Sample records for leading breakthroughs micro

  1. Breakthrough properties of chloride ions in columns of lead phosphate hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Hitoshi; Shindo, Manabu.


    Breakthrough properties of chloride ion (Cl - ) have been studied by using columns packed with a granular anion-exchanger of lead phosphate hydroxide (Pb 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , IXE-1000G). The column utilization of the ratio of breakthrough capacity to total capacity increased with decreasing particle size and increasing temperature. The collection of Cl - from a simulated waste solution was improved by the addition of cation-exchange to IXE-1000G; the adsorption capacity of the column of IXE-1000G/IXE-300G (Sb type cation-exchanger) was over 0.16 mmol Cl - /g, yielding a relatively high column utilization of 75%. (author)

  2. Granular activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants in drinking water and treated wastewater--Aligning breakthrough curves and capacities. (United States)

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Stützer, Christian; Jekel, Martin


    Small-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) tests for the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) were conducted with drinking water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. In both waters, three influent OMP concentration levels were tested. As long as the influent OMP concentrations are below certain thresholds, the relative breakthrough behavior is not impacted in the respective water. Accordingly, the GAC capacity for OMP is directly proportional to the influent OMP concentration in the corresponding water. The differences between the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent can be attributed to the concentrations of the low molecular weight acid and neutral (LMW) organics of the waters. Presenting the relative OMP concentrations (c/c0) over the specific throughput of the LMW organics (mg LMW organics/g GAC), the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent superimpose each other. This superimposition can be further increased if the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) of the LMW organics is considered. In contrast, using the specific throughput of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not suffice to obtain superimposed breakthrough curves. Thus, the LMW organics are the major water constituent impacting OMP adsorption onto GAC. The results demonstrate that knowing the influent OMP and LMW organics concentrations (and UV254) of different waters, the OMP breakthroughs and GAC capacities corresponding to any water can be applied to all other waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational Breakthrough of Natural Lead Hits from the Genus of Arisaema against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus. (United States)

    Kant, Kamal; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Ghosh, Manik


    To date, efforts for the prevention and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been still vain, and there is no safe and effective clinical accepted vaccine. Arisaema genus has claimed for various traditional bioactivities, but scientific assessments are quite limited. This encouraged us to carry out our present study on around 60 phytoconstituents of different Arisaema species as a natural inhibitor against the human RSV. Selected 60 phytochemical entities were evaluated on the docking behavior of human RSV receptor (PDB: 4UCC) using Maestro 9.3 (Schrödinger, LLC, Cambridge, USA). Furthermore, kinetic properties and toxicity nature of top graded ligands were analyzed through QikProp and ProTox tools. Notably, rutin (glide score: -8.49), schaftoside (glide score: -8.18) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside (glide score - 7.29) have resulted in hopeful natural lead hits with an ideal range of kinetic descriptors values. ProTox tool (oral rodent toxicity) has resulted in likely toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Finally, the whole efforts can be explored further as a model to confirm its anti-human RSV potential with wet laboratory experiments. Rutin, schaftoside, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside showed promising top hits docking profile against human respiratory syncytial virusMoreover, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties (QikProp) of top hits resulted within an ideal range of kinetic descriptorsProTox tool highlighted toxicity class ranges, LD 50 values, and possible toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Abbreviations used: RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus, PRRSV: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, ADME-T: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

  4. Creating breakthroughs at 3M. (United States)

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M


    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  5. Breakthrough cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista


    Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....

  6. Distribution of lead in lead-accumulating pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, measured by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodera, Hirofumi; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Terada, Yasuko


    The distribution of lead (Pb) accumulated in the pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, a Pb-hyperaccumulator, was measured using synchrotron-radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) at BL37XU of SPring-8. From two dimensional (2D) imagings of Pb at the root, petiole, leaf vein, pinna epidermis and sorus in the Blechnum niponicum, the mechanism for the transportation and accumulation of Pb can be suggested to be as follows: Lead is accumulated in conductive tissues. Most of the Pb solubilized in the rhizosphere is fixed in the conductive tissue, with the remainder being transported with the transpiration stream to the above-ground parts of the plant. Lead transported to the upper parts of the plant ultimately remains at the terminal points of the transpiration stream, including the stomatal apparatus and water pores; it was shown that these sections contain high concentrations of Pb. (author)

  7. A reengineering success story: process improvement in emergency department x-ray cycle time, leading to breakthrough performance in the ED ambulatory care (Fast Track) process. (United States)

    Espinosa, J A; Treiber, P M; Kosnik, L


    This article describes the journey of a multidisciplinary reengineering team, which worked to reduce a critical, high-leverage process in an emergency department setting. The process selected was emergency department radiology services. This process was selected on a rational basis. The team knew tht 60 percent of our emergency department patients were truly ambulatory, and that most could be seen in a "fast track" process as part of our emergency department's core mission. However, we knew from customer satisfaction data, that patients would like to be "in and out" of emergency department Fast Track in less than an hour. Over half of our Fast Track patients require x-rays. For most, this was their sole reason for seeking emergency care. Our state, at the start of the project, included an average x-ray cycle time of over 60 minutes. The associated Fast-Track cycle time was over 90 minutes median. It was clear to the emergency department leadership, as well as to members of the Fast-Track management team, that a cycle time of 30 minutes or less for x-ray service was needed as a necessary condition to an hour or less Fast Track cycle time. It was also felt that a more rapid x-ray cycle time would allow for more rapid turn over of ED rooms, leading to a virtual greater capacity to the ED. It was hoped that this would lead to a reduction in the time from arrival to treatment by the emergency physician for all patients.

  8. Breakthroughs in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

  9. PIXE application for measurement of bioaccumulation of lead by marine micro-algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Suzuki, M.


    Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were obtained from the Pacific Ocean of Iwate Pref., Japan and purely cultured in nutritive seawater as a culture solution. The culture size for algae was 10-250 ml and every apparatus was small and of low cost. Marine micro-algae were given in different culture solutions including Pb 2+ from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/l. The algae in 5 ml of the culture solution were collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 μm) by suction filtration. The algae on the filter were subjected to PIXE analysis. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb were simultaneously determined. PIXE can do multi-element analysis for a sample of below 1 mg. The quantity of lead in marine micro-algae increases in proportion to the Pb 2+ concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factor (wet weight base) for lead is given as 200±20 ml/g for Nannochloropsis sp. and 1900±400 ml/g for Phaeodactylum sp.. It is shown that PIXE is a powerful tool for the measurement of the bioaccumulation of trace elements. (author)

  10. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results. (United States)

    Bolton, Robert


    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  11. Micro-analytical study of interactions between oil and lead compounds in paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotte, M.; Checroun, E.; Susini, J.; Walter, P.


    Oil paintings are complex hybrid materials, made of organic binders associated with inorganic minerals, susceptible to evolving over centuries. In particular, interactions of oil with lead compounds may give rise to the formation of lead soap aggregates, so-called protrusions. This phenomenon is studied here via X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of an ancient painting dated from 1610. In complement, the synthesis of modern preparations, reconstructed from ancient recipes was assessed. Molecular and atomic images are obtained by combining synchrotron-based FTIR and X-ray fluorescence microscopies. Protrusions are identified in both ancient and modern samples, more particularly, in the ground layer of the paintings, below the colored layer. These observations imply that lead oxide, introduced as a siccative and not as a pigment, may be the element mainly responsible for the protrusions formation, and that this degradation may appear very rapidly on paintings. (orig.)

  12. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part I. Selected key parameters (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Kaiser, F.; Koehler, L.; Albers, J.; Kabza, H.

    Micro-hybrid electric vehicles were launched by BMW in March 2007. These are equipped with brake energy regeneration (BER) and the automatic start and stop function (ASSF) of the internal combustion engine. These functions are based on common 14 V series components and lead-acid (LA) batteries. The novelty is given by the intelligent onboard energy management, which upgrades the conventional electric system to the micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In part I of this publication the key factors for the operation of LA batteries in the MHPS are discussed. Especially for BER one is high dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) for effective boost charging. Vehicle rest time is identified as a particular negative parameter for DCA. It can be refreshed by regular fully charging at elevated charge voltage. Thus, the batteries have to be outstandingly robust against overcharge and water loss. This can be accomplished for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries at least if they are mounted in the trunk. ASSF goes along with frequent high-rate loads for warm cranking. The internal resistance determines the drop of the power net voltage during cranking and is preferably low for reasons of power net stability even after years of operation. Investigations have to be done with aged 90 Ah VRLA-absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries. Battery operation at partial state-of-charge gives a higher risk of deep discharging (overdischarging). Subsequent re-charging then is likely to lead to the formation of micro-short circuits in the absorbent glass mat separator.

  13. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tian, Shengke [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M.J.I.; Liao, Haibing [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elsholtzia splendens had a good ability of lead tolerance and accumulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was mostly restricted to the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb and Ca shared most similar distribution patterns in E. splendens. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 {mu}M Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  14. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O. [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany); Albers, J. [Johnson Controls Power Solutions EMEA, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Weirather-Koestner, D. [ZSW Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kabza, H. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Energiewandlung und -speicherung, 89081 Ulm (Germany)


    In the first part of this work selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already. (author)

  15. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  16. MicroRNA-target gene responses to lead-induced stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). (United States)

    He, Qiuling; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant responses to various metal stresses. To investigate the miRNA-mediated plant response to heavy metals, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most important fiber crop in the world, was exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µM) of lead (Pb) and then the toxicological effects were investigated. The expression patterns of 16 stress-responsive miRNAs and 10 target genes were monitored in cotton leaves and roots by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); of these selected genes, several miRNAs and their target genes are involved in root development. The results show a reciprocal regulation of cotton response to lead stress by miRNAs. The characterization of the miRNAs and the associated target genes in response to lead exposure would help in defining the potential roles of miRNAs in plant adaptation to heavy metal stress and further understanding miRNA regulation in response to abiotic stress.

  17. Effect of nano-scale morphology on micro-channel wall surface and electrical characterization in lead silicate glass micro-channel plate (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Li, Fangjun; Xu, Yanglei; Bo, Tiezhu; Zhou, Dongzhan; Lian, Jiao; Li, Qing; Cao, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Wang, Caili; Liu, Hui; Li, Guoen; Jia, Jinsheng


    Micro-channel plate (MCP) is a two dimensional arrays of microscopic channel charge particle multiplier. Silicate composition and hydrogen reduction are keys to determine surface morphology of micro-channel wall in MCP. In this paper, lead silicate glass micro-channel plates in two different cesium contents (0at%, 0.5at%) and two different hydrogen reduction temperatures (400°C,450°C) were present. The nano-scale morphology, elements content and chemical states of microporous wall surface treated under different alkaline compositions and reduction conditions was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Meanwhile, the electrical characterizations of MCP, including the bulk resistance, electron gain and the density of dark current, were measured in a Vacuum Photoelectron Imaging Test Facility (VPIT).The results indicated that the granular phase occurred on the surface of microporous wall and diffuses in bulk glass is an aggregate of Pb atom derived from the reduction of Pb2+. In micro-channel plate, the electron gain and bulk resistance were mainly correlated to particle size and distribution, the density of dark current (DDC) went up with the increasing root-mean-square roughness (RMS) on the microporous wall surface. Adding cesiums improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, lowered the relative concentration of [Pb] reduced from Pb2+ and decreased the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a less dark current. Increasing hydrogen reduction temperature also improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, but enhanced the relative concentration of [Pb] and enlarged the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a larger dark current. The reasons for the difference of electrical characteristics were discussed.

  18. A review on Anticipated Breakthrough Technologies of 21st Century


    Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal


    This review discuss strategic management of thirteen most anticipated possible technology breakthroughs of 21st century which are substantially affect the life style of living beings in the world like (1) Nanotechnology-based human life comfort, (2) High speed computation through optical computers, (3) Embedded Intelligence, (4) HIV Antivirus, (5) Pseudo Senses - Sensation of existence through virtual reality and through artificial environment, (6) Off Planet Production in micro-gravity, (7) ...

  19. Micro-EDXRF surface analyses of a bronze spear head: Lead content in metal and corrosion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Valerio, P.; Araujo, M.F.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.


    A bronze spear head from Central Portugal dated to Late Bronze Age has been analyzed by non-destructive micro-EDXRF in the metal surface and corrosion layers. The artifact had previously been analyzed using a conventional EDXRF spectrometer having a larger incident beam. The quantification of the micro-EDXRF analyses showed that lead content in corrosion layers can reach values up to four times higher than the content determined in the metal surface. Results obtained with the higher energy incident beam from the EDXRF equipment, although referring mainly to the corrosion layers, seem to suffer some influence from the surface composition of the metallic alloy

  20. [Major breakthroughs in the medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.


    The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major breakt...... breakthroughs within other medical specialities are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2009/3/2......The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major...

  1. Aostra claims major oilsands breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has completed a horizontal well in-situ steam injection project it calls a major breakthrough in commercially producing bitumen from the bast Athabasca oilsands deposit in Alberta. Aostra the its $71 million (Canadian) proof of concept pilot underground test facility (UTF) near Fort McMurray, achieved a 60% bitumen recovery rate, compared with less than 20% recovery typically achieved with Alberta bitumen. More than 100,000 bbl of bitumen was produced during the project

  2. Controlled Nucleosynthesis Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, Stanislav; Merwe, Alwyn


    This book ushers in a new era of experimental and theoretical investigations into collective processes, structure formation, and self-organization of nuclear matter. It reports the results of experiments wherein for the first time the nuclei constituting our world (those displayed in Mendeleev's table as well as the super-heavy ones) have been artificially created. Pioneering breakthroughs are described, achieved at the "Proton-21" Laboratory, Kiev, Ukraine, in a variety of new physical and technological directions. A detailed description of the main experiments, their analyses, and the interpretation of copious experimental data are given, along with the methodology governing key measurements and the processing algorithms of the data that empirically confirm the occurrence of macroscopic self-organizing processes leading to the nuclear transformations of various materials. The basic concepts underlying the initiation of self-sustaining collective processes that result in the formation of nuclear structures a...

  3. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark


    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  4. Dissolved CO2 Increases Breakthrough Porosity in Natural Porous Materials. (United States)

    Yang, Y; Bruns, S; Stipp, S L S; Sørensen, H O


    When reactive fluids flow through a dissolving porous medium, conductive channels form, leading to fluid breakthrough. This phenomenon is caused by the reactive infiltration instability and is important in geologic carbon storage where the dissolution of CO 2 in flowing water increases fluid acidity. Using numerical simulations with high resolution digital models of North Sea chalk, we show that the breakthrough porosity is an important indicator of dissolution pattern. Dissolution patterns reflect the balance between the demand and supply of cumulative surface. The demand is determined by the reactive fluid composition while the supply relies on the flow field and the rock's microstructure. We tested three model scenarios and found that aqueous CO 2 dissolves porous media homogeneously, leading to large breakthrough porosity. In contrast, solutions without CO 2 develop elongated convective channels known as wormholes, with low breakthrough porosity. These different patterns are explained by the different apparent solubility of calcite in free drift systems. Our results indicate that CO 2 increases the reactive subvolume of porous media and reduces the amount of solid residual before reactive fluid can be fully channelized. Consequently, dissolved CO 2 may enhance contaminant mobilization near injection wellbores, undermine the mechanical sustainability of formation rocks and increase the likelihood of buoyance driven leakage through carbonate rich caprocks.

  5. Pacemaker Implantation Associated Myocardial Micro-Damage: A Randomised Comparison between Active and Passive Fixation Leads. (United States)

    Blažek, Patrick; Ferri-Certić, Jerko; Vražić, Hrvoje; Lennerz, Carsten; Grebmer, Christian; Kaitani, Kazuaki; Karch, Martin; Starčević, Boris; Semmler, Verena; Kolb, Christof


    Fixation of the pacemaker leads during pacemaker implantation leads to an increase of cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) that can be interpreted as a sign of minimal myocardial damage. This trial evaluates whether the mechanism type of lead fixation influences the magnitude of cTnT release. Patients having a de-novo cardiac pacemaker implantation or a lead revision were centrally randomized to receive either a ventricular lead with an active (screw) or passive (tine) fixation mechanism. High-sensitive Troponin T (hsTnT) was determined on the day of the procedure beforehand and on the following day. 326 Patients (median age (IQR) 75.0 (69.0-80.0) years, 64% male) from six international centers were randomized to receive ventricular leads with an active (n = 166) or passive (n = 160) fixation mechanism. Median (IQR) hsTnT levels increased by 0.009 (0.004-0.021) ng/ml in the group receiving screw-in ventricular leads and by 0.008 (0.003-0.030) ng/ml in the group receiving tined ventricular leads (n.s.). In conclusion pacemaker implantations are followed by a release of hsTnT. The choice between active or passive fixation ventricular leads does not have a significant influence on the extent of myocardial injury and the magnitude of hsTnT release.

  6. A Study on the Influence of the Nozzle Lead Angle on the Performance of Liquid Metal Electromagnetic Micro-Jetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Luo


    Full Text Available To improve the jetting performance of liquid metals, an electromagnetic micro-jetting (EMJ valve that realizes drop-on-demand (DOD jetting while not involving any valve core or moving parts was designed. The influence of the lead angle of the nozzle on the jetting of liquid metal gallium (Ga was investigated. It was found that the Lorentz force component parallel to the nozzle that jets the electrified liquid Ga is always larger than its internal friction; thus, jet can be generated with any lead angle but with different kinetic energies. Experimental results show that the mass of the jetting liquid, the jetting distance, the initial velocity of the jet, and the resulting kinetic energy of the jet increase first and then decrease. When the lead angle is 90°, the mass of the jetting liquid and the kinetic energy are at their maximum. When the angle is 80°, the initial velocity achieves its maximum, with a calculated value of 0.042 m/s. Moreover, very close and comparatively high kinetic energies are obtained at 80° and 90°, indicating that angles in between this range can produce a preferable performance. This work provides an important theoretical basis for the design of the EMJ valve, and may promote the development and application of micro electromagnetic jetting technology.

  7. Identification and Functional Analysis of MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Platanus acerifolia under Lead (Pb) Stress


    Yuanlong Wang; Zhenli Zhao; Minjie Deng; Rongning Liu; Suyan Niu; Guoqiang Fan


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in development and stress responses in plants. Lead (Pb) is a non-essential element that is highly toxic to living organisms. Platanus acerifolia is grown as a street tree in cities throughout temperate regions for its importance in improving the urban ecological environment. MiRNAs that respond to abiotic stresses have been identified in plants; however, until now, the influence of Pb stress on P. acerifolia miRNAs has not been reported. To ...

  8. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.


    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  9. Hyperthyroidism, but not hypertension, impairs PITX2 expression leading to Wnt-microRNA-ion channel remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Lozano-Velasco

    Full Text Available PITX2 is a homeobox transcription factor involved in embryonic left/right signaling and more recently has been associated to cardiac arrhythmias. Genome wide association studies have pinpointed PITX2 as a major player underlying atrial fibrillation (AF. We have previously described that PITX2 expression is impaired in AF patients. Furthermore, distinct studies demonstrate that Pitx2 insufficiency leads to complex gene regulatory network remodeling, i.e. Wnt>microRNAs, leading to ion channel impairment and thus to arrhythmogenic events in mice. Whereas large body of evidences has been provided in recent years on PITX2 downstream signaling pathways, scarce information is available on upstream pathways influencing PITX2 in the context of AF. Multiple risk factors are associated to the onset of AF, such as e.g. hypertension (HTN, hyperthyroidism (HTD and redox homeostasis impairment. In this study we have analyzed whether HTN, HTD and/or redox homeostasis impact on PITX2 and its downstream signaling pathways. Using rat models for spontaneous HTN (SHR and experimentally-induced HTD we have observed that both cardiovascular risk factors lead to severe Pitx2 downregulation. Interesting HTD, but not SHR, leads to up-regulation of Wnt signaling as well as deregulation of multiple microRNAs and ion channels as previously described in Pitx2 insufficiency models. In addition, redox signaling is impaired in HTD but not SHR, in line with similar findings in atrial-specific Pitx2 deficient mice. In vitro cell culture analyses using gain- and loss-of-function strategies demonstrate that Pitx2, Zfhx3 and Wnt signaling influence redox homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. Thus, redox homeostasis seems to play a pivotal role in this setting, providing a regulatory feedback loop. Overall these data demonstrate that HTD, but not HTN, can impair Pitx2>>Wnt pathway providing thus a molecular link to AF.

  10. [Breakthrough cancer pain in the elderly]. (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Viloria-Jiménez, María Aurora; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan; Álamo-González, Cecilio; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro

    Breakthrough pain is defined as an acute exacerbation of pain with rapid onset, short duration and moderate or high intensity, which occurs spontaneously or in connection with a predictable or unpredictable event despite there being stabilised and controlled baseline pain. However, there are doubts about the definition, terminology, epidemiology, and assessment of breakthrough pain, with no clear answers or consensus, especially in the elderly population. This non-systematic review summarises the most important aspects of breakthrough pain in the elderly, based on the limited publications there are in that population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Classification of lead white pigments using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welcomme, E.; Walter, P.; Menu, M.; Bleuet, P.; Hodeau, J.L.; Dooryhee, E.; Martinetto, P.


    Lead white pigment was used and synthesised for cosmetic and artistic purposes since the antiquity. Ancient texts describe the various recipes, and preparation processes as well as locations of production. In this study, we describe the results achieved on several paint samples taken from Matthias Gruenewald's works. Gruenewald, who was active between 1503 and 1524, was a major painter at the beginning of the German Renaissance. Thanks to X-ray diffraction analysis using synchrotron radiation, it is possible to associate the composition of the paint samples with the masters ancient recipes. Different approaches were used, in reflection and transmission modes, directly on minute samples or on paint cross-sections embedded in resin. Characterisation of lead white pigments reveals variations in terms of composition, graininess and proportion of mineral phases. The present work enlightens the presence of lead white as differentiable main composition groups, which could be specific of a period, a know-how or a geographical origin. In this way, we aim at understanding the choices and the trading of pigments used to realise paintings during northern European Renaissance. (orig.)

  12. Classification of lead white pigments using synchrotron radiation micro X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welcomme, E.; Walter, P.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France - CNRS UMR 171, Paris (France); Bleuet, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Hodeau, J.L.; Dooryhee, E.; Martinetto, P. [Institut Neel CNRS-UPR 503-1, 25, Av. des Martyrs, BP 166, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    Lead white pigment was used and synthesised for cosmetic and artistic purposes since the antiquity. Ancient texts describe the various recipes, and preparation processes as well as locations of production. In this study, we describe the results achieved on several paint samples taken from Matthias Gruenewald's works. Gruenewald, who was active between 1503 and 1524, was a major painter at the beginning of the German Renaissance. Thanks to X-ray diffraction analysis using synchrotron radiation, it is possible to associate the composition of the paint samples with the masters ancient recipes. Different approaches were used, in reflection and transmission modes, directly on minute samples or on paint cross-sections embedded in resin. Characterisation of lead white pigments reveals variations in terms of composition, graininess and proportion of mineral phases. The present work enlightens the presence of lead white as differentiable main composition groups, which could be specific of a period, a know-how or a geographical origin. In this way, we aim at understanding the choices and the trading of pigments used to realise paintings during northern European Renaissance. (orig.)

  13. Innovation Impact: Breakthrough Research Results (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Innovation Impact brochure captures key breakthrough results across NREL's primary areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency research: solar, wind, bioenergy, transportation, buildings, analysis, and manufacturing technologies.

  14. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery (United States)

    Lerner, Louise


    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  15. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis (United States)

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  16. Lead-acid batteries for micro- and mild-hybrid applications (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Sanz, L.

    Car manufactures have announced the launch in coming months of vehicles with reduced emissions due to the introduction of new functions like stop-start and regenerative braking. Initial performance request of automotive lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more demanding and, in addition to this, cycle life with new accelerated ageing profiles are being proposed in order to determine the influence of the new functions on the expected battery life. This paper will show how different lead-acid battery technologies comply with these new demands, from an improved version of the conventional flooded SLI battery to the high performance of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Different approaches have been studied for improving conventional flooded batteries, i.e., either by the addition of new additives for reducing electrolyte stratification or by optimisation of the battery design to extend cycling life in partial state of charge conditions. With respect to VRLA technology, two different battery designs have been compared. Spiral wound design combines excellent power capability and cycle life under different depth of discharge (DoD) cycling conditions, but flat plate design outperform the latter in energy density due to better utilization of the space available in a prismatic enclosure. This latter design is more adequate for high end class vehicles with high electrical energy demand, whereas spiral wound is better suited for high power/long life demand of commercial vehicle. High temperature behaviour (75 °C) is rather poor for both designs due to water loss, and then VRLA batteries should preferably be located out of the engine compartment.

  17. The micro turbine: the MIT example; La micro turbine: l'exemple du MIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribaud, Y. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA-DEFA), 92 - Chatillon (France)


    The micro turbine study began a few years ago at the MIT, with the participation of specialists from different fields. The purpose is the development of a MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) based, 1 cm in diameter, micro gas turbine. Potential applications are devoted to micro drone propulsion, electric power generation for portable power sources in order to replace heavy Lithium batteries, satellite motorization, the surface distributed power for boundary suction on plane wings. The manufacturing constraints at such small scales lead to 2-D extruded shapes. The physical constraints stem from viscous effects and from limitations given by 2-D geometry. The time scales are generally shorter than for conventional machines. Otherwise the material properties are better at such length scales. Transposition from conventional turbomachinery laws is no more applicable and new design methods must be established. The present paper highlights the project progress and the technology breakthroughs. (author)

  18. Research Leads to Rights Breakthrough for Arab Women | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 10, 2010 ... We produced a 15-minute documentary about some of the cases, and it left ... It also reached the final round of the 2008 Aljazeera International Documentary Film Festival, held .... Changing the Currents of Water Management.

  19. Liquid water breakthrough location distances on a gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner


    The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.

  20. CFD Modelling of a Pump as Turbine (PAT with Rounded Leading Edge Impellers for Micro Hydro Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mohd Azlan


    Full Text Available A Pump as Turbine (PAT is one of micro hydro system components that is used to substitute a commercially available turbine due to its wide availability and low acquisition cost. However, PAT have high hydraulic losses due to differences in pump-turbine operation and hydraulic design. The fluid flowing inside the PAT is subjected to hydraulic losses due to the longer flow passage and unmatched fluid flow within the wall boundaries. This paper presents the effect of rounding the impeller leading edges of the pump on turbine performance. A CFD model of a PAT was designed to simulate virtual performance for the analysis. The aim of this study is to observe the internal hydraulic performance resulting from the changes in the performance characteristics. Highest efficiency was recorded at 17.0 l/s, an increase of 0.18%. The simulation results reveal that there is an improvement in hydraulic performance at overflow operation. The velocity vector visualization shows that there is a reduction in wake and consequently less flow separation along impeller flow passages. However, adjusting the sensitive impeller inlet geometry will also alter the velocity inlet vector and consequently change the velocity triangles for the turbo machinery system.

  1. The micro-droplet behavior of a molten lead-free solder in an inkjet printing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M H; Chou, H H; Hwang, W S


    An experimental investigation on the droplet formation of molten Sn3.0 wt%Ag0.5 wt%Cu alloy by an inkjet printing process was conducted. The printing process used a piezoelectric print head with a nozzle orifice diameter of 50 µm. Micro-droplets of a molten lead-free solder were ejected at 230 °C. The print head was driven by a bipolar pulse 40 V in amplitude. The major variables for this study were two pulse times; t rise /t finalrise and t fall , as well as N 2 back-pressure in the molten solder reservoir. Under various printing conditions, extrusion of the liquid column, contraction of liquid thread and pinch-off of liquid thread at nozzle exit were observed by monitoring the dynamics of the molten solder droplet ejection process. The droplet formation was found to be insensitive to t rise and t finalrise in the range of 250–1000 µs. The behavior of droplet formation was, however, significantly affected by the transfer rate, t fall , in the range of 30–60 µs and t fall of 50 µs yielded the most desirable condition of single droplet formation. The N 2 back-pressure was also found to be critical, where a back pressure between 10 and 21 kPa could give the desirable single-droplet formation condition

  2. Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (United States)

    IGI Global, 2017


    The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…

  3. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico

    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  4. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico


    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  5. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life (United States)

    Croft, Steve; Siemion, Andrew; De Boer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Daniel; Werthimer, Dan


    The $100M, 10-year philanthropic "Breakthrough Listen" project is driving an unprecedented expansion of the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. Modern instruments allow ever larger regions of parameter space (luminosity function, duty cycle, beaming fraction, frequency coverage) to be explored, which is enabling us to place meaningful physical limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations. Data volumes are huge, and preclude long-term storage of the raw data products, so real-time and machine learning processing techniques must be employed to identify candidate signals as well as simultaneously classifying interfering sources. However, the Galaxy is now known to be a target-rich environment, teeming with habitable planets.Data from Breakthrough Listen can also be used by researchers in other areas of astronomy to study pulsars, fast radio bursts, and a range of other science targets. Breakthrough Listen is already underway in the optical and radio bands, and is also engaging with facilities across the world, including Square Kilometer Array precursors and pathfinders. I will give an overview of the technology, science goals, data products, and roadmap of Breakthrough Listen, as we attempt to answer one of humanity's oldest questions: Are we alone?

  6. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment (United States)

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou


    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  7. Generating breakthrough new product ideas feeding the innovation funnel

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Robert


    Senior executives are experiencing a shortage of game-changing ideas that drive growth. This book explains how to feed the innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas, providing numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter & Gamble. Learn more about the impact you can make by leveraging an innovation strategy, voice-of-customer research, external ideas via open innovation, employees? creative talent and fundamental research. Establish a proactive Discovery Stage that focuses on the drivers of innovation performance to transform your organization into an innovation machine.

  8. A Breakthrough for Strengthening Tusi Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangpin; Peng Furong


    Following the inscription of China’s Tusi ( native officials ) relics onto the list of world cultural heritage in 2015 , Tusi studies has already become a current topic. However, if we ignored the numerous and complicated historical events, the tremendous amount of historical materials and cases with different characteristics, it is difficult to realize a theoretical breakthrough and academic in-novation. Hence, if the academic world intends to find a new breakthrough in Tusi studies, enough attention should be given to the analysis of past e-vents, digging out historical materials, and case studies—only by which can Tusi studies be strengthened. 1 . Analysis of past events Scholarly research of the Tusi in the past has paid more attention to the system, culture ,and ap-plication of Tusi relics for inscription onto the list of world cultural heritage, but has ignored analysis of significant events. Due to the influence of the political right, economic benefit, and cultural in-filtration, there had always been competition be-tween the central government and the Tusi regime during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. When some conflicts could not be resolved through nego-tiation, large-scale events or battles were the re-sult. Judging from current studies on every small or large battle between the central government and a Tusi regime, we can see that scholars always focus their studies on the background, process, result, historical influence and related evaluations. Up to now, no scholars have written a monograph of these big events closely related to the Tusi, which is doubtlessly a pity when it comes to Tusi studies. We think that three issues should be noticed while analyzing big events related to the Tusi:1 ) taking the overall situation into consideration; 2 ) having theoretical sight; and 3 ) having a theoretical awareness. 2 . Uncovering historical materials The historical materials are especially impor-tant for the study of the Tusi system or Tusi issues

  9. The management of breakthrough cancer pain--educational needs a European nursing survey. (United States)

    Wengström, Y; Rundström, C; Geerling, J; Pappa, T; Weisse, I; Williams, S C; Zavratnik, B; Rustøen, T


    Poorly managed cancer pain is well known to profoundly impact the patient's daily life and interfere with quality of life. Nurses who cared for patients with cancer from 12 European countries participated in a survey of breakthrough cancer pain practice. The purpose was to investigate how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain, use of standardised tools, confidence in supporting patients and awareness of medications. Responses from 1241 participants showed country variations. The majority of the sample was female, Germany had the highest proportion of male nurses (21.0%), followed by Greece (15.8%). A significantly larger proportion of nurses with longer experience and more education (78.8%) used a comprehensive definition of breakthrough cancer pain. Significant variations in training were found; 71% of Finnish nurses had received training compared with 6% of Greek nurses. Training and using a standardised assessment tool was associated with a significant increase in the nurses' perceived ability to distinguish between breakthrough and background pain. Nurses in countries with the highest proportion of training were most confident in supporting patients. In conclusion, there still exists problems with effective management of patients' breakthrough cancer pain, continuing inability to define the difference between background and breakthrough cancer pain leads to poor treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Impacts of microRNA gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of environmental factors leading to carcinogenesis in oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hung Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been regarded as a critical factor in targeting oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in tumorigenesis. The genetic predisposition of miRNAs-signaling pathways related to the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC remains unresolved. This study examined the associations of polymorphisms with four miRNAs with the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 895 male subjects, including 425 controls and 470 male oral cancer patients, were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR were used to analyze miRNA146a, miRNA196, miRNA499 and miRNA149 genetic polymorphisms between the control group and the case group. This study determined that a significant association of miRNA499 with CC genotype, as compared to the subjects with TT genotype, had a higher risk (AOR = 4.52, 95% CI = 1.24-16.48 of OSCC. Moreover, an impact of those four miRNAs gene polymorphism on the susceptibility of betel nut and tobacco consumption leading to oral cancer was also revealed. We found a protective effect between clinical stage development (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.94 and the tumor size growth (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28-0.79 in younger patients (age<60. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic polymorphism of miRNA499 is associated with oral carcinogenesis, and the interaction of the miRNAs genetic polymorphism and environmental carcinogens is also related to an increased risk of oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  11. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project: Project Management Methods (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.


    To leap past the limitations of existing propulsion, the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) Project seeks further advancements in physics from which new propulsion methods can eventually be derived. Three visionary breakthroughs are sought: (1) propulsion that requires no propellant, (2) propulsion that circumvents existing speed limits, and (3) breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify credible research that will make measurable progress toward these goals in the near-term. The management techniques to address this challenge are presented, with a special emphasis on the process used to review, prioritize, and select research tasks. This selection process includes these key features: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than the implications of the assertions, which includes the practice where the reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility, and (c) total scores are obtained by multiplying the criteria scores rather than by adding. Lessons learned and revisions planned are discussed.

  12. Foreknowledge of breakthroughs science and technology foresight, and the early identification of areas of breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, P.


    The progress of science and technology has been so rapid in the last few decades that it receives especial attention in forecasting and foresight exercises. But, because they are too greatly in thrall to the dominant paradigms and hence favour a linear perspective, the experts who deal with these questions pay more attention to the future of technologies than to scientific advances and revolutions. The bulk of their work consists, then, in anticipating, by various different methods (Delphi surveys, Road-maps, etc.), at what date a particular technology might be available (without, however, always correctly gauging the conditions for its social appropriation or the applications to which it might be put). In this article, Pierre Papon expounds a much more original and promising approach for attempting to anticipate the discoveries that are likely radically to transform the fields of scientific knowledge by investigating the phenomena that may potentially lead to fundamental revolutions. After reminding us of the premonitory thinking of a number of authors - in the fields, for example, of genetics and computer science -, he endeavors to describe some of the dominant paradigms, particularly in quantum physics and molecular biology. In this way, he shows the advances they have made possible, and also their limitations, and explores what new scientific leaps forward might occur, bringing radically new technological breakthroughs between now and 2050. Papon reminds us, at the same time that, 'as science is not something isolated within society'; it has a duty to contribute to meeting the great challenges that face us - of work, health, nutrition and sustainable development, particularly where energy and climate are concerned. He therefore examines the ways in which future scientific and technological advances might provide solutions and how important it might be to 'translate the questions society poses into scientific questions'. He thus argues implicitly for strategic

  13. Breakthrough at NIF 'unlikely' in 2010 (United States)

    Harris, Margaret


    Hopes of reaching a milestone in fusion research by the end of 2010 have dimmed following a US government report that plays down the chances of an early breakthrough and sharply criticizes management of the 4bn National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the report, officials from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) state that ignition - fusion's "break-even" point - is "unlikely" to occur at the laser-fusion lab this year and that "significant scientific and technical challenges" could delay or even prevent the facility from achieving ignition by 2012.

  14. Perturbed microRNA Expression by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Promotes Macrophage Polarization Leading to Pro-survival Foam Cell. (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Pankaj Kumar; Pandey, Rajan Kumar; Sehajpal, Prabodh Kumar; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar


    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the prevalent causes of death worldwide, with 95% of these deaths occurring in developing countries, like India. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) has the tenacious ability to circumvent the host's immune system for its own advantage. Macrophages are one of the phagocytic cells that are central to immunity against MTb. These are highly plastic cells dependent on the milieu and can showcase M1/M2 polarization. M1 macrophages are bactericidal in action, but M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory in their immune response. This computational study is an effort to elucidate the role of miRNAs that influences the survival of MTb in the macrophage. To identify the miRNAs against critical transcription factors, we selected only conserved hits from TargetScan database. Further, validation of these miRNAs was achieved using four databases viz . DIANA-microT, miRDB, miRanda-mirSVR, and miRNAMap. All miRNAs were identified through a conserved seed sequence against the 3'-UTR of transcription factors. This bioinformatics study found that miR-27a and miR-27b has a putative binding site at 3'-UTR of IRF4, and miR-302c against IRF5. miR-155, miR-132, and miR-455-5p are predicted microRNAs against suppressor of cytokine signaling transcription factors. Several other microRNAs, which have an affinity for critical transcription factors, are also predicted in this study. This MTb-associated modulation of microRNAs to modify the expression of the target gene(s) plays a critical role in TB pathogenesis. Other than M1/M2 plasticity, MTb has the ability to convert macrophage into foam cells that are rich in lipids and cholesterol. We have highlighted few microRNAs which overlap between M2/foam cell continuums. miR-155, miR-33, miR-27a, and miR-27b plays a dual role in deciding macrophage polarity and its conversion to foam cells. This study shows a glimpse of microRNAs which can be modulated by MTb not only to prevent its elimination but also

  15. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves. (United States)

    Li, Guangquan


    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  16. 50 Breakthroughs by America's National Labs (United States)


    America's National Laboratory system has been changing and improving the lives of millions for more than 80 years. Born at a time of great societal need, this network of Department of Energy Laboratories has now grown into 17 facilities, working together as engines of prosperity and invention. As this list of 50 Breakthroughs attests, National Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination, and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe. Rooted in the need to be the best and bring the best, America's National Laboratories have put an American stamp on the past century of science. With equal ingenuity and tenacity, they are now engaged in winning the future.

  17. Breakthroughs in neuroactive steroid drug discovery. (United States)

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; La, Daniel; Coughlin, Quinn; Newman, Caitlin A; Griffin, Andrew M; Harrison, Boyd L; Salituro, Francesco G


    Endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids (NASs) or neurosteroids are effective modulators of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) and glutamate, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). These receptors are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), and there is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in numerous neurological disorders. The significant unmet medical need for treatment of CNS disorders has increased the interest for these types of compounds. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the clinical development of NAS drug candidates, in addition to preclinical breakthroughs in the identification of novel NASs, mainly for GABA A and NMDA receptor modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Silencing of microRNA-155 in mice during acute inflammatory response leads to derepression of c/ebp Beta and down-regulation of G-CSF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Petri, Andreas


    microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been implicated as a central regulator of the immune system, but its function during acute inflammatory responses is still poorly understood. Here we show that exposure of cultured macrophages and mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to up-regulation of miR-155......-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a central regulator of granulopoiesis during inflammatory responses. Consistent with these data, we show that silencing of miR-155 in LPS-treated mice by systemically administered LNA-antimiR results in derepression of the c/ebp Beta isoforms and down-regulation of G-CSF expression...

  19. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)


    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  20. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  1. Measurement of erosion of stainless steel by molten lead-free solder using micro-focus x-ray CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tadashi; Kang, Songai


    The severe erosion damage, which is caused by a molten lead-free solder, of wave solder equipment made into stainless steel has been encountered in operation. Then, the higher maintenance frequency and reduced life time of wave solder machine component is a serious issue in a manufacturing process. In this study, the evaluation method of erosion of stainless steel by molten lead-free solders was investigated using micro-focus X-ray systems for fluoroscopic and computed tomography (CT). As a result, it was found that the fluoroscopic image could truly reconstruct the cross-shape of the stainless steel sample after immersion test without destruction. In the case of X-ray systems for fluoroscopic and CT used in this study, three-dimensional data can be obtained. Therefore, it was possible to easily check the whole picture of the test sample after immersion test and to decide the maximum erosion depth of test sample. (author)

  2. Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass | (United States)

    News | NREL Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass May 22, 2018 Roman Brunecky (left), Yannick Bomble soften biomass. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL If there's an easier, more efficient method, science will

  3. The latest Light Robotics breakthroughs - Postdeadline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew

    Contemporary nanoscopy provides functionalities, not only for observing life science on the smallest scales but also for actively reaching into and manipulating at subcellular levels. This post-deadline contribution describes the latest generation of 3D-printed micro-tools for enabling light-acti......-activated robotics on sub-diffraction scales: Light Robotics....

  4. Behavior of Sn-0.7Cu-xZn lead free solder on physical properties and micro structure (United States)

    Siahaan, Erwin


    The issues to substitute Tin-Lead Solders is concerning the health and environmental hazards that is caused by lead, and also legislative actions around the world regarding lead toxicity, which has prompted the research community to attempt to replace solder alloys for the traditional Sn-Pb alloys lead which has been used by industrial worker throughout history because it is easily extracted and refined at a relatively low energy cost and also has a range of useful properties. Traditional industry lead has been used in soldering materials for electronic applications because it has low melting point and a soft, malleable nature, when combined with tin at the eutectic composition which causes the alloy to flow easily in the liquid state and solidifies over a very small range of temperature. One of the potential candidate to replace tin-lead solder is Sn-Cu-Zn eutectic alloy as it has a lower melting temperature. Consequently, it is of interest to determine what reactions can occur in ternary systems derived from the Sn-Cu-Zn eutectic. One such system is Sn-0.7Cu-xZn. The specimen was elaborated on physical properties. The chemical content was analyzed by using Shimadzu XRD and melting point was analyzed by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter ( DSC ). The results has shown that the highest addition of Zinc content (15%Zn) will decrease the melting temperatur to 189°C compared to Sn-Pb at 183°C Increasing the amount of Zn on Sn0.7Cu-xZn alloys will decrease Cu3Sn intermetallic coumpound.

  5. Breakthrough Listen - A New Search for Life in the Universe (United States)

    Worden, Pete

    On July 20, 2015 Yuri Milner and Stephen Hawking announced a new set of scientific initiatives - a SETI search called Breakthrough Listen and a contest to devise potential messages in response to a detection entitled Breakthrough Message. These are the first of several privately-funded Breakthrough Initiatives, designed to answer the fundamental science questions surrounding the origin, extent and nature of life in the universe. The initiatives are managed by the Breakthrough Prize Foundation. With Breakthrough Listen, Radio SETI observations have begun at the Green Bank Radio Telescope (GBT) and optical SETI at the Lick Observatory Automated Planet Finder (APF). Observations will soon commence at the CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope. Other SETI instruments and observations are under consideration. In addition, several other initiatives are under development including an expanded search for life in the universe.

  6. Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.


    The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.

  7. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole


    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane t......We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current......-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance...

  8. Building breakthrough businesses within established organizations. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris


    Many companies assume that once they've launched a major innovation, growth will soon follow. It's not that simple. High-potential new businesses within established companies face stiff headwinds well after their inception. That's why a company's emphasis must shift: from ideas to execution and from leadership excellence to organizational excellence. The authors spent five years chronicling new businesses at the New York Times Company, Analog Devices, Corning, Hasbro, and other organizations. They found that a breakthrough new business (referred to as NewCo) rarely coexists gracefully with the established business in the company (called CoreCo). The unnatural combination creates three specific challenges--forgetting, borrowing, and learning--that NewCo must meet in order to survive and grow. NewCo must first forget some of what made CoreCo successful. NewCo and CoreCo have elemental differences, so NewCo must leave behind CoreCo's notions about what skills and competencies are most valuable. NewCo must also borrow some of CoreCo's assets--usually in one or two key areas that will give NewCo a crucial competitive advantage. Incremental cost reductions, for example, are never a sufficient justification for borrowing. Finally, NewCo must be prepared to learn some things from scratch. Because strategic experiments are highly uncertain endeavors, NewCo will face several critical unknowns. The more rapidly it can resolve those unknowns--that is, the faster it can learn--the sooner it will zero in on a winning business model or exit a hopeless situation. Managers can accelerate this learning by planning more simply and more often and by comparing predicted and actual trends.

  9. The United States: breakthroughs and waste. (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E


    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  10. Fabrication, characterization and gamma rays shielding properties of nano and micro lead oxide-dispersed-high density polyethylene composites (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Badawi, Mohamed S.; Rashad, Amal R.; El-Sharkawy, Rehab M.; Thabet, Abouzeid A.


    Polymer composites of high-density polyethylene (HD-PE) filled with powdered lead oxide nanoparticles (PbO NPs) and bulk lead oxide (PbO Blk) were prepared with filler weight fraction [10% and 50%]. These polymer composites were investigated for radiation-shielding of gamma-rays emitted from radioactive point sources [241Am, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 60Co]. The polymer was found to decrease the heaviness of the shielding material and increase the flexibility while the metal oxide fillers acted as principle radiation attenuators in the polymer composite. The prepared composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET) and field emission transmission electron microscope (FE-TEM). The morphological analysis of the assembled composites showed that, PbO NPs and PbO Blk materials exhibited homogenous dispersion in the polymer-matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the thermal-stability of HD-PE was enhanced in the presence of both PbO Blk and PbO NPs. The results declared that, the density of polymer composites was increase with the percentage of filler contents. The highest density value was identified as 1.652 g cm-3 for 50 wt% of PbO NPs. Linear attenuation coefficients (μ) have been estimated from the use of XCOM code and measured results. Reasonable agreement was attended between theoretical and experimental results. These composites were also found to display excellent percentage of heaviness with respect to other conventional materials.

  11. Recent breakthroughs on C-2U: Norman’s legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Andow, R.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States); and others


    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRC) face notable stability and confinement concerns, which can be ameliorated by introducing and maintaining a significant fast ion population in the system. This is the conjecture first introduced by Norman Rostoker multiple decades ago and adopted as the central design tenet in Tri Alpha Energy’s advanced beam driven FRC concept. In fact, studying the physics of such neutral beam (NB) driven FRCs over the past decade, considerable improvements were made in confinement and stability. Next to NB injection, the addition of axially streaming plasma guns, magnetic end plugs, as well as advanced surface conditioning lead to dramatic reductions in turbulence driven losses and greatly improved stability. In turn, fast ion confinement improved significantly and allowed for the build-up of a dominant fast particle population. This recently led to the breakthrough of sustaining an advanced beam driven FRC, thereby demonstrating successful maintenance of trapped magnetic flux, plasma dimensions and total pressure inventory for times much longer than all characteristic system time scales and only limited by hardware and electric supply constraints.

  12. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower. (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar


    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of micro alloying on the microstructure evolution of Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder (United States)

    Werden, Jesse

    The microelectronics industry is required to obtain alternative Pb-free soldering materials due to legal, environmental, and technological factors. As a joining material, solder provides an electrical and mechanical support in electronic assemblies and therefore, the properties of the solder are crucial to the durability and reliability of the solder joint and the function of the electronic device. One major concern with new Pb-free alternatives is that the microstructure is prone to microstructural coarsening over time which leads to inconsistent properties over the device's lifetime. Power aging the solder is a common method of stabilizing the microstructure for Pb-based alloys, however, it is unclear if this will be an appropriate solution to the microstructural coarsening of Pb-free solders. The goal of this work is to develop a better understanding of the coarsening process in new solder alloys and to suggest methods of stabilizing the solder microstructure. Microalloying is one potential solution to the microstructural coarsening problem. This experiment consists of a microstructural coarsening study of SAC305 in which each sample has been alloyed with one of three different solutes, directionally solidified at 100microm/s, and then aged at three different temperatures over a total period of 20 days. There are several important conclusions from this experiment. First, the coarsening kinetics of the intermetallics in the ternary eutectic follow the Ostwald ripening model where r3 in proprotional to t for each alloying constituent. Second, the activation energy for coarsening was found to be 68.1+/-10.3 kJ/mol for the SAC305 samples, Zn had the most significant increase in the activation energy increasing it to 88.8+/-34.9 kJ/mol for the SAC+Zn samples, Mn also increased the activation energy to 83.2+/-20.8 kJ/mol for the SAC+Mn samples, and Sb decreased the activation energy to 48.0+/-3.59 kJ/mol for the SAC+Sb samples. Finally, it was found that the

  14. Breakthrough revisited: investigating the requirements for growth of dust beyond the bouncing barrier (United States)

    Booth, Richard A.; Meru, Farzana; Lee, Man Hoi; Clarke, Cathie J.


    For grain growth to proceed effectively and lead to planet formation, a number of barriers to growth must be overcome. One such barrier, relevant for compact grains in the inner regions of the disc, is the `bouncing barrier' in which large grains (˜mm size) tend to bounce off each other rather than sticking. However, by maintaining a population of small grains, it has been suggested that cm-size particles may grow rapidly by sweeping up these small grains. We present the first numerically resolved investigation into the conditions under which grains may be lucky enough to grow beyond the bouncing barrier by a series of rare collisions leading to growth (so-called `breakthrough'). Our models support previous results, and show that in simple models breakthrough requires the mass ratio at which high-velocity collisions transition to growth instead of causing fragmentation to be low, ϕ ≲ 50. However, in models that take into account the dependence of the fragmentation threshold on mass ratio, we find that breakthrough occurs more readily, even if mass transfer is relatively inefficient. This suggests that bouncing may only slow down growth, rather than preventing growth beyond a threshold barrier. However, even when growth beyond the bouncing barrier is possible, radial drift will usually prevent growth to arbitrarily large sizes.

  15. In situ emulsification microextraction using a dicationic ionic liquid followed by magnetic assisted physisorption for determination of lead prior to micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Masood; Beiraghi, Asadollah; Seidi, Shahram


    For the first time, a simple and efficient in situ emulsification microextraction method using a dicationic ionic liquid followed by magnetic assisted physisorption was presented to determine trace amounts of lead. In this method, 400 μL of 1.0 mol L −1 lithium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide aqueous solution, Li[NTf 2 ], was added into the sample solution containing 100 μL of 1.0 mol L −1 1,3-(propyl-1,3-diyl) bis (3-methylimidazolium) chloride, [pbmim]Cl 2 , to form a water immiscible ionic liquid, [pbmim][NTf 2 ] 2 . This new in situ formed dicationic ionic liquid was applied as the acceptor phase to extract the lead-ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (Pb-APDC) complexes from the sample solution. Subsequently, 30 mg of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were added into the sample solution to collect the fine droplets of [pbmim][NTf 2 ] 2 , physisorptively. Finally, MNPs were eluted by acetonitrile, separated by an external magnetic field and the obtained eluent was subjected to micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for further analysis. Comparing with other microextraction methods, no special devices and centrifugation step are required. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, pH, concentration of chelating agent, amount of MNPs and coexisting interferences were studied. Under the optimized conditions, this method showed high extraction recovery of 93% with low LOD of 0.7 μg L −1 . Good linearity was obtained in the range of 2.5–150 μg L −1 with determination coefficient (r 2 ) of 0.9921. Relative standard deviation (RSD%) for seven repeated measurements at the concentration of 10 μg L −1 was 4.1%. Finally, this method was successfully applied for determination of lead in some water and plant samples. - Highlights: • A dicationic ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent, for the first time. • A simple and efficient in situ emulsification microextraction

  16. Aldosterone breakthrough during aliskiren, valsartan, and combination (aliskiren + valsartan) therapy. (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Rekhtman, Yelena; Klemmer, Philip J; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B


    Aldosterone levels increase in 30%-40% of patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers over the long term. This "aldosterone breakthrough" may carry important clinical consequences given aldosterone's nonepithelial, pro-fibrotic actions. The renin inhibitor, aliskiren, by suppressing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) proximally, may limit breakthrough compared to conventional RAAS blockade. This open-label study (NCT01129557) randomized subjects to aliskiren 300 mg daily (A), valsartan 320 mg daily (V), or aliskiren 150 mg + valsartan 160 mg daily (A+V) for 9 months. Eligible subjects had proteinuria >300 mg/day, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and systolic blood pressure (BP) >130 or diastolic BP >80 mm Hg. Serum and 24-hour urine aldosterone (indexed to 24-hour urine Na) were checked before initiation of therapy and at 3, 6, and 9 months. Aldosterone breakthrough was defined as a sustained increase from baseline aldosterone by study end. The study was intended to enroll 120 subjects but was terminated early by the sponsor. We present here the results of 33 subjects who completed the protocol, of which 12 were randomized to A, 11 were randomized to V, and 10 were randomized to A+V. Mean baseline eGFR was 75.5 (±23.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2); baseline proteinuria was 3104 (±2943) mg/day; and baseline BP was 134.7 (±10.5)/84.8 (±8.4) mm Hg. Three (27%) subjects on V, three (25%) subjects on A, and three (30%) subjects on A+V had aldosterone breakthrough. Mean proteinuria reduction was 31% from baseline in all subjects: 30% in subjects with breakthrough vs. 32% in subjects without breakthrough. Mean BP reduction was 11.0/8.8 mm Hg in all subjects: 8.4/6.1 mm Hg in subjects with breakthrough vs. 12.0/9.8 mm Hg in subjects without breakthrough. Aliskiren, alone or in combination with valsartan, did not reduce the incidence of aldosterone breakthrough in subjects with hypertension

  17. Peak and Tail Scaling of Breakthrough Curves in Hydrologic Tracer Tests (United States)

    Aquino, T.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Bolster, D.


    Power law tails, a marked signature of anomalous transport, have been observed in solute breakthrough curves time and time again in a variety of hydrologic settings, including in streams. However, due to the low concentrations at which they occur they are notoriously difficult to measure with confidence. This leads us to ask if there are other associated signatures of anomalous transport that can be sought. We develop a general stochastic transport framework and derive an asymptotic relation between the tail scaling of a breakthrough curve for a conservative tracer at a fixed downstream position and the scaling of the peak concentration of breakthrough curves as a function of downstream position, demonstrating that they provide equivalent information. We then quantify the relevant spatiotemporal scales for the emergence of this asymptotic regime, where the relationship holds, in the context of a very simple model that represents transport in an idealized river. We validate our results using random walk simulations. The potential experimental benefits and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  18. High-pressure gas-breakthrough apparatus and a procedure for determining the gas-breakthrough pressure of compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.B.


    Gas may be produced in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Given that the vault will be sealed with clay-based materials, the fate of the gas is uncertain. Therefore, an instrument was previously built to measure the pressure required to pass gas through compacted clay materials (a gas-breakthrough apparatus). However, the 10 MPa pressure limit of the apparatus was insufficient to test compacted buffer material at the density proposed in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Therefore, a high-pressure (50 Wa) gas-breakthrough apparatus was designed, constructed and installed. This report describes the components of the apparatus and the materials and procedures that are used for the gas-breakthrough tests. (author)

  19. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty


    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This

  20. Direct Breakthrough Curve Prediction From Statistics of Heterogeneous Conductivity Fields (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Haslauer, Claus P.; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.


    This paper presents a methodology to predict the shape of solute breakthrough curves in heterogeneous aquifers at early times and/or under high degrees of heterogeneity, both cases in which the classical macrodispersion theory may not be applicable. The methodology relies on the observation that breakthrough curves in heterogeneous media are generally well described by lognormal distributions, and mean breakthrough times can be predicted analytically. The log-variance of solute arrival is thus sufficient to completely specify the breakthrough curves, and this is calibrated as a function of aquifer heterogeneity and dimensionless distance from a source plane by means of Monte Carlo analysis and statistical regression. Using the ensemble of simulated groundwater flow and solute transport realizations employed to calibrate the predictive regression, reliability estimates for the prediction are also developed. Additional theoretical contributions include heuristics for the time until an effective macrodispersion coefficient becomes applicable, and also an expression for its magnitude that applies in highly heterogeneous systems. It is seen that the results here represent a way to derive continuous time random walk transition distributions from physical considerations rather than from empirical field calibration.

  1. Husserl's Illumination of the Breakthrough of Logical Investigations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the example Husserl offers of the room where the lights go off in order to illuminate the breakthrough for ... correspondence theory of truth, and his main concern seems to be to ..... The advantage of Husserl's example is that it tries to situate the ...

  2. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.

  3. A European survey of oncology nurse breakthrough cancer pain practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Kongsgaard, Ulf E.; Wengstrom, Yvonne

    Purpose of the research: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a prevalent type of pain in which the nurse can play an important role in improving patients' pain symptoms and overall well-being. Nurses' experience with BTCP (number of patients, and estimates of severity and frequency), the treatment of

  4. Modeling dust growth in protoplanetary disks: The breakthrough case (United States)

    Drążkowska, J.; Windmark, F.; Dullemond, C. P.


    Context. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks is one of the initial steps toward planet formation. Simple toy models are often not sufficient to cover the complexity of the coagulation process, and a number of numerical approaches are therefore used, among which integration of the Smoluchowski equation and various versions of the Monte Carlo algorithm are the most popular. Aims: Recent progress in understanding the processes involved in dust coagulation have caused a need for benchmarking and comparison of various physical aspects of the coagulation process. In this paper, we directly compare the Smoluchowski and Monte Carlo approaches to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We focus on the mechanism of planetesimal formation via sweep-up growth, which is a new and important aspect of the current planet formation theory. We use realistic test cases that implement a distribution in dust collision velocities. This allows a single collision between two grains to have a wide range of possible outcomes but also requires a very high numerical accuracy. Results: For most coagulation problems, we find a general agreement between the two approaches. However, for the sweep-up growth driven by the "lucky" breakthrough mechanism, the methods exhibit very different resolution dependencies. With too few mass bins, the Smoluchowski algorithm tends to overestimate the growth rate and the probability of breakthrough. The Monte Carlo method is less dependent on the number of particles in the growth timescale aspect but tends to underestimate the breakthrough chance due to its limited dynamic mass range. Conclusions: We find that the Smoluchowski approach, which is generally better for the breakthrough studies, is sensitive to low mass resolutions in the high-mass, low-number tail that is important in this scenario. To study the low number density features, a new modulation function has to be introduced to the interaction probabilities. As the minimum resolution

  5. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than

  6. Local membrane deformation and micro-injury lead to qualitatively different responses in osteoblasts [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Monserratt Lopez-Ayon


    Full Text Available Micro-damage of bone tissue is known to regulate bone turnover. However, it is unknown if individual bone cells can differentiate between membrane deformation and micro-injury. We generated osteoblasts from mouse bone marrow or bone morphogenetic protein 2-transfected C2C12 cells. Single cells were mechanically stimulated by indentation with the atomic force microscopy probe with variable force load either resulting in membrane deformation only, or leading to membrane penetration and micro-injury. Changes in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in fluo4-AM loaded cells were analyzed. When deformation only was induced, it resulted in an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]i which was localized to the probe periphery. Multiple consecutive local Ca2+ responses were induced by sequential application of low level forces, with characteristic recovery time of ~2 s. The duration of [Ca2+]i elevations was directly proportional to the tip-cell contact time. In contrast, cell micro-injury resulted in transient global elevations of [Ca2+]i, the magnitude of which was independent of the tip-cell contact time. Sequential micro-injury of the same cell did not induce Ca2+ response within 30 s of the first stimulation. Both local and global Ca2+elevations were blocked in Ca2+-free media or in the presence of stretch-activated channel blocker Gd3+. In addition, amount of Ca2+ released during global responses was significantly reduced in the presence of PLC inhibitor Et-18-OCH3. Thus, we found qualitative differences in calcium responses to mechanical forces inducing only membrane deformation or deformation leading to micro-injury.

  7. Ten Main Technological Breakthroughs of CNPC in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Breakthrough in systematic technology for exploration of Qikou oil-enriched depression in Bohai Bay Basin Qikou oil-enriched depression is one of the largest depressions of the Tertiary deposit in Bohai Bay Basin.The oil and gas exploration of this area faces a number of bottlenecks,such as a large proportion of negative structures,complicated distribution of sedimentary sand bodies and diversified types of oil and gas reservoirs.

  8. Breakthrough innovations : The impact of foreign acquisition of knowledge


    Tojeiro Rivero, Damián; Moreno Serrano, Rosina; Badillo Enciso, Erika Raquel


    Based on the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, this paper explores the role of R+D offshoring on innovation performance from 2004 to 2013. Specifically, we focus our attention on the impact of different types of offshoring governance models on the profitability of developing breakthrough innovations. Using a novel methodology for panel data sets, we control for the heterogeneity of firms as well as for the sample selection and endogeneity. Our study provides evidence that firms developi...

  9. New AIDA-2020 call for breakthrough detector technologies

    CERN Multimedia


    Physicists, engineers, and industry will be interested in a new proof-of-concept fund for breakthrough projects from the general field of detector development and testing.   Launched in the framework of the European project AIDA-2020, this open call will provide up to 200k€ of seed funding to support innovative and societal applications with a focus on industry-oriented applications. The deadline for applying is 20 October 2016. More information here.

  10. Methodology for Examining Potential Technology Breakthroughs for Mitigating CO2 and Application to Centralized Solar Photovoltaics (United States)

    Aggressive reductions in US greenhouse gas emissions will require radical changes in how society generates and uses energy. Technological breakthroughs will be necessary if we are to make this transition cost effectively. With limited resources, understanding the breakthrough pot...

  11. The SolarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, G.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    Our national solar thermal research programs and our combined efforts conducted through IEA/SolarPACES have brought about many breakthroughs in the development of solar thermal technology. We have components and systems that are much more efficient, much more reliable, and can be built much more cost-efficiently than just a few years ago. As our technology development proceeds, we undoubtedly will continue to make significant progress, breakthroughs in fact, in all these areas - progress that will bring us even closer to economic parity with more conventional forms of energy. And while this progress is absolutely necessary, the question is whether it will be enough to allow solar thermal to break into the mainstream of global energy supply. Our new IEA/SolarPACES strategy, crafted and approved over the course of the past year, has recognized the changes we must face and given us license to begin to make those changes. We must begin addressing financial hurdles, work to create a more favorable regulatory and tax environment, support development of international partnerships, and expand the visibility and excitement of solar thermal technology to achieve the final breakthroughs we need to allow solar thermal energy to live up to its vast potential. (orig./AKF)

  12. PREFACE: Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Iso, Yuusuke; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahiro


    These are the proceedings of the international conference `Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough' which was held at Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan on 3-7 July 2006 ( There were 88 presentations and more than 100 participants, and we are proud to say that the conference was very successful. Nowadays, many new activities on inverse problems are flourishing at many centers of research around the world, and the conference has successfully gathered a world-wide variety of researchers. We believe that this volume contains not only main papers, but also conveys the general status of current research into inverse problems. This conference was the third biennial international conference on inverse problems, the core of which is the Pan-Pacific Asian area. The purpose of this series of conferences is to establish and develop constant international collaboration, especially among the Pan-Pacific Asian countries, and to lead the organization of activities concerning inverse problems centered in East Asia. The first conference was held at City University of Hong Kong in January 2002 and the second was held at Fudan University in June 2004. Following the preceding two successes, the third conference was organized in order to extend the scope of activities and build useful bridges to the next conference in Seoul in 2008. Therefore this third biennial conference was intended not only to establish collaboration and links between researchers in Asia and leading researchers worldwide in inverse problems but also to nurture interdisciplinary collaboration in theoretical fields such as mathematics, applied fields and evolving aspects of inverse problems. For these purposes, we organized tutorial lectures, serial lectures and a panel discussion as well as conference research presentations. This volume contains three lecture notes from the tutorial and serial lectures, and 22 papers. Especially at this

  13. Study on accumulation mechanism of lead and copper in metal-hypertolerant fern, Athyrium yokoscense, by micro-XRF analysis utilizing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuo, Sakiko; Kashiwabara, Teruhiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Kitajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Fumiyuki; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Abe, Tomoko


    Athyrium yokoscense is a plant which accumulates high level of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, and is expected to be used for phytoremediation. This paper reports the distribution and the chemical forms of Pb and Cu in underground parts (root and old leaf stalks) of the metal-hypertolerant fern, A. yokoscense, by synchrotron radiation micro-XRF imaging and micro-XANES analyses. The old and new tissues of root and leaf stalks were prepared for micro-XRF analysis. The XRF imaging of the young root revealed that K, Cu and Zn were distributed in whole area of cross-section, whereas Pb was found in a certain part of the epidermal tissue. For the old root, Pb and Cu were mainly distributed in the cell wall of the whole tissue. The distribution of heavy metal in old tissue is different from those of new tissue, and consequently it was assumed that the root at different age have different heavy metal accumulation mechanism. Alternatively, for the old leaf stalks, Cu and Pb were highly accumulated in a specific part located around the vascular tissue. Cu K-edge micro-XANES analysis indicated that the chemical form of Cu at the Cu accumulating point was Cu (II). (author)

  14. Fiscal 1999 leading research report. Research on advanced functional material technology based on micro- capsule technology; 1999 nendo micro capsule ka gijutsu ni yoru kokinoka zairyo gijutsu no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Study was made on production technology of the 5th- generation material 'eco-smart composite structure' based on micro-capsule technology. This material ought to have an intelligent function including self-detection and self- restoration of defects, environmental harmony, high strength and long life. At present, these demands are implemented by embedding a sensor, actuator and controller in structure, or optical fiber, shape memory alloy and computer chip in matrix, however, such complex material structure has adverse effect on environment. On the other hand, single structure material such as biodegradable polymer is unusable in severe environment such as the ocean and space. These problems can be resolved by combining composite material and micro-sphere technology, for example fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite structure including micro-capsules with nano particles. According to targets, this material can have a self-restoration intelligent function, and other environment friendly functions such as easy decomposition, sound insulation, oscillation damping, electromagnetic shielding and hygroscopicity. (NEDO)

  15. Fiscal 1999 leading research report. Research on advanced functional material technology based on micro- capsule technology; 1999 nendo micro capsule ka gijutsu ni yoru kokinoka zairyo gijutsu no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Study was made on production technology of the 5th- generation material 'eco-smart composite structure' based on micro-capsule technology. This material ought to have an intelligent function including self-detection and self- restoration of defects, environmental harmony, high strength and long life. At present, these demands are implemented by embedding a sensor, actuator and controller in structure, or optical fiber, shape memory alloy and computer chip in matrix, however, such complex material structure has adverse effect on environment. On the other hand, single structure material such as biodegradable polymer is unusable in severe environment such as the ocean and space. These problems can be resolved by combining composite material and micro-sphere technology, for example fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite structure including micro-capsules with nano particles. According to targets, this material can have a self-restoration intelligent function, and other environment friendly functions such as easy decomposition, sound insulation, oscillation damping, electromagnetic shielding and hygroscopicity. (NEDO)

  16. Effect of Relative Humidity on Adsorption Breakthrough of CO2 on Activated Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chiang


    Full Text Available Microporous activated carbon fibers (ACFs were developed for CO2 capture based on potassium hydroxide (KOH activation and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA amination. The material properties of the modified ACFs were characterized using several techniques. The adsorption breakthrough curves of CO2 were measured and the effect of relative humidity in the carrier gas was determined. The KOH activation at high temperature generated additional pore networks and the intercalation of metallic K into the carbon matrix, leading to the production of mesopore and micropore volumes and providing access to the active sites in the micropores. However, this treatment also resulted in the loss of nitrogen functionalities. The TEPA amination has successfully introduced nitrogen functionalities onto the fiber surface, but its long-chain structure blocked parts of the micropores and, thus, made the available surface area and pore volume limited. Introduction of the power of time into the Wheeler equation was required to fit the data well. The relative humidity within the studied range had almost no effects on the breakthrough curves. It was expected that the concentration of CO2 was high enough so that the impact on CO2 adsorption capacity lessened due to increased relative humidity.

  17. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Scientists have cracked the genetic code of the bloodsucking tsetse fly, prompting hope that the breakthrough will help future efforts to control one of the most devastating livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa spread by the insect. The tsetse genome was sequenced and annotated during a 10-year international collaborative effort that involved the Insect Pest Control Laboratory run jointly by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The achievement allows scientists to better study the fly's genes and their functions, knowledge that should open the door for researching ways to control the insect

  18. Mini-columns for Conducting Breakthrough Experiments. Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Experiments with moderately and strongly sorbing radionuclides (i.e., U, Cs, Am) have shown that sorption between experimental solutions and traditional column materials must be accounted for to accurately determine stationary phase or porous media sorption properties (i.e., sorption site density, sorption site reaction rate coefficients, and partition coefficients or Kd values). This report details the materials and construction of mini-columns for use in breakthrough columns to allow for accurate measurement and modeling of sorption parameters. Material selection, construction techniques, wet packing of columns, tubing connections, and lessons learned are addressed.

  19. Changes in lead and zinc lability during weathering-induced acidification of desert mine tailings: Coupling chemical and micro-scale analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; White, Scott A.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon


    Desert mine tailings may accumulate toxic metals in the near surface centimeters because of low water through-flux rates. Along with other constraints, metal toxicity precludes natural plant colonization even over decadal time scales. Since unconsolidated particles can be subjected to transport by wind and water erosion, potentially resulting in direct human and ecosystem exposure, there is a need to know how the lability and form of metals change in the tailings weathering environment. A combination of chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to study Pb and Zn contamination in surficial arid mine tailings from the Arizona Klondyke State Superfund Site. Initial site characterization indicated a wide range in pH (2.5-8.0) in the surficial tailings pile. Ligand-promoted (DTPA) extractions, used to assess plant-available metal pools, showed decreasing available Zn and Mn with progressive tailings acidification. Aluminum shows the inverse trend, and Pb and Fe show more complex pH dependence. Since the tailings derive from a common source and parent mineralogy, it is presumed that variations in pH and 'bio-available' metal concentrations result from associated variation in particle-scale geochemistry. Four sub-samples, ranging in pH from 2.6 to 5.4, were subjected to further characterization to elucidate micro-scale controls on metal mobility. With acidification, total Pb (ranging from 5 to 13 g kg -1 ) was increasingly associated with Fe and S in plumbojarosite aggregates. For Zn, both total (0.4-6 g kg -1 ) and labile fractions decreased with decreasing pH. Zinc was found to be primarily associated with the secondary Mn phases manjiroite and chalcophanite. The results suggest that progressive tailings acidification diminishes the overall lability of the total Pb and Zn pools.

  20. Early-stage detection of breakthrough-class scientific research : using micro-level citation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnink, J.J.


    The research presented in this PhD thesis describes ways of identifying at an early-stage, 2-3 years after their publication, discoveries in science that are expected to have a major impact on science. Bibliographic information extracted from those scientific publications is analysed to select

  1. The next breakthrough in phonon-mediated superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.


    If history teaches us anything, it is that the next breakthrough in superconductivity will not be the result of surveying the history of past breakthroughs, as they have almost always been a matter of serendipity resulting from undirected exploration into new materials. Still, there is reason to reflect on recent advances, work toward higher T c of even an incremental nature, and recognize that it is important to explore avenues currently believed to be unpromising even as we attempt to be rational. In this paper we look at two remarkable new unusually high temperature superconductors (UHTS), MgB 2 with T c = 40 K and (in less detail) high pressure Li with T c = 20 K, with the aim of reducing their unexpected achievements to a simple and clear understanding. We also consider briefly other UHTS systems that provide still unresolved puzzles; these materials include mostly layered structures, and several with strongly bonded C-C or B-C substructures. What may be possible in phonon-coupled superconductivity is reconsidered in the light of the discussion

  2. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs. (United States)

    Evans, James P


    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  3. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products. (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea


    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.

  4. Leading research report for fiscal 1999. Survey and research on microparticle control process technology; 1999 nendo micro ryushi seigyo process gijutsu no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the functional upgrading of electronic equipment which will support the computerized society in the 21st century, a substance itself is required to exhibit novel functions or to behave better on a reduced amount. Dependence on the synthesis of new materials alone has its own limit, but a method of reducing the substances conventionally known for their safety into particles of the nanometer scale will be one of the solutions. Micro-science and micro-technology are in progress in Japan and abroad, which mainly deal with particles 10nm-100nm in size. To make better use of the functions of substances, there should be single nanoparticles 1nm-10nm in size. Such particles are easy to coagulate, however, and it is difficult to keep them in their nanometer-scale single state free of coagulation. If Japan succeeds in the development of 1nm-10nm size nanoparticle structurizing technology and manufacturing technology utilizing this technology, Japan will have a clear advantage over other countries in the world in the domain of nanoparticle engineering. The survey and research described in this report aim to review the trends of technologies for nanoparticle composition and functionalization and to clarify the course that Japan is to follow in the development of technologies concerned. (NEDO)

  5. Central Hyperexcitability in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Conceptual Breakthrough with Multiple Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lidbeck


    Full Text Available Recent investigations of dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system have contributed much knowledge about the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Many common chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes - including regional myofascial pain syndromes, whiplash pain syndromes, refractory work-related neck-shoulder pain, certain types of chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia and others - may essentially be explained by abnormalities in central pain modulation. The growing awareness of dysfunctional central pain modulation may be a conceptual breakthrough leading to a better understanding of common chronic pain disorders. A new paradigm will have multiple clinical implications, including re-evaluation of clinical practice routines and rehabilitation methods, and will focus on controversial issues of medicolegal concern. The concept of dysfunctional central pain processing will also necessitate a mechanism-based classification of pain for the selection of individual treatment and rehabilitation programs for subgroups of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain due to different pathophysiological mechanisms.

  6. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  7. Is a Breakthrough on Climate Change Governance on the Horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    The recently released Fifth Assessment report of the IPCC has highlighted again with unprecedented scope and insight the urgency of addressing climate change. The international community has pledged to devise the next international agreement on climate change by 2015, while the EU and in particular...... the Scandinavian countries have forged ahead advancing a variety of policies to respond to climate change. Similarly, regions, municipalities, and private actors across the world are also contributing to climate governance. This paper asks whether the world is reaching a tipping point where a breakthrough...... on climate change governance is near?. The answer is approached by contrasting the governance model within which the IPCC operates and the conditions of policy and governance interaction toward the more scientific foundations laid out by IPCC, with the range of multilateral climate governance...

  8. How to revive breakthrough innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. (United States)

    Munos, Bernard H; Chin, William W


    Over the past 20 years, pharmaceutical companies have implemented conservative management practices to improve the predictability of therapeutics discovery and success rates of drug candidates. This approach has often yielded compounds that are only marginally better than existing therapies, yet require larger, longer, and more complex trials. To fund them, companies have shifted resources away from drug discovery to late clinical development; this has hurt innovation and amplified the crisis brought by the expiration of patents on many best-selling drugs. Here, we argue that more breakthrough therapeutics will reach patients only if the industry ceases to pursue "safe" incremental innovation, re-engages in high-risk discovery research, and adopts collaborative innovation models that allow sharing of knowledge and costs among collaborators.

  9. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry. (United States)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N


    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead.

  10. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V.; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N. [Department of Chemistry, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa (Israel)


    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead. (orig.)

  11. Silicon photonic micro-ring resonators to sense strain and ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.


    We demonstrated that photonic micro-ring resonators can be used in micro-machined ultrasound microphones. This might cause a breakthrough in array transducers for ultrasonography; first because optical multiplexing allows array interrogation via one optical fiber and second because the

  12. Repression of MYBL2 by Both microRNA858a and HY5 Leads to the Activation of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Yiqing; Song, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Huiyong


    Extensive studies in various plants show that the anthocyanin biosynthetic process is affected by environmental factors and regulated by many transcription factors through sophisticated regulatory networks. However, it remains largely unclear about the roles of microRNA in this process. Here, we demonstrate that miR858a is a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seedlings. Overexpression of miR858a enhances the accumulation of anthocyanins, whereas the reduced miR858a activity results in low levels of anthocyanins in STTM858 transgenic plants. We found that miR858a inhibits the expression of MYBL2, a key negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, by translational repression. In addition, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) was shown to directly bind the MYBL2 promoter and represses its expression via specific histone modifications. Interestingly, we found that miR858a exhibits light-responsive expression in an HY5-dependent manner. Together, these results delineate the HY5-MIR858a-MYBL2 loop as a cellular mechanism for modulating anthocyanin biosynthesis, suggesting that integration of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation is critical for governing proper anthocyanin accumulation in response to light and other environmental factors. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced cell culture technology for essential oil production and micro array studies leading to discovery of genes for fragrance compounds in Michelia alba (Cempaka Putih)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Norazlina Nordin; Edrina Azlan


    Michelia spp. is known to produce high value essential oil for perfumery industry. The essence of world's most expensive perfumes, such as JOY and Jadore, is based on the oil of Michelia spp. One major problem anticipated in this approach, based on our early experiments, is limited amount of fragrance produced in cell cultures. The appropriate strategy is to superimpose DNA micro array studies on top of the cell culture project. The study covers natural flower development phases that led to the identification of genes or sets of genes that regulate the production of the fragrance. Seven developmental stages of Michelia alba flower namely Stage 5 to 11 were investigated for their volatile constituents. The essential oil was isolated by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction technique and the oil obtained was subjected to GC-MS analysis. In total, seventy-seven compounds representing 93-98% of the overall volatiles compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra and retention indices. Thirty-three of these compounds belonged to isoprenoids group which comprised 30-50% of the total volatile compounds whereas the remaining belonged to fatty acid derivatives, benzenoid, phenylpropanoid and other hydrocarbon compounds. Studies were conducted to optimize culture parameters for scaling-up the production of callus, suspension cell cultures and somatic and product accumulation of essential oils using bioreactor technology. (Author)

  14. 75 Breakthroughs by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories; Breakthroughs 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Born at a time when the world faced a dire threat, the National Laboratory System protects America through science and technology. For more than 75 years, the Department of Energy’s national laboratories have solved important problems in science, energy and national security. Partnering with industry and academia, the laboratories also drive innovation to advance economic competitiveness and ensure our nation’s future prosperity. Over the years, America's National Laboratories have been changing and improving the lives of millions of people and this expertise continues to keep our nation at the forefront of science and technology in a rapidly changing world. This network of Department of Energy Laboratories has grown into 17 facilities across the country. As this list of breakthroughs attests, Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe.

  15. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm. (United States)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik W; Hansen, Ole; Shiv, Lior; Nielsen, Peter F; Petersen, Dirch H


    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance was improved by up to a factor of 3.5 and the measurement reproducibility by up to a factor of 17, thanks to our improved position correction technique.

  16. Overexpression of TGF-β Inducible microRNA-143 in Zebrafish Leads to Impairment of the Glomerular Filtration Barrier by Targeting Proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Müller-Deile


    Full Text Available Background: TGF-β is known as an important stress factor of podocytes in glomerular diseases. Apart from activation of direct pro-apoptotic pathways we wanted to analyze micro-RNA (miRs driven regulation of components involved in the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier induced by TGF-β. Since miR-143-3p (miR-143 is described as a TGF-β inducible miR in other cell types, we examined this specific miR and its ability to induce glomerular pathology. Methods: We analyzed miR-143 expression in cultured human podocytes after stimulation with TGF-β. We also microinjected zebrafish eggs with a miR-143 mimic or with morpholinos specific for its targets syndecan and versican and compared phenotype and proteinuria development. Results: We detected a time dependent, TGF-β inducible expression of miR-143 in human podocytes. Targets of miR-143 relevant in glomerular biology are syndecans and versican, which are known components of the glycocalyx. We found that syndecan 1 and 4 were predominantly expressed in podocytes while syndecan 3 was largely expressed in glomerular endothelial cells. Versican could be detected in both cell types. After injection of a miR-143 mimic in zebrafish larvae, syndecan 3, 4 and versican were significantly downregulated. Moreover, miR-143 overexpression or versican knockdown by morpholino caused loss of plasma proteins, edema, podocyte effacement and endothelial damage. In contrast, knockdown of syndecan 3 and syndecan 4 had no effects on glomerular filtration barrier. Conclusion: Expression of versican and syndecan isoforms is indispensable for proper barrier function. Podocyte-derived miR-143 is a mediator for paracrine and autocrine cross talk between podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells and can alter expression of glomerular glycocalyx proteins.

  17. The fate of arsenic, cadmium and lead in Typha latifolia: A case study on the applicability of micro-PIXE in plant ionomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Regvar, Marjana; Pelicon, Primož; Schröder, Peter


    Highlights: ► Uptake, accumulation and distribution of multi-elemental pollution. ► Quantitative analysis of the spatal distribution of nutrients in roots and rhizomes. ► Typha latifolia – plant species important for phytoremediation of hazardous xenobiotics. ► Low amounts of Cd and Pb in the inner tissues of roots and rhizomes. ► Predominantly As was found within the vascular tissue – high mobility of the element. -- Abstract: Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using micro-proton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia, with tissue-specific distributions. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome. These data represent an essential step in the resolution of fundamental questions in plant ionomics

  18. The fate of arsenic, cadmium and lead in Typha latifolia: A case study on the applicability of micro-PIXE in plant ionomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Sciences, Research Unit Microbe–Plant Interactions, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primož [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schröder, Peter, E-mail: [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Sciences, Research Unit Microbe–Plant Interactions, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)


    Highlights: ► Uptake, accumulation and distribution of multi-elemental pollution. ► Quantitative analysis of the spatal distribution of nutrients in roots and rhizomes. ► Typha latifolia – plant species important for phytoremediation of hazardous xenobiotics. ► Low amounts of Cd and Pb in the inner tissues of roots and rhizomes. ► Predominantly As was found within the vascular tissue – high mobility of the element. -- Abstract: Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using micro-proton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia, with tissue-specific distributions. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome. These data represent an essential step in the resolution of fundamental questions in plant ionomics.

  19. The New Three Rs: Research, Reading, and Results. Breakthrough to Literacy[TM]. (United States)

    McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.

    Research in school districts throughout the United States shows that children who use "Breakthrough to Literacy" achieve significant and lasting improvement in their reading skills. At virtually every site studied where implementation criteria were met, children who participated in "Breakthrough" demonstrated marked increases…

  20. Alternative sample-introduction technique to avoid breakthrough in gradient-elution liquid chromatography of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reingruber, E.; Bedani, F.; Buchberger, W.; Schoenmakers, P.


    Gradient-elution liquid chromatography (GELC) is a powerful tool for the characterization of synthetic polymers. However, gradient-elution chromatograms often suffer from breakthrough phenomena. Breakthrough can be averted by using a sample solvent as weak as the mobile phase. However, this approach

  1. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model From Breakthrough Curve Data Alone (United States)

    Sherman, Thomas; Fakhari, Abbas; Miller, Savannah; Singha, Kamini; Bolster, Diogo


    The spatial Markov model (SMM) is an upscaled Lagrangian model that effectively captures anomalous transport across a diverse range of hydrologic systems. The distinct feature of the SMM relative to other random walk models is that successive steps are correlated. To date, with some notable exceptions, the model has primarily been applied to data from high-resolution numerical simulations and correlation effects have been measured from simulated particle trajectories. In real systems such knowledge is practically unattainable and the best one might hope for is breakthrough curves (BTCs) at successive downstream locations. We introduce a novel methodology to quantify velocity correlation from BTC data alone. By discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and developing an inverse model, we estimate velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where detailed Lagrangian velocity statistics are unavailable. The proposed methodology is applied to two synthetic numerical problems, where we measure all details and thus test the veracity of the approach by comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Our results suggest that our estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and using the SMM with this estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Our methodology naturally allows for estimates of uncertainty by calculating lower and upper bounds of velocity correlation, enabling prediction of a range of BTCs. The measured BTCs fall within the range of predicted BTCs. This novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone is quite parsimonious, thereby widening the SMM's practical applicability.

  2. Beyond the traditional definition of breakthrough pain: an observational study. (United States)

    Gatti, Antonio; Gentili, Marta; Iorno, Vittorio; Mammucari, Massimo; Tufaro, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Marzia; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio


    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is traditionally defined as a transitory pain flare in opioid-treated patients with chronic background pain. This definition has, however, been challenged in recent years. This study aimed to analyze BTP prevalence in different pain conditions. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study conducted from June to September 2011 in two Italian pain treatment reference centres. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with oncological or non-oncological pain were eligible for this study; background pain was acute/ subacute (3 months). The characteristics of pain were evaluated by means of a structured interview by physicians, and patients were asked to complete a dedicated clinical study form. The following outcomes were assessed: chronic pain duration (in patients with chronic pain), BTP prevalence, and number and severity of daily BTP episodes. All outcomes were assessed in four populations of patients with: (a) chronic oncological pain; (b) chronic non-oncological pain; (c) non-chronic oncological pain; (d) non-chronic non-oncological pain. The correlation between BTP and gender was also investigated. Of 1,270 patients with chronic pain, 1,086 had non-oncological pain (85.5%). Most patients (68.6%) with non-oncological pain were female (P = 0.001). Pain duration was significantly longer in non-oncological pain versus oncological pain groups (P = 0.002). BTP prevalence was lower in non-oncological patients (P definition. BTP frequency and severity is similar in oncological and non-oncological pain.

  3. Soil homogeneity evaluation by radionuclide tracer breakthrough curve interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.


    Increasing concern about the environmental impact of hazardous waste disposal has made site evaluation and site selection difficult and expensive. Pollutants, assumed to be absorbed by the soil immediately surrounding the burial trench, have been detected far from sites. Discrepancies between predicted migration distances based on indirect methods such as laboratory and computer modeling and those observed at the field site are often significant. The homogeneity of subsurface media, often assumed in laboratory and modeling studies, is seldom found in the field. The use of tracers to determine the flow characteristics of a potential disposal site involves time and expense, but offers a direct evaluation of solute transport and eliminates the assumptions inherent in indirect methods. Current modeling of solute transport in nonhomogeneous porous media is limited by the quantification of input parameters. Several general models can predict solute transport in saturated-unsaturated media from low-level disposal sites if the hydraulic characteristics and chemical reactions expected in each unique water-solute-media system can be defined. The objective of this research was to develop a method of evaluating potential shallow-land burial waste disposal sites by interpreting tracer breakthrough curve structure with respect to the hydrologic properties of the media at the potential disposal site. This methodology will be helpful in evaluating the potential performance of many types of shallow-land waste burial sites such as low-level radioactive waste disposal, surface disposal of flyash, chemical waste disposal, waste sedimentation ponds, and sanitary landfills

  4. From Islamicizing the Sciences to Strategizing for Muslims’ Scientific Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At inception, science and religion were seen as poles apart and so science was vehemently kicked against by religious leaders. Islam later came to bridge the gap between religion and science only to be later hijacked by the Western world and so science was rewritten from a purely materialist point of view; hence, experts in modern science became over-confident and arrogant to have relegated religion to the lowest ebb and looked down upon any knowledge which could not be scientifically proved. However attempts are being made to reconcile religion and science by Muslim reformers. These attempts are not without their shortcomings, hence the need for Islamization of the sciences for them to conform to the Islamic principle of unity of knowledge. However, the present researcher feels that there should be a step forward from the contemporary approaches to Islamicizing the sciences in form of colouring the Western scientific discoveries Islam, to making their own scientific breakthroughs, the type which immortalized Muslim scientists of the Islam’s golden ages. Without this, Muslims will continue to be mere consumers of the Western products. The strategy for the Ummah to achieve this is suggested in this paper.

  5. Breakthrough characteristics of gas absorption in a packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Shoji; Fukada, Satoshi; Koto, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Nobuo


    In nuclear industries, the operations to collect or recover various radioactive and non-radioactive gases with a number of absorption or adsorption reagents are practically utilized or planned. Specifically in the operations of recovering hydrogen isotopes, the direct collecting method with active metals such as uranium, zirconium (Zr) and yttrium is watched with keen interest. In this study, the capability of recovering hydrogen by means of Zr was investigated through the estimation of rate-determining step, by flowing the gas mixture of hydrogen and argon after activating metallic Zr under the condition of high temperature and high vacuum, and by determining overall mass transfer coefficient from the absorption breakthrough curves. The details of a packed column and the flowsheet are also described, and the deterioration of Zr powder is considered. That is, the diffusion speed and absorbing reaction speed of hydrogen in Zr particles are supposed to be slow and dominant in mass transfer speed. Further, since gas mixture does not simply diffuse in Zr particles, but the reaction plane seems to move toward the center from the surface in the case of Zr, different from general adsorbents, the moving speed seems to give large effect on the rate-determining step. It is ensured that the hydrogen absorption with Zr powder is so active that hydrogen in gas flow can easily be recovered, and its separation from other gases can be effectively carried out by the desorption of hydrogen from Zr powder by heating it in vacuum. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Funding breakthrough therapies: A systematic review and recommendation. (United States)

    Hanna, E; Toumi, M; Dussart, C; Borissov, B; Dabbous, O; Badora, K; Auquier, P


    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies likely associated with high prices. Payers need guidance to create a balance between ensuring patient access to breakthrough therapies and maintaining the financial sustainability of the healthcare system. The aims of this study were to identify, define, classify and compare the approaches to funding high-cost medicines proposed in the literature, to analyze their appropriateness for ATMP funding and to suggest an optimal funding model for ATMPs. Forty-eight articles suggesting new funding models for innovative high-cost therapies were identified. The models were classified into 3 groups: financial agreement, health outcomes-based agreement and healthcoin. Financial agreement encompassed: discounts, rebates, price and volume caps, price-volume agreements, loans, cost-plus price, intellectual-based payment and fund-based payment. Health outcomes-based agreements were defined as agreements between manufacturers and payers based on drug performance, and were divided into performance-based payment and coverage with evidence development. Healthcoin described a new suggested tradeable currency used to assign monetary value to incremental outcomes. With a large number of ATMPs in development, it is time for stakeholders to start thinking about new pathways and funding strategies for these innovative high-cost therapies. An "ATMP-specific fund" may constitute a reasonable solution to ensure rapid patient access to innovation without threatening the sustainability of the health care system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How Students Combine Resources to Make Conceptual Breakthroughs (United States)

    Richards, A. J.; Jones, Darrick C.; Etkina, Eugenia


    We use the framework of cognitive resources to investigate how students construct understanding of a complex physics topic, namely, a photovoltaic cell. By observing students as they learn about how a solar cell functions, we identified over 60 distinct resources that learners may activate while thinking about photovoltaic cells. We classify these resources into three main types: phenomenological primitives, conceptual resources, and epistemological resources. Furthermore, we found a pattern that suggests that when students make conceptual breakthroughs they may be more likely to activate combinations of resources of different types in concert, especially if a resource from each of the three categories is used. This pattern suggests that physics instructors should encourage students to activate multiple types of prior knowledge during the learning process. This can result from instructors deliberately and explicitly connecting new knowledge to students' prior experience both in and outside the formal physics classroom, as well as allowing students to reflect metacognitively on how the new knowledge fits into their existing understanding of the natural world.

  8. Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K.; Newcomb, J.


    Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.

  9. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model from Breakthrough Curve Data Alone (United States)

    Sherman, T.; Bolster, D.; Fakhari, A.; Miller, S.; Singha, K.


    The spatial Markov model (SMM) uses a correlated random walk and has been shown to effectively capture anomalous transport in porous media systems; in the SMM, particles' future trajectories are correlated to their current velocity. It is common practice to use a priori Lagrangian velocity statistics obtained from high resolution simulations to determine a distribution of transition probabilities (correlation) between velocity classes that govern predicted transport behavior; however, this approach is computationally cumbersome. Here, we introduce a methodology to quantify velocity correlation from Breakthrough (BTC) curve data alone; discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and reverse engineering the rules of the SMM allows for prediction of velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where Lagrangian velocity statistics are not available. The introduced methodology is applied to estimate velocity correlation from BTCs measured in high resolution simulations, thus allowing for a comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Results show 1) estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and 2) using the SMM with estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Additionally, we include uncertainty measurements by calculating lower and upper estimates of velocity correlation, which allow for prediction of a range of BTCs. The simulated BTCs fall in the range of predicted BTCs. This research proposes a novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone, thereby reducing the SMM's computational costs and widening its applicability.

  10. Experimental investigation of the impact of compound-specific dispersion and electrostatic interactions on transient transport and solute breakthrough (United States)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo


    This study investigates the effects of compound-specific diffusion/dispersion and electrochemical migration on transient solute transport in saturated porous media. We conducted laboratory bench-scale experiments, under advection-dominated regimes (seepage velocity: 0.5, 5, 25 m/d), in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through setup using pulse injection of multiple tracers (both uncharged and ionic species). Extensive sampling and measurement of solutes' concentrations (˜1500 samples; >3000 measurements) were performed at the outlet of the flow-through setup, at high spatial and temporal resolution. The experimental results show that compound-specific effects and charge-induced Coulombic interactions are important not only at low velocities and/or for steady state plumes but also for transient transport under high flow velocities. Such effects can lead to a remarkably different behavior of measured breakthrough curves also at very high Péclet numbers. To quantitatively interpret the experimental results, we used four modeling approaches: classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE), continuous time random walk (CTRW), dual-domain mass transfer model (DDMT), and a multicomponent ionic dispersion model. The latter is based on the multicomponent formulation of coupled diffusive/dispersive fluxes and was used to describe and explain the electrostatic effects of charged species. Furthermore, we determined experimentally the temporal profiles of the flux-related dilution index. This metric of mixing, used in connection with the traditional solute breakthrough curves, proved to be useful to correctly distinguish between plume spreading and mixing, particularly for the cases in which the sole analysis of integrated concentration breakthrough curves may lead to erroneous interpretation of plume dilution.

  11. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.


    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  12. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadga Jung Karki


    Full Text Available Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3 is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  13. Micro Vision


    Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi


    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  14. The 2001 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for today's business agenda. (United States)


    Business is shaped by ideas. But how do you separate enduring ideas from passing fancies? In this, the first edition of the annual HBR List, our editors spotlight five break-through ideas that are truly shaping the future of business. EVEN A GREAT BUSINESS MODEL IS NOT ENOUGH: The rise and fall of dot-coms left markets reeling and CEOs scratching their heads. The most important lesson of the debacle: squishy thinking about "business models" is no substitute for a distinctive strategy. CHANGE IS CHANGING: In recent years, pundits have urged executives to incite revolutions within their companies. But a growing group of experts now suggests that the best companies actually evolve through incremental change--change that builds on rather than subverts their heritage. EGO MAKES THE LEADER: By looking deeply into executives' psyches, we are beginning to unlock the enigma of leadership. While there will never be a single recipe for successful corporate stewardship, an understanding of the human ego can shed light on leadership's most fundamental components. ONLY CONNECT: In business organizations, what's really important about people is not their individual skills but the relationships they form with one another. By investing in "social capital," companies can often push their performance to a whole new level. THE BIOLOGY CENTURY DAWNS: In the twentieth century, product innovations tended to spring from physics. But in the new century, biology may be the central source of innovation. From genomics to biomimicry, the study of life promises to change what companies sell and even how they operate.

  15. Observational study to analyze patterns of treatment of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in clinical practice. (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Delgado-Mingorance, Ignacio; Nabal-Vicuña, María; Jiménez-López, Antonio Javier; Cabezón-Álvarez, Ana; Soler-López, Begoña


    Although breakthrough dyspnea is very frequent in cancer patients, there are no precise recommendations for treating it. The main objective of this study was to analyze what treatments are used in clinical practice for the management of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in Spain and the secondary objectives were to describe the characteristics of cancer patients with breakthrough dyspnea and the attributes of the disorder. Cancer patients over 18 years of age, with breakthrough dyspnea and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥30, who were treated at departments of oncology in institutes across Spain were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The characteristics of breakthrough dyspnea, history of treatment, anthropometric variables, Mahler dyspnea index, Borg scale, Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scale, and patient satisfaction with current breakthrough dyspnea treatment were assessed. The mean age of the 149 included patients was 66 years (95% confidence interval: 64.3 to 67.9), and 53 were females (35.6%). The mean breakthrough dyspnea intensity was 5.85 (95% confidence interval 5.48 to 6.22, Borg scale). A total of 55.1% of the first-choice treatments consisted of opioids, followed by oxygen (17.3%). A total of 119 patients (79.9%) received monotherapy for breakthrough dyspnea. Patients presenting with basal dyspnea received oxygen in a greater proportion of cases (21.1% vs 7.4%; p = 0.07). Patients with predictable dyspnea received a greater proportion of opioids (70.9% vs 44.4%; p = 0.01). Opioids constitute first-line therapy for breakthrough dyspnea in routine clinical practice, though the scientific evidence supporting their use is scarce. Further information derived from controlled clinical trials is needed regarding the comparative efficacy of the different treatments in order to justify their use.

  16. Involving Lead Users in Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Bilgram, Volker; Gutstein, Adele


    Research on the lead user method has been conducted for more than thirty years and has shown that the method is more likely to generate breakthrough innovation than traditional market research tools. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper shows a detailed view on the broad variety...... of research on lead user characteristics, lead user processes, lead user identification and application, and success factors. The main challenge of the lead user method as identified in literature is the resource issue regarding time, manpower, and costs. Also, internal acceptance and the processing...... of the method have been spotted in literature, as well as the intellectual property protection issue. From the starting point of the initial lead user method process introduced by Lüthje and Herstatt (2004), results are integrated into a revisited view on the lead user method process. In addition, concrete...

  17. Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes–2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Muñoz-Torrero


    Full Text Available Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes is a series of Editorials, which are published on a biannual basis by the Editorial Board of the Medicinal Chemistry section of the journal Molecules [...

  18. Use of pulsed-neutron capture logs to identify steam breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, P.J.; Gosney, T.C.; Long, D.L.


    This paper reports on identification of steam-breakthrough zones in a stacked sand/shale sequence with variable lateral continuity which is difficult. Such identification, however, would allow the modification of field operations to enhance recovery through improved vertical sweep and heat injection. Twenty pulsed-neutron capture (PNC) logs were run to identify the steam-breakthrough zone(s) in a seven-pattern area of Mobil's Middle expansion (MIDX) Steamflood Project in the South Belridge field. These PNC data were combined with data from recent replacement wells and a detailed geologic analysis. Evaluation of this combined information allowed identification of potential steam-breakthrough zone(s), and operations were modified to reduce and eliminate steam breakthrough

  19. Statistical characteristics of breakthrough discoveries in science using the metaphor of black and white swans (United States)

    Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.


    A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.

  20. Prediction of ion-exchange column breakthrough curves by constant-pattern wave approach. (United States)

    Lee, I-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming


    The release of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters represents one of major threats to environment. Compared with chemical precipitation method, fixed-bed ion-exchange process can effectively remove heavy metals from wastewaters and generate no hazardous sludge. In order to design and operate fixed-bed ion-exchange processes successfully, it is very important to understand the column dynamics. In this study, the column experiments for Cu2+/H+, Zn2+/H+, and Cd2+/H+ systems using Amberlite IR-120 were performed to measure the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions. The experimental results showed that total cation concentration in the mobile-phase played a key role on the breakthrough curves; a higher feed concentration resulted in an earlier breakthrough. Furthermore, the column dynamics was also predicted by self-sharpening and constant-pattern wave models. The self-sharpening wave model assuming local ion-exchange equilibrium could provide a simple and quick estimation for the breakthrough volume, but the predicted breakthrough curves did not match the experimental data very well. On the contrary, the constant-pattern wave model using a constant driving force model for finite ion-exchange rate provided a better fit to the experimental data. The obtained liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient was correlated to the flow velocity and other operating parameters; the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions could thus be predicted by the constant-pattern wave model using the correlation.

  1. Computer model predicting breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Alexander, Siobhan E; Wald, Moshe; Cooper, Christopher S


    Factors influencing the decision to surgically correct vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) include risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) or renal scarring, and decreased likelihood of spontaneous resolution. Improved identification of children at risk for recurrent fUTI may impact management decisions, and allow for more individualized VUR management. We have developed and investigated the accuracy of a multivariable computational model to predict probability of breakthrough fUTI in children with primary VUR. Children with primary VUR and detailed clinical and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) data were identified. Patient demographics, VCUG findings including grade, laterality, and bladder volume at onset of VUR, UTI history, presence of bladder-bowel dysfunction (BBD), and breakthrough fUTI were assessed. The VCUG dataset was randomized into a training set of 288 with a separate representational cross-validation set of 96. Various model types and architectures were investigated using neUROn++, a set of C++ programs. Two hundred fifty-five children (208 girls, 47 boys) diagnosed with primary VUR at a mean age of 3.1 years (±2.6) met all inclusion criteria. A total 384 VCUGs were analyzed. Median follow-up was 24 months (interquartile range 12-52 months). Sixty-eight children (26.7%) experienced 90 breakthrough fUTI events. Dilating VUR, reflux occurring at low bladder volumes, BBD, and history of multiple infections/fUTI were associated with breakthrough fUTI (Table). A 2-hidden node neural network model had the best fit with a receiver operating characteristic curve area of 0.755 for predicting breakthrough fUTI. The risk of recurrent febrile infections, renal parenchymal scarring, and likelihood of spontaneous resolution, as well as parental preference all influence management of primary VUR. The genesis of UTI is multifactorial, making precise prediction of an individual child's risk of breakthrough fUTI challenging. Demonstrated risk factors for

  2. Predicting the Risk of Breakthrough Urinary Tract Infections: Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux. (United States)

    Hidas, Guy; Billimek, John; Nam, Alexander; Soltani, Tandis; Kelly, Maryellen S; Selby, Blake; Dorgalli, Crystal; Wehbi, Elias; McAleer, Irene; McLorie, Gordon; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Khoury, Antoine E


    We constructed a risk prediction instrument stratifying patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux into groups according to their 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection. Demographic and clinical information was retrospectively collected in children diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux and followed for 2 years. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with breakthrough urinary tract infection. The final regression model was used to compute an estimation of the 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection for each subject. Accuracy of the binary classifier for breakthrough urinary tract infection was evaluated using receiver operator curve analysis. Three distinct risk groups were identified. The model was then validated in a prospective cohort. A total of 252 bivariate analyses showed that high grade (IV or V) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 9.4, 95% CI 3.8-23.5, p urinary tract infection (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-24.7, p = 0.034) and female gender (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.097-7.11, p urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis revealed bladder and bowel dysfunction was a significant risk factor more pronounced in low grade (I to III) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 2.8, p = 0.018). The estimation model was applied for prospective validation, which demonstrated predicted vs actual 2-year breakthrough urinary tract infection rates of 19% vs 21%. Stratifying the patients into 3 risk groups based on parameters in the risk model showed 2-year risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection was 8.6%, 26.0% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. This proposed risk stratification and probability model allows prediction of 2-year risk of patient breakthrough urinary tract infection to better inform parents of possible outcomes and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel


    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  5. In Vivo Over-expression of Circulating Dlk1/Pref-1 Protein Using Hydrodynamic-based Gene Transfer Leads to Lower Bone mass With Marked Effects on Trabecular Bone Micro-architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    determined by PIXImus (LunarR) and micro-CT (ScancoR) respectively. We could only localize the plasmid in the liver and no complications were detected due to transgene expression. Serum levels of FA1 in Dlk1 injected mice (Dlk1+mice) was elevated by more than 15 folds compared to control saline injected mice...... and BMD was negatively correlated with the circulating levels of FA1. Micro-CT analysis revealed significantly decreased micro-architectural parameters of trabecular bone in the distal femur and proximal tibia of the Dlk1+mice compared to controls (see table). Naked DNA delivery by hydrodynamic injection...

  6. Modeling Breakthrough Curves of Citric Acid Adsorption onto Anionic Resins in an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrabali Ghorbanian


    Full Text Available Breakthrough curves for citric acid adsorption from aqueous solution onto ion-exchange resin at 20, 35, and 55°C have been investigated. To predict breakthrough curves, three mathematical models have been analyzed based on the values of the least square method parameters, Durbin-Watson test, and mean relative percent error and, finally, appropriate models have been achieved. Models are in good agreement with experimental data based on the results. To examine models reliabilities and accuracy, models have been compared by various breakthrough curve data obtained by other investigators. The results show appropriate agreement and in some cases regression errors have been reduced to less than 1.0 percent.

  7. Coupling gravity, electromagnetism and space-time for space propulsion breakthroughs (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.


    spaceflight would be revolutionized if it were possible to propel a spacecraft without rockets using the coupling between gravity, electromagnetism, and space-time (hence called 'space coupling propulsion'). New theories and observations about the properties of space are emerging which offer new approaches to consider this breakthrough possibility. To guide the search, evaluation, and application of these emerging possibilities, a variety of hypothetical space coupling propulsion mechanisms are presented to highlight the issues that would have to be satisfied to enable such breakthroughs. A brief introduction of the emerging opportunities is also presented.

  8. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J


    the total costs of BTcP over the next 4 years. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the model was most sensitive to drug cost per day for the fentanyl buccal tablet. A 50% decrease in the daily cost of the fentanyl buccal tablet resulted in the largest overall decrease in budget impact of €5.4 million.Conclusion: The increase in use of the fentanyl buccal tablet leads to overall savings in the budget impact for the Spanish National Health System. Although the economic impact of treatment for BTcP was shown to increase over 4 years due to population growth, the average annual cost per patient was reduced by €29 with increased use of the fentanyl buccal tablet.Keywords: cancer, breakthrough pain, economic analysis, costs, rapid onset opioids

  9. Lead- or Lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Courouau, J.L.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Latge, C.; Martinelli, L.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.


    Lead-cooled fast reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. So far no lead-cooled reactors have existed in the world except lead-bismuth-cooled reactors in soviet submarines. Some problems linked to the use of the lead-bismuth eutectic appeared but were satisfactorily solved by a more rigorous monitoring of the chemistry of the lead-bismuth coolant. Lead presents various advantages as a coolant: no reactivity with water and the air,a high boiling temperature and low contamination when irradiated. The main asset of the lead-bismuth alloy is the drop of the fusion temperature from 327 C degrees to 125 C degrees. The main drawback of using lead (or lead-bismuth) is its high corrosiveness with metals like iron, chromium and nickel. The high corrosiveness of the coolant implies low flow velocities which means a bigger core and consequently a bigger reactor containment. Different research programs in the world (in Europe, Russia and the USA) are reviewed in the article but it appears that the development of this type of reactor requires technological breakthroughs concerning materials and the resistance to corrosion. Furthermore the concept of lead-cooled reactors seems to be associated to a range of low output power because of the compromise between the size of the reactor and its resistance to earthquakes. (A.C.)

  10. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.


    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  11. Entropy and Entropy Production: Old Misconceptions and New Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev


    Full Text Available Persistent misconceptions existing for dozens of years and influencing progress in various fields of science are sometimes encountered in the scientific and especially, the popular-science literature. The present brief review deals with two such interrelated misconceptions (misunderstandings. The first misunderstanding: entropy is a measure of disorder. This is an old and very common opinion. The second misconception is that the entropy production minimizes in the evolution of nonequilibrium systems. However, as it has recently become clear, evolution (progress in Nature demonstrates the opposite, i.e., maximization of the entropy production. The principal questions connected with this maximization are considered herein. The two misconceptions mentioned above can lead to the apparent contradiction between the conclusions of modern thermodynamics and the basic conceptions of evolution existing in biology. In this regard, the analysis of these issues seems extremely important and timely as it contributes to the deeper understanding of the laws of development of the surrounding World and the place of humans in it.

  12. Use of tigecycline for the management of Clostridium difficile colitis in oncology patients and case series of breakthrough infections. (United States)

    Brinda, B J; Pasikhova, Y; Quilitz, R E; Thai, C M; Greene, J N


    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in adults. Cancer patients, in particular, are at a higher risk for CDI. Limited clinical data exist regarding the use of tigecycline for the treatment of CDI, especially in patients with oncologic and haematologic malignancies. To characterize the use of tigecycline for treatment of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. This was a retrospective, single-centre, single-arm, chart review evaluating the use of tigecycline for the management of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. The median age of CDI diagnosis in this patient group (N=66) was 65 years (range: 16-84) and the majority of patients had solid tumour malignancies. Fifty-six percent of patients had severe CDI, 70.3% of which were classified as having severe complicated disease. The median time to initiation of tigecycline therapy was 2 days (mean: 3.83) and the median number of tigecycline doses was 13 (range: 1-50). Twelve non-CDI breakthrough infections were observed, and four patients developed CDI while receiving tigecycline for non-CDI indications. The rate of death was 18% and the recurrence rate was 15.2%. Tigecycline did not lead to overt benefits in outcomes of oncology patients with CDI when compared to historical data. In addition, several breakthrough CDIs were observed in patients who received the drug for a non-CDI indication. Further prospective research is needed to validate the use of tigecycline for management of CDI. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  14. [An approach to DSM-5: a breakthrough in psychiatry?]. (United States)

    Heerlein, Andrés L


    One of the main problems of current psychiatry is that its diagnostic classification systems are not precise and reliable, they do not help to identify with certainty a specific type of mental disorder and they frequently overlap two or more diagnoses. This may conduce to over diagnosis and overtreatment, which is the main criticism of the DSM system. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) launched recently the DSM-5, the fifth edition of its diagnostic manual, which provides diagnostic criteria for thousands of psychiatrist, psychologist and researchers and who will be using it in the next coming years. DSM-5, like the preceding editions, placed disorders in discrete categories such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The problem is that scientists have been unable to find yet a genetic or neurobiological evidence to support the theory of mental disorders as separate categories. Several authors wanted the latest DSM to move away from the category model towards a new "dimensional approach", where disorders can be measured and mental illnesses overlapping can be reduced. Recent findings supports this new dimensional strategy, suggesting that the disorders are a product of shared risk factors that lead to abnormalities in specific drives, which can be measured and used to place persons on one of several spectra. In some parts the DSM-5 entered changes aiming to achieve a greater objectivity. The door for new changes in each category, dimension or criteria has been opened, favoring an evidence-based development of the future versions. DSM-5 is presented as a "living document" that can be updated easily. However, the category model still remains for many disorders. The future research in psychiatric diagnostic systems requires more genetic-molecular and neurophysiological evidence and more objective multinational field trials, in order to confirm the existence of the new diagnostic entities, spectrums or dimensions. This approach may provide us reliable

  15. The 2003 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for tomorrow's business agenda. (United States)


    International conflict. Bear markets. Corporate scandals. The events of this past year have prompted intense soul-searching in many quarters and led us, in this year's list of the best business ideas, to reassess some of the most basic assumptions about strategy, organizations, and leadership. We began by reconsidering the role of the leader. Whether the boss is a hero or villain, discussions of leadership focus almost exclusively on the CEO. But attention also needs to be paid to the other people who make organizations work, not only to the corporate boards that oversee CEOs but to the followers--to their responsibilities, their power, and their obligation not to follow flawed leaders. And we considered the fate of soft issues, like emotional intelligence, in hard times. It's tempting to dismiss them when your employees will do anything just to keep their jobs. But hard times are good times to employ such tools on yourself. They can arm you with the self-awareness you need to understand, anticipate, and outwit your enemies. Where tools may fail, an attitude adjustment may be what's needed. Despite valiant efforts to lead change and eliminate inefficiencies, organizations stay messy. Perhaps it's better to learn to live with messiness and even focus on its benefits, one of which may be growth. Not the meteoric, effortless illusion we indulged in during the 1990s, but significant gains nonetheless. These can come when managers embrace messiness not just within their organizations but along the boundaries of the firm, blurring the line between their own core assets and functions and those of other companies. There's growth potential, too, in considering the company as a portfolio of opportunities--but only if managers can sell off poorly performing business units as easily as they've been shedding ailing stocks of late.

  16. Creative Management as a Strategy for Breakthrough Innovation. Lessons from Basic Research Projects of Japanese Companies. (United States)

    Lee, K. T.


    Japanese science/technology policies emphasize creative research management for strengthening breakthrough innovation. Key lessons include the following: cultivation of creative researchers, clear strategic directions, systematic teamwork and collaboration, focus on strategic industrial relevance, balance between autonomy and control, and the need…

  17. First case of breakthrough pneumonia due to Aspergillus nomius in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. (United States)

    Caira, Morena; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; de Carolis, Elena; Leone, Giuseppe; Pagano, Livio


    We report the first known case of a breakthrough pulmonary infection caused by Aspergillus nomius in an acute myeloid leukemia patient receiving caspofungin therapy. The isolate was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and sequencing-based methods. The organism was found to be fully susceptible, in vitro, to echinocandin antifungal agents.

  18. Efficacy and safety of tramadol/acetaminophen in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming-Lin Ho; Chih-Yuan Chung


    We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score >/=40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer (Author).

  19. Efficacy and safety of tramadol/acetaminophen in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Lin; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Cheng; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Hsu, Nicholas C; Chang, Cheng-Shyong


    We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score ≥40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p≤0.001 versus 0 min for all 3 time points). The mean time to pain relief was 597.2 seconds and the mean VAS score at time of relief was 43.4. The effective rates, defined by more than 30% reduction of the VAS score, after 10 minutes of administration was 74.6%, 30 minutes 86.4%, and one hour 94.9% (p≤0.001 versus 0 minute for all 3 time points). Two cases of drowsiness were reported. Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer.

  20. [Parahisian atrial tachycardia or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough?]. (United States)

    Orczykowski, Michał; Jaworska-Wilczyńska, Maria; Urbanek, Piotr; Bodalski, Robert; Derejko, Paweł; Gajek, Jacek; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek


    We present a case of a 61 year-old woman with tachycardia originating close to the His bundle where radiofrequency (RF) ablation may bear potential risk of atrioventricular (AV) block. In this case report we discuss the possibility of a AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough. Patient was safely and effectively treated with RF catheter ablation.

  1. Micro dynamics in mediation


    Boserup, Hans


    The author has identified a number of styles in mediation, which lead to different processes and different outcomes. Through discourse and conversation analysis he examines the micro dynamics in three of these, the postmodern styles: systemic, transformative and narrative mediation. The differences between the three mediation ideologies and practice is illustrated through role play scripts enacted in each style. Mediator and providers of mediation and trainers in mediation are encouraged to a...

  2. Effect of temperature on the breakthrough of a charcoal tube during vinyl chloride monomer sampling. (United States)

    Roh, J; Park, Y J; Kim, C N; Lim, N G; Lee, S H; Song, J S; Won, J U; Talaska, G


    This study evaluated the effects of temperature on breakthrough of two standard collection media at various concentrations during vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) sampling. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods were evaluated. To determine whether breakthrough of VCM would occur at the extremes of exposure and temperature that might be encountered in some workplaces, air samples containing 4 ppm (10.24 mg/m3), 8 ppm (20.45 mg/m3), 16 ppm (40.98 mg/m3), and 32 ppm (81.80 mg/m3) of VCM were collected at temperatures of 4, 22, and 40 degrees C. Five liters of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 100 min using the activated charcoal tube recommended by NIOSH. A second tube was added to the sampling train to collect any VCM that might not have been absorbed in the first tube. To collect VCM air samples by the OSHA method, two carbon molecular sieve tubes were connected serially and 3 L of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 60 min. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and ultra 2 capillary column was used to analyze VCM. Significant breakthrough was found when sampling at higher temperatures with the NIOSH method. No breakthrough was found when samples were collected using the OSHA media at different temperatures and concentrations. Therefore, under hot ambient conditions (>22 degrees C), the possibility of breakthrough should be considered when sampling VCM by the NIOSH method.

  3. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection. (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S


    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey of Canadian cancer patients' perspectives on the characteristics and treatment of breakthrough pain. (United States)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hawley, Philippa; Zhang, Liying; Slaven, Marissa; Gagnon, Pierre; Bisland, Stuart; Bennett, Margaret; Tardif, Francois; Chow, Edward


    Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs spontaneously or in response to a trigger despite stable and controlled background pain. The purpose of this study was to explore Canadian patients' awareness of and experience with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). Four Canadian cancer centers participated in a non-interventional survey recruiting cancer patients who experienced breakthrough pain. These patients were asked about their pain, its impact on functioning, current management and interest in new treatments of BTPc. Ninety-four Canadian cancer patients participated in this study, with 96% stating that cancer pain impacted their daily living with over half unable to go to work or shopping. Fifty percent of patients said that an episode of BTPc lasted greater than 60 minutes, with the pain score being on average 7.8/10, impacting normal work (7.2/10) and general activity (7.1/10). Only 35% of patients were very satisfied with the speed of relief of their medications. Those who did not take their breakthrough pain medication for every episode stated that was because the pain was not always severe (37%), or they were afraid of becoming tolerant (23%) or addicted (12%). Patients stated that the most important features of a new treatment for BTPc were the ability to relieve pain completely (47%), and quickly (43%). Patients expressed willingness to try transmucosal products (80%) or nasal products (59%). Breakthrough cancer pain in Canadian cancer patients greatly impacts their daily lives. There is room for improvement in the management of BTPc, and the majority of patients would be willing to try new treatments.

  5. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)


    In Germany more than 20% of the energy mix is made up of renewable energy and its share is rapidly increasing. The federal government expects renewables to account for 35% of Germany's electricity consumption by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. According to the German Energy Agency, multi-billion euro investments in energy storage are expected by 2020 in order to reach these goals. The growth of this fluctuating energy supply has created demand for innovative storage options in Germany and it is accelerating the development of technologies in this field. Along with batteries and smart grids, hydrogen is expected to be one of the lead technologies. 2010 a commercialization roadmap for wind hydrogen was set up by the two northern federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein with the goal of utilizing surplus wind power for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. With the creation of the 'performing energy initiative', 2011, Brandenburg and Lower Saxony joined this undertaking. The aim of this initiative is to set up demonstration projects in order to develop and optimize wind-hydrogen hybrid systems and prepare their commercialization for the time after 2020. Beside the conversion of hydrogen into electricity and fuel for cars, further markets like raw material for the chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and food industry are going to be addressed. Considering the fact there are over 40 caves currently used for natural gas storage with a total volume of 23.5 billion cubic meters and 400 000 km gas grid available in Germany, the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water sees opportunities for hydrogen to be fed into the existing natural gas grid network. The name of this concept is power-to-gas. According to the current DVGW-Standards natural gas in Germany can contain up to 5% hydrogen. The GERG, European Group on the Gas Research sees potential to increase this amount up to 6% to 20%. Power-to-gas could serve both for fuel and for the

  6. Choreographing Partnerships within an Organizational Structure of Accountability: Maryland State Department of Education's Shift from Compliance Monitor to Breakthrough Partner (United States)

    Strickling, Laura Rutter; Doneker, Karen Lee


    Drawing upon data from twenty-five interviews, this paper examines how the Maryland State Department of Education's Cross-functional Team navigates its changing role from compliance monitor to breakthrough partner in terms of discourse, time, and flexibility, as it carries out the work of the Breakthrough Center. It also examines how the role of…

  7. Lead poisoning (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  8. Lead Poisoning (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  9. Aldosterone breakthrough in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease. (United States)

    Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; Eriksson, A; Hess, A M


    Aldosterone breakthrough (ABT) is the condition in which angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers fail to effectively suppress the activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The objective of this study was to determine if ABT occurs in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving an ACEI, using the urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) as a measure of renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation. This study includes 39 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. A UAldo:C cut-off definition (derived from a normal population of healthy, adult, and client-owned dogs) was used to determine the prevalence of ABT in this population. Spearman analysis and univariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship between UAldo:C and ABT (yes/no) and eight variables (age, serum K + concentration, serum creatinine concentration, ACEI therapy duration and ACEI dosage, furosemide therapy duration and furosemide dosage, and urine sample storage time). Finally, the UAldo:C in dogs receiving spironolactone, as part congestive heart failure (CHF) therapy, was compared to dogs with CHF that were not receiving spironolactone. The prevalence of ABT was 32% in dogs with CHF and 30% in dogs without CHF. There was no relationship between either the UAldo:C or the likelihood of ABT and the eight variables. Therapy with spironolactone lead to a significant elevation of the UAldo:C. Using the UAldo:C and a relatively stringent definition of ABT, it appears that incomplete RAAS blockade is common in dogs with MMVD receiving an ACEI. The prevalence of ABT in this canine population mirrors that reported in humans. While the mechanism of ABT is likely multifactorial and still poorly understood, the proven existence of ABT in dogs offers the potential to improve the prognosis for MMVD with the addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker to current therapeutic regimens

  10. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L.; Chen, R.; Zhou, C.


    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  11. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chen, R., E-mail: [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Urban and Civil Engineering for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhou, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)


    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  12. Micro Programming


    Spanjersberg , Herman


    International audience; In the 1970s a need arose to perform special arithmetic operations on minicomputers much more quickly than had been possible in the past. This paper tells the story of why micro programming was needed for special arithmetic operations on mini computers in the 1970s and how it was implemented. The paper tells how the laboratory in which the first experiment took place had a PDP-9 minicomputer from Digital Equipment Corporation and how the author, with several colleagues...

  13. Update on Recovering Lead From Scrap Batteries (United States)

    Cole, E. R.; Lee, A. Y.; Paulson, D. L.


    Previous work at the Bureau of Mines Rolla Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, resulted in successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling lead from scrap batteries by using waste fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) as electrolyte.1,2 This paper describes larger scale experiments. Prior attempts to electrowin lead failed because large quantities of insoluble lead dioxide were deposited on the anodes at the expense of lead deposition on the cathodes. A major breakthrough was achieved with the discovery that lead dioxide formation at the anodes is prevented by adding a small amount of phosphorus to the electrolyte. The amount of PbO2 formed on the anodes during lead electrowinning was less than 1% of the total lead deposited on the cathodes. This work recently won the prestigious IR·100 award as one of the 100 most significant technological advances of 1984.

  14. Breakthrough bargaining. (United States)

    Kolb, D M; Williams, J


    Unspoken, subtle parts of a bargaining process--also known as the shadow negotiation--can set the tone for a successful negotiation. Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting point for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions. Power moves are used when two negotiating parties hold unequal power--for instance, subordinates and bosses; new and existing employees; and people of different races, ages, or genders. These strategies, such as casting the status quo in an unfavorable light, can help parties realize that they must negotiate: they will be better off if they do and worse off if they don't. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues. Working outside of the actual bargaining process, one party can suggest ideas or marshal support that can shape the agenda and influence how others view the negotiation. Appreciative moves alter the tone or atmosphere so that a more collaborative exchange is possible. They shift the dynamics of the shadow negotiation away from the adversarial--helping parties to save face--and thus build trust and encourage dialogue. These strategic moves don't guarantee that all bargainers will walk away winners, but they help to get stalled negotiations moving--out of the dark of unspoken power plays and into the light of true dialogue.

  15. Mathematical models applied to the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) breakthrough curves. (United States)

    Ramirez C, Margarita; Pereira da Silva, Mônica; Ferreira L, Selma G; Vasco E, Oscar


    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium continuous biosorption was studied using residual brewer Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in volcanic rock. The columns used in the process had a diameter of 4.5 cm and a length of 140 cm, working at an inlet flow rate of 15 mL/min. Breakthrough curves were used to study the yeast biosorption behavior in the process. The saturation time (ts) was 21 and 45 h for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, and a breakthrough time (tb) of 4 h for Cr(III) and 5 h for Cr(VI). The uptake capacity of the biosorbent for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 48 and 60 mg/g, respectively. Two non-diffusional mathematical models with parameters t0 and sigma were used to adjust the experimental data obtained. Microsoft Excel tools were used for the mathematical solution of the two parameters used.

  16. Electrical breakthrough effect for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Soskov, Alex; Scipioni, Larry; Bassom, Neil; Sijbrandij, Sybren; Smith, Gerald


    The interaction between high-energy Ga + ions and condensed matter is studied for circuit edit applications. A new 'electrical breakthrough effect' due to charging of, and Ga + penetration/doping into, dielectrics is discovered. This new effect is proposed for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edits where integrated circuit device dimensions are of a few hundred nanometers. This new end point approach is very sensitive, reliable, and precise. Most importantly, it is not sensitive to device dimensions. A series of circuit edits involving milling holes of high aspect ratio (5-30) and small cross-section area (0.01-0.25 μm 2 ) on real chips has been successfully performed using the electrical breakthrough effect as the end point method

  17. Breakthrough of toluene vapours in granular activated carbon filled packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.; Kannan, G.K.; Upendra, S.; Subha, R.; Kumar, N.S.


    The objective of this research was to determine the toluene removal efficiency and breakthrough time using commercially available coconut shell-based granular activated carbon in packed bed reactor. To study the effect of toluene removal and break point time of the granular activated carbon (GAC), the parameters studied were bed lengths (2, 3, and 4 cm), concentrations (5, 10, and 15 mg l -1 ) and flow rates (20, 40, and 60 ml/min). The maximum percentage removal of 90% was achieved and the maximum carbon capacity for 5 mg l -1 of toluene, 60 ml/min flow rate and 3 cm bed length shows 607.14 mg/g. The results of dynamic adsorption in a packed bed were consistent with those of equilibrium adsorption by gravimetric method. The breakthrough time and quantity shows that GAC with appropriate surface area can be utilized for air cleaning filters. The result shows that the physisorption plays main role in toluene removal.

  18. Breakthrough on technical and vocational education of Taiwan: Take Oriental Institute of Technology as an example (United States)

    Chang, Horng-jinh; Wang, Whe-min


    Taiwan's economic strength has changed drastically in the past decade because of political and economic reasons; however, in order to cope with international environment, higher education must increase its breakthrough to meet the needs of enterprises. School curriculum also has to be timely changes and adjustments. This study will analyze school learning in several directions, use questionnaire to investigate students' learning stress, to find out where students' pressure lie. Also, outsourcing employers' satisfaction survey to find out what do enterprises wants to solve with the drop problem between school and enterprise. Taking Oriental Institute of Technology (OIT) as an example; over the past ten years, OIT has used overseas internships to help students overcome learning difficulties. Overseas practice courses include Penang Malaysia and Suzhou China had gained tremendous breakthrough.

  19. Ordovician gas exploration breakthrough in the Gucheng lower uplift of the Tarim Basin and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaoming


    Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.

  20. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J; deCamp, Allan C; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Kijak, Gustavo H; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A; O'Connell, Robert J; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B


    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens.

  1. The Effect of Velocity Correlation on the Spatial Evolution of Breakthrough Curves in Heterogeneous Media (United States)

    Massoudieh, A.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.


    In heterogeneous media, the velocity distribution and the spatial correlation structure of velocity for solute particles determine the breakthrough curves and how they evolve as one moves away from the solute source. The ability to predict such evolution can help relating the spatio-statistical hydraulic properties of the media to the transport behavior and travel time distributions. While commonly used non-local transport models such as anomalous dispersion and classical continuous time random walk (CTRW) can reproduce breakthrough curve successfully by adjusting the model parameter values, they lack the ability to relate model parameters to the spatio-statistical properties of the media. This in turns limits the transferability of these models. In the research to be presented, we express concentration or flux of solutes as a distribution over their velocity. We then derive an integrodifferential equation that governs the evolution of the particle distribution over velocity at given times and locations for a particle ensemble, based on a presumed velocity correlation structure and an ergodic cross-sectional velocity distribution. This way, the spatial evolution of breakthrough curves away from the source is predicted based on cross-sectional velocity distribution and the connectivity, which is expressed by the velocity transition probability density. The transition probability is specified via a copula function that can help construct a joint distribution with a given correlation and given marginal velocities. Using this approach, we analyze the breakthrough curves depending on the velocity distribution and correlation properties. The model shows how the solute transport behavior evolves from ballistic transport at small spatial scales to Fickian dispersion at large length scales relative to the velocity correlation length.

  2. [Breakthrough pain treatment with sublingual fentanyl in patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers]. (United States)

    Domingo-Triadó, V; López Alarcón, M D; Villegas Estévez, F; Alba Moratillas, C; Massa Domínguez, B; Palomares Payá, F; Mínguez Martí, A; Debón Vicent, L


    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids in the management of pain in those patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers and breakthrough/incidental pain. An open-label, multicentre, prospective, uncontrolled study was conducted in the pain and ulcer units of 5 hospitals across the Comunidad Valenciana. Eligibility criteria were baseline pain 4 in the visual analogue scale or breakthrough procedural pain 4. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, opioid intolerance, or patient refusal to provide informed consent. The protocol scheduled 5 controls: baseline (enrolment), 15 days, one month, 2 months, and 3 months. The main outcome measure of the study was the visual analogue scale score during rest, movement and procedures. Opioids were administered for release of the baseline pain, and sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain. A total of 32 patients (86.5%) completed the study. Baseline pain achieved a mean improvement of 3.6 visual analogue scale points (SD 2.3), movement pain improved by 3.9 points (SD 2.5) and procedural pain improved by 4.5 points (SD 2.8), and the mean pain intensity improvement was statistically significant from the first control and at all controls thereafter (PDolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Breakthrough analysis for water disinfection using silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in fixed-bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy; Onyango, Maurice S.; Momba, Maggie N.B.


    Highlights: ► Performance of silver nanoparticles coated resin in water disinfection is presented. ► Sigmoidal models are used to describe breakthrough curves. ► The performance of the media in water disinfection is affected by process variables. ► Test with environmental water shows the media is effective in water disinfection. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in deactivating microbes in drinking water in a column filtration system. The coated resin beads are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the functional groups, morphology and the presence of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the resin. The performance of the coated resin is evaluated as a function of bed mass, initial bacterial concentration and flow rate using Escherichia coli as model microbial contaminant in water. The survival curves of E. coli are expressed as breakthrough curves (BTCs), which are modeled using sigmoidal regression equations to obtain relevant rate parameters. The number of bed volumes processed at breakthrough point and capacity of the bed are used as performance indicators. Results show that performance increases with a decrease in initial bacterial concentration, an increase in flow rate and an increase in bed mass.

  4. MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) for Automotive and Consumer Electronics (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Gómez, Udo-Martin

    MEMS sensors gained over the last two decades an impressive width of applications: (a) ESP: A car is skidding and stabilizes itself without driver intervention (b) Free-fall detection: A laptop falls to the floor and protects the hard drive by parking the read/write drive head automatically before impact. (c) Airbag: An airbag fires before the driver/occupant involved in an impending automotive crash impacts the steering wheel, thereby significantly reducing physical injury risk. MEMS sensors are sensing the environmental conditions and are giving input to electronic control systems. These crucial MEMS sensors are making system reactions to human needs more intelligent, precise, and at much faster reaction rates than humanly possible. Important prerequisites for the success of sensors are their size, functionality, power consumption, and costs. This technical progress in sensor development is realized by micro-machining. The development of these processes was the breakthrough to industrial mass-production for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Besides leading-edge micromechanical processes, innovative and robust ASIC designs, thorough simulations of the electrical and mechanical behaviour, a deep understanding of the interactions (mainly over temperature and lifetime) of the package and the mechanical structures are needed. This was achieved over the last 20 years by intense and successful development activities combined with the experience of volume production of billions of sensors. This chapter gives an overview of current MEMS technology, its applications and the market share. The MEMS processes are described, and the challenges of MEMS, compared to standard IC fabrication, are discussed. The evolution of MEMS requirements is presented, and a short survey of MEMS applications is shown. Concepts of newest inertial sensors for ESP-systems are given with an emphasis on the design concepts of the sensing element and the evaluation circuit for achieving

  5. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A


    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  6. Lead Toxicity (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  7. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl


    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  8. Lead Test (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  9. Application of modelling and nanotechnology-based approaches: The emergence of breakthroughs in theranostics of central nervous system disorders. (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul


    The limited efficiency of the current treatment options against the central nervous system (CNS) disorders has created increasing demands towards the development of novel theranostic strategies. The enormous research efforts in nanotechnology have led to the production of highly-advanced nanodevices and biomaterials in a variety of geometries and configurations for targeted delivery of genes, drugs, or growth factors across the blood-brain barrier. Meanwhile, the richness or reliability of data, drug delivery methods, therapeutic effects or potential toxicity of nanoparticles, occurrence of the unexpected phenomena due to the polydisperse or polymorphic nature of nanomaterials, and personalized theranostics have remained as challenging issues. In this respect, computational modelling has emerged as a powerful tool for rational design of nanoparticles with optimized characteristics including the selectivity, improved bioactivity, and reduced toxicity that might lead to the effective delivery of therapeutic agents. High-performance simulation techniques by shedding more light on the dynamical behaviour of neural networks and pathomechanisms of CNS disorders may provide imminent breakthroughs in nanomedicine. In the present review, the importance of integration of nanotechnology-based approaches with computational techniques for targeted delivery of theranostics to the CNS has been highlighted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.



    Pashkus N.A; Pashkus V.


    The article discusses the possibility of using active marketing strategies for promoting the results of university’s innovations. Benefits, that can be obtained by university through its strategy of breakthrough positioning explored

  11. Breakthrough Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans double infection during caspofungin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter


    Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery...... without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from...

  12. Making synthetic mudstone: Parametric resedimentation studies at high effective stress to determine controls on breakthrough pressure and permeability (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Cockrell, L.; Espinoza, N.


    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. As CO2 rises buoyantly within a reservoir it pools beneath a caprock and a pressure is exerted upon the pores of the caprock proportionally to the height of the pool. The breakthrough pressure is the point at which CO2 begins to flow freely across the caprock. Understanding the mineralogical and grain size controls on breakthrough pressure is important for screening the security of CO2 sequestration sites. However, breakthrough pressure and permeability measurements on caprocks are difficult to conduct in a systematic manner given the variability in and heterogeneity of naturally occurring mudstones and shales causing significant noise and scatter in the literature. Recent work has even revealed the ability for CO2 to pass through thin shale beds at relatively low pressures. To broaden the understanding of shale breakthrough and permeability, we developed an approach that allows for the creation of resedimented mudstones at high effective stresses. Resedimented samples also include calcium carbonate cement. Using this technique, we explore the controls on entry pressure, breakthrough pressure, and permeability of synthetic mudstones. Understanding the effect of mineralogy and grain size on the permeability and breakthrough pressure of mudstones at reservoir stresses will help in the selection and uncertainty quantification of secure CO2 storage sites.

  13. Leading Democratically (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen


    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  14. MicroED data collection and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Leslie, Andrew G. W. [Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gonen, Tamir, E-mail: [Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States)


    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  15. Procedure and accuracy in the Eurotunnel breakthrough. Vorgehensweise und Genauigkeit beim Durchschlag des Eurotunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korittke, N. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Lagerstaette und Vermessung (ILV))


    After a construction time of about 2.5 years the first link was made in the Eurotunnel between France and England, viz. the service tunnel, on 1 December 1990. Thanks to the accurate Gyromat measurements of the Institute for Mineral Deposits and Surveying of the Deutsche Montan Technologie (DMT) a transverse deviation of only 361 mm, a longitudinal deviation of 69 mm and a vertical deviation of 58 mm were determined in the breakthrough of the 22.3 and 15.6 km long tunnel sections. (orig.).

  16. Epicardial Breakthrough Waves During Sinus Rhythm: Depiction of the Arrhythmogenic Substrate? (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S


    Epicardial breakthrough waves (EBW) during atrial fibrillation are important elements of the arrhythmogenic substrate and result from endo-epicardial asynchrony, which also occurs to some degree during sinus rhythm (SR). We examined the incidence and characteristics of EBW during SR and its possible value in the detection of the arrhythmogenic substrate associated with atrial fibrillation. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (interelectrode distances 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle, the left atrioventricular groove, and the pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 381 patients (289 male, 67±10 years) with ischemic or valvular heart disease. EBW were referred to as sinus node breakthrough waves if they were the earliest right atrial activated site. A total of 218 EBW and 57 sinus node breakthrough waves were observed in 168 patients (44%). EBW mostly occurred at right atrium (N=105, 48%) and left atrioventricular groove (N=67, 31%), followed by Bachmann's bundle (N=27, 12%) and pulmonary vein area (N=19, 9%; P <0.001). EBW occurred most often in ischemic heart disease patients (N=114, 49%) compared with (ischemic and) valvular heart disease patients (N=26, 17%; P <0.001). EBW electrograms most often consisted of double and fractionated potentials (N=137, 63%). In case of single potentials, an R wave was observed in 88% (N=71) of EBW, as opposed to 21% of sinus node breakthrough waves (N=5; P <0.001). Fractionated EBW potentials were more often observed at the right atrium and Bachmann's bundle ( P <0.001). During SR, EBW are present in over a third of patients, particularly in thicker parts of the atrial wall. Features of SR EBW indicate that muscular connections between endo- and epicardium underlie EBW and that a slight degree of endo-epicardial asynchrony required for EBW to occur is already present in some areas during SR. Hence, an anatomic substrate is present, which may enhance the occurrence of EBW during atrial fibrillation, thereby

  17. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Edlefsen


    Full Text Available The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients. A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro. The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021. In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3 overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1 more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9 (p < 0.0001, suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine

  18. So That's How! 2007 Microsoft® Office System Timesavers, Breakthroughs, & Everyday Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Archilla, Evan


    Turn your productivity drains into productivity gains! With this practical (and fun) guide, you'll discover the best ways to tackle your daily work with the 2007 Microsoft Office system. The authors have taught thousands of people to get better results with less effort. Now these efficiency experts let you steal from their "tip jar" full of timesaving shortcuts and other brilliant ideas. You'll explore what's new in your favorite Microsoft Office programs-and transform the way you work. Get timesavers, breakthroughs, & everyday genius to: Take control of your inbox, calendar, and everyday in

  19. The Impact of Breakthrough Therapy Designation on Development Strategies and Timelines for Nononcology Drugs and Vaccines. (United States)

    Poirier, A F; Murphy, W R


    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA, 2012) introduced the Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD), a new tool to expedite development of medicines to treat serious or life-threatening diseases. The majority of BTDs have gone to oncology drugs, and a recent publication by Shea et al. 1 reviewed the impact of BTD on oncology drug development. This article reviews the impact of BTD on development strategies and timelines for nononcology drugs. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Wafer integrated micro-scale concentrating photovoltaics (United States)

    Gu, Tian; Li, Duanhui; Li, Lan; Jared, Bradley; Keeler, Gordon; Miller, Bill; Sweatt, William; Paap, Scott; Saavedra, Michael; Das, Ujjwal; Hegedus, Steve; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Hu, Juejun


    Recent development of a novel micro-scale PV/CPV technology is presented. The Wafer Integrated Micro-scale PV approach (WPV) seamlessly integrates multijunction micro-cells with a multi-functional silicon platform that provides optical micro-concentration, hybrid photovoltaic, and mechanical micro-assembly. The wafer-embedded micro-concentrating elements is shown to considerably improve the concentration-acceptance-angle product, potentially leading to dramatically reduced module materials and fabrication costs, sufficient angular tolerance for low-cost trackers, and an ultra-compact optical architecture, which makes the WPV module compatible with commercial flat panel infrastructures. The PV/CPV hybrid architecture further allows the collection of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thus extending the geographic and market domains for cost-effective PV system deployment. The WPV approach can potentially benefits from both the high performance of multijunction cells and the low cost of flat plate Si PV systems.

  1. Leading change. (United States)


    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  2. Micro club

    CERN Multimedia

    Micro club


    Opération NEMO   Pour finir en beauté les activités spéciales que le CMC a réalisé pendant cette année 2014, pour commémorer le 60ème anniversaire du CERN, et le 30ème du Micro Club, l’ Opération NEMO aura cette année un caractère très particulier. Nous allons proposer 6 fabricants de premier ordre qui offriront chacun deux ou trois produits à des prix exceptionnels. L’opération débute le lundi 17 novembre 2014. Elle se poursuivra  jusqu’au samedi 6 décembre inclus. Les délais de livraison seront de deux à trois semaines, selon les fabricants. Donc les commandes faites la dernière semaine, du 1 au 6 décembre, risquent d’arriver qu'au début du mois de janvier 2015. Liste de fabricants part...

  3. Micro club

    CERN Multimedia

    Micro Club


    Jeudi 18 septembre 2014 à 18h30 au Bât. 567 R-029 Le CERN MICRO CLUB organise un Atelier sur la sécurité informatique. La Cyber-sécurité : Ce qui se passe vraiment, comment ne pas en être victime ! Orateur : Sebastian Lopienski Adjoint au Computer Security Officer du Département IT. Sujet : Cet exposé vous présentera les modes de sécurité actuels et les problèmes touchants les applications logicielles des ordinateurs, les réseaux ainsi que leurs utilisateurs. Cela inclus des informations sur les nouveaux types de vulnérabilité, les vecteurs d'attaque récents et une vue d'ensemble sur le monde de la cyber-sécurité en 2014. Biographie : Sebastian Lopienski travaille au CERN depuis 2001. Il est actuellement adjoint au Computer Security Officer et s'occupe de la protection de...

  4. Breakthrough indicator for aromatic VOCs using needle trap samplers for activated carbon adsorbent. (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Huang, Yi-Ning; Huang, Shiun-Chian; Yu, Yan-Pin


    Internal circulation cabinets equipped with granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorbing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used to store bottles containing organic solvents in universities, colleges, and hospital laboratories throughout Taiwan. This work evaluates the VOC adsorption capacities of GAC using various adsorption times for gas stream mixtures of 100 ppm toluene and 100 ppm o-xylene. Additionally, needle trap sampling (NTS) technology was used to indicate the time for renewing the GAC to avoid VOC breakthrough from adsorbents. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed models can linearly express toluene and o-xylene adsorption capacities as the natural logarithm of adsorption time (ln(t)) and can accurately simulate the equilibrium adsorption capacities (Qe, g VOCs/g GAC) for gaseous toluene and o-xylene. The NTS, packed with 60-80 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles, was compared in terms of extraction efficiency by simultaneously using the 75-microm Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane-solid-phase microextraction (Carboxen/PDMS-SPME) fiber for time-weighted average (TWA) sampling, and experimental results indicated that the packed DVB-NTS achieved higher toluene extraction rates. Additionally, the NTS installed in the outlet air stream for adsorbing toluene and o-xylene exhausted through GAC accurately indicated toluene and o-xylene breakthrough times of 4700-5000 min. The GAC-NTS operational instructions to indicate the replacing time of adsorbent in the internal circulation cabinets are also included in this paper.

  5. Hand Hygiene Improvement and Sustainability: Assessing a Breakthrough Collaborative in Western Switzerland. (United States)

    Staines, Anthony; Amherdt, Isabelle; Lécureux, Estelle; Petignat, Christiane; Eggimann, Philippe; Schwab, Marcos; Pittet, Didier


    OBJECTIVE To assess hand hygiene improvement and sustainability associated with a Breakthrough Collaborative. DESIGN Multicenter analysis of hand hygiene compliance through direct observation by trained observers. SETTING A total of 5 publicly funded hospitals in 14 locations, with a total of 1,152 beds, in the County of Vaud, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Clinical staff. INTERVENTIONS In total, 59,272 opportunities for hand hygiene were monitored for the duration of the study, for an average of 5,921 per audit (range, 5,449-6,852). An 18-month Hand Hygiene Breakthrough Collaborative was conducted to implement the WHO multimodal promotional strategy including improved access to alcohol-based hand rub, education, performance measurement and feedback, reminders and communication, leadership engagement, and safety culture. RESULTS Overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 61.9% to 88.3% (Pstrategy for content and measurement was associated with significant and substantial improvement in compliance across all professions, all hand hygiene indications, and all participating hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1420-1427.

  6. Proposal to realize a cost breakthrough in carbon-13 production by photochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.


    A cost breakthrough can now be made in photochemical production of the rare stable isotope carbon-13. This cost breakthrough is achieved by CO 2 laser infrared multiple-photon dissociation of any of several halocarbons (Freon derivatives) such as CF 3 Cl, CF 3 Br, or CF 2 Cl 2 . The single-step carbon-13 enrichment factor for this process is approximately 50, yielding 30% pure C-13 in one step, or up to 97% pure C-13 in two steps. A three-fold carbon-13 cost reduction to below $20/gram is expected to be achieved in a small laboratory-scale demonstration facility capable of producing 4 to 8 kg/year of carbon-13, using presently available pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers at an average power level of 50 watts. Personnel costs dominate the attainable C-13 production costs in a small photochemical enrichment facility. A price reduction to $2/gm carbon-13 is feasible at carbon-13 production levels of 100 to 1000 kg/year, dominated by the Freon raw material costs

  7. Ecotoxicology: Lead (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.


    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  8. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes


    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  9. Levitating Micro-Actuators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Poletkin


    Full Text Available Through remote forces, levitating micro-actuators completely eliminate mechanical attachment between the stationary and moving parts of a micro-actuator, thus providing a fundamental solution to overcoming the domination of friction over inertial forces at the micro-scale. Eliminating the usual mechanical constraints promises micro-actuators with increased operational capabilities and low dissipation energy. Further reduction of friction and hence dissipation by means of vacuum leads to dramatic increases of performance when compared to mechanically tethered counterparts. In order to efficiently employ the benefits provided by levitation, micro-actuators are classified according to their physical principles as well as by their combinations. Different operating principles, structures, materials and fabrication methods are considered. A detailed analysis of the significant achievements in the technology of micro-optics, micro-magnets and micro-coil fabrication, along with the development of new magnetic materials during recent decades, which has driven the creation of new application domains for levitating micro-actuators is performed.

  10. Breakthrough curve of H/sub 2/-Ti-sponge adsorption system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasufuku, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    Experimental work concerning H/sub 2/-Ti-sponge adsorption system has been undertaken at Kawasaki Heavy Industry Co. to obtain necessary data for the design of hydrogen removal tower (Ti-sponge trap) to be used as an purification component of a VHTR plant. In this study, the effects of equilibrium curve, H/sub 2/ inlet concentration, and the ratio of the solid-side capacity factor to the gas-side capacity factor on the breakthrough curve were investigated. The Freundlich's equation with the diffusion model of Carter et al. was numerically solved by the Crank-Nicholson method, and the results of calculations are presented. The flow diagram and the photographs of the facilities for He gas purification experiments are also presented.

  11. Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain in patients receiving transdermal fentanyl. (United States)

    Alberts, David S; Smith, Christina Cognata; Parikh, Neha; Rauck, Richard L


    To investigate the relationship between effective fentanyl sublingual spray (FSS) doses for breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) and around-the-clock (ATC) transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP). Adults tolerating ATC opioids received open-label FSS for 26 days, followed by a 26-day double-blind phase for patients achieving an effective dose (100-1600 µg). Out of 50 patients on ATC TFP at baseline, 32 (64%) achieved an effective dose. FSS effective dose moderately correlated with mean TFP dose (r = 0.4; p = 0.03). Patient satisfaction increased during the study. Common adverse event included nausea (9%) and peripheral edema (9%). FSS can be safely titrated to an effective dose for BTCP in patients receiving ATC TFP as chronic cancer pain medication. identifier: NCT00538850.

  12. Scientific breakthroughs necessary for the commercial success of renewable energy (Invited) (United States)

    Sharp, J.


    In recent years the wind energy industry has grown at an unprecedented rate, and in certain regions has attained significant penetration into the power infrastructure. This growth has been both a result of, and a precursor to, significant advances in the science and business of wind energy. But as a result of this growth and increasing penetration, further advances and breakthroughs will become increasingly important. These advances will be required in a number of different aspects of wind energy, including: resource assessment, operations and performance analysis, forecasting, and the impacts of increased wind energy development. Resource assessment has benefited from the development of tools specifically designed for this purpose. Despite this, the atmosphere is often portrayed in an extremely simplified manner by these tools. New methodologies should rely upon more sophisticated application of the physics of fluid flows. There will need to be an increasing reliance and acceptance of improved measurement techniques (remote sensing, volume rather than point measurements, etc), and more sophisticated and higher-resolution numerical methods for micrositing. The goals of resource assessment will have to include a better understanding of the variability and forecastability of potential sites. Operational and performance analysis are vital to quantifying how well all aspects of the business are being carried out. Operational wind farms generate large amounts of meteorological and mechanical data. Data mining and detailed analysis of this data has proven to be invaluable to shed light upon poorly understood aspects of the science and industry. Future analysis will need to be even more rigorous and creative. Worthy topics of study include the impact of turbine wakes upon downstream turbine performance, how to utilize operational data to improve resource assessment and forecasting, and what the impacts of large-scale wind energy development might be. Forecasting is an

  13. Ovarian stem cells and neo-oogenesis: A breakthrough in reproductive biology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mooyottu1


    Full Text Available The concept of ovarian stem cells which can replenish the ovarian reserve in postnatal mammalian females is a revolutionary breakthrough in reproductive biology. This idea overturned the central dogma existed in female reproductive physiology. Contradicting the popular belief that oogenesis does not occur in post natal life, researchers proved the existence of putative stem cells in ovary, which can supply functional follicles in post natal ovaries. Even though the idea of neo-oogenesis in postnatal ovaries in normal conditions is controversial, the isolation and manipulation of ovarian stem cells have got tremendous application in medical, veterinary and animal production fields. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 89-91

  14. From Bottleneck to Breakthrough: Urbanization and the Future of Biodiversity Conservation. (United States)

    Sanderson, Eric W; Walston, Joseph; Robinson, John G


    For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy. Building on the scholarship of others in demography, economics, sociology, and conservation biology, here, we articulate a theory of social-environmental change that describes the simultaneous and interacting effects of urban lifestyles on fertility, poverty alleviation, and ideation. By recognizing the shifting dynamics of these macrodrivers, conservation practice has the potential to transform itself from a discipline managing declines ("bottleneck") to a transformative movement of recovery ("breakthrough").

  15. Marketization of Collective-owned Rural Land: A Breakthrough in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Zou


    Full Text Available This study focuses on analyzing the ongoing land policy reform that allows collective-owned rural land transactions in the open market in Shenzhen, China. Employing a case study method, we investigate this land policy evolution through description and contextual analysis. We argue that the existing dual-track land administration system, within which the state administers market transactions, has contributed to numerous social problems, such as urban land scarcity, inefficiency of land resource allocation, and exacerbated social injustice. Following the recent actions of the central government, a collective-owned rural land parcel in Shenzhen was officially transferred in November 2013, an action viewed as a landmark step in reforming the current dual-track land system. Though the generalization of Shenzhen’s experiment nationwide faces significant barriers, Shenzhen’s breakthrough in liberalization of the rural land market indicates that China is moving toward a potential new round of land policy revolution.

  16. Solar Spicules: Prospects for Breakthroughs in Understanding with Solar-B (United States)

    Sterling, A.

    Spicules densely populate the lower solar atmosphere; any image or movie of the chromosphere shows a plethora of them or their "cousins," such as mottles or fibrils. Yet despite several decades of effort we still do not know the mechanism that generates them, or how important their contribution is to the material and energy balance of the overall solar atmosphere. Solar-B will provide exciting new chromospheric observations at high time- and spatial-resolution, along with associated quality magnetic field data, that promise to open doors to revolutionary breakthroughs in spicule research. In this presentation we will review the current observational and theoretical status of spicule studies, and discuss prospects for advances in spicule understanding during the Solar-B era.

  17. Plastic fracture instability analysis of wall breakthrough in a circumferentially cracked pipe subjected to bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.


    A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs

  18. Plastic fracture instability analysis of wall breakthrough in a circumferentially cracked pipe subjected to bending loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.


    A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs.

  19. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis mimicking breakthrough seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Abdool


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with a past history of primary generalized seizures, who had been seizure-free for 2 years on sodium valproate and presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures suggestive of breakthrough seizures. Examination revealed hypertension, impetiginous lesions of the lower limbs, microscopic hematuria, elevated antistreptolysin O titre and low complement levels consistent with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension was controlled with intravenous nitroglycerin followed by oral captopril and amlodipine. Brain MRI changes returned normal within 2 weeks. The nephritis went in to remission within 2 months and after 8 months the patient has been seizure free again. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome appeared to have neither short nor intermediate effect on seizure control in this patient. The relationship between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures is reviewed.

  20. Supply chain optimization: a practitioner's perspective on the next logistics breakthrough. (United States)

    Schlegel, G L


    The objective of this paper is to profile a practitioner's perspective on supply chain optimization and highlight the critical elements of this potential new logistics breakthrough idea. The introduction will briefly describe the existing distribution network, and business environment. This will include operational statistics, manufacturing software, and hardware configurations. The first segment will cover the critical success factors or foundations elements that are prerequisites for success. The second segment will give you a glimpse of a "working game plan" for successful migration to supply chain optimization. The final segment will briefly profile "bottom-line" benefits to be derived from the use of supply chain optimization as a strategy, tactical tool, and competitive advantage.

  1. On the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors investigated the late-time (asymptotic) behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves (BTCs) with rate-limited mass transfer (e.g., in dual or multi-porosity systems) and found that the late-time concentration, c, is given by the simple expression: c = t{sub ad} (c{sub 0}g {minus} m{sub 0}{partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}t), for t >> t{sub ad} and t{sub a} >> t{sub ad} where t{sub ad} is the advection time, c{sub 0} is the initial concentration in the medium, m{sub 0} is the 0th moment of the injection pulse; and t{sub a} is the mean residence time in the immobile domain (i.e., the characteristic mass transfer time). The function g is proportional to the residence time distribution in the immobile domain, the authors tabulate g for many geometries, including several distributed (multirate) models of mass transfer. Using this expression they examine the behavior of late-time concentration for a number of mass transfer models. One key results is that if rate-limited mass transfer causes the BTC to behave as a power-law at late-time (i.e., c {approximately} t{sup {minus}k}), then the underlying density function of rate coefficients must also be a power-law with the form a{sup k{minus}}, as a {r_arrow}0. This is true for both density functions of first-order and diffusion rate coefficients. BTCs with k < 3 persisting to the end of the experiment indicate a mean residence time longer than the experiment and possibly infinite, and also suggest an effective rate coefficient that is either undefined or changes as a function of observation time. They apply their analysis to breakthrough curves from Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

  2. Accuracy of a Diagnostic Algorithm to Diagnose Breakthrough Cancer Pain as Compared With Clinical Assessment. (United States)

    Webber, Katherine; Davies, Andrew N; Cowie, Martin R


    Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a heterogeneous condition, and there are no internationally agreed standardized criteria to diagnose it. There are published algorithms to assist with diagnosis, but these differ in content. There are no comparative data to support use. To compare the diagnostic ability of a simple algorithm against a comprehensive clinical assessment to diagnose BTCP and to assess if verbal rating descriptors can adequately discriminate controlled background pain. Patients with cancer pain completed a three-step algorithm with a researcher to determine if they had controlled background pain and BTCP. This was followed by a detailed pain consultation with a clinical specialist who was blinded to the algorithm results and determined an independent pain diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the condition of BTCP. Further analysis determined which verbal pain severity descriptors corresponded with the condition of controlled background pain. The algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.54 and a specificity of 0.76 in the identification of BTCP. The positive predictive value was 0.7, and the negative predictive value was 0.62. The sensitivity of a background pain severity rating of mild or less to accurately categorize controlled background pain was 0.69 compared with 0.97 for severity of moderate or less; however, this was balanced by a higher specificity rating for mild or less, 0.78 compared with 0.2. The diagnostic breakthrough pain algorithm had a good positive predictive value but limited sensitivity using a cutoff score of "mild" to define controlled background pain. When the cutoff level was changed to moderate, the sensitivity increased, but specificity reduced. A comprehensive clinical assessment remains the preferred method to diagnose BTCP. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Accord on “Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh”: A Breakthrough Agreement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zillur Rahman


    Full Text Available This discussion aims to review the emergence of the “Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh” signed on May 13, 2013, and evaluate if it is an international agreement “breakthrough”. The Accord is signed not only by the global clothing brands and national garment unions but also by international trade union organizations, which is a new development. This raises a question: could this agreement set a new international negotiating precedence in industrial relations between transnational corporations and international trade union organizations? In Bangladesh, globalization has played an important role for booming garment industries. Yet, lack of workers’ rights, weak safety situations, and poor working conditions have continuously been reported. Local and international solidarity movements and garment workers’ welfare associations have been emphasizing workers’ rights and better and safer working environments in workplaces since the beginning of the 1990s. However, their voices were not highly considered even there were some initiatives. Following the ‘Rana Plaza’ garment factory building collapse in April 2013, one of the world’s worst industrial accidents, with more than 1,100 dead workers, some strong measures have been taken—one of these, signing the ‘Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh’. This is a strong achievement of a long struggle to take collective action for improving the safety in garment factories in Bangladesh. Although the Accord is understood as a game changer or breakthrough in relation to national and international agreements, do we really know yet if it is a breakthrough or not when it comes to its implementation?

  4. Photogravimagnetic assists of light sails: a mixed blessing for Breakthrough Starshot? (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.; Heller, René; Hippke, Michael


    Upon entering a star system, light sails are subject to both gravitational forces and radiation pressure, and can use both in concert to modify their trajectory. Moreover, stars possess significant magnetic fields, and if the sail is in any way charged, it will feel the Lorentz force also. We investigate the dynamics of so-called `photogravimagnetic assists' of sailcraft around α Centauri A, a potential first destination en route to Proxima Centauri (the goal of the Breakthrough Starshot programme). We find that a 10-m2 sail with a charge-to-mass ratio of around 10 μC g-1 or higher will need to take account of magnetic field effects during orbital manoeuvres. The magnetic field can provide an extra source of deceleration and deflection, and allow capture on to closer orbits around a target star. However, flipping the sign of the sailcraft's charge can radically change resulting trajectories, resulting in complex loop-de-loops around magnetic field lines and essentially random ejection from the star system. Even on well-behaved trajectories, the field can generate off-axis deflections at α Centauri that, while minor, can result in very poor targeting of the final destination (Proxima) post-assist. Fortunately for Breakthrough Starshot, nanosails are less prone to charging en route than their heavier counterparts, but can still accrue relatively high charge at both the origin and destination, when travelling at low speeds. Photogravimagnetic assists are highly non-trivial, and require careful course correction to mitigate against unwanted changes in trajectory.

  5. Aldosterone breakthrough with benazepril in furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normal dogs. (United States)

    Lantis, A C; Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; DeFrancesco, T C; Keene, B W; Werre, S R


    Pilot studies in our laboratory revealed that furosemide-induced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation was not attenuated by the subsequent co-administration of benazepril. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of benazepril on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation. Our hypothesis was that benazepril suppression of ACE activity would not suppress furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation, indicated by urinary aldosterone concentration. Ten healthy hound dogs were used in this study. The effect of furosemide (2 mg/kg p.o., q12h; Group F; n = 5) and furosemide plus benazepril (1 mg/kg p.o., q24h; Group FB; n = 5) on circulating RAAS was determined by plasma ACE activity, 4-6 h posttreatment, and urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) on days -1, -2, 1, 3, and 7. There was a significant increase in the average UAldo:C (μg/g) after the administration of furosemide (Group F baseline [average of days -1 and -2] UAldo:C = 0.41, SD 0.15; day 1 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.56; day 3 UAldo:C = 0.85, SD 0.50; day 7 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.80, P Benazepril suppressed ACE activity (U/L) in Group FB (Group FB baseline ACE = 16.4, SD 4.2; day 1 ACE = 3.5, SD 1.4; day 3 ACE = 1.6, SD 1.3; day 7 ACE = 1.4, SD 1.4, P Benazepril decreased plasma ACE activity but did not prevent furosemide-induced RAAS activation, indicating aldosterone breakthrough (escape). This is particularly noteworthy in that breakthrough is observed at the time of initiation of RAAS suppression, as opposed to developing after months of therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Breakthrough and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong


    Full Text Available In the past five years, shale gas exploration and development has grown in a leaping-forward way in China. Following USA and Canada, China is now the third country where industrial shale gas production is realized, with the cumulative production exceeding 60 × 108 m3 until the end of 2015. In this paper, the main achievements of shale gas exploration and development in China in recent years were reviewed and the future development prospect was analyzed. It is pointed out that shale gas exploration and development in China is, on the whole, still at its early stage. Especially, marine shale gas in the Sichuan Basin has dominated the recent exploration and development. For the realization of shale gas scale development in China, one key point lies in the breakthrough and industrial production of transitional facies and continental facies shale gas. Low–moderate yield of shale gas wells is the normal in China, so it is crucial to develop key exploration and development technologies. Especially, strictly controlling single well investment and significantly reducing cost are the important means to increase shale gas exploration and development benefits. And finally, suggestions were proposed in five aspects. First, continuously strengthen theoretical and technical researches, actively carry out appraisal on shale gas “sweet spots”, and gradually accumulate development basis. Second, stress on primary evaluation of exploration and development, highlight the effective implementation of shale gas resources, and control the rhythm of appraisal drilling and productivity construction. Third, highlight fine description and evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and increase the overall development level. Fourth, intensify the research on exploration and development technologies in order to stand out simple and practical technologies with low costs. And fifth, summarize the experiences in fast growth of shale gas exploration and development, highlight

  7. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha


    With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches

  8. Who Leads China's Leading Universities? (United States)

    Huang, Futao


    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  9. Micro and nano devices in passive millimetre wave imaging systems (United States)

    Appleby, R.


    The impact of micro and nano technology on millimetre wave imaging from the post war years to the present day is reviewed. In the 1950s whisker contacted diodes in mixers and vacuum tubes were used to realise both radiometers and radars but required considerable skill to realise the performance needed. Development of planar semiconductor devices such as Gunn and Schottky diodes revolutionised mixer performance and provided considerable improvement. The next major breakthrough was high frequency transistors based on gallium arsenide which were initially used at intermediate frequencies but later after further development at millimeter wave frequencies. More recently Monolithic Microwave Integrated circuits(MMICs) offer exceptional performance and the opportunity for innovative design in passive imaging systems. In the future the use of micro and nano technology will continue to drive system performance and we can expect to see integration of antennae, millimetre wave and sub millimetre wave circuits and signal processing.

  10. Antagonism of microRNA-122 in mice by systemically administered LNA-antimiR leads to up-regulation of a large set of predicted target mRNAs in the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmen, Joachim; Lindow, Morten; Silahtaroglu, Asli


    ’end of miR-122 leads to specific, dose-dependent silencing of miR-122 and shows no hepatotoxicity in mice. Antagonism of miR-122 is due to formation of stable heteroduplexes between the LNA-antimiR and miR-122 as detected by northern analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated uptake...... of the LNA-antimiR in mouse liver cells, which was accompanied by markedly reduced hybridization signals for mature miR-122 in treated mice. Functional antagonism of miR-122 was inferred from a low cholesterol phenotype and derepression within 24 h of 199 liver mRNAs showing significant enrichment for mi...

  11. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sun, X


    Full Text Available level fluctuations (WLF) on a monthly basis was proposed in the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for the purpose of groundwater recharge estimation. In this paper, the physical meaning of parameters in the CRD and previous RIB models...

  12. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit) (United States)

    Bajrektarevic, Anis


    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  13. Micro robot bible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong


    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  14. Micro intelligence robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yon Ho


    This book gives descriptions of micro robot about conception of robots and micro robot, match rules of conference of micro robots, search methods of mazes, and future and prospect of robots. It also explains making and design of 8 beat robot like making technique, software, sensor board circuit, and stepping motor catalog, speedy 3, Mr. Black and Mr. White, making and design of 16 beat robot, such as micro robot artist, Jerry 2 and magic art of shortening distances algorithm of robot simulation.

  15. Micro robot bible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong


    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  16. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  17. Busted Butte Phase 2: Introduction and Analytical Modeling of Nonreactive Tracer and Lithium Breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turin, H.J.; Soll, W.E.


    The Busted Butte Unsaturated-Zone Transport Test Facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of Yucca Mountain, and was designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. Busted Butte Phase 2 consisted of a 10m x 10m x 7m test block. From July 1988 through October 2000, complex tracer mixtures were injected continuously at 77 discrete points located along eight parallel 10-m boreholes arranged in two horizontal planes. In August 1999, iodide was added to the tracer mixture to explore the effects of initial hydraulic transients. During the course of the experiment, porewater samples were collected at regular intervals using sorbing-paper collection pads, emplaced into fifteen horizontal and inclined 10-m collection boreholes, oriented perpendicular to the injection boreholes. Potential travel distances ranged from 20 cm to over 500 cm. Nonreactive tracer and weakly sorbing lithium breakthrough was observed at most of the collection points during the injection period. Following termination of injection, approximately 800 rock samples were collected using overcore and mineback techniques, and analyzed for tracer concentration. Rock analyses are discussed in a subsequent paper. To complement complex 3-dimensional finite-element modeling of the entire block, bromide, iodide, and lithium breakthrough onto the collection pads has been modeled with CXTFIT. This simple 1-dimensional analytical code uses a non-linear curve-fitting routine to estimate transport parameters including apparent velocity, dispersivity, and field retardation factors. Preliminary results show that: (1) Bromide and iodide behaved similarly, despite the fact that bromide was injected in a strongly transient flow field, while iodide injection began after flow had approached steady state conditions. (2) With the exception of the closest collection points, tracer velocities remained relatively constant, indicating that transport was

  18. Recent breakthroughs and themes in hydrology, from climate to the water-food-energy nexus (United States)

    Montanari, A.


    The last decades marked a significant change in geosciences. Increasing communication, observations, computing capabilities and opportunities to make dissemination stimulated a rapid increase of the number of publications and scientific forums. On the one hand this development is undoubtedly positive. In fact, it provides more and more opportunities to young and experienced scientists to elaborate innovative ideas and to establish cooperation. On the other hand, the proliferation of information, communication and publications makes the identification of key ideas and contributions definitely more challenging. Notwithstanding the above development, Water Resources Research (WRR) provides an ideal perspective to elaborate a picture of recent breakthroughs in hydrology. In fact, despite the increasing number of submissions and the progress of time, WRR kept a rigorous attitude to assess manuscripts by evaluating their relevance to emerging environmental and societal challenges.To get a long term perspective of breakthroughs in hydrology, it is interesting to compare the two anniversary special sections published so far in WRR, namely, the 50th anniversary special section "Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology", and "Trends and Directions in Hydrology", that was edited by Steven Burges in 1986 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the journal. The above comparison highlights that the traditional break-up of hydrology into sub-disciplines, each focusing on separate components of the water cycle, has given way to a more interconnected, interdisciplinary research on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and interactions between water, society, earth and biological systems.This talk will present a voyage through the WRR history to highlight recent advances and topical themes. An attempt to develop a vision for the future of WRR and hydrology will be presented. Water will become more and more the regulator of social dynamics, including economy, politics

  19. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates. (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A


    This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FRB121102: First detection across 5 - 8 GHz and spectral properties from the Breakthrough Listen instrument (United States)

    Gajjar, Vishal; Siemion, Andrew; MacMohan, David; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Isaacson, Howard; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Price, Daniel; Lebofsky, Matt; De Boer, David; Werthimer, Dan; Hickish, Jack; Brinkman, Casey; Chatterjee, Shami; Ransom, Scott M.; Law, Casey; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Cordes, Jim; Spitler, Laura; Lynch, Ryan; McLaughlin, Maura; Scholz, Paul; Marcote, Benito; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh


    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are some of the most energetic and enigmatic events in the Universe. The origin of these sources is among the most challenging questions of modern-day astrophysics. Thus, it is imperative to understand the properties of these bursts across a range of radio frequencies. Among the known FRBs, FRB121102 is the only source known to show repeated bursts [Spitler et al., Nature, 531, 7593 202-205, 2016], which can allow a detailed investigation of various origin models. In August 2017, we initiated a campaign observing FRB 121102 using the Breakthrough Listen Digital Backend with the C-band receiver at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We recorded baseband voltage data across 5.4 GHz of bandwidth, completely covering the C-band receiver's nominal 4-8 GHz band [MacMahon et al. arXiv:1707.06024v2]. The recorded data were searched for dispersed pulses consistent with the known dispersion measure of FRB 121102 (557 pc cm-3) using high-speed GPU software tools. We detected 21 bursts above our detection threshold of 6 sigmas in the first 60-minutes, out of which 18 occurred in the first 30-minutes only. To our knowledge, this is the highest event rate seen for FRB121102 at any observing frequency. These observations are the highest frequency and widest bandwidth detection of bursts from FRB 121102 (or any other FRB) obtained to-date. We note that individual bursts show marked changes in spectral extent ranging from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We have used high frequency dynamic spectra of these bursts to estimate the characteristic scintillation bandwidth and correlation time-scale. We also found distinctive temporal structures, separated by a few milliseconds, in three of the strongest bursts, with each sub-structure exhibiting varied spectral features. We will discuss our findings and how these detections of FRB 121102 around 8 GHz opens up a new regime in scrutinizing various origin models. We will also highlight the unique

  1. To Lead or Not to Lead? (United States)

    Bertenshaw, Maria; Bradford, Katie; Burns, Natalie; Flux, Rachel; Horan, Danielle


    The authors of this article, as student teachers, explored becoming facilitators in lessons focusing on micro-organisms. They elicited ideas from their students and found that even the brightest children held some misconceptions about micro-organisms. The students had some knowledge, but they had not learned how to apply this to investigations…

  2. Micro rapid prototyping system for micro components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaochun; Choi Hongseok; Yang Yong


    Similarities between silicon-based micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) processes are obvious: both integrate additive and subtractive processes and use part and sacrificial materials to obtain functional structures. These MEMS techniques are two-dimensional (2-D) processes for a limited number of materials while SDM enables the building of parts that have traditionally been impossible to fabricate because of their complex shapes or of their variety in materials. This work presents initial results on the development of a micro rapid prototyping system that adapts SDM methodology to micro-fabrication. This system is designed to incorporate microdeposition and laser micromachining. In the hope of obtaining a precise microdeposition, an ultrasonic-based micro powder-feeding mechanism was developed in order to form thin patterns of dry powders that can be cladded or sintered onto a substrate by a micro-sized laser beam. Furthermore, experimental results on laser micromachining using a laser beam with a wavelength of 355 nm are also presented. After further improvement, the developed micro manufacturing system could take computer-aided design (CAD) output to reproduce 3-D heterogeneous micro-components from a wide selection of materials

  3. Geometry and surface damage in micro electrical discharge machining of micro-holes (United States)

    Ekmekci, Bülent; Sayar, Atakan; Tecelli Öpöz, Tahsin; Erden, Abdulkadir


    Geometry and subsurface damage of blind micro-holes produced by micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) is investigated experimentally to explore the relational dependence with respect to pulse energy. For this purpose, micro-holes are machined with various pulse energies on plastic mold steel samples using a tungsten carbide tool electrode and a hydrocarbon-based dielectric liquid. Variations in the micro-hole geometry, micro-hole depth and over-cut in micro-hole diameter are measured. Then, unconventional etching agents are applied on the cross sections to examine micro structural alterations within the substrate. It is observed that the heat-damaged segment is composed of three distinctive layers, which have relatively high thicknesses and vary noticeably with respect to the drilling depth. Crack formation is identified on some sections of the micro-holes even by utilizing low pulse energies during machining. It is concluded that the cracking mechanism is different from cracks encountered on the surfaces when machining is performed by using the conventional EDM process. Moreover, an electrically conductive bridge between work material and debris particles is possible at the end tip during machining which leads to electric discharges between the piled segments of debris particles and the tool electrode during discharging.

  4. Geometry and surface damage in micro electrical discharge machining of micro-holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekmekci, Bülent; Sayar, Atakan; Öpöz, Tahsin Tecelli; Erden, Abdulkadir


    Geometry and subsurface damage of blind micro-holes produced by micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) is investigated experimentally to explore the relational dependence with respect to pulse energy. For this purpose, micro-holes are machined with various pulse energies on plastic mold steel samples using a tungsten carbide tool electrode and a hydrocarbon-based dielectric liquid. Variations in the micro-hole geometry, micro-hole depth and over-cut in micro-hole diameter are measured. Then, unconventional etching agents are applied on the cross sections to examine micro structural alterations within the substrate. It is observed that the heat-damaged segment is composed of three distinctive layers, which have relatively high thicknesses and vary noticeably with respect to the drilling depth. Crack formation is identified on some sections of the micro-holes even by utilizing low pulse energies during machining. It is concluded that the cracking mechanism is different from cracks encountered on the surfaces when machining is performed by using the conventional EDM process. Moreover, an electrically conductive bridge between work material and debris particles is possible at the end tip during machining which leads to electric discharges between the piled segments of debris particles and the tool electrode during discharging

  5. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done


    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  6. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions. (United States)

    Adimoelja, A


    Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.

  7. Do It Yourself (DIY) Earth Science Collaboratories Using Best Practices and Breakthrough Technologies (United States)

    Stephan, E.


    The objective of published earth science study data results and literature on the Web should be to provide a means to integrate discoverable science resources through an open collaborative-Web. At the core of any open science collaborative infrastructure is the ability to discover, manage and ultimately use relevant data accessible to the collaboration. Equally important are the relationships between people, applications, services, and publications, which capture critical contextual knowledge that enable their effective use. While contributions of either irreproducible or costly data can be a great asset the inability of users being able to use the data intelligently or make sense of it, makes these investments not usable. An ability to describe ad-hoc discoverable usage methodologies, provide feedback to data producers, and identify and cite data in a systematic way by leveraging existing Web-enabled off the shelf technology is needed. Fortunately many break-through advancements in data publication best practices and government, open source, and commercial investments support consumers who can provide feedback, share experiences, and contribute back to the earth science ecosystem.

  8. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative and the Future of the Search for Intelligent Life (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Danny; DeBoer, David; Werthimer, Dan


    Unprecedented recent results in the fields of exoplanets and astrobiology have dramatically increased the interest in the potential existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy. Additionally, the capabilities of modern Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have increased tremendously. Much of this improvement is due to the ongoing development of wide bandwidth radio instruments and the Moore's Law increase in computing power over the previous decades. Together, these instrumentation improvements allow for narrow band signal searches of billions of frequency channels at once.The Breakthrough Listen Initiative (BL) was launched on July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, UK with the goal to conduct the most comprehensive and sensitive search for advanced life in humanity's history. Here we detail important milestones achieved during the first year and a half of the program. We describe the key BL SETI surveys and briefly describe current facilities, including the Green Bank Telescope, the Automated Planet Finder and the Parkes Observatory. We also mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused on complementary sciences, these include pulse searches of pulsars and FRBs, as well as astrophysically powered radio emission from stars targeted by our program.We conclude with a brief view towards future SETI searches with upcoming next-generation radio facilities such as SKA and ngVLA.

  9. Stem cell-derived kidney cells and organoids: Recent breakthroughs and emerging applications. (United States)

    Chuah, Jacqueline Kai Chin; Zink, Daniele

    The global rise in the numbers of kidney patients and the shortage in transplantable organs have led to an increasing interest in kidney-specific regenerative therapies, renal disease modelling and bioartificial kidneys. Sources for large quantities of high-quality renal cells and tissues would be required, also for applications in in vitro platforms for compound safety and efficacy screening. Stem cell-based approaches for the generation of renal-like cells and tissues would be most attractive, but such methods were not available until recently. This situation has drastically changed since 2013, and various protocols for the generation of renal-like cells and precursors from pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have been established. The most recent breakthroughs were related to the establishment of various protocols for the generation of PSC-derived kidney organoids. In combination with recent advances in genome editing, bioprinting and the establishment of predictive renal screening platforms this results in exciting new possibilities. This review will give a comprehensive overview over current PSC-based protocols for the generation of renal-like cells, precursors and organoids, and their current and potential applications in regenerative medicine, compound screening, disease modelling and bioartificial organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol. (United States)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito


    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.

  11. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito


    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma

  12. Computational tools for Breakthrough Propulsion Physics: State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, Claudio


    To address problems in Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) one needs sheer computing capabilities. This is because General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory are so mathematically sophisticated that the amount of analytical calculations is prohibitive and one can hardly do all of them by hand. In this paper we make a comparative review of the main tensor calculus capabilities of the three most advanced and commercially available 'symbolic manipulator' codes: Macsyma, Maple V and Mathematica. We also point out that currently one faces such a variety of different conventions in tensor calculus that it is difficult or impossible to compare results obtained by different scholars in General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory. Mathematical physicists, experimental physicists and engineers have each their own way of customizing tensors, especially by using the different metric signatures, different metric determinant signs, different definitions of the basic Riemann and Ricci tensors, and by adopting different systems of physical units. This chaos greatly hampers progress toward the chief NASA BPP goal: the design of the NASA Warp Drive. It is thus concluded that NASA should put order by establishing international standards in symbolic tensor calculus and enforcing anyone working in BPP to adopt these NASA BPP Standards

  13. Tracking tracer breakthrough in the hyporheic zone using time‐lapse DC resistivity, Crabby Creek, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Toran, Laura; Fang, Allison C.; Ryan, Robert J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Characterization of the hyporheic zone is of critical importance for understanding stream ecology, contaminant transport, and groundwater‐surface water interaction. A salt water tracer test was used to probe the hyporheic zone of a recently re‐engineered portion of Crabby Creek, a stream located near Philadelphia, PA. The tracer solution was tracked through a 13.5 meter segment of the stream using both a network of 25 wells sampled every 5–15 minutes and time‐lapse electrical resistivity tomographs collected every 11 minutes for six hours, with additional tomographs collected every 100 minutes for an additional 16 hours. The comparison of tracer monitoring methods is of keen interest because tracer tests are one of the few techniques available for characterizing this dynamic zone, and logistically it is far easier to collect resistivity tomographs than to install and monitor a dense network of wells. Our results show that resistivity monitoring captured the essential shape of the breakthrough curve and may indicate portions of the stream where the tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone. Time‐lapse resistivity measurements, however, represent time averages over the period required to collect a tomographic data set, and spatial averages over a volume larger than captured by a well sample. Smoothing by the resistivity data inversion algorithm further blurs the resulting tomograph; consequently resistivity monitoring underestimates the degree of fine‐scale heterogeneity in the hyporheic zone.

  14. Point Climat no. 33 'International Climate Negotiations - COP 19: do not underestimate the MRV breakthrough'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Marion; Morel, Romain; Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana


    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: For those who expect 'binding' emission reductions targets in the future international climate agreement to be signed in Paris in 2015, the Warsaw Conference (November 11 to 23, 2013) yielded as much progress as it could. That means little beyond a timetable. However, for those who consider the UNFCCC as the depository of common tools on the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emissions, actions and financing, Warsaw represents a major breakthrough. For the first time, developing countries - at least those wishing to access climate finance for forests - will abide by MRV procedures similar to those governing the greenhouse gas inventories of industrialized countries. Forestry may be seen as a first sectoral NAMA, and it would be difficult to ignore the Warsaw decisions for the future definition of MRV procedures of NAMAs. In spite of the establishment of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, low outputs on other issues show that achieving an agreement at COP 21 will require significant political progress during the next 15 months

  15. Engineering excellence in breakthrough biomedical technologies: bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside. (United States)

    Schultz, Jane S; Rodgers, V G J


    The Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside (UCR), was established in 2006 and is the youngest department in the Bourns College of Engineering. It is an interdisciplinary research engine that builds strength from highly recognized experts in biochemistry, biophysics, biology, and engineering, focusing on common critical themes. The range of faculty research interests is notable for its diversity, from the basic cell biology through cell function to the physiology of the whole organism, each directed at breakthroughs in biomedical devices for measurement and therapy. The department forges future leaders in bioengineering, mirroring the field in being energetic, interdisciplinary, and fast moving at the frontiers of biomedical discoveries. Our educational programs combine a solid foundation in bio logical sciences and engineering, diverse communication skills, and training in the most advanced quantitative bioengineering research. Bioengineering at UCR also includes the Bioengineering Interdepartmental Graduate (BIG) program. With its slogan Start-Grow-Be-BIG, it is already recognized for its many accomplishments, including being third in the nation in 2011 for bioengineering students receiving National Science Foundation graduate research fellowships as well as being one of the most ethnically inclusive programs in the nation.

  16. Familial concordance for age at natural menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study. (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J


    Existing estimates of the heritability of menopause age have a wide range. Furthermore, few studies have analyzed to what extent familial similarities might reflect shared environment, rather than shared genes. We therefore analyzed familial concordance for age at natural menopause and the effects of shared genetic and environmental factors on this concordance. Participants were 2,060 individuals comprising first-degree relatives, aged 31 to 90 years, and participating in the UK Breakthrough Generations Study. Menopause data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using logistic regression and variance-components models. Women were at an increased risk of early menopause (≤45 y) if their mother (odds ratio, 6.2; P menopause. Likewise, women had an increased risk of late menopause (≥54 y) if their relative had had a late menopause (mother: odds ratio, 6.1; P menopause age attributed to environmental factors shared by sisters. We confirm that early menopause aggregates within families and show, for the first time, that there is also strong familial concordance for late menopause. Both genes and shared environment were the source of variation in menopause age. Past heritability estimates have not accounted for shared environment, and thus, the effect of genetic variants on menopause age may previously have been overestimated.

  17. Exploring the role of lipids in intercellular conduits: breakthroughs in the pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eDelage


    Full Text Available It has been known for more than a century that most of the plant cells are connected to their neighbors through membranous pores perforating the cell wall, namely plasmodesmata (PDs. The recent discovery of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs, thin membrane bridges established between distant mammalian cells, suggests that intercellular communication mediated through cytoplasmic continuity could be a conserved feature of eukaryotic organisms. Although TNTs differ from PDs in their formation and architecture, both are characterized by a continuity of the plasma membrane between two cells, delimiting a nanotubular channel supported by actin-based cytoskeleton. Due to this unusual membrane organization, lipids are likely to play critical roles in the formation and stability of intercellular conduits like TNTs and PDs, but also in regulating the transfer through these structures. While it is crucial for a better understanding of those fascinating communication highways, the study of TNT lipid composition and dynamics turned out to be extremely challenging. The present review aims to give an overview of the recent findings in this context. We will also discuss some of the promising imaging approaches, which might be the key for future breakthroughs in the field and could also benefit the research on PDs.

  18. Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu


    A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.

  19. Making Breakthroughs in the Turbulent Decade: China's Space Technology During the Cultural Revolution. (United States)

    Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian


    This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical modeling and experimental breakthrough curves of carbon dioxide adsorption on metal organic framework CPM-5. (United States)

    Sabouni, Rana; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab


    It is essential to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas because it is considered one of the main causes of global warming. Several materials and different methods have been reported for CO2 capturing including adsorption onto zeolites and porous membranes, as well as absorption in amine solutions. All such methods require high energy input and high cost. A new class of porous materials called Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) exhibited excellent performance in extracting carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. In this study, the breakthrough curves for the adsorption of carbon dioxide on CPM-5 (crystalline porous materials) were obtained experimentally and theoretically using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed column at different experimental conditions such as feed flow rate, adsorption temperature, and feed concentration. It was found that the CPM-5 has a dynamic CO2 adsorption capacity of 11.9 wt % (2.7 mmol/g) (corresponding to 8 mL/min, 298 K, and 25% v/v CO2). The tested CPM-5 showed an outstanding adsorption equilibrium capacity (e.g., 2.3 mmol/g (10.2 wt %) at 298 K) compared to other adsorbents, which can be considered as an attractive adsorbent for separation of CO2 from flue gas.

  1. MicroRNAs in right ventricular remodelling. (United States)

    Batkai, Sandor; Bär, Christian; Thum, Thomas


    Right ventricular (RV) remodelling is a lesser understood process of the chronic, progressive transformation of the RV structure leading to reduced functional capacity and subsequent failure. Besides conditions concerning whole hearts, some pathology selectively affects the RV, leading to a distinct RV-specific clinical phenotype. MicroRNAs have been identified as key regulators of biological processes that drive the progression of chronic diseases. The role of microRNAs in diseases affecting the left ventricle has been studied for many years, however there is still limited information on microRNAs specific to diseases in the right ventricle. Here, we review recently described details on the expression, regulation, and function of microRNAs in the pathological remodelling of the right heart. Recently identified strategies using microRNAs as pharmacological targets or biomarkers will be highlighted. Increasing knowledge of pathogenic microRNAs will finally help improve our understanding of underlying distinct mechanisms and help utilize novel targets or biomarkers to develop treatments for patients suffering from right heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email:

  2. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy. (United States)



    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  3. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study. (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J


    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Australian government had funded the National Primary Care Collaborative (NPCC program with funding of $14.6 million over three years. One of the pilots project was the Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Quality Improvement Program (AMQuIP.The study aims to optimize general practitioners (GPs management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA of the hip and knee by identifying gaps between their current practice and best practice. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology with several Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA cycles was employed. Participants comprises of 12 GPs/practices from two Victorian Divisions of general Practice (one rural, one metropolitan with 10 patients per GP/practice. GPs/practices attended an orientation and three learning workshops and a videoconference. GPs/practices completed PDSA cycles between workshop and reported results at workshops. GPs/practices reported use of guidelines, change in patient management and change in practice management/systems. All recruited patients completed the SF-12v2 Health Survey and WOMAC OA Index Questionnaire twice. Follow up activities including focus groups and face-to-face interviews were held six months after the final workshop. All GPs/practices used the guidelines/key messages, introduced “new” management strategies to patients, and made positive changes to their practice management/systems. Patient reported positive changes and outcomes. By using a structured methodology and evidence-based guidelines/key messages; GPs can introduce new patient management strategies, and by identifying gaps in practice management systems, positive changes can be achieved.

  5. Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginn, Edward


    This is the final report for DE-FC26-07NT43091 Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture. A detailed summary is provided of the ionic liquid (IL) discovery process, synthesis and testing results, process / systems modeling, lab-scale operational testing, corrosion testing and commercialization possibilities. The work resulted in the discovery of a new class of ionic liquids (ILs) that efficiently react with CO{sub 2} in a 1:1 stoichiometry with no water present and no increase in viscosity. The enthalpy of reaction was tuned to optimize process economics. The IL was found to have excellent corrosion behavior with and without CO{sub 2} present. In lab-scale tests, the IL was able to effectively remove CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream, although mass transfer was slower than with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) due to higher viscosities. The non-volatile nature of the solvent and its high thermal stability, however, make it an intriguing option. An independent systems analysis indicates that the economics of using the best IL discovered to date (NDIL0157), are at least comparable to and potentially slightly better than - the Fluor Econamine FG PlusTM process (DOE Case 12). Further work should be directed at improving mass transfer / lowering viscosity and developing commercial synthesis routes to make these ILs at scale in an inexpensive manner. Demonstration of the process at larger scales is also warranted, as is the exploration of other process configurations that leverage the anhydrous nature of the solvent and its extremely low volatility.

  6. The effect of vapor polarity and boiling point on breakthrough for binary mixtures on respirator carbon. (United States)

    Robbins, C A; Breysse, P N


    This research evaluated the effect of the polarity of a second vapor on the adsorption of a polar and a nonpolar vapor using the Wheeler model. To examine the effect of polarity, it was also necessary to observe the effect of component boiling point. The 1% breakthrough time (1% tb), kinetic adsorption capacity (W(e)), and rate constant (kv) of the Wheeler model were determined for vapor challenges on carbon beds for both p-xylene and pyrrole (referred to as test vapors) individually, and in equimolar binary mixtures with the polar and nonpolar vapors toluene, p-fluorotoluene, o-dichlorobenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene (referred to as probe vapors). Probe vapor polarity (0 to 2.5 Debye) did not systematically alter the 1% tb, W(e), or kv of the test vapors. The 1% tb and W(e) for test vapors in binary mixtures can be estimated reasonably well, using the Wheeler model, from single-vapor data (1% tb +/- 30%, W(e) +/- 20%). The test vapor 1% tb depended mainly on total vapor concentration in both single and binary systems. W(e) was proportional to test vapor fractional molar concentration (mole fraction) in mixtures. The kv for p-xylene was significantly different (p boiling point; however, these differences were apparently of limited importance in estimating 1% tb for the range of boiling points tested (111 to 180 degrees C). Although the polarity and boiling point of chemicals in the range tested are not practically important in predicting 1% tb with the Wheeler model, an effect due to probe boiling point is suggested, and tests with chemicals of more widely ranging boiling point are warranted. Since the 1% tb, and thus, respirator service life, depends mainly on total vapor concentration, these data underscore the importance of taking into account the presence of other vapors when estimating respirator service life for a vapor in a mixture.

  7. Relativistic generalization of the incentive trap of interstellar travel with application to Breakthrough Starshot (United States)

    Heller, René


    As new concepts of sending interstellar spacecraft to the nearest stars are now being investigated by various research teams, crucial questions about the timing of such a vast financial and labour investment arise. If humanity could build high-speed interstellar lightsails and reach α Centauri 20 yr after launch, would it be better to wait a few years, then take advantage of further technology improvements and arrive earlier despite waiting? The risk of being overtaken by a future, faster probe has been described earlier as the incentive trap. Based on 211 yr of historical data, we find that the speed growth of artificial vehicles, from steam-driven locomotives to Voyager 1, is much faster than previously believed, about 4.72 per cent annually or a doubling every 15 yr. We derive the mathematical framework to calculate the minimum of the wait time to launch t plus travel time τ(t) and extend it into the relativistic regime. We show that the t + τ(t) minimum disappears for nearby targets. There is no use of waiting once we can reach an object within about 20 yr of travel, irrespective of the actual speed. In terms of speed, the t + τ(t) minimum for a travel to α Centauri occurs at 19.6 per cent the speed of light (c), in agreement with the 20 per cent c proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative. If interstellar travel at 20 per cent c could be achieved within 45 yr from today and the kinetic energy be increased at a rate consistent with the historical record, then humans can reach the 10 most nearby stars within 100 yr from today.

  8. Micro-propulsion and micro-combustion; Micropropulsion microcombustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribaud, Y.; Dessornes, O.


    The AAAF (french space and aeronautic association) organized at Paris a presentation on the micro-propulsion. The first part was devoted to the thermal micro-machines for micro drones, the second part to the micro-combustion applied to micro-turbines. (A.L.B.)

  9. Stanford test called a net breakthrough - data sent at 3,500 times the speed of broadband

    CERN Multimedia


    Researchers at a Stanford University-affiliated research center have found a way to send data across the Internet more than 3,500 times faster than the typical broadband connection. The technical breakthrough set an Internet speed record too fast to be of use with present-day computers but could open the way for scientists to share and ship massive databases around the world, according to the researchers.

  10. Closed-flow column experiments—Insights into solute transport provided by a damped oscillating breakthrough behavior (United States)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe


    Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.

  11. Micro-Organ Device (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)


    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  12. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence


    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  13. 'Micro-8' micro-computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Hideyuki; Nakahara, Yoshinori; Yamada, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Norio; Koyama, Kinji


    The micro-computer Micro-8 system has been developed to organize a data exchange network between various instruments and a computer group including a large computer system. Used for packet exchangers and terminal controllers, the system consists of ten kinds of standard boards including a CPU board with INTEL-8080 one-chip-processor. CPU architecture, BUS architecture, interrupt control, and standard-boards function are explained in circuit block diagrams. Operations of the basic I/O device, digital I/O board and communication adapter are described with definitions of the interrupt ramp status, I/O command, I/O mask, data register, etc. In the appendixes are circuit drawings, INTEL-8080 micro-processor specifications, BUS connections, I/O address mappings, jumper connections of address selection, and interface connections. (author)

  14. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.


    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  15. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. (United States)

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S


    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  16. 3D Programmable Micro Self Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bohringer, Karl F; Parviz, Babak A; Klavins, Eric


    .... We have developed a "self assembly tool box" consisting of a range of methods for micro-scale self-assembly in 2D and 3D We have shown physical demonstrations of simple 3D self-assemblies which lead...

  17. Remediation potential of mulch for removing lead. (United States)

    Jang, A; Bishop, P L


    Hardwood bark mulch has good physicochemical properties for the adsorption of lead (Pb(II)). Batch tests were conducted to obtain the sorption coefficient of Pb(II) in mulch. The results of the Freundlich model were not in as good agreement as for the case of the Langmuir model. In addition, a laboratory-scale mulch permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system was designed for the treatment of Pb(II)-contaminated groundwater. The mulch PRB system, using a mulch layer, can potentially be used in the subsurface for cost-effective and in situ transformation of the Pb(II) into environmentally acceptable forms. From the Pb(II) breakthrough curve, the mulch becomes saturated more quickly at higher flow rates.

  18. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: the first SETI results and other future science. (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Breakthrough Listen Team


    The Breakthrough Listen (BL) Initiative is the largest campaign in human history on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The work presented here is the first BL search for engineered signals. This comprises a sample of 692 nearby stars within 50 pc. We used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to conduct observations over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L-band). Our observing strategy allows us to reject most of the detected signals as terrestrial interference. During the analysis, eleven stars show events that passed our thresholding algorithm, but detailed analysis of their properties indicates they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio frequency interference. This small number of false positives and their understood properties give confidence on the techniques used for this search. We conclude that, at the time of our observations none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting at the observed frequencies with an EIRP of 10^13 W, readily achievable by our own civilization.We can place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. Our results suggest that fewer than ~0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey. This work provides the most stringent limit on the number of low power radio transmitters around nearby stars to date. We explored several metics to compare our results to previous SETI efforts. We developed a new figure-of-merit that can encompass a wider set of parameters and can be used on future SETI experiments for a meaningful comparison.We note that the current BL state-of-the-art digital backend installed at the Green Bank Observatory is the fastest ever used for a SETI experiment by a factor of a few. Here we will describe the potential use of the BL backend by other groups on complementary science, as well as a mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused in

  19. Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XB


    Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain

  20. Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol using a Flow-through Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone followed by the reduction to hydroquinone and catechol was demonstrated by constructing a three-dimensional porous micro-flow cell from lead dioxideand lead. The electrodes were made by using the principles of curing and formation of lead oxide material that ...

  1. Search for Bs0 --> micro+ micro- and B0 --> micro+ micro- decays with 2 fb-1 of pp collisions. (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S


    We have performed a search for B(s)(0) --> micro(+) micro(-) and B(0) --> micro(+) micro(-) decays in pp collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV using 2 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The observed number of B(s)(0) and B0 candidates is consistent with background expectations. The resulting upper limits on the branching fractions are B(B(s)0) --> micro(+) micro(-)) micro(+) micro(-))<1.8 x 10(-8) at 95% C.L.

  2. The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC): A Multifunction, Low Power, Attitude Determination Technology Breakthrough (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dennehy, Neil; Gambino, Joel; Maynard, Andrew; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Zinchuk, J.


    The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC) is a miniature, low power, stellar inertial attitude determination system with an accuracy of better than 0.1 degree (1 sigma) in three axes. The ISC consumes only 3.5 Watts of power and is contained in a 2.5 kg package. With its embedded on-board processor, the ISC provides attitude quaternion information and has Lost-in-Space (LIS) initialization capability. The attitude accuracy and LIS capability are provided by combining a wide field of view Active Pixel Sensor (APS) star camera and Micro- ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensor information in an integrated sensor system. The performance and small form factor make the ISC a useful sensor for a wide range of missions. In particular, the ISC represents an enabling, fully integrated, micro-satellite attitude determination system. Other applications include using the ISC as a single sensor solution for attitude determination on medium performance spacecraft and as a bolt on independent safe-hold sensor or coarse acquisition sensor for many other spacecraft. NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) has selected the ISC technology for a Space Technology 6 (ST6) flight validation experiment scheduled for 2004. NMP missions, such a s ST6, are intended to validate advanced technologies that have not flown in space in order to reduce the risk associated with their infusion into future NASA missions. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the ISC and outlines the technology validation plan. A number of mission applications for the ISC technology are highlighted, both for the baseline ST6 ISC configuration and more ambitious applications where ISC hardware and software modifications would be required. These applications demonstrate the wide range of Space and Earth Science missions that would benefit from infusion of the ISC technology.

  3. Optical nano and micro actuator technology

    CERN Document Server

    Knopf, George K


    In Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology, leading engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, laser scientists, and manufacturing specialists offer an in-depth, wide-ranging look at the fundamental and unique characteristics of light-driven optical actuators. They discuss how light can initiate physical movement and control a variety of mechanisms that perform mechanical work at the micro- and nanoscale. The book begins with the scientific background necessary for understanding light-driven systems, discussing the nature of light and the interaction between light and NEMS/MEMS d

  4. Micro Elector Mechanical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Jun Bo; Jo, Il Ju; Choi, Yoon Seok


    This book consists of seven chapters, which are the flow of the age from macro world to micro world, what is MEMS, semiconductor, micro machining and MEMS, where do MEMS goes to?, How to make MEMS, MEMS in the future and knowing about MEMS more than. This book is written to explain in ease and fun. It deals with MEMS in IT, BT, NT, ST, micro robot technology, basic process for making MEMS such as Bulk micromachining, surface micromachining LGA technology, DARPA and organization in domestic and overseas and academy and journal related MEMS.

  5. Reproducing tailing in breakthrough curves: Are statistical models equally representative and predictive? (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Bianchi, Marco


    Breakthrough curves (BTCs) observed during tracer tests in highly heterogeneous aquifers display strong tailing. Power laws are popular models for both the empirical fitting of these curves, and the prediction of transport using upscaling models based on best-fitted estimated parameters (e.g. the power law slope or exponent). The predictive capacity of power law based upscaling models can be however questioned due to the difficulties to link model parameters with the aquifers' physical properties. This work analyzes two aspects that can limit the use of power laws as effective predictive tools: (a) the implication of statistical subsampling, which often renders power laws undistinguishable from other heavily tailed distributions, such as the logarithmic (LOG); (b) the difficulties to reconcile fitting parameters obtained from models with different formulations, such as the presence of a late-time cutoff in the power law model. Two rigorous and systematic stochastic analyses, one based on benchmark distributions and the other on BTCs obtained from transport simulations, are considered. It is found that a power law model without cutoff (PL) results in best-fitted exponents (αPL) falling in the range of typical experimental values reported in the literature (1.5 tailing becomes heavier. Strong fluctuations occur when the number of samples is limited, due to the effects of subsampling. On the other hand, when the power law model embeds a cutoff (PLCO), the best-fitted exponent (αCO) is insensitive to the degree of tailing and to the effects of subsampling and tends to a constant αCO ≈ 1. In the PLCO model, the cutoff rate (λ) is the parameter that fully reproduces the persistence of the tailing and is shown to be inversely correlated to the LOG scale parameter (i.e. with the skewness of the distribution). The theoretical results are consistent with the fitting analysis of a tracer test performed during the MADE-5 experiment. It is shown that a simple

  6. Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation (United States)

    Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed


    when such sensors are used in farmers' fields. The second procedure was Breakthrough Curve (BTC) lab-method to follow the fate of chemical composition of water draining out of Ca-saturated soil columns and Exchangeable Sodium Percent, ESP, in soil materials under saturated-flow. The work was run on five packed soil-columns under hydraulic-gradient of about 6 in fine-grained soil materials (Nile clay-sediments) wetted with five NaCl aqueous solutions (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mEq/l). The results revealed the removal of 40 to 80% of sodium from irrigation water after 6 to 8 pore volumes flowed out in about 12 hours with the highest removal from the most dilute solution. Rapid increase of ESP was observed when the inlet solution had moderate to high TDS whereas the dilute solution (10 mEq/l) has resulted in no soil chemical degradation. The results were extrapolated to field situation and showed that Nile clayey soil would never get sodic (ESP>15) when wetted with high quality water regardless the water application duration whereas only 1-4 year of irrigation with moderate to poor-quality water (as takes place under perennial irrigation) would result in ESP increase to 15 and much higher values. A secondary but important outcome of BTC experiments was that marginal sediments could be used in multi-column cells (6 to 8 columns) to improve water-quality through removal of Na+ ions from water, whereas anions could be removed by positively-charged resins and the cells could be recycled in a proposed prototype scheme.

  7. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Breakthrough Candidemia in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in a Japanese Hospital (United States)

    Kimura, Muneyoshi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Masahiro; Yuasa, Mitsuhiro; Kaji, Daisuke; Kageyama, Kosei; Nishida, Aya; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Go; Uchida, Naoyuki; Izutsu, Koji; Wake, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Akiko


    ABSTRACT Few data on breakthrough candidemia (BC), defined as candidemia that develops on administration of antifungal agents (AFAs), in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients are available. The medical and microbiological records of recipients of an allo-HSCT obtained between December 2008 and December 2014 were reviewed. Of 768 allo-HSCT cases, 26 developed BC. Among the 26 causative strains, 22 strains were stored and identified by sequencing. The following species were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (9 strains), C. glabrata (4 strains), C. guilliermondii (3 strains), and other Candida species (6 strains). The AFAs being used when BC developed were micafungin (17 cases), liposomal amphotericin B (5 cases), itraconazole (2 cases), and voriconazole (2 cases). All 17 cases who developed BC during micafungin administration were administered 150 mg/day of micafungin. The susceptibilities of the causative Candida species to the administered AFAs when breakthrough occurred ranged from susceptible to resistant. Especially, 85% of the Candida species that caused BC during micafungin administration were susceptible to micafungin. Additionally, 75% of the strains were wild type for susceptibility to the administered AFAs when breakthrough occurred. Systemic steroid administration and a longer severe neutropenic phase (≥5 days) were independent risk factors for BC (P = 0.016 and P = 0.015, respectively). BC developed in allo-HSCT recipients even when they received a sufficient dose of AFA, including micafungin, to which the causative Candida species were susceptible and/or had wild-type susceptibility in vitro. Systemic steroid administration and a longer severe neutropenic phase were host-based factors associated with BC. PMID:28115352

  8. Dynamic adsorption of CO2/N2 on cation-exchanged chabazite SSZ-13: A breakthrough analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Jamey K.; Barpaga, Dushyant; Prodinger, Sebastian; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard P.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Motkuri, Radha K.


    Alkali exchanged SSZ-13 adsorbents were investigated for their applicability in separating N2 from CO2 in flue gas streams using a dynamic breakthrough method. In contrast to IAST calculations based on equilibrium isotherms, K+ exchanged SSZ-13 was found to yield the best N2 productivity under dynamic conditions where diffusion properties play a significant role. This was attributed to the selective, partial blockage of access to the CHA cavities enhancing the separation potential in a 15/85 CO2/N2 binary gas mixture.

  9. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle


    The breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age (NBA) c. 1600 bc as a koiné within Bronze Age Europe can be historically linked to the Carpathian Basin. Nordic distinctiveness entailed an entanglement of cosmology and warriorhood, albeit represented through different media in the hotspot zone (bronze) ...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  10. The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead 203.


    Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G


    The effect of thiamin on the organ distribution of lead was evaluated in CD-1 mice exposed intragastrically or intraperitoneally to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 microCi lead 203. They were treated with either thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body weight), calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body weight), or combinations of thiamin and CaEDTA. The whole body retention and the organ distribution of lead 203 varied depending upon the route of lead a...

  11. Micro-educational reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens Peter


    This study analyzes the persistence of educational inequality in advanced industrialized societies with expanding and differentiated education systems. Using Denmark as a case, we investigate changes in immobility patterns for cohorts born 1960–1981 and develop a new micro-educational classificat...... forms of reproduction. In addition, the micro-educational approach far better explains the immobility of sons than it explains that of daughters, revealing important gender differences in the immobility patterns for sons and daughters......., in particular for sons. We also find great variation in immobility for specific micro-educations within the university level. Studies of educational immobility would therefore benefit from paying attention to micro-educational classifications, because they capture patterns of multidimensional, disaggregated...

  12. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server


    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  13. Micro-mixer/combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad Ahmad; Masri, Assaad Rachid


    A micro-mixer/combustor to mix fuel and oxidant streams into combustible mixtures where flames resulting from combustion of the mixture can be sustained inside its combustion chamber is provided. The present design is particularly suitable

  14. Micro-combs: A novel generation of optical sources (United States)

    Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Razzari, Luca; Moss, David J.; Coen, Stéphane; Erkintalo, Miro; Chembo, Yanne K.; Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan; Del'Haye, Pascal; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Weiner, Andrew M.; Morandotti, Roberto


    The quest towards the integration of ultra-fast, high-precision optical clocks is reflected in the large number of high-impact papers on the topic published in the last few years. This interest has been catalysed by the impact that high-precision optical frequency combs (OFCs) have had on metrology and spectroscopy in the last decade [1-5]. OFCs are often referred to as optical rulers: their spectra consist of a precise sequence of discrete and equally-spaced spectral lines that represent precise marks in frequency. Their importance was recognised worldwide with the 2005 Nobel Prize being awarded to T.W. Hänsch and J. Hall for their breakthrough in OFC science [5]. They demonstrated that a coherent OFC source with a large spectrum - covering at least one octave - can be stabilised with a self-referenced approach, where the frequency and the phase do not vary and are completely determined by the source physical parameters. These fully stabilised OFCs solved the challenge of directly measuring optical frequencies and are now exploited as the most accurate time references available, ready to replace the current standard for time. Very recent advancements in the fabrication technology of optical micro-cavities [6] are contributing to the development of OFC sources. These efforts may open up the way to realise ultra-fast and stable optical clocks and pulsed sources with extremely high repetition-rates, in the form of compact and integrated devices. Indeed, the fabrication of high-quality factor (high-Q) micro-resonators, capable of dramatically amplifying the optical field, can be considered a photonics breakthrough that has boosted not only the scientific investigation of OFC sources [7-13] but also of optical sensors and compact light modulators [6,14]. In this framework, the demonstration of planar high-Q resonators, compatible with silicon technology [10-14], has opened up a unique opportunity for these devices to provide entirely new capabilities for photonic

  15. Effect of CH4 on the CO2 breakthrough pressure and permeability of partially saturated low-permeability sandstone in the Ordos Basin, China (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Qingchun


    The behavior of CO2 that coexists with CH4 and the effect of CH4 on the CO2 stream need to be deeply analyzed and studied, especially in the presence of water. Our previous studies investigated the breakthrough pressure and permeability of pure CO2 in five partially saturated low-permeability sandstone core samples from the Ordos Basin, and we concluded that rocks with a small pore size and low permeability show considerable sealing capacity even under unsaturated conditions. In this paper, we selected three of these samples for CO2-CH4 gas-mixture breakthrough experiments under various degrees of water saturation. The breakthrough experiments were performed by increasing the gas pressure step by step until breakthrough occurred. Then, the effluent gas mixture was collected for chromatographic partitioning analysis. The results indicate that CH4 significantly affects the breakthrough pressure and permeability of CO2. The presence of CH4 in the gas mixture increases the interfacial tension and, thus, the breakthrough pressure. Therefore, the injected gas mixture that contains the highest (lowest) mole fraction of CH4 results in the largest (smallest) breakthrough pressure. The permeability of the gas mixture is greater than that for pure CO2 because of CH4, and the effective permeability decreases with increased breakthrough pressure. Chromatographic partitioning of the effluent mixture gases indicates that CH4 breaks through ahead of CO2 as a result of its weaker solubility in water. Correlations are established between (1) the breakthrough pressure and water saturation, (2) the effective permeability and water saturation, (3) the breakthrough pressure and effective permeability, and (4) the mole fraction of CO2/CH4 in the effluent mixture gases and water saturation. These results deepen our understanding of the multi-phase flow behavior in the porous media under unsaturated conditions, which have implications for formulating emergency response plans for gas

  16. Micro-surgical endodontics. (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I


    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  17. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  18. Laser based micro forming and assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCallum, Danny O' Neill; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Steyskal, Michele D.; Lehecka, Tom (Pennsylvania State University, Freeport, PA); Scherzinger, William Mark; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew


    It has been shown that thermal energy imparted to a metallic substrate by laser heating induces a transient temperature gradient through the thickness of the sample. In favorable conditions of laser fluence and absorptivity, the resulting inhomogeneous thermal strain leads to a measurable permanent deflection. This project established parameters for laser micro forming of thin materials that are relevant to MESA generation weapon system components and confirmed methods for producing micrometer displacements with repeatable bend direction and magnitude. Precise micro forming vectors were realized through computational finite element analysis (FEA) of laser-induced transient heating that indicated the optimal combination of laser heat input relative to the material being heated and its thermal mass. Precise laser micro forming was demonstrated in two practical manufacturing operations of importance to the DOE complex: micrometer gap adjustments of precious metal alloy contacts and forming of meso scale cones.

  19. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: A Wideband Data Recorder System for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (United States)

    MacMahon, David H. E.; Price, Danny C.; Lebofsky, Matthew; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Gregory; Isaacson, Howard; Werthimer, Dan; Abdurashidova, Zuhra; Bloss, Marty; Brandt, Joe; Creager, Ramon; Ford, John; Lynch, Ryan S.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; McCullough, Randy; Ray, Jason; Whitehead, Mark; Woody, Dave


    The Breakthrough Listen Initiative is undertaking a comprehensive search for radio and optical signatures from extraterrestrial civilizations. An integral component of the project is the design and implementation of wide-bandwidth data recorder and signal processing systems. The capabilities of these systems, particularly at radio frequencies, directly determine survey speed; further, given a fixed observing time and spectral coverage, they determine sensitivity as well. Here, we detail the Breakthrough Listen wide-bandwidth data recording system deployed at the 100 m aperture Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The system digitizes up to 6 GHz of bandwidth at 8 bits for both polarizations, storing the resultant 24 GB s‑1 of data to disk. This system is among the highest data rate baseband recording systems in use in radio astronomy. A future system expansion will double recording capacity, to achieve a total Nyquist bandwidth of 12 GHz in two polarizations. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, along with salient configuration and disk-write optimizations used to achieve high-throughput data capture on commodity compute servers and consumer-class hard disk drives.

  20. Integrated care for patients with a stroke in the Netherlands: results and experiences from a national Breakthrough Collaborative Improvement project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.N. Minkman


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article considers the question if measurable improvements are achieved in the quality of care in stroke services by using a Breakthrough collaborative quality improvement model. Context of case: Despite the availability of explicit criteria, evidence based guidelines, national protocols and examples of best practices; stroke care in the Netherlands did not improve substantially yet. For that reason a national collaborative started in 2002 to improve integrated stroke care in 23 self selected stroke services. Data sources: Characteristics of sites, teams, aims and changes were assessed by using a questionnaire and monthly self-reports of teams. Progress in achieving significant quality improvement has been assessed on a five point Likert scale (IHI score. Case description: The stroke services (n=23 formed multidisciplinary teams, which worked together in a collaborative based on the IHI Breakthrough Series Model. Teams received instruction in quality improvement, reviewed self reported performance data, identified bottlenecks and improvement goals, and implemented “potentially better practices” based on criteria from the Edisse study, evidence based guidelines, own ideas and expert opinion. Conclusion and discussion: Quality of care has been improved in most participating stroke services. Eighty-seven percent of the teams have improved their care significantly on at least one topic. About 34% of the teams have achieved significant improvement on all aims within the time frame of the project. The project has contributed to the further development and spread of integrated stroke care in the Netherlands.

  1. Barbed micro-spikes for micro-scale biopsy (United States)

    Byun, Sangwon; Lim, Jung-Min; Paik, Seung-Joon; Lee, Ahra; Koo, Kyo-in; Park, Sunkil; Park, Jaehong; Choi, Byoung-Doo; Seo, Jong Mo; Kim, Kyung-ah; Chung, Hum; Song, Si Young; Jeon, Doyoung; Cho, Dongil


    Single-crystal silicon planar micro-spikes with protruding barbs are developed for micro-scale biopsy and the feasibility of using the micro-spike as a micro-scale biopsy tool is evaluated for the first time. The fabrication process utilizes a deep silicon etch to define the micro-spike outline, resulting in protruding barbs of various shapes. Shanks of the fabricated micro-spikes are 3 mm long, 100 µm thick and 250 µm wide. Barbs protruding from micro-spike shanks facilitate the biopsy procedure by tearing off and retaining samples from target tissues. Micro-spikes with barbs successfully extracted tissue samples from the small intestines of the anesthetized pig, whereas micro-spikes without barbs failed to obtain a biopsy sample. Parylene coating can be applied to improve the biocompatibility of the micro-spike without deteriorating the biopsy function of the micro-spike. In addition, to show that the biopsy with the micro-spike can be applied to tissue analysis, samples obtained by micro-spikes were examined using immunofluorescent staining. Nuclei and F-actin of cells which are extracted by the micro-spike from a transwell were clearly visualized by immunofluorescent staining.

  2. Lead levels - blood (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  3. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  4. MicroRNA signature of the human developing pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa-Medina Mayrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression including differentiation and development by either inhibiting translation or inducing target degradation. The aim of this study is to determine the microRNA expression signature during human pancreatic development and to identify potential microRNA gene targets calculating correlations between the signature microRNAs and their corresponding mRNA targets, predicted by bioinformatics, in genome-wide RNA microarray study. Results The microRNA signature of human fetal pancreatic samples 10-22 weeks of gestational age (wga, was obtained by PCR-based high throughput screening with Taqman Low Density Arrays. This method led to identification of 212 microRNAs. The microRNAs were classified in 3 groups: Group number I contains 4 microRNAs with the increasing profile; II, 35 microRNAs with decreasing profile and III with 173 microRNAs, which remain unchanged. We calculated Pearson correlations between the expression profile of microRNAs and target mRNAs, predicted by TargetScan 5.1 and miRBase altgorithms, using genome-wide mRNA expression data. Group I correlated with the decreasing expression of 142 target mRNAs and Group II with the increasing expression of 876 target mRNAs. Most microRNAs correlate with multiple targets, just as mRNAs are targeted by multiple microRNAs. Among the identified targets are the genes and transcription factors known to play an essential role in pancreatic development. Conclusions We have determined specific groups of microRNAs in human fetal pancreas that change the degree of their expression throughout the development. A negative correlative analysis suggests an intertwined network of microRNAs and mRNAs collaborating with each other. This study provides information leading to potential two-way level of combinatorial control regulating gene expression through microRNAs targeting multiple mRNAs and, conversely, target mRNAs regulated in

  5. MicroRNAs and Presbycusis. (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Wu, Junwu; Jiang, Wenjing; Tang, Jianguo


    Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is the most universal sensory degenerative disease in elderly people caused by the degeneration of cochlear cells. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play a fundamental role in gene regulation in almost every multicellular organism, and control the aging processes. It has been identified that various miRNAs are up- or down-regulated during mammalian aging processes in tissue-specific manners. Most miRNAs bind to specific sites on their target messenger-RNAs (mRNAs) and decrease their expression. Germline mutation may lead to dysregulation of potential miRNAs expression, causing progressive hair cell degeneration and age-related hearing loss. Therapeutic innovations could emerge from a better understanding of diverse function of miRNAs in presbycusis. This review summarizes the relationship between miRNAs and presbycusis, and presents novel miRNAs-targeted strategies against presbycusis.

  6. Tunable micro-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duppé, Claudia


    Presenting state-of-the-art research into the dynamic field of tunable micro-optics, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive survey covering a varied range of topics including novel materials, actuation concepts and new imaging systems in optics. Internationally renowned researchers present a diverse range of chapters on cutting-edge materials, devices and subsystems, including soft matter, artificial muscles, tunable lenses and apertures, photonic crystals, and complete tunable imagers. Special contributions also provide in-depth treatment of micro-optical characterisation, scanners, and the use of natural eye models as inspiration for new concepts in advanced optics. With applications extending from medical diagnosis to fibre telecommunications, Tunable Micro-optics equips readers with a solid understanding of the broader technical context through its interdisciplinary approach to the realisation of new types of optical systems. This is an essential resource for engineers in industry and academia,...

  7. A novel micro wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingxiang; Xu Yong


    A novel structure of the micro-wiggler is presented. The authors developed a simplified theoretical model of the micro-wiggler. According to the model, an analytic formula of the magnetic field in two dimensions is got. A calculated program (PWMW-I) is developed from the formula. PWMW-I can calculate the field on the axis and the off-axis for the number of periods N, and the entrance or the exit of the micro-wiggler. Three model with different period (10 mm, 5 mm and 3 mm) is designed on the program. The 5T peak field for the period of 3 mm at the gap of 1 mm is got

  8. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.


    , in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities......Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location...

  9. Study on Boiling Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Micro-channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Namgyun [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, efficient heat dissipation has become necessary because of the miniaturization of devices, and research on boiling on micro-channels has attracted attention. However, in the case of micro-channels, the friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are different from those in macro-channels. This leads to large errors in the micro scale results, when compared to correlations derived from the macro scale. In addition, due to the complexity of the mechanism, the boiling phenomenon in micro-channels cannot be approached only by experimental and theoretical methods. Therefore, numerical methods should be utilized as well, to supplement these methods. However, most numerical studies have been conducted on macro-channels. In this study, we applied the lattice Boltzmann method, proposed as an alternative numerical tool to simulate the boiling phenomenon in the micro-channel, and predicted the bubble growth process in the channel.

  10. The novel composite mechanism of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix and its ion exchange breakthrough curves for cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hao [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Li, Yuxiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory for Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wu, Lang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ma, Xue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)


    Highlights: • The granular composites were fabricated by the sequential annealing mechanism. • The method controls the porous characteristics and stable structure of materials. • The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate. • It is a probable for SM-AMP20 to recycle Cs{sup +} using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Long-lived {sup 137}Cs (over 30 years), a byproduct of the spent fuel fission processes, comprises the majority of high-level and prolific heat-generating waste in downstream processing. This study reports a novel sequential annealing mechanism with cross-linked network of polyvinyl alcohol, fabricating the composite of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix (SM-AMP20, 20 wt% AMP) as an excellent granular ion exchanger for removal Cs{sup +}. When the matrix is remarkably sequential annealed, well-dispersed SM-AMP20 particles are formed by firmly anchoring themselves on controlling the porous characteristics and stable structure. The material crystallizes in the complex cubic space group Pn-3m with cell parameters of crystalline AMP formation. The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} by SM-AMP20 follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate of 88.23% (∼10 mg/L of Cs{sup +}) and breakthrough time as high as 26 h (flow rate Q ≈ 2.5 mL/min and bed height Z ≈ 11 cm) at neutral pH. We also report on sorbents that could efficiently remove Cs{sup +} ions from complex solutions containing different competitive cations (Na{sup +}, Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Ni{sup 2+}, respectively) in large excess. Furthermore, this study shows that there is a probability for SM-AMP20 to recycle cesium using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution.

  11. Virologic breakthrough in a patient with chronic hepatitis B by combination treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki F


    Full Text Available Fumitaka Suzuki,1,2 Hitomi Sezaki,1 Norio Akuta,1 Yoshiyuki Suzuki,1 Yusuke Kawamura,1 Tetsuya Hosaka,1 Masahiro Kobayashi,1 Satoshi Saitoh,1 Yasuji Arase,1 Kenji Ikeda,1 Mariko Kobayashi,3 Sachiyo Watahiki,3 Rie Mineta,3 Yukiko Suzuki,3 Hiromitsu Kumada1 1Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan; 3Research Institute for Hepatology, Toranomon Branch Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan Abstract: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF is widely used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV patients in the USA and Europe. No confirmed report of resistance selection during treatment with TDF in treatment-naïve and nucleoside/nucleotide analog-treated chronic hepatitis B patients has yet been reported. Here, we report for the first time a patient with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis who emerged with virologic breakthrough during combination therapy with TDF and entecavir (ETV, against ETV-resistant virus. A 51-year-old Japanese woman with hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg, whose genotype was C, received ETV monotherapy continuously followed by TDF and ETV combination therapy, because her HBV DNA levels had been >3.5 log copies/mL. At the start of combination therapy, amino acid substitutions of the reverse transcriptase (rt gene, rtL180M, rtT184I/M, and rtM204V, were detected. After this, serum HBV DNA decreased to less than 2.1 log copies/mL and remained at this level until 31 months of combination therapy, when it again began to increase. Amino acid substitutions of rtL180M, rtS202G, and rtM204V emerged and were associated with an increase in serum HBV DNA at virologic breakthrough. Long-term therapy with TDF against the ETV-resistant virus has the potential to induce virologic breakthrough and resistance, and careful follow-up should be carried out. Keywords: hepatitis B virus, resistant

  12. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress. (United States)

    Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O


    From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981-2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the number and types of HIV/AIDS bills introduced

  13. Study of colloids transport during two-phase flow using a novel polydimethylsiloxane micro-model. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiulan; Karadimitriou, N K; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Imhof, A


    As a representation of a porous medium, a closed micro-fluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with uniform wettability and stable hydrophobic properties, was designed and fabricated. A flow network, with a mean pore size of 30 μm, was formed in a PDMS slab, covering an area of 1 mm × 10 mm. The PDMS slab was covered and bonded with a 120-μm-thick glass plate to seal the model. The glass plate was first spin-coated with a thin layer, roughly 10 μm, of PDMS. The micro-model was treated with silane in order to make it uniformly and stably hydrophobic. Fluorescent particles of 300 μm in diameter were used as colloids. It is known that more removal of colloids occurs under unsaturated conditions, compared to saturated flow in soil. At the same time, the change of saturation has been observed to cause remobilization of attached colloids. The mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. This is the first time that a closed micro-model, made of PDMS with uniform and stable wettability, has been used in combination with confocal microscopy to study colloid transport under transient two-phase flow conditions. With confocal microscopy, the movement of fluorescent particles and flow of two liquids within the pores can be studied. One can focus at different depths within the pores and thus determine where the particles exactly are. Thus, remobilization of attached colloids by moving fluid-fluid interfaces was visualized. In order to allow for the deposition and subsequent remobilization of colloids during two-phase flow, three micro-channels for the injection of liquids with and without colloids were constructed. An outlet channel was designed where effluent concentration breakthrough curves can be quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity. A peak concentration also indicated in the breakthrough curve with the drainage event. The acquired images and breakthrough curve successfully confirmed the utility of the combination of such a PDMS

  14. Methods and systems for micro machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalford, Harold L.


    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  15. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad


    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  16. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido


    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  17. Micro-RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmäki, H.; Hokland, L. B.; Chen, Li


    Osteoblast differentiation and bone formation (osteogenesis) are regulated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Recently, a novel class of regulatory factors termed microRNAs has been identified as playing an important role in the regulation of many aspects of osteoblast biology...... including proliferation, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis. Also, preliminary data from animal disease models suggest that targeting miRNAs in bone can be a novel approach to increase bone mass. This review highlights the current knowledge of microRNA biology and their role in bone formation...

  18. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  19. MYRIADE: CNES Micro-Satellite Program


    Thoby, Michel


    CNES is currently leading the development of a program of micro-satellites, which has been now blessed with a name in line with the ambition: MYRIADE. The intention is to primarily fulfill the needs of the national scientific research in small space missions. Technology experiments as well as demonstration flights for new mission concepts shall however not be forgotten. The main objective is to make access to space much easier and affordable. The first five scientific and technological mixed ...

  20. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul


    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  1. Micro-Avionics Multi-Purpose Platform (MicroAMPP) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro-Avionics Multi-Purpose Platform (MicroAMPP) is a common avionics architecture supporting microsatellites, launch vehicles, and upper-stage carrier...

  2. Structure of catalase determined by MicroED (United States)

    Nannenga, Brent L; Shi, Dan; Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E; Gonen, Tamir


    MicroED is a recently developed method that uses electron diffraction for structure determination from very small three-dimensional crystals of biological material. Previously we used a series of still diffraction patterns to determine the structure of lysozyme at 2.9 Å resolution with MicroED (Shi et al., 2013). Here we present the structure of bovine liver catalase determined from a single crystal at 3.2 Å resolution by MicroED. The data were collected by continuous rotation of the sample under constant exposure and were processed and refined using standard programs for X-ray crystallography. The ability of MicroED to determine the structure of bovine liver catalase, a protein that has long resisted atomic analysis by traditional electron crystallography, demonstrates the potential of this method for structure determination. DOI: PMID:25303172

  3. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen


    This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number...... of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe......" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients...

  4. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain. (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas


    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  5. Significant breakthrough in proprietary deepwater natural gas exploration in the northern South China Sea and its inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Xie


    Full Text Available In 2014, Zhanjiang Branch of CNOOC Limited obtained high oil and gas flows (160 × 104 m3/d in Well LS 17-2-1 in northern South China Sea. The tested formation is the Neogene Upper Miocene Huangliu Fm. This is the first self-explored natural gas field in deep water area in China. Exploration in this area underwent three periods: (1 Reconnaissance exploration period (before 2002: Limited by techniques, the major exploration was in shallow water areas; (2 Foreign cooperative exploration period (2002–2012: As the discovered reserve scale was small, and there is no economic benefit, the partners successively gave up their exploration equities in the deep water area of western South China Sea; however, the high quality source rocks and reservoirs were confirmed in the deep water area of the South China Sea, revealing the mask of hydrocarbon exploration in this region; (3 Self-exploration period (since 2013: Relying on national science and technology major projects and its scientific research and production, Zhanjiang Company of CNOOC conducted several scientific researches on seismic data acquisition and processing, high-quality reservoir distribution, key factors for hydrocarbon accumulation in deep water areas, optimized and confirmed Lingshui 17-2 structure as the first drilling target, and obtained significant exploration breakthrough. Lingshui 17-2 structure is located in the Ledong-Lingshui section of the Central Canyon. Its major target layer is the Huangliu Fm. Its total thickness is over 150 m, with sandstone ratio of 75.4%, maximum single layer thickness of 52 m, porosity ranging 30.0%–33.7% (31.5% averagely, permeability ranging 293–2512 mD (633 mD averagely, belonging to reservoir with ultrahigh porosity and high-ultrahigh permeability. The exploration breakthrough in Lingshui 17-2 shows the giant potentiality of hydrocarbon exploration in this deep water area.

  6. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P; Xie, J; Cheng, J; Wu, K K


    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25–80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface. (paper)

  7. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables (United States)

    Li, P.; Xie, J.; Cheng, J.; Wu, K. K.


    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25-80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface.

  8. Development of techniques for rapid analysis of 90Sr breakthrough and 90Y activity from a 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, S.E.; Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.


    Recently there has been interest in labelling monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic amounts of a pure beta emitting isotope. 90 Y offers many desirable features and may be conveniently and economically obtained from a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator. A potential hazard with this system is breakthrough of the parent 90 Sr which has a half life of 28 years and is an extremely toxic bone seeking isotope. Therefore it is essential that the daughter be completely separated from its parent. We have devised two simple techniques which allow us to monitor rapidly the amount of 90 Sr breakthrough and quantitate the 90 Y activity over a 5 log range. (author)

  9. Improving the accuracy of micro injection moulding process simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    and are therefore limited in the capability of modelling the polymer flow in micro cavities. Hence, new strategies for comprehensive simulation models which provide more precise results open up new opportunities and will be discussed. Modelling and meshing recommendations are presented, leading to a multi......Process simulations in micro injection moulding aim at the optimization and support of the design of the mould, mould inserts, the plastic product, and the process. Nevertheless, dedicated software packages for micro injection moulding are not available. They are developed for macro plastic parts...

  10. Incentive Mechanism of Micro-grid Project Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long


    Full Text Available Due to the issue of cost and benefit, the investment demand and consumption demand of micro-grids are insufficient in the early stages, which makes all parties lack motivation to participate in the development of micro-grid projects and leads to the slow development of micro-grids. In order to promote the development of micro-grids, the corresponding incentive mechanism should be designed to motivate the development of micro-grid projects. Therefore, this paper builds a multi-stage incentive model of micro-grid project development involving government, grid corporation, energy supplier, equipment supplier, and the user in order to study the incentive problems of micro-grid project development. Through the solution and analysis of the model, this paper deduces the optimal subsidy of government and the optimal cooperation incentive of the energy supplier, and calculates the optimal pricing strategy of grid corporation and the energy supplier, and analyzes the influence of relevant factors on optimal subsidy and incentive. The study reveals that the cost and social benefit of micro-grid development have a positive impact on micro-grid subsidy, technical level and equipment quality of equipment supplier as well as the fact that government subsidies positively adjust the level of cooperation incentives and price incentives. In the end, the validity of the model is verified by numerical analysis, and the incentive strategy of each participant is analyzed. The research of this paper is of great significance to encourage project development of micro-grids and to promote the sustainable development of micro-grids.

  11. Cold Gas Micro Propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.


    This thesis describes the development of a micro propulsion system. The trend of miniaturization of satellites requires small sized propulsion systems. For particular missions it is important to maintain an accurate distance between multiple satellites. Satellites drift apart due to differences in

  12. Tolerances in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Zhang, Yang; Islam, Aminul

    This paper describes a method for analysis of tolerances in micro manufacturing. It proposes a mapping oftolerances to dimensions and compares this with current available international standards. The analysisdocuments that tolerances are not scaled down as the absolute dimension. In practice...

  13. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.


    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  14. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Localized application of small quantities of fertilizer (micro-dosing), combined with improved planting pits for rainwater harvesting, has generated greater profits and food security for women farmers in the Sahel. • Women are 25% more likely to use combined applications, and have expanded areas of food crops (cowpea,.

  15. Micro- and Nanoengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroen, C.G.P.H.


    There are two overall themes, micro- and nanotechnology, which are capable of changing the future of food considerably. In microtechnology, production of foods and food ingredients is investigated at small scale; the results are thus that larger scale production is considered through operating many

  16. MicroRNA pharmacogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Shomron, Noam


    polymorphisms, copy number variations or differences in gene expression levels of drug metabolizing or transporting genes and drug targets. In this review paper, we focus instead on microRNAs (miRNAs): small noncoding RNAs, prevalent in metazoans, that negatively regulate gene expression in many cellular...

  17. Programming the BBC micro

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, John D; Macari, Louie; Williams, Peter H


    Programming the BBC Micro is a 12-chapter book that begins with a description of the BBC microcomputer, its peripheral, and faults. Subsequent chapters focus on practice in programming, program development, graphics, words, numbers, sound, bits, bytes, and assembly language. The interfacing, file handling, and detailed description of BBC microcomputer are also shown.

  18. Advancing three-dimensional MEMS by complimentary laser micro manufacturing (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Williams, John D.; Lemp, Tom; Lehecka, Tom M.; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan B.


    This paper describes improvements that enable engineers to create three-dimensional MEMS in a variety of materials. It also provides a means for selectively adding three-dimensional, high aspect ratio features to pre-existing PMMA micro molds for subsequent LIGA processing. This complimentary method involves in situ construction of three-dimensional micro molds in a stand-alone configuration or directly adjacent to features formed by x-ray lithography. Three-dimensional micro molds are created by micro stereolithography (MSL), an additive rapid prototyping technology. Alternatively, three-dimensional features may be added by direct femtosecond laser micro machining. Parameters for optimal femtosecond laser micro machining of PMMA at 800 nanometers are presented. The technical discussion also includes strategies for enhancements in the context of material selection and post-process surface finish. This approach may lead to practical, cost-effective 3-D MEMS with the surface finish and throughput advantages of x-ray lithography. Accurate three-dimensional metal microstructures are demonstrated. Challenges remain in process planning for micro stereolithography and development of buried features following femtosecond laser micro machining.

  19. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  20. Pyramid solar micro-grid (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen


    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  1. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.


    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  2. Lead - nutritional considerations (United States)

    ... billion people had toxic (poisonous) blood lead levels. Food Sources Lead can be found in canned goods if there is lead solder in the ... to bottled water for drinking and cooking. Avoid canned goods from foreign ... cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil ...

  3. The effects of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead 203. (United States)

    Kim, J S; Hamilton, D L; Blakley, B R; Rousseaux, C G


    The effect of thiamin on the organ distribution of lead was evaluated in CD-1 mice exposed intragastrically or intraperitoneally to a single dose of lead acetate (100 micrograms) containing 100 microCi lead 203. They were treated with either thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg body weight), calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) (50 mg/kg body weight), or combinations of thiamin and CaEDTA. The whole body retention and the organ distribution of lead 203 varied depending upon the route of lead administration, dose of thiamin and the specific treatment combination. Thiamin (25 or 50 mg/kg) treatment increased the whole body retention of both intragastric and intraperitoneal lead by approximately 10% in each instance. Calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, either alone or in combination with thiamin (50 mg/kg) reduced the whole body retention of lead by as much as 14% regardless of route of lead exposure. The relative retention of lead by the liver, kidney and spleen was greater in mice exposed to lead by the intragastric route. Regardless of route, CaEDTA in the combined treatment reduced the relative retention of lead in both the liver and kidney, whereas thiamin alone only reduced the retention of lead in the kidney. The results of this study indicate that thiamin in combination with CaEDTA alters the distribution and retention of lead in a manner which may have therapeutic application as it relates to chelation therapy. PMID:1423063

  4. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) : multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, F.W.


    The breakthrough of rock ‘n’ roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the

  5. How nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain, and the impact of this pain on patients' daily lives - Results of a European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Wengstrom, Yvonne

    Purpose: To increase our knowledge of how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP); and whether they find it difficult to distinguish BTCP from background pain; how they estimate the impact of BTCP on patients' daily lives, and the factors that nurses consider to induce BTCP. Variations in

  6. Evaluating Design Parameters for Breakthrough Curve Analysis and Kinetics of Fixed Bed Columns for Cu(II Cations Using Lignocellulosic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury


    Full Text Available A continuous adsorption study for removal of Cu(II cations from wastewater using a fixed-bed column was conducted. A granular carbonaceous activated adsorbent produced by carbonization of the outer rind, or exocarp, of mangostene fruit shell was used for column packing. The effects of feed flow rate, influent cation concentration, and bed depth on the breakthrough curve were investigated at pH 5.5. Experimental analysis confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial concentration of Cu(II cations, and bed height related to the amount of activated carbon used for column packing. Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams–Bohart models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at different conditions. Linear regression analysis of experimental data demonstrated that Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models were appropriate to explain the breakthrough curve, while the Adams–Bohart model was only applicable to predict the initial part of the dynamic process. It was concluded that the column packed with fruit rind based activated carbon can be used to treat Cu(II-enriched wastewater.

  7. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens


    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  8. CERN MicroClub

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN MicroClub


    Le CERN Micro Club (en partenariat avec Google Education et EU Code Week) organise un évènement éducatif exceptionnel autour de trois kits scientifiques basés sur le mini-ordinateur Raspberry Pi : Le Bras Robotique "Poppy Ergo Jr", conçu par l'équipe-projet Flowers (Centre de recherche Inria Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, ENSTA Paris Tech). Le kit de détection de rayons cosmiques "Muon Hunter", conçu en partenariat entre Mr Mihaly Vadai et les membres du CERN Micro Club. La voiture radio-commandée programmable Wifi "GianoPi", conçue en partenariat avec le campus "La Chataigneraie", pour l'Ecole Internationale de Genève.   Le vendredi 7 octobre (de 18h à 20h) : Une conférence gratuite et ouverte à tous (limitée à 100 personnes), pendant laquelle v...

  9. Shear Driven Synthesis of Polymeric Micro- and Nanomaterials (United States)

    Tian, Tian

    Polymeric micro- and nanomaterials play a significant role in various current and emerging technologies. A liquid shear based method was developed to fabricate a wide range of polymeric materials, which include fibers, sheets, ribbons, rods and spheres in a scalable, cost-effective and simple way. During the process, droplet shearing, droplet deformation, droplet breaking up and polymer precipitation occur simultaneously. The size and morphology of the resultant structures are determined by the dominating process which is further controlled by the experimental parameters including polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight and antisolvent concentration. Among all of these structures, nanofibers have attracted the latest research interest due to the unique properties. Current leading fiber production approaches in the market possess certain drawbacks. For example, the throughput of electrospinning is limited to around 2.5 kg/hr and the diameter of fiber produced by wet spinning cannot be below micrometer while melt spinning is only applicable to melt-processable polymers. The breakthrough of our liquid shear driven technique for fiber synthesis is that it produces fibers with diameter from 200 nm to several micrometers from a wide range of liquid- processable polymers with high commercial yield (up to 12 kg/hr). Thus in Chapter 2, the optimum parameters range for fiber formation is established and the effects of those parameters on fiber size are investigated. In the original liquid shear method, medium with high viscosity is needed to exert strong shear stress on the droplet and to stretch the droplets to long strand. However, the viscous medium complicates the post sample washing procedure and introduces the potential slippery danger in the working area. Thus a non-viscous medium shearing method is developed in Chapter 3 and it is the first time proposed that the synthesis of PLA or PS nanofibers can be completed in the aqueous ethanol medium. Colloid science

  10. Rectenna session: Micro aspects (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.


    Two micro aspects of rectenna design are discussed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  11. Rapid breakthrough of pesticides via biopres into tile drains and shallow groundwater: a combined experimental and model study (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.; Palm, J.; Schroeder, B.


    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported in surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport is an environ¬mental problem because the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To get a better insight in the process of pesticide transport in agricultural soils an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is aprox. 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and the shows runoff over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon and Flufenacet according to conventional agricultural practice. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) and had a total irrigation rate of 33.6 mm measured with ten precipitation samplers. During the first block a tracer solution of 1600 g Bromide and 2000 g Brilliant Blue was irrigated on the test site. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe to measure the water level. About 50 water samples were taken on the day of the experiment from the drainage outlet by hand, and in an eight hour interval for six days with an automatic sample procedure. Discharge at the drainage outlet showed two peaks in response irrigation. The breakthrough of the tracer into the brook is much faster then the reaction of the discharge on the precipitation impulse. To gain insight in the vertical transport behaviour three

  12. Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for analgesia in adult cancer patients with breakthrough pain: A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. (United States)

    Liu, Q; Gao, L-L; Dai, Y-L; Li, Y-X; Wang, Y; Bai, C-F; Mu, G-X; Chai, X-M; Han, W-J; Zhou, L-J; Zhang, Y-J; Tang, L; Liu, J; Yu, J-Q


    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for the management of breakthrough cancer pain. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was undertaken in the Medical ward of Tumor Hospital of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. 240 cancer patients with breakthrough pain were recruited and randomly received a standard pain treatment (morphine sulphate immediate release) plus a pre-prepared nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, or the standard pain treatment plus oxygen. The primary endpoint measure was the numerical rating scale (NRS) score measured at baseline, 5 and 15 min after the beginning of treatment, and at 5 min post treatment. In all, analysis of pain score (NRS) at 5 min after the beginning of treatment shown a significant decrease in nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture treated patients with 2.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.5 ± 1.2 in controls (p nitrous oxide/oxygen was 2.0 ± 1.1 compared with 5.6 ± 1.3 for oxygen (p nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough pain among patients with cancer. The management of breakthrough cancer pain is always a challenge due to its temporal characteristics of rapid onset, moderate to severe in intensity, short duration (median 30-60 min). Our study find that self-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough cancer pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  13. Newspaper coverage of human-pig chimera research: A qualitative study on select media coverage of scientific breakthrough. (United States)

    Hagan-Brown, Abena; Favaretto, Maddalena; Borry, Pascal


    A recently published article in the journal Cell by scientists from the Salk Institute highlighted the successful integration of stem cells from humans in pig embryos. This marks the first step toward the goal of growing human organs in animals for transplantation. There has, to date, been no research performed on the presentation of this breakthrough in the media. We thus assessed early newspaper coverage of the chimera study, looking into the descriptions as well as the benefits and concerns raised by the study mentioned by newspaper sources. We looked at newspaper coverage of the human-pig chimera study in the two weeks after the publication of the article describing the breakthrough in Cell. This time period spanned from January 26 to February 9, 2017. We used the LexisNexis Academic database and identified articles using the search string "hybrid OR chimera AND pig OR human OR embryo." The relevant articles were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two researchers openly coded the articles independently using themes that emerged from the raw texts. Our search yielded 31 unique articles, after extensive screening for relevance and duplicates. Through our analysis, we were able to identify several themes in a majority of the texts. Almost every article gave descriptive information about the chimera experiment with details about the study findings. All of the articles mentioned the benefits of the study, citing both immediate- and long-term goals, which included creating transplantable human organs, disease and drug development, and personalized medicine, among others. Some of the articles highlighted some ethical, social, and health concerns that the study and its future implications pose. Many of the articles also offered reassurances over the concerns brought up by the experiment. Our results appeared to align with similar research performed on the media representation of sensitive scientific news coverage. We also explored the inconsistency between

  14. The effect of lead-based paint hazard remediation on blood lead levels of lead poisoned children in New York City. (United States)

    Leighton, Jessica; Klitzman, Susan; Sedlar, Slavenka; Matte, Thomas; Cohen, Neal L


    Despite the widespread use of lead paint hazard control for children with lead poisoning, few controlled studies that estimate the effect of such control on children's blood lead levels have been published. This retrospective follow-up study examined the effects of lead hazard remediation and its timing on the blood lead levels of lead-poisoned children. From the New York City child blood lead registry, 221 children were selected who had an initial blood lead level of 20-44 micro g/dL between 1 July 1994 and 31 December 1996; were 6 months to 6 years of age; had a report of a follow-up blood lead test between 10 and 14 months after the initial test; had a lead-based paint hazard identified in the primary dwelling unit prior to the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test; had resided or spent time at only one address with an identified lead-based paint hazard; and were not chelated. The decline in geometric mean blood lead levels from baseline to 10-14 months later was compared for children whose homes were remediated and whose homes were not remediated during the follow-up period. Regardless of remediation, geometric mean blood lead levels declined significantly from 24.3 micro g/dL at the initial diagnosis to 12.3 micro g/dL at the 10- to 14-month follow-up blood lead test (Premediated the geometric mean blood lead levels declined 53% compared to 41% among the 75 children whose homes were not remediated by the follow-up blood lead test, a remediation effect of approximately 20% (Premediation effect was 11%, although it was no longer significant. Race was the only factor that appeared to confound the relationship: Black children had higher follow-up blood lead levels even after controlling for other factors, including the natural logarithm of the initial blood lead level. The effect of remediation appeared to be stronger for younger (10 to remediation (within less than 3 months) appeared to have greater declines in blood lead levels at the follow-up test than

  15. Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Beisl


    Full Text Available Micro- and nanosize lignin has recently gained interest due to improved properties compared to standard lignin available today. As the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, lignin is readily available but used for rather low-value applications. This review focuses on the application of micro- and nanostructured lignin in final products or processes that all show potential for high added value. The fields of application are ranging from improvement of mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites, bactericidal and antioxidant properties and impregnations to hollow lignin drug carriers for hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. Also, a carbonization of lignin nanostructures can lead to high-value applications such as use in supercapacitors for energy storage. The properties of the final product depend on the surface properties of the nanomaterial and, therefore, on factors like the lignin source, extraction method, and production/precipitation methods, as discussed in this review.

  16. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.


    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  17. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov


    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  18. Electrofuel 2000 annual report : leading the charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Electrofuel Inc. develops, manufactures and sells a lithium ion superpolymer rechargeable battery technology. This unique and breakthrough technology provides the highest energy density and longest lasting portable power source on the market today. The company's goal is to become the leading provider of portable power for the portable computer and wireless sectors and to apply its technology to a wide range of alternative energy applications. The market for this technology is large and growing rapidly. Sales have increased from 190 million devices in 1998 to a projected 600 million in 2003. The increased sales are driven by better affordability, reduced size and functionality of the battery. This annual report highlights some of the major milestones the company achieved in 2000 which helped advance the corporate strategy and which marked its transformation from a late stage development company to an early stage commercial manufacturer. The report also contains statements regarding the outlook for the company's business and results of operations. The customary consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and capital were also included. tabs., figs

  19. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A. (United States)

    Collins, P W; Blanchette, V S; Fischer, K; Björkman, S; Oh, M; Fritsch, S; Schroth, P; Spotts, G; Astermark, J; Ewenstein, B


    The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level break-through bleeding in patients with severe hemophilia A on prophylaxis. This study analysed data from 44 patients aged 1-6 and 99 patients aged 10-65 years with severe hemophilia A (FVIII safety and efficacy of a recombinant FVIII (Advate). Each patient had pharmacokinetic measurements and FVIII infusions recorded, and these were used to calculate time spent with a FVIII below 1, 2 and 5 IU dL(-1). The data demonstrate that increasing time with a FVIII below 1 IU dL(-1) is associated with increased total bleeds and hemarthroses. Lack of adherence to the intended frequency of FVIII infusion was the most important determinant of low FVIII and increased bleeding. In children aged 1-6 years, the rate of bleeding was also influenced by FVIII half-life and clearance. These data have important implications for the management of patients with severe hemophilia.

  20. Using a virtual breakthrough series collaborative to reduce postoperative respiratory failure in 16 Veterans Health Administration hospitals. (United States)

    Zubkoff, Lisa; Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Borzecki, Ann; Shin, Marlena; Lynn, Marilyn M; Gunnar, William; Rosen, Amy


    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Virtual Breakthrough Series (VBTS) process was used in an eight-month (June 2011-January 2012) quality improvement (QI) project to improve care related to reducing postoperative respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative drew on Patient Safety Indicator 11: Postoperative Respiratory Failure Rate to guide changes in care at the bedside. Sixteen Veterans Health Administration hospitals, each representing a regional Veterans Integrated Service Network, participated in the QI project. During the prework phase (initial two months), hospitals formed multidisciplinary teams, selected measures related to their goals, and collected baseline data. The six-month action phase included group conference calls in which the faculty presented clinical background on the topic, discussed evidence-based processes of care, and/or presented content regarding reducing postoperative respiratory failure. During a final, six-month continuous improvement and spread phase, teams were to continue implementing changes as part of their usual processes. The six most commonly reported interventions to reduce postoperative respiratory failure focused on improving incentive spirometer use, documenting implementation of targeted interventions, oral care, standardized orders, early ambulation, and provider education. A few teams reported reduced ICU readmissions for respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative helped teams implement process changes to help reduce postoperative respiratory complications. Teams reported initial success at implementing site-specific improvements using real-time data. The VBTS model shows promise for knowledge sharing and efficient multifacility improvement efforts, although long-term sustainability and testing in these and other settings need to be examined.

  1. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: 1.1-1.9 GHz Observations of 692 Nearby Stars (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Price, Danny C.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David H. E.; Werthimer, Dan


    We report on a search for engineered signals from a sample of 692 nearby stars using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, undertaken as part of the Breakthrough Listen Initiative search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Observations were made over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L band), with three sets of five-minute observations of the 692 primary targets, interspersed with five-minute observations of secondary targets. By comparing the “ON” and “OFF” observations, we are able to identify terrestrial interference and place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. During the analysis, 11 events passed our thresholding algorithm, but a detailed analysis of their properties indicates that they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio-frequency interference. We conclude that, at the time of our observations, none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz with an Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power of ˜1013 W, which is readily achievable by our own civilization. Our results suggest that fewer than ˜0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey.

  2. Technical and economic analysis use of flare gas into alternative energy as a breakthrough in achieving zero routine flaring (United States)

    Petri, Y.; Juliza, H.; Humala, N.


    The activity of exploring natural oil and gas will produce gas flare 0.584 MMSCFD. A gas flare is the combustion of gas remaining to avoid poisonous gas like H2S and CO which is very dangerous for human and environmental health. The combustion can bring about environmental pollution and losses because it still contains valuable energy. It needs the policy to encourage the use of flare gas with Zero Routine Flaring and green productivity to reduce waste and pollution. The objective of the research was to determine the use of gas flare so that it will have economic value and can achieve Zero Routine Flaring. It was started by analysing based on volume or rate and composition gas flare was used to determine technical feasibility, and the estimation of the gas reserves as the determination of the economy of a gas well. The results showed that the use of flare gas as fuel for power generation feasible to be implemented technically and economically with Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 19.32% and the Payback Period (PP) 5 year. Thus, it can increase gas flare value economically and can achieve a breakthrough in Zero Routine Flaring.

  3. Breakthrough of ultraviolet light from various brands of fluorescent lamps: Lethal effects on DNA repair-defective bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, P.E.; Biggley, W.H.


    In a comparative study of 17 pairs of 15 W fluorescent lamps intended for use in homes and purchased in local stores, we detect over 10-fold differences in UVB + UVC emissions between various lamps. This breakthrough of ultraviolet (UV) light is in part correlated with ability of lamps to kill DNA repair-defective recA - uvrB - Salmonella. Relative proficiency of lamps in eliciting photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions also plays a prominent role in the relative rates of bacterial inactivation by emissions from different lamps. Lamps made in Chile, such as Phillips brand lamps and one type of General Electric lamp, produce far less UVB + UVC and fail to kill recA - uvrB - bacteria. In contrast, all tested lamps manufactured in the USA, Hungary, and Japan exhibit readily observed deleterious biological effects. When an E. coli recA - uvrB - phr - (photolyase-negative) triple mutant is used for assay, lethal radiations are detected from all lamps, and single-hit exponential inactivation rates rather closely correlate to amount of directly measured UVB + UVC output of each pair of lamps. Although all lamps tested may meet international and Unite States standards for radiation safely, optimal practices in lamp manufacture are clearly capable of decreasing human exposure to indoor UV light. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Roelant, David; Kumar, Sachin


    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  5. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing


    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Khairallah, Saad A.; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J.


    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas...

  6. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia


    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  7. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.


    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  8. Flexible micro flow sensor for micro aerial vehicles (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Que, Ruiyi; Liu, Peng


    This article summarizes our studies on micro flow sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide circuit board by a low-cost hybrid process of thin-film deposition and circuit printing. The micro flow sensor has merits of flexibility, structural simplicity, easy integrability with circuits, and good sensing performance. The sensor, which adheres to an object surface, can detect the surface flow around the object. In our study, we install the fabricated micro flow sensors on micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) to detect the surface flow variation around the aircraft wing and deduce the aerodynamic parameters of the MAVs in flight. Wind tunnel experiments using the sensors integrated with the MAVs are also conducted.

  9. Uranium-lead systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, F.E.


    The method of Levchenkov and Shukolyukov for calculating age and time disturbance of minerals without correction for original lead is generalized to include the cases when (1) original lead and radiogenic lead leach differently, and (2) the crystals studied consist of a core and a mantle. It is also shown that a straight line obtained from the solution of the equations is the locus of the isotopic composition of original lead. (Auth.)

  10. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD


    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  11. Lead Poisoning (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lead Poisoning KidsHealth / For Parents / Lead Poisoning What's in ... Print en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  12. Remote micro hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The micro-hydro project, built on a small tributary of Cowley Creek, near Whitehorse, Yukon, is an important step in the development of alternative energy sources and in conserving expensive diesel fuel. In addition to demonstrating the technical aspects of harnessing water power, the project paved the way for easier regulatory procedures. The power will be generated by a 9 meter head and a 6 inch crossflow turbine. The 36 V DC power will be stored in three 12 V batteries and converted to ac on demand by a 3,800 watt inverter. The system will produce 1.6 kW or 14,016 kWh per year with a firm flow of 1.26 cfs. This is sufficient to supply electricity for household needs and a wood working shop. The project is expected to cost about $18,000 and is more economical than tying into the present grid system, or continuing to use a gasoline generator. An environmental study determined that any impact of the project on the stream would be negligible. It is expected that no other water users will be affected by the project. This pilot project in micro-hydro applications will serve as a good indicator of the viability of this form of alternate energy in the Yukon. The calculations comparing the micro-hydro and grid system indicate that the mico-hydro system is a viable source of inflation-proof power. Higher heads and larger flow resulting in ac generation in excess of 10 kW would yield much better returns than this project. 3 tabs.

  13. Characterizing the Effects of Micro Electrical Discharge Machining Parameters on Material Removal Rate during Micro EDM Drilling of Tungsten Carbide (WC-Co) (United States)

    Hourmand, Mehdi; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.; Sayuti, Mohd


    Micro-dies, molds and miniaturized products can be manufactured using micro EDM process. In this research, EDM machine and on-machine fabricated CuW micro-electrode were utilized to produce the micro holes in WC-16%Co. The effects of voltage, current, pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, capacitor and rotating speed on Material removal rate (MRR) during micro EDM drilling of WC-16% Co was analyzed using fractional factorial design method. ANOVA analysis shows that increasing current, rotating speed, capacitor and decreasing voltage and pulse ON time lead to the amplify in MRR. It was found that out of all the factors, current and capacitor had the most significant effect on MRR, while the effect of capacitor was more than current. Eventually, it can be concluded that micro holes can be produced using EDM machine.

  14. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia


    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  15. Superconductivity in nanostructured lead (United States)

    Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir


    Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.

  16. Review of Micro Magnetic Generator


    Lin DU; Gengchen SHI; Jingjing ZHAO


    This paper discusses the research progress of micro magnetic generator systems. Micro magnetic generator systems convert energy from the environment to electric energy with advantages as high reliability, high power density, long life time and can be applied to extreme environment. This paper summarizes methods for improving generator performance of micro magnetic generator, including rotational magnetic generator, vibrational magnetic generator and hybrid magnetic generator, analyzes and com...

  17. Lead in the environment (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John


    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  18. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu


    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  19. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia


    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  20. Secondary lead production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, R.G.


    This invention is concerned with the efficient recovery of soft lead from the paste component of used automobile lead-acid storage batteries. According to the invention, a scrap which contains lead oxide, lead sulfate, and antimony in an oxidized state is processed in the following steps to recover lead. A refractory lined reaction vessel is continuously charged with the scrap, along with a reductant effective for reducing lead oxide. The charged material is melted and agitated by means of a submerged lance at 900-1150{degree}C whereby some of the lead oxide of the scrap is reduced to form molten lead. A slag layer is then formed above the molten lead, and an amount of lead oxide is maintained in the slag layer. The molten lead, now containing under 0.5 wt % of antimony, is removed, and the antimony oxide in the scrap is concentrated as oxide in the slag layer. Preferred embodiments of the invention result in the production, in a single step, of a soft lead substantially free of antimony. The slag may be subsequently treated to reduce the antimony oxide and produce a valuable antimony-lead product. Further advantages of the process are that a wet battery paste may be used as the feed without prior drying, and the process can be conducted at a temperature 100-150{degree}C lower than in previously known methods. In addition, a smaller reactor can be employed which reduces both capital cost and fuel costs. The process of the invention is illustrated by descriptions of pilot plant tests. 1 fig.

  1. Nozzle fabrication for Micro Propulsion of a Micro-Satellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    To enable formation flying of micro satellites, small sized propulsion systems are required. Our research focuses on the miniaturization of a feeding and thruster system by means of micro system technology (MST). Three fabrication methods have been investigated to make a conical converging-diverging

  2. Achieving a demographic breakthrough. (United States)

    Taniguchi, H


    President Hosni Mubarak received the United Nations Population Award on June 14, 1994, because of his contribution to the promotion of the national population program in Egypt. Egypt has been tackling the population problem on three fronts: high rate of natural increase (2.3% in 1994), unbalanced population distribution along the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean coast that account for just 4% of the land, and insufficient educational and health levels. At present seven major programs are being implemented throughout the country to curb population increase involving information, education and communication; family planning; human resource development; improving maternal and child health, and educational level; increasing employment; the empowerment of women; and systematic land development. The total fertility rate dropped to 3.9 during 1990-1992 from 5.3 during 1979-1980. The crude birth rate dropped to 29.2/1000 population in 1992 from 38.7/1000 in 1986. The crude death rate also decreased to 7.4/1000 in 1992 from 9.2/1000 in 1986. The infant mortality rate decreased to 62 during 1988-1992 from 132 during 1975-1979. The contraceptive prevalence rate climbed from 24.25 in 1980 to 47.1% in 1992. The strong endorsement by the Grand Mufti that Islam supports family planning made many people change their traditional view that family planning was forbidden by the Koran. The political commitment from the President led to the provision of large budgets for the national population program. Technical and program assistance provided by donors including the United States Agency for International Development has greatly contributed to mass media campaigns and service delivery. 63.4% of acceptors received family planning services or contraceptives from the private sector. Egypt is willing to share its population and family planning experience with other developing countries that have similar economic and social conditions particularly if financial assistance by industrialized countries is attainable.

  3. Lentil: the Bangladesh breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, W.; Manners, G.


    Bangladesh has made great strides in food production. Recently it has achieved a worthwhile improvement in productivity of lentil—one of its most important crops. And ICARDA had a part to play. Lentil is the most important pulse in Bangladesh. It is the most popular pulse in both urban and rural areas, and rice with lentil soup (known as dhal) is often eaten in the villages; most people try to include it in their daily diet. So it is not surprising that Bangladesh is the world’s fourth largest lentil producer, exceeded only by India, Turkey and Canada—all of which have a far greater land area. The sown area of lentil in Bangladesh is about 210,000 ha, giving a production of 160,000 tonnes at an average yield of 769 t/ha. Even so, this is not enough. In 1994, according to FAO, Bangladesh imported 75,000 tonnes of pulses with a value of around US $19.8 million. This was high; the figure fluctuates, but there is an obvious need to improve production. This can not be done by increasing the sown area. In an intensive cropping pattern, lentil faces tough competition from cereals and oilseeds and from other winter pulses. Indeed, lentil is grown as a sole crop in Bangladesh but also as a mix or intercropped with cereals, oilseeds and sugarcane. Intercropping and mix-cropping are age-old practices, particularly in the north and north-western parts of the country. In this situation, an increase in production can come only from better yield

  4. Limit, breakthrough and prosperity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru


    It is pointed out that the flow toward serious crises is in progress with regard to energy and industrial problems. Technical and industrial preparation and countermeasure to the flow are proposed, and the existence of a certain new world attainable on the assumption that the countermeasure is successful is described. The relation between oil output and the increasing demand for energy is pointed out as a subject matter of the crisis. The contribution of oil energy to total energy, after the output turns to decreasing process, decreases by 177.87x10 6 tons (converted to coal at the rate 6848 kcal/kg) per year at maximum. Converted to the GNP of the world, this becomes (425 dollar/ton x 177.87 x 10 6 ton=75.6 x 10 9 dollar). This fluctuation width in a year must be compensated by the change of industrial structure and energy supplying means. The countermeasure and preparation are proposed from the viewpoints of the energy and the industrial structure in which nuclear power generation plays important role. The largest production on the earth limited by energy consumption and the temperature balance on the earth is investigated, and the perspective in the future is given. (Yamamoto, Y.)

  5. Beta Cell Breakthroughs (United States)

    ... Terms Research & News Recipes & Food Recipe Finder The Healthy Kitchen What Can I Eat? Main Dishes Salads & Sandwiches Breakfast Snacks Sides Dessert I'm Hungry! Body & Mind Well-Being Fitness Weight Loss Blood Glucose & Medications ...

  6. The big bitumen breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.


    The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs

  7. Brainstorming for breakthrough thinking. (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R


    This department highlights change management strategies that may be used in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses brainstorming as a viable innovation technique and goal-based change intervention.

  8. Micro-fabricated all optical pressure sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Petersen, Søren Dahl; Østergaard, Christian


    Optical pressure sensors can operate in certain harsh application areas where the electrical pressure sensors cannot. However, the sensitivity is often not as good for the optical sensors. This work presents an all optical pressure sensor, which is fabricated by micro fabrication techniques, where...... the sensitivity can be tuned in the fabrication process. The developed sensor design, simplifies the fabrication process leading to a lower fabrication cost, which can make the all optical pressure sensors more competitive towards their electrical counterpart. The sensor has shown promising results and a linear...... pressure response has been measured with a sensitivity of 0.6nm/bar....

  9. PLA micro- and nano-particles. (United States)

    Lee, Byung Kook; Yun, Yeonhee; Park, Kinam


    Poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) has been widely used for various biomedical applications for its biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic properties. Various methods, such as emulsion, salting out, and precipitation, have been used to make better PLA micro- and nano-particle formulations. They are widely used as controlled drug delivery systems of therapeutic molecules, including proteins, genes, vaccines, and anticancer drugs. Even though PLA-based particles have challenges to overcome, such as low drug loading capacity, low encapsulation efficiency, and terminal sterilization, continuous innovations in particulate formulations will lead to development of clinically useful formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Macro-/Micro-Controlled 3D Lithium-Ion Batteries via Additive Manufacturing and Electric Field Processing. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liang, Xinhua; Liou, Frank; Park, Jonghyun


    This paper presents a new concept for making battery electrodes that can simultaneously control macro-/micro-structures and help address current energy storage technology gaps and future energy storage requirements. Modern batteries are fabricated in the form of laminated structures that are composed of randomly mixed constituent materials. This randomness in conventional methods can provide a possibility of developing new breakthrough processing techniques to build well-organized structures that can improve battery performance. In the proposed processing, an electric field (EF) controls the microstructures of manganese-based electrodes, while additive manufacturing controls macro-3D structures and the integration of both scales. The synergistic control of micro-/macro-structures is a novel concept in energy material processing that has considerable potential for providing unprecedented control of electrode structures, thereby enhancing performance. Electrochemical tests have shown that these new electrodes exhibit superior performance in their specific capacity, areal capacity, and life cycle.

  11. A micro-coupling for micro mechanical systems (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bi; Xiao, Yunya


    The error motions of micro mechanical systems, such as micro-spindles, increase with the increasing of the rotational speed, which not only decreases the rotational accuracy, but also promotes instability and limits the maximum operational speed. One effective way to deal with it is to use micro-flexible couplings between the drive and driven shafts so as to reduce error motions of the driven shaft. But the conventional couplings, such as diaphragm couplings, elastomeric couplings, bellows couplings, and grooved couplings, etc, cannot be directly used because of their large and complicated structures. This study presents a novel micro-coupling that consists of a flexible coupling and a shape memory alloy (SMA)-based clamp for micro mechanical systems. It is monolithic and can be directly machined from a shaft. The study performs design optimization and provides manufacturing considerations, including thermo-mechanical training of the SMA ring for the desired Two-Way-Shape-Memory effect (TWSMe). A prototype micro-coupling and a prototype micro-spindle using the proposed coupling are fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the prototype micro-coupling can bear a torque of above 5 N • mm and an axial force of 8.5 N and be fitted with an SMA ring for clamping action at room temperature (15 °C) and unclamping action below-5 °C. At the same time, the prototype micro-coupling can work at a rotational speed of above 200 kr/min with the application to a high-speed precision micro-spindle. Moreover, the radial runout error of the artifact, as a substitute for the micro-tool, is less than 3 μm while that of turbine shaft is above 7 μm. It can be concluded that the micro-coupling successfully accommodates misalignment errors of the prototype micro-spindle. This research proposes a micro-coupling which is featured with an SMA ring, and it is designed to clamp two shafts, and has smooth transmission, simple assembly, compact structure, zero-maintenance and

  12. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn


    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  13. Magnetic resonance lung function – a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment? A phantom study and clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh Manfred


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.

  14. Relationship between onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction with fentanyl pectin nasal spray for breakthrough pain in cancer. (United States)

    Torres, Luis M; Revnic, Julia; Knight, Alastair D; Perelman, Michael


    Satisfaction with pain relief in patients with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc) has typically been assessed by overall efficacy without consideration of the rapidity of that response. To determine the relationship between speed of onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction for treated BTPc episodes overall and for individual treatments. Pooled data from two randomized, double-blinded crossover studies. Patients having 1-4 BTPc episodes per day on ≥60 mg/day oral morphine or equivalent. Episodes treated with fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS; 100-800 μg), immediate-release morphine sulfate (IRMS), or placebo. Pain intensity was measured on an 11-point scale (5-60 minutes posttreatment); satisfaction was measured on a 4-point scale (30 and 60 minutes). The primary analysis assessed the overall relationship of time to onset of pain relief (pain intensity difference [PID]≥1) or time to clinically meaningfully reduction in pain (PID≥2) versus patient satisfaction and overall pain intensity (summed pain intensity difference at 30 [SPID30] and 60 minutes [SPID60]) assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). A secondary analysis assessed whether satisfaction was different between treatments using a within-patient comparison. Eight hundred thirty-one FPNS-treated, 368 IRMS-treated, and 200 placebo-treated episodes were analyzed. Overall, within the pool there was a statistically significant relationship between time to onset of pain relief (PID≥1 and PID≥2) and patient satisfaction (both speed of relief and overall) at 30 and 60 minutes (ppain intensity reduction. When treatment groups were compared using within-patient data, FPNS provided earlier onset of pain relief than IRMS or placebo (ppain relief resulted in greater patient satisfaction and overall relief of pain; between-treatment comparisons showed that FPNS provided earlier pain relief and greater satisfaction than IRMS or placebo.

  15. Development, validation and psychometric properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool for breakthrough pain in mixed chronic-pain patients. (United States)

    Samolsky Dekel, Boaz Gedaliahu; Remondini, Francesca; Gori, Alberto; Vasarri, Alessio; Di Nino, GianFranco; Melotti, Rita Maria


    Breakthrough pain (BTP) shows variable prevalence in different clinical contexts of cancer and non-cancer patients. BTP diagnostic tools with demonstrated reliability, validation and prognostic capability are lacking. We report the development, psychometric and validation properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool, the IQ-BTP, for BTP recognition, its likelihood and clinical features among chronic-pain (CP) patients. n=120 consecutive mixed cancer/non-cancer CP in/outpatients. Development, psychometric analyses and formal validation included: Face/Content validity (by 'experts' opinion and assessing the relationship between the IQ-BTP classes and criteria derived from BTP operational-case-definition); Construct validity, by Principle Component Analysis (PCA); and the strength of Spearman correlation between IQ-BTP classes and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) items; Reliability, by Cronbach's alpha statistics. Associations with clinical/demographic moderators were assessed applying χ(2) analysis. Potential-BTP was found in 36.7% of patients (38.4% of non-cancer and 32.4% of cancer patients). Among these the likelihood for BTP diagnosis was 'high' in 25%, 'intermediate' in 41% and, 'low' 34% of patients. Analyses showed significant differences between IQ-BTP classes and between the latter BPI pain-item scores. Correlation between IQ-BTP classes and BPI items was moderate. PCA and scree test identified 3 components accounting for 62.3% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.71. The IQ-BTP showed satisfactory psychometric and validation properties. With adequate feasibility it enabled the allocating of cancer/non-cancer CP patients in three prognostic classes. Results are sufficient to warrant a subsequent impact study of the IQ-BTP as prognostic model and screening tool for BTP in both CP populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A breakthrough biosorbent in removing heavy metals: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism analyses in a lab-scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdolali, Atefeh [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Lu, Shaoyong [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong [Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Xinbo [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Chengjian University, Jinjing Road 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wang, Jie; Wu, Yun [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)


    A breakthrough biosorbent namely multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) made from a combination of tea wastes, maple leaves and mandarin peels, was prepared to evaluate their biosorptive potential for removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from multi-metal aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM were conducted, before and after biosorption, to explore the intensity and position of the available functional groups and changes in adsorbent surface morphology. Carboxylic, hydroxyl and amine groups were found to be the principal functional groups for the sorption of metals. MMBB exhibited best performance at pH 5.5 with maximum sorption capacities of 31.73, 41.06, 76.25 and 26.63 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models represented the kinetic experimental data in different initial metal concentrations very well. Among two-parameter adsorption isotherm models, the Langmuir equation gave a better fit of the equilibrium data. For Cu(II) and Zn(II), the Khan isotherm describes better biosorption conditions while for Cd(II) and Pb(II), the Sips model was found to provide the best correlation of the biosorption equilibrium data. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated feasible, spontaneous and exothermic biosorption process. Overall, this novel MMBB can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • A novel multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) was studied. • The biosorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} on MMBB was evaluated. • Hydroxyl, carbonyl and amine groups are involved in metal binding of MMBB. • Equilibrium data were presented and the best fitting models were identified. • The obtained results recommend this MMBB as potentially low-cost biosorbent.

  17. Site characterization and validation - Tracer migration experiment in the validation drift, report 2, Part 2: breakthrough curves in the validation drift appendices 5-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.


    Flowrate curves for the 53 sampling areas in the validation drift with measureable flowrates are given. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. The total flowrate for these three sampling areas is given in a separate plot. The flowrates are given in ml/h. The time is given in hours since April 27 00:00, 1990. Disturbances in flowrates are observed after 8500 hours due to opening of boreholes C1 and W1. Results from flowrate measurements after 8500 hours are therefore excluded. The tracer breakthrough curves for 38 sampling areas in the validation drift are given as concentration values versus time. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. This gives a total of 40 breakthrough curves for each tracer. (au)

  18. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation. (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen


    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  19. Lead Poison Detection (United States)


    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  20. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Sas, P.; Bergen, B.


    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  1. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors (United States)

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn


    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  2. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) Multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective


    Geels, Frank W.


    The breakthrough of rock 'n' roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the multi-level perspective. One characteristic of the case is interactions between multiple regimes: radio and recording. Another characteristic is the presence of strong cultural components, with rock 'n...

  3. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL


    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  4. Levels of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus Violaceous), Housefly (Musca Domestica) and dragon fly (Libellula luctosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, A.A.; Okedeyi, O.O.; Idowu, A.B.


    Chemical analyses of cadmium, chromium and lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus violaceous), housefly (Musca domestica) and in indigenous dragonfly (Libellula luctosa) were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry to estimate the degree of metal pollution in two Lagos dumpsites located at Iba Housing Estate (dumpsite A) and Soluos along LASU - Isheri road (dumpsite B). Soil pH and moisture content were also determined. Chromium was not detected (ND) in most of the samples except in the soil samples whose mean and standard deviation (SD) were 0.43 Plus minus 0.37 micro g/g and 0.23 plus minus 0.37 micro g/g, respectively for dumpsites A and B, and the earthworm samples harvested from dumpsite B (1.00 plus minus 1.41 micro g/g the cadmium levels were 4.00 plus minus 3.16 micro g/g and 7.50 plus minus 6.37 micro g/g for earthwarm; 2.86 plus minus 1.43 micro g/g and 4.29 plus minus 3.74 micro g/g for housefly, 0.75 plus minus 1.26 micro g/g and 1.25 plus minus 0.95 micro g/g for dragonfly, respectively for dumpsites A and B. However, the concentration of lead in the invertebrates were, 130.00 plus minus 112.58 micro g/g and 105.75 plus minus 94.44 micro g/g for earthworm; 145.71 plus minus 101.87 micro g/g and 225.71 plus minus 79.31 micro g/g for housefly; 165.00 plus minus 69.78 micro g/g and 85.00 plus minus 69.73 micro g/g for dragonfly respectively for dumpsites A and B. Cadmium and lead levels were found to be higher in the invertebrates harvested from the dumpsites than those collected from the non-dumpsites. The non-dumpsite values for cadmium were 1.24 plus minus 0,94 micro g/g, 0.45 plus minus 0.56 micro g/g and 0.38 plus minus 0.4 micro g/g for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly, respectively. Similarly, the non-dumpsite lead levels for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly were 23.12 plus minus 10.11 micro g/g, 20.75 plus minus 11.85 micro g/g and 33.62 plus minus 14.95 micro g/g, respectively.(author)

  5. A fast and sensitive method for evaluating nuclides migration characteristics in rock medium by using micro-channel reactor concept (United States)

    Okuyama, Keita; Sasahira, Akira; Noshita, Kenji; Yoshida, Takuma; Kato, Kazuyuki; Nagasaki, Shinya; Ohe, Toshiaki

    Experimental effort to evaluate the barrier performance of geologic disposal requires relatively long testing periods and chemically stable conditions. We have developed a new technique, the micro mock-up method, to present a fast and sensitive method to measure both nuclide diffusivity and sorption coefficient within a day to overcome such disadvantage of the conventional method. In this method, a Teflon plate having a micro channel (10-200 μm depth, 2, 4 mm width) is placed just beneath the rock sample plate, radionuclide solution is injected into the channel with constant rate. The breakthrough curve is being measured until a steady state. The outlet flux in the steady state however does not meet the inlet flux because of the matrix diffusion into the rock body. This inlet-outlet difference is simply related to the effective diffusion coefficient ( De) and the distribution coefficient ( Kd) of rock sample. Then, we adopt a fitting procedure to speculate Kd and De values by comparing the observation to the theoretical curve of the two-dimensional diffusion-advection equation. In the present study, we measured De of 3H by using both the micro mock-up method and the conventional through-diffusion method for comparison. The obtained values of De by two different ways for granite sample (Inada area of Japan) were identical: 1.0 × 10 -11 and 9.0 × 10 -12 m 2/s but the testing period was much different: 10 h and 3 days, respectively. We also measured the breakthrough curve of 85Sr and the resulting Kd and De agreed well to the previous study obtained by the batch sorption experiments with crushed samples. The experimental evidence and the above advantages reveal that the micro mock-up method based on the microreactor concept is powerful and much advantageous when compared to the conventional method.

  6. Applying a foil queue micro-electrode in micro-EDM to fabricate a 3D micro-structure (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Guo, Kang; Wu, Xiao-yu; Lei, Jian-guo; Liang, Xiong; Guo, Deng-ji; Ma, Jiang; Cheng, Rong


    Applying a 3D micro-electrode in a micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) can fabricate a 3D micro-structure with an up and down reciprocating method. However, this processing method has some shortcomings, such as a low success rate and a complex process for fabrication of 3D micro-electrodes. By focusing on these shortcomings, this paper proposed a novel 3D micro-EDM process based on the foil queue micro-electrode. Firstly, a 3D micro-electrode was discretized into several foil micro-electrodes and these foil micro-electrodes constituted a foil queue micro-electrode. Then, based on the planned process path, foil micro-electrodes were applied in micro-EDM sequentially and the micro-EDM results of each foil micro-electrode were able to superimpose the 3D micro-structure. However, the step effect will occur on the 3D micro-structure surface, which has an adverse effect on the 3D micro-structure. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to reduce this adverse effect by rounded corner wear at the end of the foil micro-electrode and studies the impact of machining parameters on rounded corner wear and the step effect on the micro-structure surface. Finally, using a wire cutting voltage of 80 V, a current of 0.5 A and a pulse width modulation ratio of 1:4, the foil queue micro-electrode was fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining. Also, using a pulse width of 100 ns, a pulse interval of 200 ns, a voltage of 100 V and workpiece material of 304# stainless steel, the foil queue micro-electrode was applied in micro-EDM for processing of a 3D micro-structure with hemispherical features, which verified the feasibility of this process.

  7. Column dynamic studies and breakthrough curve analysis for Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions adsorption onto palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA). (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva


    This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system.

  8. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.


    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  9. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.


    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  10. New micro-organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Masayoshi; Hashimoto, Gotaro


    Invention relates with a new organism for the coal liquefying desulfurization. This micro-organism conducts a good sporulation on a culture medium which contains a coal as an only carbon source. It belongs to Penicillium and named Penicillium MT-6001 registered at Fermentation Research Institute No. 8463. Coal powder is thrown into a reaction vessel which accommodated a culture solution of this bacteria, and the surface of the solution is covered with liquid paraffin; coal powder is treated of liquefaction for about 5 hours while maintaining the anaerobic condition and slowly agitating to form a transparent solution layer on the surface of the reactor together with liquid paraffin. Liquefied product shows an analysis pattern similar to naphthenic petroleum containing a lipid with polar radical. (2 figs)

  11. MicroProteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eguen, Teinai Ebimienere; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz


    MicroProteins (miPs) are short, usually single-domain proteins that, in analogy to miRNAs, heterodimerize with their targets and exert a dominant-negative effect. Recent bioinformatic attempts to identify miPs have resulted in a list of potential miPs, many of which lack the defining...... characteristics of a miP. In this opinion article, we clearly state the characteristics of a miP as evidenced by known proteins that fit the definition; we explain why modulatory proteins misrepresented as miPs do not qualify as true miPs. We also discuss the evolutionary history of miPs, and how the miP concept...

  12. Intronic microRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, S.-Y.; Lin, S.-L.


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small single-stranded regulatory RNAs capable of interfering with intracellular mRNAs that contain partial complementarity, are useful for the design of new therapies against cancer polymorphism and viral mutation. MiRNA was originally discovered in the intergenic regions of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome as native RNA fragments that modulate a wide range of genetic regulatory pathways during animal development. However, neither RNA promoter nor polymerase responsible for miRNA biogenesis was determined. Recent findings of intron-derived miRNA in C. elegans, mouse, and human have inevitably led to an alternative pathway for miRNA biogenesis, which relies on the coupled interaction of Pol-II-mediated pre-mRNA transcription and intron excision, occurring in certain nuclear regions proximal to genomic perichromatin fibrils

  13. Micro thrust and heat generator (United States)

    Garcia, E.J.


    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  14. Micro reactor and flow chemistry for industrial applications in drug discovery and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambarussi Baraldi, P.; Hessel, V.


    In this review, case studies focused on syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and lead compounds are reported employing micro reactors and continuous flow technology in areas such as medicinal chemistry, chemical development and manufacturing. The advantages of flow

  15. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI

  16. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E; Kubin, R


    Diagnosis was made from clinical observation and laboratory examination of nine cases. A successful treatment is described based on the similarity of the metabolism of lead and calcium, the lead being deposited in the bones where it is harmless, if it remains there. Details are given of the treatment.

  17. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael


    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  18. Leading Educational Change Wisely (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian


    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  19. Micro-mechanical properties of different sites on woodpecker's skull. (United States)

    Ni, Yikun; Wang, Lizhen; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hongquan; Lin, Chia-Ying; Fan, Yubo


    The uneven distributed microstructure featured with plate-like spongy bone in woodpecker's skull has been found to further help reduce the impact during woodpecker's pecking behavior. Therefore, this work was to investigate the micro-mechanical properties and composition on different sites of Great Spotted woodpecker's (GSW) skull. Different sites were selected on forehead, tempus and occiput, which were also compared with those of Eurasian Hoopoe (EH) and Lark birds (LB). Micro structural parameters assessed from micro computed tomography (μCT) occurred significantly difference between GSW, EH and LB. The micro finite element (micro-FE) models were developed and the simulation was performed as a compression process. The maximal stresses of GSW's micro-FE models were all lower than those of EH and LB respectively and few concentrated stresses were noticed on GSW's trabecular bone. Fourier transform infrared mapping suggesting a greater organic content in the occiput of GSW's cranial bone compared with others. The nano-hardness of the GSW's occiput was decreasing from forehead to occiput. The mechanical properties, site-dependent hardness distribution and special material composition of GSW's skull bone are newly found in this study. These factors may lead to a new design of bulk material mimicking these characteristics.

  20. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in Plastic Leaded Chip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) package has been emerged a promising option to tackle the thermal management issue of micro-electronic devices. In the present study, three dimensional numerical analysis of heat and fluid flow through PLCC packages oriented in-line and mounted horizontally on a printed circuit ...

  1. Lead-free piezoceramics. (United States)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya


    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  2. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G


    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  3. Sustainable Micro-Manufacturing of Micro-Components via Micro Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Marrocco


    Full Text Available Micro-manufacturing emerged in the last years as a new engineering area with the potential of increasing peoples’ quality of life through the production of innovative micro-devices to be used, for example, in the biomedical, micro-electronics or telecommunication sectors. The possibility to decrease the energy consumption makes the micro-manufacturing extremely appealing in terms of environmental protection. However, despite this common belief that the micro-scale implies a higher sustainability compared to traditional manufacturing processes, recent research shows that some factors can make micro-manufacturing processes not as sustainable as expected. In particular, the use of rare raw materials and the need of higher purity of processes, to preserve product quality and manufacturing equipment, can be a source for additional environmental burden and process costs. Consequently, research is needed to optimize micro-manufacturing processes in order to guarantee the minimum consumption of raw materials, consumables and energy. In this paper, the experimental results obtained by the micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM of micro-channels made on Ni–Cr–Mo steel is reported. The aim of such investigation is to shed a light on the relation and dependence between the material removal process, identified in the evaluation of material removal rate (MRR and tool wear ratio (TWR, and some of the most important technological parameters (i.e., open voltage, discharge current, pulse width and frequency, in order to experimentally quantify the material waste produced and optimize the technological process in order to decrease it.

  4. Mini and micro spectrometers pave the way to on-field advanced analytics (United States)

    Bouyé, Clémentine; Kolb, Hugo; d'Humières, Benoît.


    First introduced in the 1990's, miniature optical spectrometers were compact, portable devices brought on the market by the desire to move from time-consuming lab-based analyses to on-field and in situ measurements. This goal of getting spectroscopy into the hands of non-specialists is driving current technical and application developments, the ultimate goal being, in a far future, the integration of a spectrometer into a smartphone or any other smart device (tablet, watch, …). In this article, we present the results of our study on the evolution of the compact spectrometers market towards widespread industrial use and consumer applications. Presently, the main market of compact spectrometers remains academic labs. However, they have been adopted on some industrial applications such as optical source characterization (mainly laser and LEDs). In a near future, manufacturers of compact spectrometers target the following industrial applications: agriculture crop monitoring, food process control or pharmaceuticals quality control. Next steps will be to get closer to the consumer market with point-of-care applications such as glucose detection for diabetics, for example. To reach these objectives, technological breakthroughs will be necessary. Recent progresses have already allowed the release of micro-spectrometers. They take advantage of new micro-technologies such as MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems), micro-mirrors arrays to reduce cost and size while allowing good performance and high volume manufacturability. Integrated photonics is being investigated for future developments. It will also require new business models and new market approaches. Indeed, spreading spectroscopy to more industrial and consumer applications will require spectrometers manufacturers to get closer to the end-users and develop application-oriented products.

  5. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  6. Radiation shielding lead shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei, Shoichi.


    The present invention concerns lead shields for radiation shielding. Shield boxes are disposed so as to surround a pipeline through which radioactive liquids, mists or like other objects are passed. Flanges are formed to each of the end edges of the shield boxes and the shield boxes are connected to each other by the flanges. Upon installation, empty shield boxes not charged with lead particles and iron plate shields are secured at first at the periphery of the pipeline. Then, lead particles are charged into the shield boxes. This attains a state as if lead plate corresponding to the depth of the box is disposed. Accordingly, operations for installation, dismantling and restoration can be conducted in an empty state with reduced weight to facilitate the operations. (I.S.)

  7. Smart Capsules for Lead Removal from Industrial Wastewater. (United States)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Jastrząb, Renata


    Ground and especially drinking water could be contaminated by heavy metal ions such as lead and chromium, or the metalloid arsenic, discarded from industrial wastewater. These heavy metal ions are regarded as highly toxic pollutants which could cause a wide range of health problems in case of a long-term accumulation in the body. Thus, there have been many efforts to reduce the concentration of lead ions in effluent wastewater. They have included the establishment of stringent permissible discharge levels and management policies, the application of various pollution-control technologies, and the development of adsorbent materials for lead reduction. According to Science [1] encapsulation, developed approximately 65 years ago, has been defined as a major interdisciplinary research technology. Encapsulation has been used to deliver almost everything from advanced drugs to unique consumer sensory experiences. In this chapter we review the art of encapsulation technology as a potential breakthrough solution for a recyclable removal system for lead ions. Moreover, in order to provide the readers with a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of recent developments and innovative applications in this field, we highlight some remarkable advantages of encapsulation for heavy metal remove, such as simplicity of preparation, applicability for a wide range of selective extractants, large special interfacial area, ability for concentration of metal ions from dilute solutions, and less leakage of harmful components to the environment.

  8. Supernova Remnant Observations with Micro-X (United States)

    Figueroa, Enectali

    Micro-X is a sounding rocket payload that combines an X-ray microcalorimeter with an imaging mirror to offer breakthrough science from high spectral resolution observations of extended X-ray sources. This payload has been in design and development for the last five years and is now completely built and undergoing integration; its first flight will be in November, 2012, as part of our current NASA award. This four-year follow-on proposal seeks funding for: (1) analysis of the first flight data, (2) the second flight and its data analysis, (3) development of payload upgrades and launch of the third flight, and (4) third flight data analysis. The scientific payload consists of a Transition Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array at the focus of a flight-proven conical imaging mirror. Micro-X capitalizes on three decades of NASA investment in the development of microcalorimeters and X-ray imaging optics. Micro-X offers a unique combination of bandpass, collecting area, and spectral and angular resolution. The spectral resolution goal across the 0.2 - 3.0 keV band is 2 - 4 eV Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). The measured angular resolution of the mirror is 2.4 arcminute Half-Power Diameter (HPD). The effective area of the mirror, 300 square centimeters at 1 keV, is sufficient to provide observations of unprecedented quality of several astrophysical X-ray sources, even in a brief sounding rocket exposure of 300 sec. Our scientific program for this proposal will focus on supernova remnants (SNRs), whose spatial extent has made high-energy resolution observations with grating instruments extremely challenging. X-ray observations of SNRs with microcalorimeters will enable the study of the detailed atomic physics of the plasma; the determination of temperature, turbulence, and elemental abundances; and in conjunction with historical data, full three dimensional mapping of the kinematics of the remnant. These capabilities will open new avenues towards understanding the

  9. Crowd-sourced Archaeological Research: The MicroPasts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi


    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief introduction to MicroPasts, a web-enabled crowd-sourcing and crowd-funding project whose overall goal is to promote the collection and use of high quality research data via institutional and community collaborations, both on- and off-line. In addition to introducing this initiative, the discussion below is a reflection of its lead author’s core contribution to the project and will dwell in more detail on one particular aspect of MicroPasts: its relevance to research and practice in public archaeology, cultural policy and heritage studies.

  10. Lead poisoning in mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, J G


    This paper describes a case of lead poisoning in minks. The mink were housed in pens which had been painted with a bridge paint containing lead. They had chewed on the pen and ingested the paint. The animals that did not die were moved to new pens, and vitamin D and calcium gluconate were added to their diets. In three days, a marked improvement was seen in the food and water consumption, and convolutions became less frequent.

  11. Review of Micro Magnetic Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin DU


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research progress of micro magnetic generator systems. Micro magnetic generator systems convert energy from the environment to electric energy with advantages as high reliability, high power density, long life time and can be applied to extreme environment. This paper summarizes methods for improving generator performance of micro magnetic generator, including rotational magnetic generator, vibrational magnetic generator and hybrid magnetic generator, analyzes and compares their design and performance, and concludes key technologies and ongoing challenges for further progress. The paper is instructive and meaningful to for research work of related field.

  12. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  13. MicroRNA and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Martin D; Lund, Anders H


    biological phenomena and pathologies. The best characterized non-coding RNA family consists in humans of about 1400 microRNAs for which abundant evidence have demonstrated fundamental importance in normal development, differentiation, growth control and in human diseases such as cancer. In this review, we...... summarize the current knowledge and concepts concerning the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, which have emerged from the study of cell culture and animal model systems, including the regulation of key cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle control and the DNA damage response. Importantly, micro...

  14. Battery requirements and technologies for micro hybrid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karden, Eckhard; Ploumen, Serve; Spijker, Engbert [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH (Germany); Kok, Daniel [Ford Dunton Engineering Center, Basildon, Essex (United Kingdom)


    Micro hybrids are part of all European carmakers' CO{sub 2} roadmaps and will get high market share, becoming a standard fit for mainstream powertrains. Starting from vehicle level, the paper outlines system requirements and typical technical solutions. A case study demonstrates potential and limitations of regenerative braking in micro hybrid systems. The lead/acid battery dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) is a major limitation for efficient energy recuperation, and hence fuel and CO{sub 2} saving in micro hybrids. Strengths and weaknesses of the lead/acid battery are discussed with respect to both classical automotive as well as the new micro hybrid applications. The latter impose characteristic high demands on the starting - lighting - ignition (SLI) battery or the storage system that is going to replace it, namely extensive shallow cycling at partial state of charge (PSOC) and significantly improved DCA. Delivering these additional functions robustly and reliably at minimum on-cost for high-volume applications is the key challenge that the automotive lead/acid battery industry is currently confronted with. (orig.)

  15. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.


    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  16. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads (United States)

    Panek, John


    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  17. Micro-mixer/combustor

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad Ahmad


    A micro-mixer/combustor to mix fuel and oxidant streams into combustible mixtures where flames resulting from combustion of the mixture can be sustained inside its combustion chamber is provided. The present design is particularly suitable for diffusion flames. In various aspects the present design mixes the fuel and oxidant streams prior to entering a combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is designed to prevent excess pressure to build up within the combustion chamber, which build up can cause instabilities in the flame. A restriction in the inlet to the combustion chamber from the mixing chamber forces the incoming streams to converge while introducing minor pressure drop. In one or more aspects, heat from combustion products exhausted from the combustion chamber may be used to provide heat to at least one of fuel passing through the fuel inlet channel, oxidant passing through the oxidant inlet channel, the mixing chamber, or the combustion chamber. In one or more aspects, an ignition strip may be positioned in the combustion chamber to sustain a flame without preheating.

  18. Lead concentrations in fresh water, muscle, gill and liver of catla catla (hamilton) from keenjhar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, A.L.; Sahato, G.A.


    This study of the abundance and distribution of lead in water and freshwater fish Catla catla (Ham.) from Keenjhar Lake was conducted during January 2003 to December 2005. The lead content was determined in water and in muscle, gill and liver tissue of Catla catla (Ham.) by using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead concentrations in water samples were in the range of 0.076 and 0.225 macro g L-1 during the years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. The lead concentrations in the tissues of Catla catla (Ham.) varied, with liver > gill > muscle. The concentrations in muscle, gill and liver were in the range of 0.7-2.39 micro g g/sub -1/, 0.74-2.25 micro g g/sub -1/ and 0.89-2.68 micro g g/sub -1/ (dry weight) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. 9.87 % did not exceed the UK limit of 1.0 micro g g/sub -1/ (1979), 45.67 % were lower than the (USFDA) level of 1.3 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1997) and remaining 44.46 % were well below than 4.88 micro g g/sub -1/ (USEPA 1990). The levels in the water samples were also below the permissible level of less then 50 micro g L/sub -1/ recommended by (WHO 1984). (author)

  19. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaofeng


    "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

  20. Micro Mercury Ion Clock (MMIC) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate micro clock based on trapped Hg ions with more than 10x size reduction and power; Fractional frequency stability at parts per 1014 level, adequate for...

  1. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.


    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  2. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.


    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  3. Leading healthcare in complexity. (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey


    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  4. Monolithic Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Micro-Supercapacitors (United States)

    Chmiola, John; Largeot, Celine; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury


    Microbatteries with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers that are produced by common microfabrication techniques are poised to provide integration of power sources onto electronic devices, but they still suffer from poor cycle lifetime, as well as power and temperature range of operation issues that are alleviated with the use of supercapacitors. There have been a few reports on thin-film and other micro-supercapacitors, but they are either too thin to provide sufficient energy or the technology is not scalable. By etching supercapacitor electrodes into conductive titanium carbide substrates, we demonstrate that monolithic carbon films lead to a volumetric capacity exceeding that of micro- and macroscale supercapacitors reported thus far, by a factor of 2. This study also provides the framework for integration of high-performance micro-supercapacitors onto a variety of devices.

  5. Micro-segmented flow applications in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Brian


    The book is dedicated to the method and application potential of micro segmented flow. The recent state of development of this powerful technique is presented in 12 chapters by leading researchers from different countries. In the first section, the principles of generation and manipulation of micro-fluidic segments are explained. In the second section, the micro continuous-flow synthesis of different types of nanomaterials is shown as a typical example for the use of advantages of the technique in chemistry. In the third part, the particular importance of the technique in biotechnical applications is presented demonstrating the progress for miniaturized cell-free processes, for molecular biology and DNA-based diagnostis and sequencing as well as for the development of antibiotics and the evaluation of toxic effects in medicine and environment.

  6. Micro creep mechanisms of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levoy, R.; Hugon, I.; Burlet, H.; Baillin, X.; Guetaz, L.


    Due to its high melting point (3410 deg C), tungsten offers good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures for several applications in non-oxidizing environment. The creep behavior of tungsten is well known between 1200 and 2500 deg C and 10 -3 to 10 -1 strain. However, in some applications when dimensional stability of components is required, these strains are excessive and it is necessary to know the creep behavior of the material for micro-strains (between 10 -4 and 10 -6 ). Methods and devices used to measure creep micro-strains are presented, and creep equations (Norton and Chaboche laws) were developed for wrought, annealed and recrystallized tungsten. The main results obtained on tungsten under low stresses are: stress exponent 1, symmetry of micro-strains in creep-tension and creep-compression, inverse creep (threshold stress), etc. TEM, SEM and EBSD studies allow interpretation of the micro-creep mechanism of tungsten under low stresses and low temperature (∼0.3 K) like the Harper-Dorn creep. In Harper-Dorn creep, micro-strains are associated with the density and the distribution of dislocations existing in the crystals before creep. At 975 deg C, the initial dislocation structure moves differently whether or not a stress is applied. To improve the micro-creep behavior of tungsten, a heat treatment is proposed to create the optimum dislocation structure. (authors)

  7. Micro watt thermocurrent generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustard, T.; Goslee, D.; Barr, H.


    This nuclear thermocurrent generator to feed a cardic pacemaker should have higher life expectancy and reliability than was previously achieved. For this purpose a gettering arrangement is connected to be heat conducting immediately adjacent to the nuclear fuel arrangement in an evacuated casing. The gettering arrangement can be operated to activate at as high a temperature as possible, from 121 0 C to preferably about 204 0 C, so that a high vacuum is maintained. The current generating thermal column works at a temperature difference of 55.6 0 C. As the cold end of the column is connected to the outer casing, and should be held to a mean body temperature of 37.8 0 C, the hot side of the thermal column may only be heated to 93.4 0 C. The temperature jump from 121 0 or 204 0 to 93.4 0 is produced by a thermal resistance inserted between the hot side of the thermal column and the fuel arrangement. It may consist of a spacer made of stainless steel or by a gap, while in this first arrangement the nuclear heat generator is situated between the gettering arrangement and the thermal column, another arrangement shows the gettering arrangement enclosed in the fuel arrangement and thermal column. Here the heat flows in one direction only, the required temperature gradient is produced by suitable construction of the heat contacts between the 3 elements. Detailed constructional and manufacturing data are given for both models. Plutonium oxide is welded into a double casing as heat generator, in example the casing is made of nickel alloy. 1/10 gram of plutonium supplies a thermal energy of 50m watts, which produces a thermal current of 300 to 400 micro watts at 0.3V. (RW) [de

  8. Active tracking system for visible light communication using a GaN-based micro-LED and NRZ-OOK. (United States)

    Lu, Zhijian; Tian, Pengfei; Chen, Hong; Baranowski, Izak; Fu, Houqiang; Huang, Xuanqi; Montes, Jossue; Fan, Youyou; Wang, Hongyi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Yuji


    Visible light communication (VLC) holds the promise of a high-speed wireless network for indoor applications and competes with 5G radio frequency (RF) system. Although the breakthrough of gallium nitride (GaN) based micro-light-emitting-diodes (micro-LEDs) increases the -3dB modulation bandwidth exceptionally from tens of MHz to hundreds of MHz, the light collected onto a fast photo receiver drops dramatically, which determines the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of VLC. To fully implement the practical high data-rate VLC link enabled by a GaN-based micro-LED, it requires focusing optics and a tracking system. In this paper, we demonstrate an active on-chip tracking system for VLC using a GaN-based micro-LED and none-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK). Using this novel technique, the field of view (FOV) was enlarged to 120° and data rates up to 600 Mbps at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.1×10 -4 were achieved without manual focusing. This paper demonstrates the establishment of a VLC physical link that shows enhanced communication quality by orders of magnitude, making it optimized for practical communication applications.

  9. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  10. Learn about Lead (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... it has some beneficial uses, it can be toxic to humans and animals causing of health ... some types of industrial facilities, and past use of lead-based paint ...

  11. Leading Causes of Blindness (United States)

    ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than half of all people in the United States either will have a cataract or have had cataract surgery. Common symptoms are: Blurry vision Colors that seem faded Glare Not being able to ...

  12. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry


    covers the opposite view, where a company actively searches and involves lead users, however, with limited success also. Based on both cases, we analyze how, in these emerging processes of relating, meaning is co-created in a way that narrows the shared conceptual space for imagination and collaboration...

  13. Girls Leading Outward (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.


    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  14. Leading through Conflict (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark


    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  15. Lead Time Study, (United States)


    1979, the number of titanium fabrications dropped from 16 to 4, primarily because of the sponge shortage and EPA and OSHA requirements. Non-military...East - Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong. In addition, a significant amount of ceramic parts, lead frames and high technology

  16. Lead pollution in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Khatoon, N.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, I.


    Lead pollution of urban area emanating from the vehicular exhaust alone is being labeled as one of the worst form of environmental degradation attracting our attention for remediation. For factual assessment samples were collected from different areas of Islamabad. These samples consisted of tree scrapings / peelings, which were dried and ground before undertaking analysis for the lead content. The samples were digested with an acid mixture to remove the organic matter and analyzed using GFAAS technique. A total of 81 samples have been analyzed. The results sowed a lead content varying in the range of 8-474 Mu g g/sup -1/) and 23 samples with Pb content <50 Mu g g-1 (8.0-50.0 Mu g g/sup -1/). Most of the samples also contained some growth which consisted of bacterial, algae and fugal cells and the results have been explained on the basis of Pb absorption by these cells. The procedure followed in this study is recommended for evaluation of lead pollution in urban areas. (author)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    increase in the production of poultry meat at a reasonable cost (Alam et al., ...... 36(4): 537-541. Taggart MA, Figuerola J, Green AJ, Mateo R, Deacon C, Osborn D, ... selenium, lead and copper levels in the livers and bones of five waterfowl ...

  18. Intoxication for lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, Ruben Dario; Tamayo, Margarita Maria


    We present a case of a hospitalized girl with bronchopneumonia, who needed mechanic ventilation. Also she had a developmental delay and Burtons border in gums. Radiological studies showed dense transverse metaphiseal bands in long bones and hyperdensity in basal ganglia. We found high serum lead levels

  19. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.


    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  20. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Results: The primary form of lead toxicity is by oxidative stress mechanisms, apoptosis and necrosis involving ... néfastes sur la reproduction à l'avenir. Résultats:La forme ... prostate cancers, abnormal sexual ..... ensure this work is a success.

  1. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal


    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information scientometry -leading-us-astray

  2. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.


    Manton, W I


    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  3. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead. (United States)

    Manton, W I


    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  4. From golden rice to drought-tolerant maize and new techniques to control plant disease - can we expect a breakthrough in crop production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Komives


    Full Text Available This Minireview paper summarizes the views of the authors on the history and current status of golden rice – the highly promising concept of introducing new genes into existing rice strains to make them capable to accumulate beta carotene (the biochemical precursor of vitamin A in the grain. Based on the questionable success of genetically modified organisms to achieve a significant increase in food and feed production we speculate on the possibility of a breakthrough in this area via the latest discoveries in molecular biological techniques.

  5. German 2020 Energy Transition Index. Favourable trend, but no breakthrough; Energiewende-Index Deutschland 2020. Positive Tendenzen, aber noch keine Trendwende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Frunzetti, Katharina [McKinsey and Company, Duesseldorf (Germany); Peters, Michael [McKinsey and Company, Berlin (Germany)


    Introduced in autumn 2012 and updated twice a year since, the German 2020 Energy Transition Index (EWI) shows its first signs ever of a favourable trend. At last the indicators have got moving, even though one can hardly speak of a breakthrough yet. In spite of the positive trend, especially in regard to electricity consumption and the rate of newly installed offshore wind power capacity, the envisaged goals are still a long way off. This holds particularly for major indicators such as CO{sub 2} emissions and price levels of household and industrial electricity.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies of micro PEM fuel cell (United States)

    Peng, Rong-Gui; Chung, Chen-Chung; Chen, Chiun-Hsun


    A single micro proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been produced using Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology with the active area of 2.5 cm2 and channel depth of about 500 µm. A theoretical analysis is performed in this study for a novel MEMS-based design of amicro PEMFC. Themodel consists of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, species and electric current in a fully integrated finite-volume solver using the CFD-ACE+ commercial code. The polarization curves of simulation are well correlated with experimental data. Three-dimensional simulations are carried out to treat prediction and analysis of micro PEMFC temperature, current density and water distributions in two different fuel flow rates (15 cm3/min and 40 cm3/min). Simulation results show that temperature distribution within the micro PEMFC is affected by water distribution in the membrane and indicate that low and uniform temperature distribution in the membrane at low fuel flow rates leads to increased membrane water distribution and obtains superior micro PEMFC current density distribution under 0.4V operating voltage. Model predictions are well within those known for experimental mechanism phenomena.

  7. Micro-droplet formation via 3D printed micro channel (United States)

    Jian, Zhen; Zhang, Jiaming; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    Low cost, fast-designed and fast-fabricated 3D micro channel was used to create micro-droplets. Capillary with an outer diameter of 1.5 mm and an inner diameter of 150 μm was inserted into a 3D printed cylindrical channel with a diameter of 2 mm . Flow rate of the two inlets, insert depth, liquid (density, viscosity and surface tension) and solid (roughness, contact angle) properties all play a role in the droplet formation. Different regimes - dripping, jetting, unstable state - were observed in the micro-channel on varying these parameters. With certain parameter combinations, successive formation of micro-droplets with equal size was observed and its size can be much smaller than the smallest channel size. Based on our experimental results, the droplet formation via 3D printed micro T-junction was investigated through direct numerical simulations with a code called Gerris. Reynolds numbers Re = ρUL / μ and Weber numbers We = ρU2 L / σ of the two liquids were introduced to measure the liquid effect. The parameter regime where different physical dynamics occur was studied and the regime transition was observed with certain threshold values. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed as well between simulations and experiments.

  8. Dewetting based fabrication of fibrous micro-scaffolds as potential injectable cell carriers. (United States)

    Song, Hokyung; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M; Zhang Newby, Bi-Min


    Although regenerative medicine utilizing tissue scaffolds has made enormous strides in recent years, many constraints still hamper their effectiveness. A limitation of many scaffolds is that they form surface patches, which are not particularly effective for some types of "wounds" that are deep within tissues, e.g., stroke and myocardial infarction. In this study, we reported the generation of fibrous micro-scaffolds feasible for delivering cells by injection into the tissue parenchyma. The micro-scaffolds (widthsdewetting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) thin films containing parallel strips, and cells were seeded to form cell/polymer micro-constructs during or post the micro-scaffold fabrication process. Five types of cells including rat induced vascular progenitor cells were assessed for the formation of the micro-constructs. Critical factors in forming fibrous micro-scaffolds via dewetting of polymer thin films were found to be properties of polymers and supporting substrates, temperature, and proteins in the culture medium. Also, the ability of cells to attach to the micro-scaffolds was essential in forming cell/polymer micro-constructs. Both in vitro and in vivo assessments of injecting these micro-scaffolding constructs showed, as compared to free cells, enhanced cell retention at the injected site, which could lead to improved tissue engineering and regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and Health Topics: Lead (United States)

    ... ammunition, pipes, cable covering, building material, solder, radiation shielding, collapsible tubes, and fishing weights. Lead is also ... lead linings in tanks and radiation protection, leaded glass, work involving soldering, and other work involving lead ...

  10. Human exposure to pollutants - part: 1 blood lead and cadmium in a sample of population of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousufzai, A.H.K.; Khalid, Q.; Sultana, L.


    A study was carried out to see the blood lead and cadmium levels in fifty employees working at PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi. These employees belonged to various socio-economic groups and had their residences in different areas of Karachi. Sixty two percent staff had blood lead level between 100-200 micro g/L. The highest blood lead level(>400 micro g/L) was found in volunteers working as garage staff. No significant difference was found between the blood lead levels of volunteers belonging to different socio-economic and age groups, only 8% of the staff had blood lead levels below 100 micro g/L. Lead in the dust collected from the residences of the volunteers was also estimated for lead and correlated with blood lead levels. Blood cadmium levels were also estimated. These were found to be higher in smokers and tobacco chewers. A definite correlation was observed between blood cadmium levels and smoking habits. (author)

  11. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease (United States)

    Friend, Milton


    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed.

  12. Immunomodulating microRNAs of mycobacterial infections. (United States)

    Bettencourt, Paulo; Pires, David; Anes, Elsa


    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by sequence-specific binding to target mRNAs. Some microRNAs block translation, while others promote mRNA degradation, leading to a reduction in protein availability. A single miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of multiple genes and their encoded proteins. Therefore, miRNAs can influence molecular signalling pathways and regulate many biological processes in health and disease. Upon infection, host cells rapidly change their transcriptional programs, including miRNA expression, as a response against the invading microorganism. Not surprisingly, pathogens can also alter the host miRNA profile to their own benefit, which is of major importance to scientists addressing high morbidity and mortality infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. In this review, we present recent findings on the miRNAs regulation of the host response against mycobacterial infections, providing new insights into host-pathogen interactions. Understanding these findings and its implications could reveal new opportunities for designing better diagnostic tools, therapies and more effective vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead toxicity: current concerns.


    Goyer, R A


    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  14. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  15. Leading change: 3--implementation. (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    The potential for all staff to contribute to service improvement, irrespective of discipline, role or function, is outlined in the 2011 NHS leadership framework. This advocates developing the skills of the entire workforce to create a climate of continuous service improvement. As nurses are often required to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice, this final article in a three-part series focuses on implementing ande potentia reviewing change.

  16. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication (United States)


    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  17. Random walk-percolation-based modeling of two-phase flow in porous media: Breakthrough time and net to gross ratio estimation (United States)

    Ganjeh-Ghazvini, Mostafa; Masihi, Mohsen; Ghaedi, Mojtaba


    Fluid flow modeling in porous media has many applications in waste treatment, hydrology and petroleum engineering. In any geological model, flow behavior is controlled by multiple properties. These properties must be known in advance of common flow simulations. When uncertainties are present, deterministic modeling often produces poor results. Percolation and Random Walk (RW) methods have recently been used in flow modeling. Their stochastic basis is useful in dealing with uncertainty problems. They are also useful in finding the relationship between porous media descriptions and flow behavior. This paper employs a simple methodology based on random walk and percolation techniques. The method is applied to a well-defined model reservoir in which the breakthrough time distributions are estimated. The results of this method and the conventional simulation are then compared. The effect of the net to gross ratio on the breakthrough time distribution is studied in terms of Shannon entropy. Use of the entropy plot allows one to assign the appropriate net to gross ratio to any porous medium.

  18. Neuroscience is awaiting for a breakthrough: an essay bridging the concepts of Descartes, Einstein, Heisenberg, Hebb and Hayek with the explanatory formulations in this special issue. (United States)

    Başar, Erol; Karakaş, Sirel


    The paper presents gedankenmodels which, based on the theories and models in the present special issue, describe the conditions for a breakthrough in brain sciences and neuroscience. The new model is based on contemporary findings which show that the brain and its cognitive processes show super-synchronization. Accordingly, understanding the brain/body-mind complex is possible only when these three are considered as a wholistic entity and not as discrete structures or functions. Such a breakthrough and the related perspectives to the brain/body-mind complex will involve a transition from the mechanistic Cartesian system to a nebulous Cartesian system, one that is basically characterized by parallel computing and is further parallel to quantum mechanics. This integrated outlook on the brain/body-mind, or dynamic functionality, will make the treatment of also the meta-cognitive processes and the greater part of the iceberg, the unconscious, possible. All this will be possible only through the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach that will bring together the knowledge and the technology of the four P's which consist of physics, physiology, psychology and philosophy. The genetic approach to the functional dynamics of the brain/body-mind, where the oscillatory responses were found to be laws of brain activity, is presented in this volume as one of the most recent perspectives of neuroscience.

  19. User-Centric Innovations in New Product Development – Systematic Identification of Lead Users Harnessing Interactive and Collaborative Online-Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgram, V.; Brem, Alexander; Voigt, K.-I.


    Corporate innovation management geared to long-term success calls for a strategy to grow innovations into a substantial competitive advantage. This, however, coincides with an enormous failure-rate at the market, especially in the field of breakthrough innovations. Hence, in recent times, compani...... for the online identification of lead users: being ahead of a market trend, high expected benefits, user expertise and motivation, extreme user needs as well as opinion leadership and an online commitment....

  20. Cavitational micro-particles: plasma formation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan


    Cavitational micro-particles are a class to which the micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the octopus-shaped micro-particles belong. The cavitational micro-particles (micro-spheres, micro-tubes and octopus-shaped micro-particles) at an environmental pressure. The micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are produced in the argon plasma and are formed of vapors with low values of the molar concentration in comparison with the molar density of the gas and vapor mixture, the first one on the unstable and the last two on the stable movement of the vapors. The ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are open at the top for well-chosen values of the sub-cooling of the vapor and gas cylinders. The nitrogen in the air favors the formation of pores in the wall of the micro-spheres. In this paper we present the cavitational micro-particles, their production in the plasma and some mechanisms for their formation in the plasma. (author)

  1. Development highlights of micro-nano technologies in the MENA region and pathways for initiatives to support and network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Rawashdeh, M.I.M.; Alfeeli, B.; Rawashdeh, A.M.; Hessel, V.


    Current developments in the field of micro-nano technologies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are highlighted. Firstly, the scientific outcome of micro-nano technologies from the MENA region is analyzed. Egypt and Saudi Arabia are the leading countries, with >50% of the total MENA

  2. Catalyzed Combustion In Micro-Propulsion Devices: Project Status (United States)

    Sung, C. J.; Schneider, S. J.


    In recent years, there has been a tendency toward shrinking the size of spacecraft. New classes of spacecraft called micro-spacecraft have been defined by their mass, power, and size ranges. Spacecraft in the range of 20 to 100 kg represent the class most likely to be utilized by most small sat users in the near future. There are also efforts to develop 10 to 20 kg class spacecraft for use in satellite constellations. More ambitious efforts will be to develop spacecraft less than 10 kg, in which MEMS fabrication technology is required. These new micro-spacecraft will require new micro-propulsion technology. Although micro-propulsion includes electric propulsion approaches, the focus of this proposed program is micro-chemical propulsion which requires the development of microcombustors. As combustors are scaled down, the surface to volume ratio increases. The heat release rate in the combustor scales with volume, while heat loss rate scales with surface area. Consequently, heat loss eventually dominates over heat release when the combustor size becomes smaller, thereby leading to flame quenching. The limitations imposed on chamber length and diameter has an immediate impact on the degree of miniaturization of a micro-combustor. Before micro-combustors can be realized, such a difficulty must be overcome. One viable combustion alternative is to take advantage of surface catalysis. Micro-chemical propulsion for small spacecraft can be used for primary thrust, orbit insertion, trajectory-control, and attitude control. Grouping micro-propulsion devices in arrays will allow their use for larger thrust applications. By using an array composed of hundreds or thousands of micro-thruster units, a particular configuration can be arranged to be best suited for a specific application. Moreover, different thruster sizes would provide for a range of thrust levels (from N s to mN s) within the same array. Several thrusters could be fired simultaneously for thrust levels higher than

  3. Applications of dewetting in micro and nanotechnology. (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Foschi, Giulia; Valle, Francesco; Cavallini, Massimiliano; Biscarini, Fabio


    Dewetting is a spontaneous phenomenon where a thin film on a surface ruptures into an ensemble of separated objects, like droplets, stripes, and pillars. Spatial correlations with characteristic distance and object size emerge spontaneously across the whole dewetted area, leading to regular motifs with long-range order. Characteristic length scales depend on film thickness, which is a convenient and robust technological parameter. Dewetting is therefore an attractive paradigm for organizing a material into structures of well-defined micro- or nanometre-size, precisely positioned on a surface, thus avoiding lithographical processes. This tutorial review introduces the reader to the physical-chemical basis of dewetting, shows how the dewetting process can be applied to different functional materials with relevance in technological applications, and highlights the possible strategies to control the length scales of the dewetting process.

  4. MicroPRIS user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    MicroPRIS is a new service of the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) for the Member States of IAEA. MicroPRIS makes the IAEA database on nuclear power plants and their operating experience available to Member States on computer diskettes in a form readily accessible by standard commercially available personal computer packages. The aim of this publication is to provide the users of the PC version of PRIS data with description of the subset of the full PRIS database contained in MicroPRIS (release 1990), description of files and file structures, field descriptions and definitions, extraction and selection guide and with the method of calculation of a number of important performance indicators used by the IAEA

  5. Dimensional micro and nano metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Haitjema, Han


    The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these chal......The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer...... these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available...

  6. Micro-Mechanical Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tom

    Temperature is the most frequently measured physical quantity in the world. The field of thermometry is therefore constantly evolving towards better temperature sensors and better temperature measurements. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to improve an existing type of micro-mechanical temperature...... sensor or to develop a new one. Two types of micro-mechanical temperature sensors have been studied: Bilayer cantilevers and string-like beam resonators. Both sensor types utilize thermally generated stress. Bilayer cantilevers are frequently used as temperature sensors at the micro-scale, and the goal....... The reduced sensitivity was due to initial bending of the cantilevers and poor adhesion between the two cantilever materials. No further attempts were made to improve the sensitivity of bilayer cantilevers. The concept of using string-like resonators as temperature sensors has, for the first time, been...

  7. Micro-particles in ITER: A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisolia, C.; Rosanvallon, S.; Sharpe, Ph.; Winter, J.


    In a fusion reactor like ITER, in-vessel materials are subjected to interactions with the plasma. One of the main consequences of these plasma-material interactions is the creation of co-deposited layers. Due to internal stresses, part of these layers can crack leading to micro particle creation. The purpose of the following paper is to review the Tokamak operation processes which lead to erosion and layer creation. Then, the proportion of these layers that is converted into micro-particles will be evaluated in the case of Tore Supra experiments and extrapolated for ITER. It is major importance to measure the ITER mobilizable dusts present in the Vacuum Vessel and compare the measured quantity with the safety limits. When approaching these limits, removal systems must be used in order to control the in-vessel dust inventory. In the second part of the paper, diagnostics and removal system under development will be presented.

  8. Numerical studies of temperature effect on the extrusion fracture and swell of plastic micro-pipe (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Huang, Xingyuan; Xiong, Zhihua


    Temperature is a key factor that impacts extrusion forming quality of plastic micro-pipe. In this study, the effect of temperature on extrusion fracture and swell of plastic micro-pipe was investigated by numerical method. Under a certain of the melt’s flow volume, the extrusion pattern, extrusion swelling ratio of melt are obtained under different temperatures. Results show that the extrusion swelling ratio of plastic micro-pipe decreases with increasing of temperature. In order to study the reason of temperature effect, the physical distributions of plastic micro-pipe are gotten. Numerical results show that the viscosity, pressure, stress value of melt are all decreased with the increasing of temperature, which leads to decrease the extrusion swell and fracture phenomenon for the plastic micro-pipe.

  9. Design of Energy Storage Management System Based on FPGA in Micro-Grid (United States)

    Liang, Yafeng; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dexiao


    Energy storage system is the core to maintain the stable operation of smart micro-grid. Aiming at the existing problems of the energy storage management system in the micro-grid such as Low fault tolerance, easy to cause fluctuations in micro-grid, a new intelligent battery management system based on field programmable gate array is proposed : taking advantage of FPGA to combine the battery management system with the intelligent micro-grid control strategy. Finally, aiming at the problem that during estimation of battery charge State by neural network, initialization of weights and thresholds are not accurate leading to large errors in prediction results, the genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the neural network method, and the experimental simulation is carried out. The experimental results show that the algorithm has high precision and provides guarantee for the stable operation of micro-grid.

  10. Simultaneous electrical and mechanical resonance drive for large signal amplification of micro resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, M. H.


    Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.

  11. Simultaneous electrical and mechanical resonance drive for large signal amplification of micro resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, M. H.; Alsaleem, F. M.; Jaber, Nizar; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Younis, Mohammad I.


    Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.

  12. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.


    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  13. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  14. Leading change: 2--planning. (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  15. Leading Change, Adding Value. (United States)

    Evans, Nick


    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View.

  16. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  17. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Smith, Stephen F.; Oden, Patrick I.; Bryan, William L.; Moore, James A.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.


    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  18. Automated Micro Hall Effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Lin, Rong


    With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods for characteriza......With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods...

  19. MicroRNA's are novel biomarkers in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Edith Smed; Alamili, Mahdi; Coskun, Mehmet


    Purpose: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The discovery of small non-coding microRNAs (miRs) and their correlation to sepsis has gained increasing interest. Our aim was to systematically review the literature examining the association ...... searching the computational target prediction databases. Conclusion: Various miRs are associated with sepsis, but no corresponding predictor genes were found....

  20. Improvement of micro endmill geometry for micro hard milling application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, P.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Hoogstrate, A.M.; Langen, H.H.


    One of the applications of the micromilling technology is to machine micro features on moulds by direct machining of hardened tool steels. However at this moment, this process is not industrial applicable because of the encountered problems, such as the big tool deflection, severe tool wear, and