitrogênio em duas espécies de floresta semidecídua, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes. Para isto foram comparados mecanismos químicos (concentrações de nitrogênio total, de proteína e clorofila e atividade proteolítica, funcionais (duração de vida das folhas, eficiência do uso de nitrogênio e eficiência de

  8. Nutrient Content Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  9. Effects of precipitation regime and soil nitrogen on leaf traits in seasonally dry tropical forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Fuentes, Lilia L; Templer, Pamela H; Campo, Julio

    2015-10-01

    Leaf traits are closely associated with nutrient use by plants and can be utilized as a proxy for nutrient cycling processes. However, open questions remain, in particular regarding the variability of leaf traits within and across seasonally dry tropical forests. To address this, we considered six leaf traits (specific area, thickness, dry matter content, N content, P content and natural abundance (15)N) of four co-occurring tree species (two that are not associated with N2-fixing bacteria and two that are associated with N2-fixing bacteria) and net N mineralization rates and inorganic N concentrations along a precipitation gradient (537-1036 mm per year) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Specifically we sought to test the hypothesis that leaf traits of dominant plant species shift along a precipitation gradient, but are affected by soil N cycling. Although variation among different species within each site explains some leaf trait variation, there is also a high level of variability across sites, suggesting that factors other than precipitation regime more strongly influence leaf traits. Principal component analyses indicated that across sites and tree species, covariation in leaf traits is an indicator of soil N availability. Patterns of natural abundance (15)N in foliage and foliage minus soil suggest that variation in precipitation regime drives a shift in plant N acquisition and the openness of the N cycle. Overall, our study shows that both plant species and site are important determinants of leaf traits, and that the leaf trait spectrum is correlated with soil N cycling.

  10. Diversidade no teor de nutrientes em grãos de feijão crioulo no Estado de Santa Catarina =Diversity in nutrient content of common bean seeds in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Pereira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O feijão representa importante fonte de nutrientes, e pode ter seus teores aumentados com o uso de genótipos que apresentem naturalmente elevados teores destes nutrientes, como ocorre nos genótipos crioulos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar 34 genótipos crioulos do Banco Ativo de germoplasma de Feijão do CAV-UDESC quantoao teor de nutrientes (cálcio, magnésio, zinco, ferro, fósforo, potássio, proteína total e solúvel e antinutriente (fitato nos grãos, durante os anos de cultivo de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. O teor de nutrientes nos grãos de feijão foi influenciado tanto pelo genótipo,quanto pelas condições climáticas, com respostas diferentes em cada ano de cultivo, e entre os dois anos de cultivo. Os genótipos crioulos BAF 60, 69 e 108 apresentaram os mais altos níveis de ferro, fósforo e proteína total, associados a baixos níveis de fitato nos grãos e são indicados para uso em programas de melhoramento e pelo próprio agricultor para produção e comercialização. Tais resultados apontam para a necessidade de trabalhos futuros que relacionem a interação entre diversidade genética e tempo de cultivo.The common bean is an important source of nutrients. The amount ofnutrients can be increased using common bean genotypes, which is naturally rich in nutrients. The objective of this work was to characterize the nutrient content (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, phosphorus, potassium and total and soluble protein and antinutrients (phytate of the 34 common bean genotypes of the CAV-UDESC Germplasm Active Bank, during the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons. The nutrient content of beans was influenced by both genotype and weather conditions in both crop seasons. BAF 60, 69 and 108 genotypes presented the highest levels of iron, phosphorus and total protein, along with the lowest levels of phytate in the grains, and are indicated for breeding programs and by producers. These results indicated the need to explore the

  11. Concentração e conteúdo de nutrientes em lisianto, cultivado em hidroponia, em sistema NFT = Concentration and nutrient content in lisianthus grown in a hydroponic NFT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico nutricional é fundamental para determinar as exigências das plantas quanto aos nutrientes, de forma a se proceder a um manejo adequado, de acordo com a espécie. Assim, para determinar as concentrações e conteúdos nutricionais adequados à produção e qualidade de plantas de lisianto em cultivo hidropônico, instalou-se um experimento onde as plantas foram cultivadas em sistema NFT, em diferentes soluções nutritivas. O experimento foi conduzido, segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x3, totalizando 12 tratamentos, com três repetições. Ostratamentos foram compostos de quatro cultivares (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow e Ávila Blue Rim e três soluções nutritivas (Teste, Steiner modificada e Barbosa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações e os conteúdos dos nutrientes nas folhas e conteúdos na parte aérea das plantas. As plantas cultivadas nas soluções Barbosa eTeste apresentaram resultados satisfatórios quanto às concentrações e aos conteúdos de nutrientes, enquanto a solução Steiner modificada produziu plantas com limitações nutricionais.The nutritional diagnosis is fundamental for determining plantnutrients, in order to correctly manage the nutritional requirements for each species. Thus, in order to determine the ideal nutrient amount and concentration for obtaining the best yield and quality of lisianthus grown hydroponically, an experiment was conducted inwhich the plants were grown under the NFT system in different nutrient solutions. The experiment was conducted according to a random block design arrangement in a 4x3 factorial scheme, totaling 12 treatments with three repetitions. The treatments werecomprised of four cultivars (Echo Champagne, Mariachi Pure White, Balboa Yellow and Ávila Blue Rim and three nutrient solutions (Test, modified Steiner and Barbosa. In the leaves, nutrient concentration and content were evaluated; in the aerial

  12. Pore water chemistry in a disturbed and an undisturbed peat forests in Brunei Darussalam: Nutrient and carbon contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L.; Cobb, A.; Abu Salim, K.; Chieng Hei, I.; Lim Biaw Leng, L.; Corlett, R.; Harvey, C.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests in their natural state are important reservoir of biodiversity, carbon and water. However, they are rapidly vanishing due to agricultural conversion (mainly to oil palms), logging, drainage and fire. Peat swamp forests constitute an important contribution to global and regional biodiversity, providing an habitat to rare and threatened species. They encompass a sequence of forest types from the perimeter to the center of mildely elevated domes, and at our site in Brunei, are host to Shorea Albida trees (Anderson, 1983). They constitute a large terrestrial carbon reservoir (tropical peat soils contain up to 70 Pg C, which accounts for 20% of global peat soil carbon and 2% of the global soil carbon (Hirano et al., 2007)). In tropical peat swamp forests, the most important factors controling organic matter accumulation, as well as the biodiversity and structure of the forest, are hydrology and nutrients availability (Page et al., 1999). Study of pore water in peat swamp forest can provide key information on carbon cycle, including biomass production, organic matter decomposition and leaching of carbon in draining water. However, data on pore water chemistry and nutrient concentrations in pristine tropical peatlands, as well as the effect of forest exploitation are scarce. The study area is located in the Belait district in Brunei Darussalam in Borneo Island. Brunei is perhaps the best of the regional guardians of peat forest systems; potentially irreversible damage to peat forest ecosystems has been widespread elsewhere. Two sites, one pristine dome and a logging concession, are being investigated. In order to assess the chemical status of the peat soil, pore water is sampled at different depth along the dome radius. The chemistry of pore water, including pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, concentration of major elements, as well as organic carbon content and properties are analyzed. References: Anderson, 1983. The tropical peat swamp of

  13. Starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increases intestinal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promotes bifidobacteria in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Prajwal R; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Gänzle, Michael G; van Kempen, Theo A T G; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2011-07-01

    Diets containing different starch types can affect enzymatic digestion of starch and thereby starch availability for microbial fermentation in the gut. However, the role of starch chemistry in nutrient digestion and flow and microbial profile has been poorly explained. Eight ileal-cannulated pigs (29.4 ± 0.9 kg body weight) were fed 4 diets containing 70% purified starch (amylose content, starch output, postileal crude protein yield, fecal total SCFA and total butyrate content, and gene copies of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces were higher (P starch diet than the remaining 3 starch diets. The in vitro starch digestion rate had a negative, nonlinear relationship with ileal starch flow (R(2) = 0.98; P starch flow was positively related to Bifidobacterium spp. (R(2) = 0.27; P starch with high amylose content and low in vitro digestibility increased postileal nutrient flow and microbial fermentation and selectively promoted Bifidobacterium spp. in the distal gut.

  14. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  15. 罗平土壤及烟叶主要中、微量元素含量分析%Contents of Major Medium and Micro Nutrients in Soils and Tobacco Leaves from Luoping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓绕; 邵建平; 彭再欣; 于存峰; 孙建宏; 李哲; 朱江; 杨波; 董建新; 高卫锴; 毕研平; 刘新民; 卢君龙

    2014-01-01

    为了解云南罗平县植烟土壤和烤烟烟叶主要中、微量元素含量情况,测定了罗平县369个土壤和对应C3F等级烟叶的钙、镁、硫、铜、锌、铁、锰和硼含量,并评价了丰缺状况,分析了两者之间的关系。结果表明,罗平土壤中钙、镁、铜、锌、铁和锰含量普遍处于丰富和很丰富的水平,而硫和硼含量相对较低,普遍处于缺和很缺的水平,罗平土壤中有效中、微量元素存在空间上的广泛变异;烤烟生产上应适当增施硼肥。烟叶中硫、铜、锌和锰含量的平均值在适中范围内,铁含量较高,钙、镁和硼含量较低。土壤中有效中、微量元素的含量对烟叶中相对应的中、微量元素有促进作用。土壤中交换性镁对烟叶多种中、微量元素有促进或抑制作用,有效铜表现出了对锌的促进作用和对硼的抑制作用。%The distribution characteristics and relationships of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and boron in 369 samples of soils and flue-cured tobacco (C3F) collected from Luoping were investigated. The results showed that the contents of calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and manganese were sufficient, while sulfur and boron contents were relatively insufficient. There were widely spatial variability among soil available medium and micro nutrient contents. It is suggested to apply boron fertilizer during tobacco plant growth period. The average contents of sulfur, copper, zinc and manganese were in the ranges of high quality tobacco leaf production in China, but iron content was too high and calcium, magnesium and boron contents were too low. The nutrient contents in tobacco leaves were positively correlated with the nutrient contents in soil. Soil magnesium had promoting or inhabiting effects on medium and micro nutrients in tobacco leaves. Soil copper promoted the zinc uptake but inhibited boron uptake.

  16. REE, Uranium (U) and Thorium (Th) contents in Betula pendula leaf growing around Komsomolsk gold concentration plant tailing (Kemerovo region, Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, D. V.; Karpenko, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the research findings of peculiarities of REE, Uranium and Thorium distribution in the territory surrounding the tailing of former Komsomolsk gold concentration plant according to the data from Betula pendula leaf testing. In the leaf element composition the slight deficiency of MREE and substantial excess of HREE are presented. In the nearest impacted area around the tailing, La, Yb, U and Th content, and Th/U ratio are lower than in the distant buffer area. It is shown, that value of Th/U ratio and REE can be an indicator for geochemical transformations of technogenic landscapes in mining districts. The results of the research can be used for biomonitoring of the territory around the tailing.

  17. Effects of different nutrients solutions on nutrients concentration and some qualitative traits of lettuce in hydroponics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., as a leafy vegetable, has considerable economic benefits. Although nowadays the tendency is to grow lettuce hydroponically, growers use different nutrients solutions for lettuce production and there is not an optimal nutrients solution for lettuce production in Iran. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to introduce the optimal solution out of current solutions in the market for lettuce production. In this experiment, effects of four nutrients solutions (Hoagland and Arnon, NSHoag; Knop’s, NSKnop, England, NSUK, and University of Tabriz solution, NSUT on two cultivars of lettuce (Siahoo and Conquistador were assessed. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized blocks design with four replications at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, and traits such as total soluble solids (TSS, panel test, percentage of leaf dry matter and leaf nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and nitrate contents were assessed. Results showed that different nutrients solutions had significant effect on nutrients concentration and some of the qualitative characteristics of lettuce. The highest percentage of dry mater, leaf nitrogen and potassium content, were observed in Knop’s, UT and Hoagland solutions, respectively. Interaction between cultivar and nutrients solution became significant on panel test results. Hoagland and Knop’s solutions in Conquistador cultivar and England and Hoagland solutions in Siahoo cultivar showed maximum panel-test results. Nutrients solutions didn’t have significant effects on other traits. Therefore, it is concluded that Hoagland nutrients solution was the best solution for qualitative traits in lettuce production. But, it is necessary to analyze these nutrients solutions for lettuce yield and economic aspects.

  18. 水淹胁迫对狗牙根光合、生长及营养元素含量的影响%Effects of flooding on photosynthesis,growth and nutrient content of Cynodon dactylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文娇; 白林利; 李昌晓

    2016-01-01

    (L s )of C.dactylon under SF were signifi-cantly lower than those for the CK treatment,while the intercellular CO2 concentration (C i )was significantly higher.However,water use efficiency (WUE)did not differ significantly between SF and the CK treatment. Under SF,root length,root surface,root volume,branch number,leaf number,root biomass,leaf biomass and root∶shoot ratio were all significantly reduced,whereas plant height,base diameter,stem biomass and total biomass did not differ significantly between SF and CK.Under TF,root length,root surface,root vol-ume,plant height,branch number,leaf number,root biomass,base diameter,stem biomass and total bio-mass were also significantly lower than those of CK.Compared to CK,root nutrient concentrations (N,P,K, Fe,and Mn)of C.dactylon under SF and TF were increased,whereas Cu content was significantly decreased. Leaf concentrations of Fe and Mn under SF were significantly increased,but the contents of P,K and Cu under SF were significantly decreased,compared to CK.Thus flooding resulted in significant reductions in photosyn-thesis,growth,and uptake of nutrients of C.dactylon.The reduction of leaf concentrations of P,K,and Cu and the rise in leaf concentrations of Fe,and Mn could account for the reduction in P n .However,C.dactylon was able to improve the absorption of N,P,and K,promote stem elongation and maintain a high net photo-synthetic rate to cope with flooding.Additionally,when flooded,leaf N and P could potentially be directly re-leased into the water on leaf fall,which could increase the risk of eutrophication in waterways.

  19. N sources affect growth, nutrient content, and net photosynthesis in maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gaiad

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different N sources on the growth of maté (Ilex paragurariensis St.Hil. seedlings grown in greenhouse was studied. All seedlings received a base fertilization of 10 mg N.kg-1 soil as NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.and 40 mg K2O.kg-1 soil as KH2PO4 15 days before treatments application. Treatments were as follow: Control, with no extra N added; Urea = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Urea; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Ca(NO32; and NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as (NH42SO4. It was concluded that: 1 increasing N content in leaves alone was not able to promote gain in biomass production of maté seedlings; 2 seedlings receiving N-NH4 showed a higher accumulation of P and Mg on shoot biomass; and 3 an increase in leaf area, leaf number and net photosynthesis observed at the N-NH4 treatment was coincident with an increasing absorption of P and Mg.A influência de diferentes fontes de N sobre o crescimento de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil. foi estudada, em casa de vegetação. Todas as mudas receberam uma fertilização base de 10 mg N.kg-1 de solo na forma de NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.kg-1 e 40 mg K2O.kg-1 de solo na forma de KH2PO4 quinze dias antes da aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: Controle, sem adição extra de N; Uréia = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Uréia; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Ca(NO32; e NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como (NH42SO4. Concluiu-se que: 1 o aumento do conteúdo de N nas folhas, por si, não é capaz de promover ganhos na produção de biomassa em mudas de erva-mate; 2 mudas que receberam N-NH4 apresentaram maior acumulo de P e Mg na biomassa aérea; e 3 o aumento na absorção de P e Mg coincidiu com um aumento na área foliar, no número de folhas e na fotossíntese liquida na fonte N-NH4.

  20. Influência do extrato pirolenhoso na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes em limoeiro 'Cravo' Effect of pyroligneous acid in the spraymg solutions on foliar nutrients content of 'Rangpur' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zanetti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da presença do extrato pirolenhoso (EP na calda de pulverização sobre o teor foliar de nutrientes de limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck, foi desenvolvido um experimento com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, em blocos ao acaso, em ambiente protegido. Os tratamentos constituíram da pulverização das soluções: T0 = água; T1 = solução de micronutrientes sem EP; T2 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (1cm³ dm-3; T3 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (2 cm³ dm-3; T4 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (5cm³ dm-3; T5 = solução de micronutrientes + EP (10 cm³ dm-3. A solução de micronutrientes foi preparada com sulfatos de Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (250 mg dm-3 do elemento e ácido bórico (42,5 mg dm-3 de B. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes cônicos de 0,280 dm³, com substrato sem a adição de micronutrientes na formulação. As soluções foram pulverizadas uma única vez, aos 140 dias após o plantio (DAP, momento em que as plantas apresentavam aproximadamente 20 cm de altura. Ao final do experimento (160 DAP, quantificaram-se a massa seca e os teores de macro e micronutrientes da parte aérea e sistema radicular. A presença do extrato pirolenhoso na solução de micronutrientes não interferiu na concentração foliar de B, Fe e Zn em mudas de limoeiro 'Cravo'. Entretanto, na concentração de 10 cm³ dm-3, aumentou a concentração foliar de Cu e Mn. Observou-se também que as plantas pulverizadas com soluções contendo EP (1 a 10 cm³ dm-3 + micronutrientes apresentaram menor teor de Fe e maior teor de Ca no sistema radicular.This research studied the effect of pyroligneous acid (PA presence in the micronutrient solution sprayed on leaves on the foliar nutrient content of 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osbeck0 seedlings, under screen house. An experiment in a randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replicates was set up. Treatments consisted of leaf spraying with

  1. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have distinct physicochemical properties). The main carbohydrate component of the LF diet was starch and nonstarch polysaccharides (cellulose and noncellulosic polysaccharides) for the 2 high dietary fiber diets. Consumption of the LF diet resulted in increased and rapid glucose absorption at 0 to 4 h postfeeding. With the HF-I diet, the glucose absorption pattern was similar but at a decreased rate, whereas it was decreased and delayed with the HF-S diet (diet, P fiber diets resulted in a increased and more uniform uptake of SCFA than when feeding the LF control. Moreover, the HF-S diet reduced diurnal variation in glucose and insulin concentrations.

  2. EVALUACIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES Y PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOMASA EN CEPAS DE LEVADURA COLOMBIANAS Y COMERCIALES EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT CONTENT AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIAN AND COMMERCIAL YEAST STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohora Patricia Manovacía Moreno

    2008-12-01

    , CORPOICA. In an initial phase, three randomly chosen yeast isolates were grown under different conditions of pH, temperature and time of fermentation using liquid malt extract culture medium. The best responses in biomass yield were observed at a pH of 4.5, or temperature of 25 °C and a fermentation period of 24 hours. Using these conditions, 100 native and 4 commercial yeast isolates, were evaluated for their biomass production, content of selenium, total carbohydrates and microbial protein and nutrient intake. According to these variables, a cluster analysis was used to distribute the 104 isolates in homogeneous groups. Great variability in biomass production was observed among isolates, probably due to the existing biological variability in the population studied. Biomass yields varied from 0.101 to 0.480 g of biomass/ g of sugar consumed and rate of biomass production ranged between 0.040 to 0.185 g L-1 h-1. Average nutrient intake (g of consumed nutrients/ g of available nutrients was of 91.6% in the case of carbohydrates and of 17.8% in the case of protein. Ten yeast isolates with superior growth and nutrient content were identified for future screening for prebiotic and probiotic potential.

  3. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  4. Novel evidence for within-species leaf economics spectrum at multiple spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kun eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf economics spectrum (LES, characterizing covariation among a suite of leaf traits relevant to carbon and nutrient economics, has been examined largely among species but hardly within species. In addition, very little attempt has been made to examine whether the existence of LES depends on spatial scales. To address these questions, we quantified the variation and covariation of four leaf economic traits (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus contents in a cosmopolitan wetland species (Phragmites australis at three spatial (inter-regional, regional and site scales across most of the species range in China. The species expressed large intraspecific variation in the leaf economic traits at all of the three spatial scales. It also showed strong covariation among the four leaf economic traits across the species range. The coordination among leaf economic traits resulted in LES at all three scales and the environmental variables determining variation in leaf economic traits were different among the spatial scales. Our results provide novel evidence for within-species LES at multiple spatial scales, indicating that resource trade-off could also constrain intraspecific trait variation mainly driven by climatic and/or edaphic differences.

  5. How to know which food is good for you: bumblebees use taste to discriminate between different concentrations of food differing in nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedenauer, Fabian A; Spaethe, Johannes; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2015-07-01

    In view of the ongoing pollinator decline, the role of nutrition in bee health has received increasing attention. Bees obtain fat, carbohydrates and protein from pollen and nectar. As both excessive and deficient amounts of these macronutrients are detrimental, bees would benefit from assessing food quality to guarantee an optimal nutrient supply. While bees can detect sucrose and use it to assess nectar quality, it is unknown whether they can assess the macronutrient content of pollen. Previous studies have shown that bees preferentially collect pollen of higher protein content, suggesting that differences in pollen quality can be detected either by individual bees or via feedback from larvae. In this study, we examined whether and, if so, how individuals of the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) discriminate between different concentrations of pollen and casein mixtures and thus nutrients. Bumblebees were trained using absolute and differential conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). As cues related to nutrient concentration could theoretically be perceived by either smell or taste, bees were tested on both olfactory and, for the first time, chemotactile perception. Using olfactory cues, bumblebees learned and discriminated between different pollen types and casein, but were unable to discriminate between different concentrations of these substances. However, when they touched the substances with their antennae, using chemotactile cues, they could also discriminate between different concentrations. Bumblebees are therefore able to discriminate between foods of different concentrations using contact chemosensory perception (taste). This ability may enable them to individually regulate the nutrient intake of their colonies.

  6. Nutrient content and its spatial distribution in the unsaturated zone at the Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park; Contenido y distribucion espacial de nutrientes moviles en la zona no saturada en el Parque Nacional de las Tablas de Daimiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, H.; Moreno, L.; Castano, S.; Jimenez, M. E.; Losa, A. de la

    2009-07-01

    The intensive exploitation of the Mancha occidental aquifer has caused that groundwater discharge in the Tablas de Daimiel area has been decreasing since the 1980s decade until they completely stopped. This fact has favoured the progressive development of an unsaturated zone which had not existed before and a full inversion in the water flux direction as drainage zones of the aquifer became recharge areas. To assess the impact of this process on groundwater quality, a first approximation to the problem has been made through the quantification of the spatial distribution and concentrations of mobile nutrients stored in the unsaturated zone, which are readily available to be exported to the saturated zone. The results point out the accumulation of these nutrients in the topsoil, mostly in areas with high organic matter content coming from reed decomposition, and in fluvial silts filling anthropic channels and ditches. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Not as bad as you think: a comparison of the nutrient content of best price and brand name food products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari-Soltani, Saman; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown that low-cost foods have an equivalent nutrient composition compared to high-cost foods, but such information is lacking in Switzerland. Thus, we compared the caloric and nutrient content of "best price" (BPF) and brand name foods (BNF) in Switzerland using the version 5.0 (April 2015) of the Swiss Food and Nutrient composition database. Over 4000 processed food items were included and 26 food categories were compared regarding total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, sugar, fiber and sodium. BPF, namely core food categories like Bread, Red meat, White meat and Fish products, were 42%, 39%, 42% and 46% less expensive than their BNF equivalents, respectively. No differences were found between BPF and BNF regarding total energy and protein, fat and carbohydrates for most food categories. In the Cheese category, BPF had a lower caloric content than BNF [Median (interquartile range, IQR): 307 (249-355) vs. 365 (308-395) kcal/100 g, respectively, p < 0.001]; BPF also had lower fat and saturated fatty acid content but higher carbohydrate content than BNF (both p < 0.01). In the Creams and puddings group, BPF had lower fat 1.3 (0.9-1.7) vs. 6.0 (3.5-11.0) g/100 g and saturated fatty acid 0.6 (0.6-0.8) vs. 2.9 (2.3-6.0) g/100 g content than BNF (both p < 0.005). In the Tinned fruits and vegetables group, BPF had lower sodium content than BNF: 175 (0-330) vs. 370 (150-600) mg/100 g, p = 0.006. BPF might be a reasonable and eventually healthier alternative of BNF for economically deprived people in Switzerland.

  8. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops.

  9. Photosynthetic pigments, cell extrusion and relative leaf water content of the castor bean under silicon and salinity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraz, Rener L. de S; Magalhães, Ivomberg D; Beltrão, Napoleão E. de M; Melo, Alberto S. de; Brito Neto, Jósé F. de; Rocha, Maria do S

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of photosynthetic pigments, cell membrane extrusion and the relative water content in the leaves of the castor bean cultivar 'BRS Energia' under...

  10. Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf powder and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum leaf paste on sensory and nutritional qualities of beef and ham burgers – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Teye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Moringa leaf powder and sweet basil leaf paste are commonly used in local dishes in Ghana for purposes of flavour enhancement and nutrient supplements. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum leaf paste (SBLP on the sensory characteristics and nutritional compositions of beef and hamburgers. MLP and SBLP were incorporated at 0g (Control, T1, 2g, 4g and 6g/kg meat (T2, T3 and T4 respectively during the production of the burgers. The burgers were vacuum-packed and frozen for sensory and laboratory analyses. The M. oleifera leaf powder had significant (P0.01 the crude protein content but no significant effect on sensory characteristics of the products.

  11. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  12. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen content and morphological characteristics of Spiraea pubesoens in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; ZHANG Shouren

    2007-01-01

    Spiraeapubescens,a common shrub in the warm temperate deciduous forest zone which is distributed in the Dongling Mountain area of Beijing,was exposed to ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B(UV-B,280-320 nm)radiation by artificially supplying a daily dose of 9.4 kJ/m2 for three growing seasons,a level that simulated a 17% depletion in stratospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance,leaf tissue δ13C,leaf water content,and leaf area.Particular attention was paid to the effects of UV-B radiation on water use efficiency(WUE)and leaf total nitrogen content.Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced leaf area (50.1%)but increased leaf total nitrogen content(102%).These changes were associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance(16.1%)and intercellular CO2 concentration/air CO2 concentration(C/Ca)(4.0%),and an increase in leaf tissue δ13C(20.5%),leaf water content(3.1%),specific leaf weight(SLW)(5.2%)and WUE(4.1%).The effects of UV-B on the plant were greatly affected by the water content of the deep soil(30-40 cm).During the dry season,differences in the stomatat conductance δ13C,and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small;whereas,differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.Furthermore,the effects of UV-B became much less significant as the treatment period progressed over the three growing seasons.Correlation analysis showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the strength of the correlation between soil water content and leaf water content, δ13C,Ci/Ca,stomatal conductance,with the exception of WUE that had a significant correlation coefficient with soil water content.These results suggest that WUE would become more sensitive to soil water variation due to UV-B radiation.Based on this experiment,it was found that enhanced UV-B radiation had much more significant effects on morphological traits and growth of S.pubescens than hydro

  13. Aboveground biomass, wood volume, nutrient stocks and leaf litter in novel forests compared to native forests and tree plantations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; O. Abelleira Martínez; J. Fonseca da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The article presents comparative data for aboveground biomass, wood volume, nutirent stocks (N, P, K) and leaf litter in different types of forests in Puerto Rico. The aim of the study is to assess how novel forests of Castilla elastica, Panama Rubber Tree, and Spathodea campanulata, African Tulip Tree, compare with tree plantations and native historical forests (both...

  14. Nutrient omission effect on growth and nutritional status of assai palm seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Reis Ribeiro Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian assai palm has a great socioeconomic importance, but most of its commercial plantations take place in uplands and low natural fertility soils, what may hinder its development. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of nutrient omission on growth and nutritional status of assai palm seedlings (Ver-o-Peso cultivar. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 14 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments consisted of complete fertilization with liming; no fertilization and no liming (control; complete fertilization with individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Ca with no liming, Mg, Mg with no liming, S, B, Cu and Zn. Plant height, stem diameter and dry mass, leaf and total shoot dry mass, and leaf nutrients content and accumulation were evaluated. The initial growth of the assai palm plants was limited by the omission of P, N, K, Ca, Mg and Cu. The production of leaf dry mass was decreasingly affected by the omission of P > Cu > N > K > Mg, while leaf area was limited by the individual omissions of Ca > N > P > K > Mg > Zn. Plant development, measured by relative growth of shoots, was affected by lack of Ca > P > N > Mg > Cu > K, with an average reduction of 31 %. The nutrients most needed by the assai palm plants, as evidenced by nutrients contents and accumulation in the leaf dry mass, are: N > K > S > Ca > Mg > P > Mn > Zn > B > Cu.

  15. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  16. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, I.J.; Reich, P.B.; Westoby, M.; Ackerly, D.D.; Baruch, Z.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chapin, T.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Diemer, M.; Flexas, J.; Garnier, E.; Groom, P.K.; Gulias, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Lamont, B.B.; Lee, T.; Lee, W.; Lusk, C.; Midgley, J.J.; Navas, M.L.; Niinements, Ü.; Oleksyn, J.; Osada, N.; Poorter, H.; Poot, P.; Prior, L.; Pyankov, V.I.; Roumet, C.; Thomas, S.C.; Tjoelker, M.G.; Veneklaas, E.J.; Villar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients

  17. Do climate and soil influence phenotypic variability in leaf litter, microbial decomposition and shredder consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, M A S; Poquet, J M

    2014-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that water stress and soil nutrient availability drive leaf-litter quality for decomposers and detritivores by relating chemical and physical leaf-litter properties and decomposability of Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur, sampled together with edaphic parameters, across wide European climatic gradients. By regressing principal components analysis of leaf traits [N, P, condensed tannins, lignin, specific leaf area (SLA)] against environmental and soil parameters, we found that: (1) In Q. robur the condensed tannin and lignin contents increased and SLA decreased with precipitation, annual range of temperature, and soil N content, whereas leaf P increased with soil P and temperature; (2) In A. glutinosa leaves N, P, and SLA decreased and condensed tannins increased with temperature, annual range of temperature, and decreasing soil P. On the other hand, leaf P and condensed tannins increased and SLA decreased with minimum annual precipitation and towards sites with low temperature. We selected contrasting leaves in terms of quality to test decomposition and invertebrate consumption. There were intraspecific differences in microbial decomposition rates (field, Q. robur) and consumption by shredders (laboratory, A. glutinosa). We conclude that decomposition rates across ecosystems could be partially governed by climate and soil properties, affecting litter quality and therefore decomposers and detritivores. Under scenarios of global warming and increased nutrients, these results suggest we can expect species-specific changes in leaf-litter properties most likely resulting in slow decomposition with increased variance in temperatures and accelerated decomposition with P increase.

  18. Quantitative trait locus analysis of leaf morphological characters, yield-related traits, and secondary metabolite contents in Eucommia ulmoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wei, J K; Li, Z Q; Lei, A N; Liu, M H

    2015-12-22

    Eucommia ulmoides is cultivated for the production of eucommia rubber and Chinese herbal drugs. Molecular breeding methods, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), have the potential to improve the efficiency of E. ulmoides breeding. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was applied to identify marker-trait associations for E. ulmoides using an F1 mapping population of 152 individuals derived from a cross between the wild genotype Xiaoye and the cultivar Qinzhong No. 1. A total of 78 QTLs were identified for 12 leaf traits involving morphology, yield, and secondary metabolites. Phenotypic variance explained by individual QTLs ranged from 10.4 to 53.3%. Fifteen QTL clusters, each harboring loci controlling at least two leaf traits, were detected across nine linkage groups. Co-location of these QTLs may be due to pleiotropy or linkage. Three main QTL regions for secondary metabolites were consistently identified each year. QTL information from this study furthers our understanding of the genetic architecture of these economically important traits and of MAS in E. ulmoides breeding.

  19. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Pvegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level.

  20. Dynamic variations of nutrient element content among branches with different branch-type of Pistacia chinensis Bunge%中国黄连木不同枝营养元素含量动态变化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文浩; 苏淑钗; 白倩; 陈凤; 陈志钢

    2014-01-01

    中国黄连木雌株结果枝类型有4种,为了探究同一时期结果枝与雄枝各类型枝条间糖类及大量元素含量的差异,2013年花期至花芽发育停滞期间间隔5~20天不等采取除徒长性结果枝以外的各类结果枝条及雄株枝条花芽对应的叶片,烘干粉碎后测量。结果显示:(1)雄枝与结果枝之间的各类营养元素含量差异均较为明显;(2)各结果枝之间淀粉含量变化最相近;(3)各枝类的可溶性糖及蔗糖的含量差异很显著,淀粉及氮,磷,钾的含量变化趋势较为相近,在个别时间段存在较大差异。%Four types of fruiting branches exist in female Pistacia chinensis Bunge. tree. In order to explore the dynamic variations of saccharides and macro-element contents between male branch and 3 types of fruiting branches, the fruiting branch and male branch leaves on the leaf buds during the period of flower bud differentiation and flower bud development stagnation with different time intervals from 5 to 20 days in 2013 were picked and collected, except the spindling fruiting branches, and were washed, dried, grinded and measured. The results show that (1) there existed visible differences of nutrient elements between male branch and fruit branch;(2) there were small dynamic variations of starch contents among the fruiting branches;(3) there were signiifcant differences among different branches in soluble sugar and sucrose contents, the dynamic variations of other nutrient elements (starch, nitrogen, phosphorus, kalium) were not obvious among the branches with different types, but obvious differences except for certain individual time quantum.

  1. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  2. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  3. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on fresh weight pigment and protein content of bean leaf discs (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakçi, S

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 100, 250, and 500 ppm acetylsalicylic acid solutions treatments on weight alteration, pigment and protein amounts in discs from the primary leaves of one month old bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings produced tinder greenhouse conditions are presented. The experiments show that: 100 ppm ASA had no significant influence (P > 0.05) but 250 and 500 ppm ASA caused an increase on weight loss (P 0.05), none of the ASA treatments caused a statistically significant influence on carotenoid amount (P > 0.05); 100 and 250 ppm ASA treatments did not cause a significant influence on protein amount (P > 0.05). however 500 ppm ASA treatment caused an increase on protein injury (P < 0.05). Consequently, it is supposed that wet weight loss, pigment and protein injury have somewhat increased on leaf discs. depending on the toxic effect of high acetylsalicylic acid concentrations.

  4. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  5. Epigallocatechin gallate content change of the fresh tea leaf homogenates ex-tracted by different methods in extraction and preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; GAO Yan-hua; ZU Yuan-gang; LIU Xiao-na; WANG Lei; ZU Shu-chong

    2006-01-01

    The fresh leaves of China green tea, Camellia sinensis, were collected from Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China, in April. The tea polyphenols was extracted by four different methods (homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 0.3% citric acid (w/v) at room temperature, 5- min boiling and homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 85℃ distilled water), and after preserving at room temperature, the change of the Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contents of the extracts was investigated. Results indicated that the EGCG content of homogenate extracted with 85℃ distilled water was the highest before the extract was preserved, followed by that of the extract homogenized with 0.3% citric acid at room temperature. During preservation, EGCG content changed obviously. The EGCG contents of homogenates extracted with distilled water at room temperature and 85℃ distilled water declined quickly and separately reduced to 21.52% and 54.6% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. The EGCG contents extracted by 0.3% citric acid (w/v) solvent at room temperature and 5- min boiling/homogenized with distilled water at room temperature declined relatively slowly ,and separately reduced to 76.9% and 85.16% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. It was also found that the citric acid can prevent the degradation of EGCG and the extract solution color is light green

  6. Concentração foliar de nutrientes em cultivares de Coffea arabica L. sob espaçamentos adensados Foliar nutrient contents in cultivars of Coffea arabica L. at condensed spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Silva Augusto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios adensados de café proporcionam melhor reciclagem de nutrientes e conseqüentemente reduzem a perda de nutrientes do solo por erosão, lixiviação e oxidação da matéria orgânica. Avaliaram-se as influências de diferentes espaçamentos na concentração de macro e micronutrientes em folhas de cafeeiro das cultivares IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 e UFV 3880. Ao início do experimento o solo foi arado para incorporação do calcário. As mudas foram plantadas em covas de 0,30 x 0,30 x 0,40 m, espaçadas entre si em 0,75 m na fileira. Na adubação de plantio aplicou-se 200 g de Fosfato Natural de Araxá, 50 g de Superfosfato Simples por cova, e 15 dias após o plantio 2L/cova de esterco em cobertura. As demais adubações foram realizadas segundo o recomendado para a cultura do café. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados num esquema fatorial 6 x 4 (seis cultivares x quatro espaçamentos, com seis repetições. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro fileiras de 4,50 m de comprimento, espaçadas entre fileiras em 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 m. Amostras de folhas foram retiradas aos 21 e 34 meses para avaliação dos teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes. O adensamento não influenciou na concentração de nutrientes nas folhas aos 21 meses após o plantio, mas influenciou as concentrações foliares de P, K e Mg aos 34 meses após o plantio.Coffee-tree condensed plantings provide reduction in the loss of the soil nutrients by erosion, lixiviation and oxidation of the organic matter, and even increase nutrient recycling. This experiment aimed evaluates the influence of different spacing among rows on the nutrient foliar contents of coffee-tree varieties, and was performed in randomized blocks with 24 treatments and six replications. The employed varieties IAC 44, IAC 99, MG 1192, Katipó, MG 6851 and UFV 3880 were planted with a spacing of 0,75 m among plants and 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 and 2,5m among rows. Each plot was composed

  7. Changes in DNA, dry mass and protein content of leaf epidermis nuclei during aging of perennial monocotyledonous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Kuran

    2014-01-01

    DNA, NYS and DNFB protein contents were measured cytophotometrically using the Feulgen method in the nuclei of the epidermis from. the basal zone of young leaves and from the basal and apical zones of old leaves in two perennial monocotyledonous species, Clivia miniata and Rhoeo discolor. Dry mass was determined interferometrically. It was shown that nuclei with a 2C DNA content dominated in both zones of old leaves, and that a significant percentage of cells with a DNA content below 2C were ...

  8. NUTRIENT ALLOCATION IN Eucalyptus saligna Sm. STANDS IN THE REGION OF GUAÍBA - RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Witschoreck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted in Eucalyptus saligna Sm. stands, between 2 and 7 years of age, in the region of Guaíba - RS, had as objective: to estimate the nutrients stock in the biomass. On the basis of the forest inventory, trees of medium diameter were collected and fractionated in leaf, branch, bark, wood and root. The accumulated litter was evaluated with sampling units of 1 m2. Samples of arboreal components and litter were collected to estimate the dry matter and nutritional content. Nutrients stock was obtained through the product between the average biomass of each component and the average concentration of nutrients. For the average of stands, the stock of nutrients showed the following order of accumulation, for biomass components: wood > root > leaf > bark > branch; and for nutrients: Ca > N > K > Mg > P.

  9. Fine Mapping of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8, a Quantitative Trait Locus for Flag Leaf Nitrogen Content, Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Yamanouchi, Utako; Tanabata, Takanari; Sun, Jian; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sage, Rowan F.; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yonemaru, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the rate of leaf photosynthesis is one important approach for increasing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). Exploiting the natural variation in CO2 assimilation rate (A) between rice cultivars using quantitative genetics is one promising means to identify genes contributing to higher photosynthesis. In this study, we determined precise location of Carbon Assimilation Rate 8 (CAR8) by crossing a high-yielding indica cultivar with a Japanese commercial cultivar. Fine mapping suggested that CAR8 encodes a putative Heme Activator Protein 3 (OsHAP3) subunit of a CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor called OsHAP3H. Sequencing analysis revealed that the indica allele of CAR8 has a 1-bp deletion at 322 bp from the start codon, resulting in a truncated protein of 125 amino acids. In addition, CAR8 is identical to DTH8/Ghd8/LHD1, which was reported to control rice flowering date. The increase of A is largely due to an increase of RuBP regeneration rate via increased leaf nitrogen content, and partially explained by reduced stomatal limitation via increased stomatal conductance relative to A. This allele also increases hydraulic conductivity, which would promote higher stomatal conductance. This indicates that CAR8 affects multiple physiological aspects relating to photosynthesis. The detailed analysis of molecular functions of CAR8 would help to understand the association between photosynthesis and flowering and demonstrate specific genetic mechanisms that can be exploited to improve photosynthesis in rice and potentially other crops. PMID:28197156

  10. Effect of fluorescence characteristics and different algorithms on the estimation of leaf nitrogen content based on laser-induced fluorescence lidar in paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Du, Lin; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-20

    Paddy rice is one of the most significant food sources and an important part of the ecosystem. Thus, accurate monitoring of paddy rice growth is highly necessary. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of growth status of paddy rice and determines the dose of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to be used. This study aims to compare the predictive ability of the fluorescence spectra excited by different excitation wavelengths (EWs) combined with traditional multivariate analysis algorithms, such as principal component analysis (PCA), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and support vector machine (SVM), for estimating paddy rice LNC from the leaf level with three different fluorescence characteristics as input variables. Then, six estimation models were proposed. Compared with the five other models, PCA-BPNN was the most suitable model for the estimation of LNC by improving R2 and reducing RMSE and RE. For 355, 460 and 556 nm EWs, R2 was 0.89, 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that the fluorescence spectra excited by 355 and 556 nm EWs were superior to those excited by 460 nm for the estimation of LNC with different models. BPNN algorithm combined with PCA may provide a helpful exploratory and predictive tool for fluorescence spectra excited by appropriate EW based on practical application requirements for monitoring the N status of crops.

  11. Nutrient dynamics of decomposing leaf litter in natural and monoculture plantation forests of Castanopsis kawakamii in subtropical China%格氏栲天然林与人工林凋落叶分解过程中养分动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉盛; 郭剑芬; 林鹏; 陈光水; 何宗明; 谢锦升

    2004-01-01

    通过对中亚热带格氏栲天然林 (natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii, 约150a)、格氏栲和杉木人工林 (monoculture plantations of C. Kawakamii and Cunninghamia lanceolata,33年生) 凋落叶分解过程中养分动态的研究表明,各凋落叶分解过程中N初始浓度均发生不同程度的增加后下降;除格氏栲天然林中其它树种叶和杉木叶P浓度先增加后下降外,其它均随分解过程而下降;除杉木叶外,其它类型凋落叶的Ca和Mg浓度呈上升趋势;凋落叶K浓度均随分解过程不断下降.养分残留率与分解时间之间存在着指数函数关系xt=x0e-kt.凋落叶分解过程中各养分释放常数分别为:N(kN) 0.678~4.088;P (kP) 0.621~4.308;K(kK) 1.408~4.421;Ca (kCa) 0.799~3.756;Mg (kMg) 0.837 ~ 3.894.除杉木叶外,其它凋落叶分解过程中均呈kK>kP>kN>kMg>kCa的顺序变化.各林分凋落叶的年养分释放量分别为N 10.73~48.19kg/(hm2·a),P 0.61~3.70kg/(hm2·a),K 6.66~39.61kg/(hm2·a),Ca 17.90~20.91kg/(hm2·a),Mg 3.21~9.85kg/(hm2·a).与针叶树人工林相比,天然阔叶林凋落叶分解过程中较快的养分释放和较高的养分释放量有利于促进养分再循环,这对地力维持有重要作用.%Nutrient dynamics of decomposing leaf litter was studied in two 33-year-old plantations, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata, CF) and Castanopsis kawakamii (CK), and compared with that of an adjacent natural forest of Castanopsis kawakamii (NF, ~150 year old) in Sanming, Fujian, China. During the decomposition, varying degree of initial increase followed by decrease of N concentrations was observed in leaf litter, while initial increase and then decrease of P concentration was only found in leaves of other tree species in the NF and Chinese fir needle. The concentrations of Ca and Mg increased in all leaves except for Chinese fir needle, whereas that of K decreased consistently. Using the model xt=x0e-kt, the decay constants of nutrients

  12. Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulates pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-01-01

    To assess the dust interception efficiency of some selected tree species and impact of dust deposition on chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content of leaves the present study was undertaken. The plant species selected for the study were Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, Mangifera indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Psidium guajava, and Dendrocalamus strictus. It was found that all species have maximum dust deposition in the winter season followed by summer and rainy seasons. Chlorophyll content decreased and ascorbic acid content increased with the increase of dust deposition. There was significant negative and positive correlation between dust deposition and chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, respectively. Maximum dust interception was done by Dalbergia sisso and least by Dendrocalamus strictus. Thus plants can be used to intercept dust particles which are of potential health hazards to humans.

  13. Changes in DNA, dry mass and protein content of leaf epidermis nuclei during aging of perennial monocotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kuran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA, NYS and DNFB protein contents were measured cytophotometrically using the Feulgen method in the nuclei of the epidermis from. the basal zone of young leaves and from the basal and apical zones of old leaves in two perennial monocotyledonous species, Clivia miniata and Rhoeo discolor. Dry mass was determined interferometrically. It was shown that nuclei with a 2C DNA content dominated in both zones of old leaves, and that a significant percentage of cells with a DNA content below 2C were present. The ratio between euchromatin DNA and heterochromatin DNA indicates a greater decrease in euchromatin during aging. Changes in DNA due to real DNA loss are accompanied by decreases in NYS and DNFB stained proteins and a decrease in dry mass content correlated mainly with the decrease in the amount of NYS proteins.

  14. Effect of increasing manganese concentration in nutrient solution on the antioxidant activity, vitamin C, lycopene and polyphenol contents of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzolf-Panek, Małgorzata; Kleiber, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Anna

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of increasing manganese (Mn) nutrition on the content of antioxidative compounds such as vitamin C, lycopene and polyphenols, and the antioxidant activity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cvs 'Alboney F1' and 'Emotion F1') fruit. Plants were grown in rockwool using a nutrient solution with the following content of Mn (mg dm(-3)): 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 and 19.2. The level of vitamin C and lycopene decreased with the increasing Mn nutrition. Since the colour of fruits was correlated with the change in carotenoid content, the decrease in lycopene content promoted the reduction of redness and increase of yellowness of fruits. However, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity significantly increased when plant were exposed to toxic levels of Mn. Observed changes could be the result of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of Mn. Polyphenolic compounds play a crucial role in the plant's response to Mn stress and affect predominantly the total antioxidant properties of fruits, which could be used as a source of phenolics. Moreover, total phenolic content measurement, as an easy and inexpensive method, could be used as an indicator of Mn-induced stress in fruits of tomato.

  15. Blade life span, structural investment, and nutrient allocation in giant kelp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel E; Reed, Daniel C; Holbrook, Sally J

    2016-10-01

    The turnover of plant biomass largely determines the amount of energy flowing through an ecosystem and understanding the processes that regulate turnover has been of interest to ecologists for decades. Leaf life span theory has proven useful in explaining patterns of leaf turnover in relation to resource availability, but the predictions of this theory have not been tested for macroalgae. We measured blade life span, size, thickness, nitrogen content, pigment content, and maximum photosynthetic rate (P max) in the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) along a strong resource (light) gradient to test whether the predictions of leaf life span theory applied to this alga. We found that shorter blade life spans and larger blade areas were associated with increased light availability. In addition, nitrogen and P max decreased with blade age, and their decrease was greater in shorter lived blades. These observations are generally consistent with patterns observed for higher plants and the prevailing theory of leaf life span. By contrast, variation observed in pigments of giant kelp was inconsistent with that predicted by leaf life span theory, as blades growing in the most heavily shaded portion of the forest had the lowest chlorophyll content. This result may reflect the dual role of macroalgal blades in carbon fixation and nutrient absorption and the ability of giant kelp to modify blade physiology to optimize the acquisition of light and nutrients. Thus, the marine environment may place demands on resource acquisition and allocation that have not been previously considered with respect to leaf life span optimization.

  16. Evidence for oxidative stress in sugar maple stands growing on acidic, nutrient imbalanced forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Samuel B St; Carlson, John E; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2005-09-01

    Soil acidification and the disruption of nutrient cycles appear to be important factors that weaken sugar maple resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses and predispose it to decline symptoms. Although connections between edaphic stress and decline symptoms have been identified, very little is known about the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie this relationship. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that foliar nutrient imbalances impair the photosynthetic apparatus of sugar maple through oxidative stress. We examined leaf nutrition, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity (a biomarker of oxidative stress) from early June to late August in three-paired overstory sugar maple stands on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau that contrast in soil nutrient availability according to slope position. Beginning in early June, trees on upper slopes (nutrient-poor) had significantly lower foliar Ca and Mg concentrations and significantly higher foliar Mn concentrations than trees on lower slopes. These differences increased throughout summer peaking in late August. Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity closely reflected changes in foliar nutrient status throughout the summer. In the latter half of the summer, leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll content were significantly lower and antioxidant enzyme activity was significantly higher in stands on upper slope soils. At the end of August, leaf nutrient imbalances corresponded with lower rates of photosynthesis and higher antioxidant enzyme activity, suggesting that foliar nutrient imbalances may impair sugar maple function through mechanisms of oxidative stress.

  17. Comparison of Major Nutrient Release Patterns of Quercus liaotungensis Leaf Litter Decomposition in Different Climatic Zones%辽东栎叶片凋落物在不同气候带下的分解及其主要元素释放的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 王瑾; 黄建辉

    2003-01-01

    应用分解网袋法对辽东栎(Quercus liaotungensis Koize)叶片凋落物分别在暖温带的东灵山、亚热带的神农架、热带的西双版纳为期1~2年的分解和K、Ca、Mg、Fe、P、Cu、Mn等营养元素释放动态进行比较研究.三个气候带下辽东栎叶片凋落物质量损失基本符合Olson的指数模型,但降解速率有很大的差别.气候条件对凋落物的分解和营养元素的释放影响很大,降水量增多,年均温增高,凋落物分解速率相应加快.研究还发现影响营养元素释放的因素除了公认的土壤生物(土壤动物和土壤微生物)作用外,对于Fe、Mn等元素遵循的是"化学因素主导"模式,特征在于由于化学螯合作用,其释放过程和凋落物本身失重呈显著负相关.另外,对不同因素占主导的各种分解模式进行了归纳总结.%Leaf litter decomposition of liaotong oak (Quercus liaotungensis Koize) under temperate, subtropical and tropical forests was examined using a litter bag technique. Decomposition rates and release dynamics of nutrients Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and P were observed separately at all three sites for 1 to 2 a periods. The leaf litter mass loss of liaotong oak was simulated with Olson's exponential model. Significant differences of leaf litter mass loss were found in forests of all three climate zones. Litter decomposition was accelerated with the increase of both annual mean precipitation and temperature. Our results agreed with other studies demonstrating that litter decomposition processes were greatly affected not only by soil organisms (including soil fauna and microorganisms), but also by chemical factors. These chemical factors were important for controlling the release of nutrients, especially elements of Fe and Mn. We also found that Fe and Mn content increased in semi-decayed leaf litter as litter mass decreased. This result was presumably due to chelating process which accumulated soil Fe and Mn ions into the

  18. Influences of Cadmium on Grain Mineral Nutrient Contents of Two Rice Genotypes Differing in Grain Cadmium Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wang-da; YAO Hai-gen; ZHANG Hong-mei; TAO Xian-guo

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of Cd on grain Cd, K, P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn accumulation in two rice genotypes (Xiushui 63 and Xiushui 217) differing in grain Cd accumulation under four Cd levels, i.e. 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 mg/kg. Rice genotype greatly affected the grain K content, but not significantly for P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn contents. There were remarkable effects of additional Cd on the contents of P, Mg and Zn in grains, while not significant for K, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn contents. No significant differences were found in the interaction of genotype by additional Cd on these nine element contents. The low grain Cd accumulation genotype Xiushui 217 had significantly higher grain K, Mg, Cu and Mn contents than the high grain Cd accumulation genotype Xiushui 63, but the case was opposite for Zn, Pb and Fe contents. It also showed that Cd addition levels significantly influenced the K, P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn contents in rice grains. Grain K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Mn contents reduced with the increasing rate of Cd addition.

  19. Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Old and Young Cocoa, Coffee and Cashew Plantations at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Rufus Ipinmoroti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess nutrient dynamics of soils under old and young cocoa, coffee and cashew plantations and the leaf nutrient contents of the crops at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria for proper cultural and soil fertility management of the plantations. Soil and crop leaf samples were collected from each plantation using a random sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures for sand, silt, clay, pH (H2O, electrical conductivity (EC, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Data were compared with the corresponding soil and foliar critical nutrient values for each crop. Results indicated that the soils were texturally sandy clay loam and acidic. The soils varied in their nutrient contents, with soil P for the old cocoa, young coffee and cashew plantations far below critical values. The young cashew plot was low in N content but adequate for other plots. However, the soil ECEC increased with the increasing of calcium contents. Leaf N was below critical for all the crops. Leaf K was low for cocoa and coffee plants, leaf Ca was low for the young cashew plants, while leaf Mg was low for the young cocoa and old cashew. The high soil Mg/K ratio of 8.7- 22.3 as against the established value of 2.0 might have resulted in gross nutrient imbalance which must have affected the absorption and utilization of other nutrients. Hence, adequate soil N did not translate the same availability to the crops. The ECEC showed that the soil needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. Soil nutrient content variation across the plantations with age of establishment will necessitate the need for consistent routine soil nutrient assessment for proper and balanced soil nutrient supply to the crops, for healthy crop growth and optimum yield. Management practices of soil surface mulching using organic wastes and cover crops under

  20. Stimulation effect of gibberellic acid short-term treatment on leaf photosynthesis related to the increase in Rubisco content in broad bean and soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L; Xu, D Q

    2001-01-01

    Short-term (one hour) application (painting on surfaces of leaves) of 9 muM GA(3) increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in broad bean leaves at 31 Pa CO(2) and saturating light by more than 20% compared with that of control. The increased Pn was accompanied by an increase in stomatal conductance and a decrease in intercellular CO(2) partial pressure. Moreover, the GA(3)treatment increased the rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in isolated broad bean protoplasts to an extent similar to that of leaves. It had little effect on apparent photosynthetic quantum yield and photosynthetic electron transport rate, but could significantly increase carboxylation efficiency in leaves. In consonance with the increase in the carboxylation efficiency, RuBPCase activity and relative content of Rubisco large subunits were also increased by GA(3) treatment. Chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, could eliminate the enhancing effect of GA(3) on photosynthetic oxygen evolution and relative content of Rubisco large subunits in broad bean protoplasts. Nevertheless, actinomycin D and rifampicin, DNA transcription inhibitors, could not eliminate the enhancement effect of GA(3). Similar results were obtained with soybean leaves treated by 90 muM GA(3). These results suggest that the increase in leaf net photosynthetic rate caused by GA(3) short-term treatment is mainly due to the increases in content and activity of RuBPCase, and that GA(3) stimulates the synthesis of Rubisco subunits at translation rather than transcription level.

  1. Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kawasaki, Tatsuro; Nakano, Takashi; Chiba, Yukihiro

    2004-07-01

    We measured seasonal variation in area-based nitrogen concentration (N), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) in 1-year-old needles along four first-order branches within a Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. crown, and analyzed their relationships to growth irradiance and temperature. Each leaf light environment was expressed as a ratio of the monthly mean of daily integrated photosynthetically active irradiance (Iint) for the particular needle to Iint above the canopy (Irel). Needle N decreased in the upper crown during the development of new needles, whereas it remained fairly constant in the lower crown, reflecting differences between upper and lower crown needles in their contribution to the nitrogen of new needles. Gradients of N within the crown were correlated with Irel in all seasons (r2 = 0.40-0.78). Seasonal variation in N was weakly correlated with mean daily air minimum temperatures. Both Vcmax and Jmax showed seasonal variation in all first-order branches, and decreased to their lowest values in winter. The gradients of Vcmax and Jmax within the crown were not correlated with Irel in some seasons, but were correlated with changes in N in most months (r2 = 0.33-0.75), except in the winter. Furthermore, the regression slope of the relationship between N and Vcmax and the temperature response of Vcmax and Jmax exhibited seasonal variation.

  2. Effect of different substrates on nutrients content, yield and quality of strawberry cv. Selva in soilless culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hemmaty

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants need adequate nutrients in all stages of growth, which should be available in the growing medium. This study was performed to examine the effect of different substrates on nutrient uptake and quantitative and qualitative yield of greenhouse strawberry. The experiment was carried out in the research greenhouse of Jihad-e- Daneshghahi, West Azarbaijan, using a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Five different growth media consisted of perlite-cocopeat ratios (v/v of 100-0, 75-25, 50-50, 25-75 and 0-100. Physical and chemical properties and nutrients concentrations as well as fruit yield were measured. Comparison of the growth media showed that the highest number of flower and fruit was in ratio of 75-25 perlite-cocopeat. The highest fruit yield was obtained from ratios of 75-25 and 50:50 of perlite-cocopeat. Evaluation of qualitative fruit-characteristics indicated that the highest dry matter and total soluble solids were measured in 100-0 ratio of perlite-cocopeat. The highest quantity of fruit N and K was found in 100-0 ratio of perlite-cocopeat. Fruits grown in 0-100 ratio of perlite-cocopeat had the highest calcium and magnesium as compared to other substrates. The general conclusion is that most quantitative and qualitative traits of strawberries grown in hydroponic system depend on the substrate, and the best of these traits were obtained in ratios of 75-25 and 50-50 of perlite-cocopeat.

  3. Effect of clinorotation on the leaf mesophyll structure and pigment content in Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Pisum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    2004-07-01

    Properties of mesophyll cells and photosynthetic membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Pisum sativum (L.) plants grown in a horizontal clinostat and in control conditions were compared. Obtained data have show that under clinorotation conditions seedlings have experienced the following cell morphology changes structural chloroplast rearrangement in palisade cells, pigment content alteration, and cell aging acceleration.

  4. Risks and benefits of gardening in urban soil; heavy metals and nutrient content in Los Angeles Community Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L. W.; Jenerette, D.; Bain, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients and heavy metals in urban community gardens can influence health of crops and participants. Interactions between garden history, management, and soils are understudied in cities. In July 2011, we collected soil samples from 45 plots at 6 Los Angeles community gardens. For comparison, 3 samples were collected from uncultivated garden soils and 3 more from outside soils. Samples were then tested for major nutrients- Nitrogen(N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorous (P)- and organic matter (SOM). We also measured concentrations of 29 metals in 3 gardens using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Potassium and phosphorus exceeded optimum levels in all plots, with some over twice the maximum recommended levels. Over-fertilized soils may contribute to local watershed pollution and crop micronutrient deficiencies. Low soil SOM was observed in gardens in impoverished neighborhoods, possibly due to low quality amendments. Our metals analysis showed dangerous levels of lead (Pb)-- up to 1700 ppm in outside soils and 150 ppm in garden soils-- near older gardens, indicating lead deposition legacies. California lead safety standards indicate that children should not play near soils with Pb above 200 ppm, indicating need for long term monitoring of lead contaminated gardens. Arsenic (As) levels exceeded federal risk levels (0.3 ppm) and average CA background levels (2 ppm) in all areas, with some gardens exceeding 10 ppm. Heavy metal legacies in gardens may pose risks to participants with prolonged exposure and remediation of soils may be necessary.

  5. Effect of boron and zinc fertilization on white oats grown in soil with average content of these nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with zinc or boron on the growth and dry matter production, nutritional value and accumulation of nutrients in white oats. The study comprised two experiments conducted in glasshouses, the first consisting of the application of four doses of zinc (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of zinc sulphate (20% Zn, and the second consisting of the application of four doses of boron (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of Borax (11% B. The experimental design in each case was a randomized block design, with five replicates. Fertilization with zinc and boron increased the growth of white oats, but had no significant effect on the nutritional value of the forage. Higher levels of absorption and accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues were observed following the application of boron and zinc at rates of up to 0.60 mg/dm³ of soil.

  6. Effects of dietary nutrient levels on microbial community composition and diversity in the ileal contents of pregnant Huanjiang mini-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huawei; Zhu, Qian; Guo, Qiuping; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations. On day 45 or 75 of pregnancy, sows were euthanized and their ileal contents sampled. Experimental diet and pregnancy stage did not affect ileal bacterial richness or diversity, as determined by Chao1 and ACE species richness measures and Shannon and Simpson indices, respectively. The phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, accounting for 69.99–85.44% and 5.82–15.17% of the total reads, respectively, predominated regardless of diet. At the genus level, diet significantly affected the abundance of Lactobacillus species, which was greater in pigs given HN feed (P < 0.05), but had little impact on that of Megasphaera species (P = 0.096). Pregnancy stage had a minimal effect on Proteobacteria numbers (P = 0.053). The number of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus decreased, while that of the phylum Proteobacteria, family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Bacteroides increased between days 45 and 75 of pregnancy. Of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) measured, only propionate levels changed significantly, with higher concentrations observed on day 45 than on day 75. Our findings indicate that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria dominate pregnant sow ileal bacterial profiles. Excepting a tendency for the number of Proteobacteria to increase as pregnancy progressed, pregnancy stage and

  7. A 'Big leaf, big fruit, big substrate' model for experiments on receding horizon optimal control of nutrient supply to greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.; Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Elings, A.

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic model was set up to describe the mineral content, fruit dry matter content, and biomass of greenhouse tomato, for use in an experiment aiming at controlling the fertigation so as to reach the best compromise between disinfection costs of the recycled water and income from fruit fresh weigh

  8. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  9. Improving nutrient fixation and dry matter content of an ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion effluent by struvite formation and clay adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maria M; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J; Morken, John

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes that contain nitrogen leads to its mineralization, yielding a digestate rich in ammonium (NH(4)(+)), an important fertilizing nutrient. The applicability of AD digestate as fertilizer can be improved by fixating the nutrients and increasing its dry matter content. Methods for the fixation and recovery of the digestate's NH(4)(+) and possible also PO(4)(3-) include struvite precipitation and adsorption in clay materials such as bentonite. These techniques were tested in batch experiments employing the liquid fraction of a digestate originating from the AD of a substrate mix containing lignocellulose, cattle manure and fish industrial waste. The concentration of NH(4)(+)-N in this digestate was 2,300 mg L⁻¹. Struvite precipitation conditions at a molar ratio of 1.2:1:1 (Mg²⁺:NH(4)(+):PO(4)(3-)) and pH 9.5 were best in terms of simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+)-N (88%), PO(4)(3-) (60%) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (44%). Bentonite adsorption gave comparably high removal levels for NH(4)(+)-N (82%) and PO(4)(3-) (52%). Analysis of the precipitates' morphology and elemental composition confirmed their struvite and bentonite nature. Dry matter content was increased from 5.8% in the AD digestate to 27% and 22% in the struvite and bentonite sludges, respectively.

  10. The influence of spruce on acidity and nutrient content in soils of Northern Taiga dwarf shrub-green moss spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, M. A.; Lukina, N. V.; Smirnov, V. E.; Artemkina, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    Presently, among the works considering the influence of forest trees on soil properties, the idea that spruce ( Picea abies) promotes the acidification of soils predominates. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of spruce trees of different ages and Kraft classes on the acidity and content of available nutrient compounds in the soils under boreal dwarf shrub-green moss spruce forests by the example of forest soils in the Kola Peninsula. The soils are typical iron-illuvial podzols (Albic Rustic Podzols (Arenic)). Three probable ways of developing soils under spruce forests with the moss-dwarf shrub ground cover are considered. The soils under windfall-soil complexes of flat mesodepressions present the initial status. The acidity of organic soil horizons from the initial stage of mesodepression overgrowth to the formation of adult trees changed nonlinearly: the soil acidity reached its maximum under the 30-40-year-old trees and decreased under the trees older than 100 years. The contents of nitrogen and available nutrients increased. The acidity of the mineral soil horizons under the trees at the ages of 110-135 and 190-220 years was comparable, but higher than that under the 30-40-year-old trees. The differences in the strength and trends of the trees' effect on the soils are explained by the age of spruce trees and their belonging to different Kraft classes.

  11. Species Effects on Stand-Level Nutrient Economy of a Costa Rican Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T. E.; Emanuel, R. E.; Tully, K.; Lawrence, D.

    2007-12-01

    In tropical ecosystems, successional forests are rapidly replacing old growth forests as the dominant forest type. This shift in successional status combined with projected changes in climate could result in a significant change in the species composition of tropical forests. How changes in species composition could affect stand-level nutrient economy is not well understood. Using species-specific leaf litter nutrient and productivity data combined with randomly generated dominance scenarios, we investigated species effects on leaf litter nutrient inputs. We conducted this research in a 1-ha secondary forest stand (30-yr in 2003) in northeastern Costa Rica. We measured senesced leaf N and P contents of the nine dominant canopy tree species within the study plot and scaled the results to the stand level using % basal area (BA) as a proxy for relative litter contribution (Sum[total leaf litterfall x % BAsp x nutrient concentrationsp]). We created different dominance scenarios using Monte Carlo generated BA distributions of the nine species. We then selected all scenarios in which one of the nine species accounted for greater than 30% of the BA. This allowed us to create communities with each of the nine species as dominant while varying the composition of the remaining tree community. Both N and P leaf litter inputs differed significantly when the dominant species changed from the current forest community. The change in N inputs was relatively small in relation to the potential change in leaf litter P inputs. P inputs decreased by 23% when Vochysia ferruginea, a shade-intolerant late pioneer species, was dominant. When Casearia arborea, a shade-tolerant species, was the dominant species there was 6% increase in leaf litter P inputs. Our results demonstrate that changes in leaf litter N and P cycling will likely occur as land use and climate change alter forest community composition.

  12. Life cycle assessment of microalgae-based aviation fuel: Influence of lipid content with specific productivity and nitrogen nutrient effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Jing; A, Lusi; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the life cycle assessments of low-N and normal culture conditions for a balance between the lipid content and specific productivity. In order to achieve the potential contribution of lipid content to the life cycle assessment, this study established relationships between lipid content (nitrogen effect) and specific productivity based on three microalgae strains including Chlorella, Isochrysis and Nannochloropsis. For microalgae-based aviation fuel, the effects of the lipid content on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are similar. The fossil fuel consumption (0.32-0.68MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF) and GHG emissions (17.23-51.04gCO2e·MJ(-1)MBAF) increase (59.70-192.22%) with the increased lipid content. The total energy input decreases (2.13-3.08MJ·MJ(-1)MBAF, 14.91-27.95%) with the increased lipid content. The LCA indicators increased (0-47.10%) with the decreased nitrogen recovery efficiency (75-50%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 不同钾素处理春玉米叶片营养元素含量变化及其光谱响应%Nutrients Change and Spectral Response of Spring Corn Leaf for Varying Amounts of Potassium Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 白由路

    2007-01-01

    目的是研究不同钾营养水平春玉米典型生育期叶片的光谱响应,探索叶片内营养成分与叶片光谱反射率的相关性.方法是设置了不同梯度钾处理的盆栽试验,按玉米生育期进行光谱测定和取样分析.结果,通过对不同钾处理间玉米叶片养分含量的差异性分析表明,随着施钾的提高,叶片钾含量差异性达到显著水平.分析不同钾营养水平不同生育时期春玉米叶片光谱反射率与叶片钾含量的相关关系,并建立了喇叭口期利用叶片光谱反射率估测叶片钾含量的数学模型;以及分析了该处理下喇叭口期叶片内水分、叶绿素、氮、磷、钙、镁、锌、锰、铜、铁含量与叶片光谱反射率的相关性.结果表明:不同生育时期叶片钾含量与其光谱反射率的相关关系在光谱维方向存在明显差别,730-930nm和960-1100nm两波段为春玉米喇叭口期评价钾营养状况的敏感波段,光谱变量R767+R1057,(R767+R1057)/(logR767+logR1057)和(R767-R1057)/(logR767-logR1057)均能很好的预测喇叭口期叶片钾含量;该时期叶片内不同成分与光谱反射率相关分析表明:550nm,710nm,950nm三波段处是各个相关曲线的突变点;叶片内各成分间高度相关的,它们的光谱相关曲线趋势也极为一致或对称.%The application of spectral properties as a diagnostic tool in nutrient deficiency diagnosis requires further understanding of the relationship between spectral properties and nutrient concentration in plant tissue. Therefore, to examine the effect of variable potassium fertilization on corn(Zea mays L.) leaves and the response on leaf spectral reflectance. We designed an experiment to examine the effect variable amounts of potassium fertilization during four stages of corn growth. Our results showed that the difference in potassium leaf content is significant at the 0.05 probability level with increasing potassium fertilization. We then examined the correlation

  14. Photosynthetic pigments, cell extrusion and relative leaf water content of the castor bean under silicon and salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rener L. de S. Ferraz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe castor bean crop plays an important social, environmental and economic role, especially due to possibility of its use as feedstock for the generation of clean energy. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of photosynthetic pigments, cell membrane extrusion and the relative water content in the leaves of the castor bean cultivar ‘BRS Energia’ under silicon and salinity levels. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cotton, in a completely randomized design, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, and the treatments consisted of four silicon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1 and four water salinity levels of (ECw 0, 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1, with three replicates. The gradual increase in salinity levels reduced the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, relative water content in the leaves and increased cell membrane extrusion. The increase in the concentration of silicon reduced the harmful effects of salts on the analysed variables in the castor bean ‘BRS Energia’.

  15. The Effect of Phosphorus and Zinc Fertilizers on Nutrient Content and Essential Oil Yield of German Chamomile under Drought Stress (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi Jeshni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. is mainly cultivated for essential oil. Nowadays, it is a highly favored and much-used medicinal plant in reqular and traditional medicine. Water deficit is one of the most important limiting factors on crops production in arid and semi-arid regions (Sharafi et al. 2002. Drought stress limits the growth of plants by reducing water content of tissues and causes some metabolic and physiological changes. On the other hand, the availability of nutrients in the soil is affected by drought stress. Thus, nutritional management of plants under drought stress conditions is one of the most important factors in crop production. A better understanding of the role of nutrients in plant resistance to drought is associated with improvement of fertilizer management in arid and semi-arid areas. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of phosphorus and zinc fertilizers on nutrient content and essential oil yield of German chamomile under drought stress. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research farm of University of Zabol in 2013. Drought stress consisted of three levels 75% (control, 50% (mild stress and 25% of field capacity (severe stress as main plots, and factorial combinations of three triple superphosphate fertilizer (CaH4P2O8 levels (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 and two zinc sulphate fertilizer (ZnSO4H2O levels (0 and 30 kg ha-1 as sub plots (the fertilizers were applied before planting time. The seeds were sown at 20 cm apart in rows 40 cm wide, on first half of March 2013. Drought stress levels were determined by the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR. The success of chamomile cultivation as a commercial venture lies in how efficiently and effectively one can collect the flowers at the right stage during the peak flowering season extending over a period of 3–6 weeks. So, flowers were

  16. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Nutrition and Salinity Stress on 1000-Grain Weight, Mucilage Content and Nutrient Uptake in Psyllium (Plantago ovata F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of salinity stress and three nitrogen fertilizers on some traits of psyllium (Plantago ovata plants, a factorial experiment, as completely randomized design with three replications, was carried out at University of Zabol, in 2010. Salinity at three levels (0, 100 and 200 mM sodium chloride was the main plot and three forms of nitrogen source (nitrate from calcium nitrate, ammonium from ammonium sulfate, and ammonium + nitrate (50: 50 were the sub-plot. Seeds were sown in pots containing clean sand. After germination, plants nutrition was by application of Hoagland solution, which was prepared according to the nitrogen treatments. Salinity stress was started at 2-leaf stage. Results showed that salinity significantly affected 1000-grain weight, spike length, mucilage content of grains, and swelling index of psyllium grains. By increasing salinity level, the spike length and 1000-grain weight were decreased 21.5% and 27.3%, respectively. Among the four mentioned traits, interaction of salinity and nitrogen treatment significantly affected only the spike length. Maximum spike length was obtained in non-saline treatment and ammonium fertilizer. Salinity stress increased the sodium and chlorine ions and decreased the potassium content in shoots. Nitrogen source and interaction between salinity and nitrogen significantly affected the content of these elements in plants. The highest concentration of sodium and potassium was obtained in 200 mM sodium chloride and non-saline treatments (control, respectively, along with application of ammonium fertilizer.

  18. Possible Roles of Strigolactones during Leaf Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a complicated developmental process that involves degenerative changes and nutrient recycling. The progress of leaf senescence is controlled by various environmental cues and plant hormones, including ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and strigolactones. The production of strigolactones is induced in response to nitrogen and phosphorous deficiency. Strigolactones also accelerate leaf senescence and regulate shoot branching and root architecture. Leaf senescence is actively promoted in a nutrient-poor soil environment, and nutrients are transported from old leaves to young tissues and seeds. Strigolactones might act as important signals in response to nutrient levels in the rhizosphere. In this review, we discuss the possible roles of strigolactones during leaf senescence.

  19. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  20. Nutrient composition, mineral content and the solubility of the proteins of palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis f.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OMOTOSO O.T.; ADEDIRE C.O.

    2007-01-01

    Adult (ADS) and larva stages of palm weevil Rhynchophorus phoenicis were analyzed for their nutritional potentials using proximate and mineral contents as indices. The early larva stage (ELS) contains the highest moisture content of 11.94% while ADS has the least value of 4.79%. The late larva stage (LLS) has the highest protein content of 10.51% while ADS contains 8.43%. Ash content is highest in ELS with a value of 2.37% and lowest in ADS with a value of 1.43%. ELS and LLS have the highest (22.14%) and lowest (17.22%) fibre contents respectively. The values of potassium, magnesium and iron in ELS were (455.00±21.21), (60.69±2.57) and (6.50±3.40) mg/kg while LLS recorded (457.50±10.61), (43.52±1.37) and (6.00±1.10) mg/kg and ADS recorded (372.50±24.75), (53.31±1.88) and (22.90±3.70) mg/kg. Chromium, phosphorus, nickel, calcium, lead, manganese and zinc were also detected. Copper was not detected in any of the samples. In all the developmental stages the protein solubilities were pH dependent with the minimum protein solubilities occurring at acidic pH while the maximum protein solubilities occurred at alkaline pH.