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Sample records for leaderless enterocin l50

  1. Use of the Yeast Pichia pastoris as an Expression Host for Secretion of Enterocin L50, a Leaderless Two-Peptide (L50A and L50B) Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium L50

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    Basanta, Antonio; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Sánchez, Jorge; Diep, Dzung B.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.; Cintas, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we report the expression and secretion of the leaderless two-peptide (EntL50A and EntL50B) bacteriocin enterocin L50 from Enterococcus faecium L50 by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33. The bacteriocin structural genes entL50A and entL50B were fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene region encoding the mating pheromone α-factor 1 secretion signal (MFα1s) and cloned, separately and together (entL50AB), into the P. pastoris expression and secretion vector pPICZαA, which contains the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter (PAOX1) to express the fusion genes. After transfer into the yeast, the recombinant plasmids were integrated into the genome, resulting in three bacteriocinogenic yeast strains able to produce and secrete the individual bacteriocin peptides EntL50A and EntL50B separately and together. The secretion was efficiently directed by MFα1s through the Sec system, and the precursor peptides were found to be correctly processed to form mature and active bacteriocin peptides. The present work describes for the first time the heterologous expression and secretion of a two-peptide non-pediocin-like bacteriocin by a yeast. PMID:20348300

  2. Solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7A and 7B resemble carnocyclin A, a circular antimicrobial peptide.

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    Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; McKay, Ryan T; van Belkum, Marco J; McMullen, Lynn M; Vederas, John C

    2013-06-11

    Leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain Gram-positive bacteria without an N-terminal leader section. These bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many Gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria and Clostridium spp. We now report the NMR solution structures of enterocins 7A and 7B, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from Enterococcus faecalis 710C. These are the first three-dimensional structures to be reported for bacteriocins of this class. Unlike most other linear Gram-positive bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B are highly structured in aqueous conditions. Both peptides are primarily α-helical, adopting a similar overall fold. The structures can be divided into three separate α-helical regions: the N- and C-termini are both α-helical, separated by a central kinked α-helix. The overall structures bear an unexpected resemblance to carnocyclin A, a 60-residue peptide that is cyclized via an amide bond between the C- and N-termini and has a saposin fold. Because of synergism observed for other two-peptide leaderless bacteriocins, it was of interest to probe possible binding interactions between enterocins 7A and 7B. However, despite synergistic activity observed between these peptides, no significant binding interaction was observed based on NMR and isothermal calorimetry.

  3. The Leaderless Bacteriocin Enterocin K1 Is Highly Potent against Enterococcus faecium: A Study on Structure, Target Spectrum and Receptor

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    Kirill V. Ovchinnikov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin K1 (EntK1, enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97, and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium, including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB – both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3–4 residues longer than that of LsbB. Enterococcal mutants highly resistant to EntEJ97 and EntK1 were found to have mutations within rseP, a gene encoding a stress response membrane-bound Zn-dependent protease. Heterologous expression of the enterococcal rseP rendered resistant cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to EntK1 and EntEJ97, suggesting that RseP likely serves as the receptor for EntK1 and EntEJ97. It was also shown that the conserved proteolytic active site in E. faecalis RseP is partly required for EntK1 and EntEJ97 activity, since alanine substitutions of its conserved residues (HExxH reduced the sensitivity of the clones to the bacteriocins. RseP is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. As expected, the growth of resistant mutants with mutations within rseP was severely affected when they were exposed to higher (stressing growth temperatures, e.g., at 45°C, at which wild type cells still grew well. These findings allow us to design a hurdle strategy with a combination of the bacteriocin(s and higher temperature that effectively kills bacteriocin sensitive bacteria and prevents the development of resistant cells.

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of enterocin producing enterococci against pathogenic bacteria

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    Sandra Mojsova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 enterococcal strains (E. faecalis -8, E. faecium-2, E. hirae-2, E. spp.-1 isolated from our traditional cheeses against pathogen microorganisms. Also, it includes the detection of the following enterocin structural genes: enterocin A, enterocin B, enterocin P, enterocin L50A/B, bacteriocin 31, enterocin AS48, enterocin Q, enterocin EJ97 and cytolysin by using PCR method. All isolates inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and L.innocua. One isolate had a broader antimicrobial activity. None of the isolates showed inhibitory activity against S. enteritidis, E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. The genes enterocin P, cytolysin and enterocin A were the most frequently detected structural genes among the PCR positive strains. No amplification was obtained in two strains E. faecalis-25 and E. faecalis-86. Three different genes were identified in some strains. With the exclusion of strains possessing a virulence factor, such as cytolysin, producers of more than one enterocins could be of a great technological potential as protective cultures in the cheese industry.

  5. Characterization of an anti-listerial enterocin from wheat silage based Enterococcus faecium.

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    Bal, Emel Banu Buyukunal; Isevi, Taner; Bal, Mehmet Ali

    2012-10-01

    Two Enterococcus faecium and one E. faecalis strains isolated and identified from wheat silage were characterized based on plasmid content, hemolytic activity, antibiotic resistance patterns, bacteriocin production potential, and presence of enterocin structural genes (entA, entB, entP, entL50B). Among the isolates, only the E. faecium U7 strain exhibited bacteriocin activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE). A combination of three structural genes (entA, entB, and entP) was detected in E. faecium U7. A relationship between the presence of enterocin structural genes, and bacteriocin activity was detected in E. faecium U7; therefore partially purified enterocin (PPE) was further investigated from the isolate. Several bands of different molecular weights were expressed from PPE extracts following tricine SDS-PAGE analysis. However, the only band showing bacteriocin activity was in an approximate 4-kDa region. PPE treatment with proteinase K, lysozyme, and α -amylase caused complete loss of bacteriocin activity. PPE heat treatment at various temperatures resulted in a notable reduction in bacteriocin expression. Enterocin U7 was relatively heat stable, and presumably exhibits a glucoprotein nature with distinct inhibitory properties. Specific bacterial inhibitory activity of enterocin U7, and the producer strain absence of β -hemolysis and vancomycin susceptibility features deserves further investigation to evaluate its potential application in silage inoculation and food preservation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solution Structures of Lacticin Q and Aureocin A53 Reveal a Structural Motif Conserved among Leaderless Bacteriocins with Broad-Spectrum Activity.

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    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2016-02-02

    Lacticin Q (LnqQ) and aureocin A53 (AucA) are leaderless bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis QU5 and Staphylococcus aureus A53, respectively. These bacteriocins are characterized by the absence of an N-terminal leader sequence and are active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria. LnqQ and AucA consist of 53 and 51 amino acids, respectively, and have 47% identical sequences. In this study, their three-dimensional structures were elucidated using solution nuclear magnetic resonance and were shown to consist of four α-helices that assume a very similar compact, globular overall fold (root-mean-square deviation of 1.7 Å) with a highly cationic surface and a hydrophobic core. The structures of LnqQ and AucA resemble the shorter two-component leaderless bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B, despite having low levels of sequence identity. Homology modeling revealed that the observed structural motif may be shared among leaderless bacteriocins with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive organisms. The elucidated structures of LnqQ and AucA also exhibit some resemblance to circular bacteriocins. Despite their similar overall fold, inhibition studies showed that LnqQ and AucA have different antimicrobial potency against the Gram-positive strains tested, suggesting that sequence disparities play a crucial role in their mechanisms of action.

  7. New type non-lantibiotic bacteriocins: circular and leaderless bacteriocins.

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    Masuda, Y; Zendo, T; Sonomoto, K

    2012-03-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides that are ribosomally synthesised by bacteria. Bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are under focus as the next generation of safe natural biopreservatives and as therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics. Recently, two novel types of non-lantibiotic class II bacteriocins have been reported with unique characteristics in their structure and biosynthesis mechanism. One is a circular bacteriocin that contains a head-to-tail structure in the mature form, and the other is a leaderless bacteriocin without an N-terminal extension in the precursor peptide. A circular structure can provide the peptide with remarkable stability against various stresses; indeed, circular bacteriocins are known to possess higher stability than general linear bacteriocins. Leaderless bacteriocins are distinct from general bacteriocins, because they do not contain N-terminal leader sequences, which are responsible for the recognition process during secretion and for inactivation of bacteriocins inside producer cells. Leaderless bacteriocins do not require any post-translational processing for activity. These two novel types of bacteriocins are promising antimicrobial compounds, and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected to be applied in synthetic biology to design new peptides and for new mass production systems. However, many questions remain about their biosynthesis. In this review, we introduce recent studies on these types of bacteriocins and their potential to open a new world of antimicrobial peptides.

  8. Leaderless genes in bacteria: clue to the evolution of translation initiation mechanisms in prokaryotes

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    Hu Gang-Qing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shine-Dalgarno (SD signal has long been viewed as the dominant translation initiation signal in prokaryotes. Recently, leaderless genes, which lack 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR on their mRNAs, have been shown abundant in archaea. However, current large-scale in silico analyses on initiation mechanisms in bacteria are mainly based on the SD-led initiation way, other than the leaderless one. The study of leaderless genes in bacteria remains open, which causes uncertain understanding of translation initiation mechanisms for prokaryotes. Results Here, we study signals in translation initiation regions of all genes over 953 bacterial and 72 archaeal genomes, then make an effort to construct an evolutionary scenario in view of leaderless genes in bacteria. With an algorithm designed to identify multi-signal in upstream regions of genes for a genome, we classify all genes into SD-led, TA-led and atypical genes according to the category of the most probable signal in their upstream sequences. Particularly, occurrence of TA-like signals about 10 bp upstream to translation initiation site (TIS in bacteria most probably means leaderless genes. Conclusions Our analysis reveals that leaderless genes are totally widespread, although not dominant, in a variety of bacteria. Especially for Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, more than twenty percent of genes are leaderless. Analyzed in closely related bacterial genomes, our results imply that the change of translation initiation mechanisms, which happens between the genes deriving from a common ancestor, is linearly dependent on the phylogenetic relationship. Analysis on the macroevolution of leaderless genes further shows that the proportion of leaderless genes in bacteria has a decreasing trend in evolution.

  9. Piper J-3L50 Cub

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    1942-01-01

    Piper J-3L50 Cub: The Piper J-3 Cub was evaluated at Langley by the NACA in late 1939 to early 1940. The J-3 was used by many World War II pilots as the airplane in which they were first introduced to flight. Note that the extended NACA use of the Cub led to its markings in NACA colors of yellow and blue, with the Committee's shield on the rudder.

  10. Expression of linear permutated variants from circular enterocin AS-48

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    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    To confirm whether the head-to-tail circularization could be involved in the stability and activity of the circular bacteriocin AS-48, two permutated linear structural as-48A genes have been constructed by circular permutation. The absence of the leaderless linear AS(23/24) and AS(48/49) proteins in

  11. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cebrián, Rubén; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Montalbán-López, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards A

  12. Genome-wide Mapping of Transcriptional Start Sites Defines an Extensive Leaderless Transcriptome in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Teresa Cortes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering physiological changes that mediate transition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between replicating and nonreplicating states is essential to understanding how the pathogen can persist in an individual host for decades. We have combined RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of 5′ triphosphate-enriched libraries with regular RNA-seq to characterize the architecture and expression of M. tuberculosis promoters. We identified over 4,000 transcriptional start sites (TSSs. Strikingly, for 26% of the genes with a primary TSS, the site of transcriptional initiation overlapped with the annotated start codon, generating leaderless transcripts lacking a 5′ UTR and, hence, the Shine-Dalgarno sequence commonly used to initiate ribosomal engagement in eubacteria. Genes encoding proteins with active growth functions were markedly depleted from the leaderless transcriptome, and there was a significant increase in the overall representation of leaderless mRNAs in a starvation model of growth arrest. The high percentage of leaderless genes may have particular importance in the physiology of nonreplicating M. tuberculosis.

  13. Heterologous coproduction of enterocin A and pediocin PA-1 by Lactococcus lactis : Detection by specific peptide-directed antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, JM; Kok, J; Sanders, JW; Hernandez, PE

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies against enterocin A were obtained by immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides PH4 and PH5 designed, respectively, on the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocin A and conjugated to the carrier protein KLH, Anti-PH4-KLH antibodies not only recognized enterocin A but also

  14. Heterologous coproduction of enterocin A and pediocin PA-1 by Lactococcus lactis : Detection by specific peptide-directed antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, JM; Kok, J; Sanders, JW; Hernandez, PE

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies against enterocin A were obtained by immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides PH4 and PH5 designed, respectively, on the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocin A and conjugated to the carrier protein KLH, Anti-PH4-KLH antibodies not only recognized enterocin A but also

  15. Heterologous coproduction of enterocin A and pediocin PA-1 by Lactococcus lactis : Detection by specific peptide-directed antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, JM; Kok, J; Sanders, JW; Hernandez, PE

    Antibodies against enterocin A were obtained by immunization of rabbits with synthetic peptides PH4 and PH5 designed, respectively, on the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of enterocin A and conjugated to the carrier protein KLH, Anti-PH4-KLH antibodies not only recognized enterocin A but also

  16. Response of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 to challenges with sublethal concentrations of enterocin AS-48

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    Grande Burgos, M.J.; Kovács, Á.T.; Mirończuk, A.M.; Abriouel, H.; Gálvez, A.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Enterocin AS-48 is produced by Enterococcus faecalis S48 to compete with other bacteria in their environment. Due to its activity against various Gram positive and some Gram negative bacteria it has clear potential for use as a food preservative. Here, we studied the effect of enterocin

  17. Characterization and Application of Enterocin RM6, a Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis

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    En Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  18. Application of anti-listerial bacteriocins: monitoring enterocin expression by multiplex relative reverse transcription-PCR.

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    Williams, D Ross; Chanos, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    Listeriosis is a deadly food-borne disease, and its incidence may be limited through the biotechnological exploitation of a number of anti-listerial biocontrol agents. The most widely used of these agents are bacteriocins and the Class II enterocins are characterized by their activity against Listeria. Enterocins are primarily produced by enterococci, particularly Enterococcus faecium and many strains have been described, often encoding multiple bacteriocins. The use of these strains in food will require that they are free of virulence functions and that they exhibit a high level expression of anti-listerial enterocins in fermentation conditions. Multiplex relative RT (reverse transcription)-PCR is a technique that is useful in the discovery of advantageous expression characteristics among enterocin-producing strains. It allows the levels of individual enterocin gene expression to be monitored and determination of how expression is altered under different growth conditions.

  19. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

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    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  20. [Enterocin-35, a bacteriocin with activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Possible use in the food industry].

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    Concha, R; Farías, M E; Kümmerlin, R; Sesma, F

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of enterocin-35 produced by Enterococcus faecium CRL 35, was studied against Listeria monocytogenes, isolated from seafoods. Optimal growth conditions of the enterocin-35 producing strain, for higher bacteriocin production and improve the extraction and purification of these peptides, were applied. A crude extract of enterocin-35 was assayed in a frozen seafood artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes isolate, simulating at laboratory scale an eventual application of this biopreservant in a routine production process at factory level. The feasibility of biopreservation of seafoods by means of bacteriocins is proposed and discussed.

  1. The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications

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    Grande Burgos, María José; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; López Aguayo, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica) and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria). The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25493478

  2. The Cyclic Antibacterial Peptide Enterocin AS-48: Isolation, Mode of Action, and Possible Food Applications

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    María José Grande Burgos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin AS-48 is a circular bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus. It contains a 70 amino acid-residue chain circularized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The conformation of enterocin AS-48 is arranged into five alpha-helices with a compact globular structure. Enterocin AS-48 has a wide inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive bacteria. Sensitivity of Gram-negative bacteria increases in combination with outer-membrane permeabilizing treatments. Eukaryotic cells are bacteriocin-resistant. This cationic peptide inserts into bacterial membranes and causes membrane permeabilization, leading ultimately to cell death. Microarray analysis revealed sets of up-regulated and down-regulated genes in Bacillus cereus cells treated with sublethal bacteriocin concentration. Enterocin AS-48 can be purified in two steps or prepared as lyophilized powder from cultures in whey-based substrates. The potential applications of enterocin AS-48 as a food biopreservative have been corroborated against foodborne pathogens and/or toxigenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and spoilage bacteria (Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp., Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Staphylococcus carnosus, Lactobacillus sakei and other spoilage lactic acid bacteria. The efficacy of enterocin AS-48 in food systems increases greatly in combination with chemical preservatives, essential oils, phenolic compounds, and physico-chemical treatments such as sublethal heat, high-intensity pulsed-electric fields or high hydrostatic pressure.

  3. Inhibition of Bacillus licheniformis LMG 19409 from ropy cider by enterocin AS-48.

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    Grande, M J; Lucas, R; Abriouel, H; Valdivia, E; Ben Omar, N; Maqueda, M; Martínez-Cañamero, M; Gálvez, A

    2006-08-01

    To determine the activity of enterocin AS-48 against ropy-forming Bacillus licheniformis from cider. Enterocin AS-48 was tested on B. licheniformis LMG 19409 from ropy cider in MRS-G broth, fresh-made apple juice and in two commercial apple ciders (A and B). Bacillus licheniformis was rapidly inactivated in MRS-G by 0.5 microg ml(-1)AS-48 and in fresh-made apple juice by 3 microg ml(-1). Concentration-dependent inactivation of this bacterium in two commercial apple ciders (A and B) stored at 4, 15 and 30 degrees C for 15 days was also demonstrated. Counts from heat-activated endospores in cider A plus AS-48 decreased very slowly. Application of combined treatments of heat (95 degrees C) and enterocin AS-48 reduced the time required to achieved complete inactivation of intact spores in cider A to 4 min for 6 microg ml(-1) and to 1 min for 12 microg ml(-1). D and z values also decreased as the bacteriocin concentration increased. Enterocin AS-48 can inhibit ropy-forming B. licheniformis in apple cider and increase the heat sensitivity of spores. Results from this study support the potential use of enterocin AS-48 to control B. licheniformis in apple cider.

  4. Heterologous expression of leader-less pga gene in Pichia pastoris: intracellular production of prokaryotic enzyme

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    Kyslík Pavel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of β-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a mature, periplasmic enzyme, the inactive prepropeptide of PGA has to undergo complex processing that begins in the cytoplasm (autocatalytic cleavage, continues at crossing the cytoplasmic membrane (signal sequence removing, and it is completed in the periplasm. Since there are reports on impressive cytosolic expression of bacterial proteins in Pichia, we have cloned the leader-less gene encoding PGAEc in this host and studied yeast production capacity and enzyme authenticity. Results Leader-less pga gene encoding PGAEcunder the control of AOX1 promoter was cloned in Pichia pastoris X-33. The intracellular overproduction of heterologous PGAEc(hPGAEc was evaluated in a stirred 10 litre bioreactor in high-cell density, fed batch cultures using different profiles of transient phases. Under optimal conditions, the average volumetric activity of 25900 U l-1 was reached. The hPGAEc was purified, characterized and compared with the wild-type PGAEc. The α-subunit of the hPGAEc formed in the cytosol was processed aberrantly resulting in two forms with C- terminuses extended to the spacer peptide. The enzyme exhibited modified traits: the activity of the purified enzyme was reduced to 49%, the ratios of hydrolytic activities with cephalexin, phenylacetamide or 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoic acid (NIPAB to penicillin G increased and the enzyme showed a better synthesis/hydrolysis ratio for the synthesis of cephalexin. Conclusions Presented results provide useful data regarding fermentation strategy, intracellular biosynthetic potential, and consequences of the heterologous expression of PGAEc

  5. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium for Better Yield and Purification of Enterocin Y31 from Enterococcus faecium Y31

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    Wenli Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micronutrients in traditional medium, such as MRS, used for cultivating lactic acid bacteria, especially for bacteriocin production, have not been defined, preventing the quantitative monitoring of metabolic flux during bacteriocin biosynthesis. To enhance Enterocin Y31 production and simplify steps of separation and purification, we developed a simplified chemically defined medium (SDM for the growth of Enterococcus faecium Y31 and production of its bacteriocin, Enterocin Y31. We found that the bacterial growth was unrelated to Enterocin Y31 production in MRS; therefore, both the growth rate and the Enterocin Y31 production were set as the index for investigation. Single omission experiments revealed that 5 g/L NaCl, five vitamins, two nucleic acid bases, MgSO4·7H2O, MnSO4·4H2O, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, CH3COONa, fourteen amino acids, and glucose were essential for the strain’s growth and Enterocin Y31 production. Thus, a novel simplified and defined medium (SDM was formulated with 30 components in total. Consequently, Enterocin Y31 production yield was higher in SDM as compared to either MRS or CDM. SDM improved the Enterocin Y31 production and simplified the steps of purification (only two steps, which has broad potential applications.

  6. Sec-mediated secretion of bacteriocin enterocin P by Lactococcus lactis

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    Herranz, C; Driessen, AJM

    2005-01-01

    Most lactic acid bacterium bacteriocins utilize specific leader peptides and dedicated machineries for secretion. In contrast, the enterococcal bacteriocin enterocin P (EntP) contains a typical signal peptide that directs its secretion when heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Signal pept

  7. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Cebrián

    Full Text Available The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards AS-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48ABC (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structural as-48A gene and as-48C1DD1EFGH. The current study describes the identification of the promoters involved in AS-48 expression. Seven putative promoters have been here amplified, and separately inserted into the promoter-probe vector pTLR1, to create transcriptional fusions with the mCherry gene used as a reporter. The activity of these promoter regions was assessed measuring the expression of the fluorescent mCherry protein using the constitutive pneumococcal promoter PX as a reference. Our results revealed that only three promoters PA, P2(2 and PD1 were recognized in Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli, in the conditions tested. The maximal fluorescence was obtained with PX in all the strains, followed by the P2(2 promoter, which level of fluorescence was 2-fold compared to PA and 4-fold compared to PD1. Analysis of putative factors influencing the promoter activity in single and double transformants in E. faecalis JH2-2 demonstrated that, in general, a better expression was achieved in presence of pAM401-81. In addition, the P2(2 promoter could be regulated in a negative fashion by genes existing in the native pMB-2 plasmid other than those of the as-48 cluster, while the pH seems to affect differently the as-48 promoter expression.

  8. Improved antimicrobial activities of synthetic-hybrid bacteriocins designed from enterocin E50-52 and pediocin PA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Sutyak Noll, Katia; Cavera, Veronica L; Chikindas, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Two hybrid bacteriocins, enterocin E50-52/pediocin PA-1 (EP) and pediocin PA-1/enterocin E50-52 (PE), were designed by combining the N terminus of enterocin E50-52 and the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and by combining the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and the N terminus of enterocin E50-52, respectively. Both hybrid bacteriocins showed reduced MICs compared to those of their natural counterparts. The MICs of hybrid PE and EP were 64- and 32-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of pediocin PA-1 and 8- and 4-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of enterocin E50-52. In this study, the effect of hybrid as well as wild-type (WT) bacteriocins on the transmembrane electrical potential (ΔΨ) and their ability to induce the efflux of intracellular ATP were investigated. Enterocin E50-52, pediocin PA-1, and hybrid bacteriocin PE were able to dissipate ΔΨ, but EP was unable to deplete this component. Both hybrid bacteriocins caused a loss of the intracellular concentration of ATP. EP, however, caused a faster efflux than PE and enterocin E50-52. Enterocin E50-52 and hybrids PE and EP were active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, such as Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 20E1090, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The hybrid bacteriocins designed and described herein are antimicrobial peptides with MICs lower those of their natural counterparts. Both hybrid peptides induce the loss of intracellular ATP and are capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria, and PE dissipates the electrical potential. In this study, the MIC of hybrid bacteriocin PE decreased 64-fold compared to the MIC of its natural peptide counterpart, pediocin PA-1. Inhibition of Gram-negative pathogens confers an additional advantage for the application of these peptides in therapeutics.

  9. A novel enterocin T1 with anti-Pseudomonas activity produced by Enterococcus faecium T1 from Chinese Tibet cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Han, Xue; Gao, Wei; Chi, Chunliang; Song, Wei; Li, Haiying; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    An enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium T1 was isolated from Chinese Tibet cheese. The enterocin was purified by SP-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC. It was identified as unique from other reported bacteriocins based on molecular weight (4629 Da) and amino acid compositions; therefore it was subsequently named enterocin T1. Enterocin T1 was stable at 80-100 °C and over a wide pH range, pH 3.0-10.0. Protease sensitivity was observed to trypsin, pepsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Importantly, enterocin T1 was observed to inhibit the growth of numerous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes. Take together, these results suggest that enterocin T1 is a novel bacteriocin with the potential to be used as a bio-preservative to control Pseudomonas spp. in food.

  10. Isolation and purification of enterocin E-760 with broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, J E; Svetoch, E A; Eruslanov, B V; Perelygin, V V; Mitsevich, E V; Mitsevich, I P; Levchuk, V P; Svetoch, O E; Seal, B S; Siragusa, G R; Stern, N J

    2008-03-01

    Strain NRRL B-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, or Enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to Campylobacter jejuni. The isolate produced a 5,362-Da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Gallinarum, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and 20 other Campylobacter species isolates. The enterocin, E-760, was isolated and purified by cation-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies. The proteinaceous nature of purified enterocin E-760 was demonstrated upon treatment with various proteolytic enzymes. Specifically, the antimicrobial peptide was found to be sensitive to beta-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, and papain, while it was resistant to lysozyme and lipase. The enterocin demonstrated thermostability by retaining activity after 5 min at 100 degrees C and was stable at pH values between 5.0 and 8.7. However, activity was lost below pH 3.0 and above pH 9.5. Administration of enterocin E-760-treated feed significantly (P strains of C. jejuni by more than 8 log(10) CFU. Enterocin E-760 also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of naturally acquired Campylobacter species in market age broiler chickens when administered in treated feed 4 days prior to analysis.

  11. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”. Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2: 329-341, 2012].

  12. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai W.F.BODE; A.Jamie WOOD; Daniel W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    Group navigation is of great importance for many animals,such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish.One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders ("Many-wrongs principle").Here,we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connectious as preferential interactions between individuals.Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion.We use network summary statistics,in particular network motifs,to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements.It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered,but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups.We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2):329-341,2012].

  13. Effect of Lactococcin BZ and Enterocin KP on the Activity of Yoghurt Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Öncül

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of lactococcin BZ from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BZ and enterocin KP from Enterococcus faecalis KP (1600 AU/mL on the activities of three different yoghurt cultures (Y1 and Y2: CHR Hansen, Denmark; Y3: Sacco, Italy were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria counts and pH values of the samples were determined during the incubation period (at 42°C for 24 h. It was found that lactococcin BZ had bactericidal effect against only one yoghurt culture whereas enterocin KP was effective against two yoghurt cultures. When lactococcin BZ and enterosin KP were used in combination (1:1, they showed bactericidal effect against two yoghurt cultures.

  14. RNA sequencing and proteogenomics reveal the importance of leaderless mRNAs in the radiation-tolerant bacterium Deinococcus deserti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Arjan; Roche, David; Fernandez, Bernard; Ludanyi, Monika; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Pignol, David; Vallenet, David; Armengaud, Jean; Blanchard, Laurence

    2014-04-01

    Deinococcus deserti is a desiccation- and radiation-tolerant desert bacterium. Differential RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to explore the specificities of its transcriptome. Strikingly, for 1,174 (60%) mRNAs, the transcription start site was found exactly at (916 cases, 47%) or very close to the translation initiation codon AUG or GUG. Such proportion of leaderless mRNAs, which may resemble ancestral mRNAs, is unprecedented for a bacterial species. Proteomics showed that leaderless mRNAs are efficiently translated in D. deserti. Interestingly, we also found 173 additional transcripts with a 5'-AUG or 5'-GUG that would make them competent for ribosome binding and translation into novel small polypeptides. Fourteen of these are predicted to be leader peptides involved in transcription attenuation. Another 30 correlated with new gene predictions and/or showed conservation with annotated and nonannotated genes in other Deinococcus species, and five of these novel polypeptides were indeed detected by mass spectrometry. The data also allowed reannotation of the start codon position of 257 genes, including several DNA repair genes. Moreover, several novel highly radiation-induced genes were found, and their potential roles are discussed. On the basis of our RNA-seq and proteogenomics data, we propose that translation of many of the novel leaderless transcripts, which may have resulted from single-nucleotide changes and maintained by selective pressure, provides a new explanation for the generation of a cellular pool of small peptides important for protection of proteins against oxidation and thus for radiation/desiccation tolerance and adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  15. In silico analysis of 5'-UTRs highlights the prevalence of Shine-Dalgarno and leaderless-dependent mechanisms of translation initiation in bacteria and archaea, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambuj; Gogoi, Prerana; Deka, Bhagyashree; Goswami, Shrayanti; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad

    2016-08-07

    In prokaryotes, a heterogeneous set of protein translation initiation mechanisms such as Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence-dependent, SD sequence-independent or ribosomal protein S1 mediated and leaderless transcript-dependent exists. To estimate the distribution of coding sequences employing a particular translation initiation mechanism, a total of 107 prokaryotic genomes were analysed using in silico approaches. Analysis of 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of genes reveals the existence of three types of mRNAs described as transcripts with and without SD motif and leaderless transcripts. Our results indicate that although all the three types of translation initiation mechanisms are widespread among prokaryotes, the number of SD-dependent genes in bacteria is higher than that of archaea. In contrast, archaea contain a significantly higher number of leaderless genes than SD-led genes. The correlation analysis between genome size and SD-led & leaderless genes suggests that the SD-led genes are decreasing (increasing) with genome size in bacteria (archaea). However, the leaderless genes are increasing (decreasing) in bacteria (archaea) with genome size. Moreover, an analysis of the start-codon biasness confirms that among ATG, GTG and TTG codons, ATG is indeed the most preferred codon at the translation initiation site in most of the coding sequences. In leaderless genes, however, the codons GTG and TTG are also observed at the translation initiation site in some species contradicting earlier studies which suggested the usage of only ATG codon. Henceforth, the conventional mechanism of translation initiation cannot be generalized as an exclusive way of initiating the process of protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes.

  16. Co-expression and characterization of enterocin CRL35 and its mutant in Escherichia coli Rosetta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masías Emilse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though many sequences and structures of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria have been fully characterized so far, little information is currently available about bacteriocins heterologously produced by Escherichia coli. For this purpose, the structural gene of enterocin CRL35, munA, was PCR-amplified using specific primers and cloned downstream of PelB sequence in the pET22b (+ expression vector. E. coli Rosetta (DE3 pLysS was chosen as the host for production and enterocin was purified by an easy two-step protocol. The bacteriocin was correctly expressed with the expected intramolecular disulfide bond. Nevertheless, it was found that a variant of the enterocin, differing by 12 Da from the native polypeptide, was co-expressed by E. coli Rosetta in comparable amount. Indeed, the mutant bacteriocin contained two amino acid substitutions that were characterized by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF and HPLCelectrospray (ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/ MS sequencing. This is the first report regarding the production of mutants of pediocin-like bacteriocins in the E. coli expression system.

  17. The Synergist Effect of P-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Propyl-Paraben on The Antibacterial Activity of Enterocin KP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of food preservative p-hydroxybenzoic acid and propyl-paraben on the inhibitory activity of enterocin KP produced by Enterococcus faecalis KP were determined. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium, resistant to enterocin KP bacteriocin, were used as target organisms. The inhibitor activity of enterosin KP (1600 AU/ml alone or in combination with p-hydroxybenzoic acid (%0.1-0.3 and propyl-paraben (%0.008-0.16 on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. The inhibitory activity of enterocin KP was increased when used in combination with p-hydroxybenzoic acid and propyl-paraben at concentrations of 0.1-0.3% and 0.008-0.016%, respectively. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium became sensitive to enterocin KP. In conclusion, the use of enterocin KP in combination with other food preservatives principles resulted in an increase in its inhibitory activity and spectrum.

  18. Antistaphylococcal effect of enterocin AS-48 in bakery ingredients of vegetable origin, alone and in combination with selected antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martinez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of enterocin AS-48 against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in various types of bakery ingredients. Antibacterial activity greatly depended on the food substrate, ranging from complete inactivation of S. aureus in liquid caramel (in which the bacterium survived poorly) to no significant inhibition (as in vanilla or chocolate creams). Significant reductions of viable counts in the range of 1.8 to 2.7 log units (P chocolate substrates, enterocin AS-48 was tested in combination with other antimicrobials. Bactericidal activity increased markedly for the combinations of AS-48 and 0.1% eugenol (v/v), 0.5% 2-nitropropanol (v/v), or 3% Nisaplin (w/v). Enterocin AS-48 could be applied in combination with other antimicrobials for preservation of bakery ingredients against S. aureus.

  19. The use of enterocin CCM 4231 in soy milk to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A; Czikková, S

    1999-07-01

    The inhibitory effect of enterocin CCM 4231 (concentration 3200 AU ml-1) was used to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes Ohio and Staphylococcus aureus in soy milk. The growth and bacteriocin (enterocin) production of producer strain CCM 4231 in soy milk was also checked. Bacteriocin production by CCM 4231 strain in soy milk was first detected after 2 h from the beginning of cultivation (100 AU ml-1). The stationary phase for CCM 4231 was reached after 6 h reaching 10.38 cfu ml-1 (log10) with a slight increase up to 24 h (10.43 cfu ml-1, log10), and the maximum bacteriocin production in soy milk (200 AU ml-1) was noted after 8 h of the beginning of cultivation with stability up to 24 h. The addition of enterocin CCM 4231 at 3200 AU ml-1 to a growing indicator strain, L. monocytogenes Ohio, in soy milk resulted in inhibition for 24 h. The high inhibitory effect of enterocin was found after 1 h and 2 h of its addition (in 5 h-6 h of cultivation), the difference between the experimental and the control samples (ES, CS) being 4.96 log cycles at 5 h and 5.15 log cycles at 6 h. Staphylococcus aureus was not fully inhibited, although a difference of 3.55 log cycles was found when ES and CS were compared at the end of cultivation (24 h). The pH was not influenced by enterocin addition. The inhibitory effect of enterocin CCM 4231 against L. monocytogenes Ohio in soy milk was probably bacteriocidal; while Staph. aureus was influenced bacteriostatically. In general, the observed inhibitory activity confirmed the possibility for further application of bacteriocins in food environments as the protective agents. Of course, legislation problems must be solved.

  20. Partial Purification and Characterization of the Mode of Action of Enterocin S37: A Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37 Isolated from Poultry Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Belguesmia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to purify and characterize the mode of action of enterocin S37, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37, a strain recently isolated from the chicken feces. Enterocin S37 has a molecular weight comprised between 4 and 5 kDa. It remained active after 1 h at 80oC and at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Furthermore, cell-free supernatant of Enterococcus faecalis S37 and purified enterocin S37 were active against Gram-positive bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes EGDe, L. innocua F, Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2, and Lactobacillus brevis F145. The purification of enterocin S37 was performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed up by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography procedures. Treatment of enterocin S37 with proteinase K, -chymotrypsin, and papain confirmed its proteinaceous nature, while its treatment with lysozyme and lipase resulted in no alteration of activity. Enterocin S37 is hydrophobic, anti-Listeria and likely acting by depletion of intracellular K+ ions upon action on KATP channels. This study contributed to gain more insights into the mode of action of enterocins.

  1. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  2. Partial Purification and Characterization of the Mode of Action of Enterocin S37: A Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37 Isolated from Poultry Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguesmia, Y.; Choiset, Y.; Prévost, H.; Dalgalarrondo, M.; Chobert, J.-M.; Drider, D.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize the mode of action of enterocin S37, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis S37, a strain recently isolated from the chicken feces. Enterocin S37 has a molecular weight comprised between 4 and 5 kDa. It remained active after 1 h at 80oC and at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Furthermore, cell-free supernatant of Enterococcus faecalis S37 and purified enterocin S37 were active against Gram-positive bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes EGDe, L. innocua F, Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2, and Lactobacillus brevis F145. The purification of enterocin S37 was performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed up by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography procedures. Treatment of enterocin S37 with proteinase K, α-chymotrypsin, and papain confirmed its proteinaceous nature, while its treatment with lysozyme and lipase resulted in no alteration of activity. Enterocin S37 is hydrophobic, anti-Listeria and likely acting by depletion of intracellular K+ ions upon action on KATP channels. This study contributed to gain more insights into the mode of action of enterocins. PMID:20811593

  3. File list: Pol.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in Oat and Soya Drinks by Enterocin AS-48 in Combination with Other Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, María José Grande; Aguayo, M Carmen López; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio; López, Rosario Lucas

    2015-09-01

    The presence of toxicogenic Staphylococcus aureus in foods and the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the food chain are matters of concern. In the present study, the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48, applied singly or in combination with phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and citral) or with 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NPOH), was investigated in the control of a cocktail made from 1 methicillin-sensitive and 1 MRSA strains inoculated on commercial oat and soya drinks. Enterocin AS-48 exhibited low bactericidal activity against staphylococci in the drinks investigated when applied singly. The combinations of sub-inhibitory concentrations of enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) and phenolic compounds or 2NPOH caused complete inactivation of staphylococci in the drinks within 24 h of incubation at 22 °C. When tested in oat and soya drinks stored for 7 d at 10 °C, enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) in combination with 2NPOH (5.5 mM) reduced viable counts rapidly in the case of oat drink (4.2 log cycles after 12 h) or slowly in soya drink (3.8 log cycles after 3 d). The same combined treatment applied on drinks stored at 22 °C achieved a fast inactivation of staphylococci within 12 to 24 h in both drinks, and no viable staphylococci were detected for up to 7 d of storage. Results from the study highlight the potential of enterocin AS-48 in combination with 2NPOH for inactivation of staphylococci. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Antibacterial efficacy of Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 against Listeria monocytogenes and cross resistance of its bacteriocin resistant variants to common food preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antilisterial efficiency of three bacteriocins, viz, Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 was tested individually and in combination against Listeria mononcytogenes ATCC 53135. A greater antibacterial effect was observed when the bacteriocins were combined in pairs, indicating that the use of more than one LAB bacteriocin in combination have a higher antibacterial action than when used individually. Variants of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 53135 resistant to Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 were developed. Bacteriocin cross-resistance of wild type and their corresponding resistant variants were assessed and results showed that resistance to a bacteriocin may extend to other bacteriocins within the same class. Resistance to Pediocin 34 conferred cross resistance to Enterocin FH 99 but not to Nisin. Similarly resistance to Enterocin FH99 conferred cross resistance to Pediocin 34 but not to Nisin. Also, the sensitivity of Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes to low pH, salt, sodium nitrite, and potassium sorbate was assayed in broth and compared to the parental wild-type strain. The Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 resistant variants did not have intrinsic resistance to low pH, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate, or sodium nitrite. In no case were the bacteriocin resistant Listeria monocytogenes variants examined were more resistant to inhibitors than the parental strains.

  19. File list: Unc.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Unclassified Cell line Kc167 SRX456152,SRX456159,SRX7490...3628,SRX456154,SRX193633,SRX193626,SRX193629,SRX193632,SRX193631,SRX193627,SRX111813 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Unc.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.CeL.50.AllAg.S2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CeL.50.AllAg.S2 dm3 RNA polymerase Cell line S2 SRX147003,SRX193317,SRX306199,S...RX306201,SRX306197,SRX306191,SRX097618,SRX306194,SRX015109,SRX026302,SRX017852,SRX529168,SRX974394 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.CeL.50.AllAg.S2.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.CeL.50.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CeL.50.NA.AllCell dm3 No description NA Cell line ERX242709,ERX102369,ERX102367...242717,ERX402109,ERX242722,ERX242721,ERX242706,ERX242710,ERX242714,ERX242725,ERX242715 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.CeL.50.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  2. Purification of enterocin E9 from the cultivation supernatant of Enterococcus caesium by SPE/HPLC%屎肠球菌细菌素Enterocin E9 SPE/HPLC分离纯化方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍宇晖; 张永红; 王建舫; 李佳; 崔德凤; 马梦; 王惠川

    2014-01-01

    为了获得单一的细菌素Enterocin E9成分,使其发挥最大抑菌活性,建立在线SPE/HPLC分离Enterocin E9的方法.通过细菌培养,上清液收集、浓缩,获得细菌素粗提样品,采用Sepbox 2D-250全自动二维液相分离系统,确认流动相组成,流速和洗脱时间等因素.提取的单一成分其抑菌效果是浓缩样品的2.4倍.该方法省时、省力、精密度高,为细菌素结构与功能的研究提供一条有效途径和方法.

  3. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C.

  4. Molecular Occurrence of Enterocin A Gene among Enterococcus faecium Strains Isolated from Gastro-Intestinal Tract and Antimicrobial Effect of this Bacteriocin Against Clinical Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Salehi

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: In this study occurrence of class II enterocin structural gene (enterocin A in a target of 42 Enterococcus faecium strains, isolated from gastrointestinal tract of animal have been surveyed. E. faecium identification and occurrence of enterocin A gene was performed by PCR method. Cell-free neutralized supernatant of gene positive strains was used to test bacteriocin production and antimicrobial spectrum of supernatant was assayed by wall diffusion method on the gram-positive and negative indicators bacteriaResults: Based on our results, 73.8% of isolated strains had enterocin A gene that they inhibited growth of indicator bacteria such as clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteric PTCC1709, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis.Conclusions: Studied enterocins have growth inhibitory spectrum on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria especially against pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, these strains have the potential to explore and use as, alternative antimicrobial compound and bio-preservatives in food or feed or as probiotics.

  5. Production of an antibiotic enterocin from a marine actinobacteria strain H1003 by metal-stress technique with enhanced enrichment using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shamsul; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Pan, Chengqian; Fu, Leilei; Cao, Xun; Shi, Yutong; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Elicitation by chemical means including heavy metals is one of a new technique for drug discoveries. In this research, the effect of heavy metals on marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. H-1003 for the production of enterocin, with a strong broad spectrum activity, along optimized fermented medium was firstly investigated. The optimum metal stress conditions consisted of culturing marine actinobacteria strain H-1003 with addition of cobalt ions at 2mM in optimized Gause's medium having starch at 20mg/L for 10 days at 180 revolution/min. Under these conditions, enterocin production was enhanced with a value of 5.33mg/L, which was totally absent at the normal culture of strain H-1003 and much higher than other tested metal-stress conditions. This work triumphantly announced a prodigious effect of heavy metals on marine actinobacteria with fringe benefits as a key tool of enterocin production.

  6. When the leader gets loose: in vivo biosynthesis of a leaderless prenisin is stimulated by a trans-acting leader peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusainov, Rustem; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2012-11-05

    The nisin leader is believed to be crucial for nisin biosynthesis. Here, by using a construct completely lacking the leader peptide, we show that an up to fivefold-dehydrated leaderless prenisin can be obtained, as judged by MALDI-TOF MS, and that some of these species are biologically active, thus suggesting that at least three lanthionine rings are present. Notably, by expressing the leader peptide in trans together with the leaderless prenisin, we were able to increase the dehydration/cyclization efficiency of both NisB and NisC, but still with limited efficiency until the fifth dehydratable residue (Thr13) was processed, thereby enabling three rings to form. This, for the first time, demonstrates that 1) the leader is not absolutely necessary for the dehydration reaction of class I lantibiotics to occur in vivo; 2) the leader acts in trans in vivo; 3) the leader increases the efficiency of modification. Based on previous work and our current study, a model for the interactions of NisB and NisC with prenisin is proposed, in which the leader induces a more active conformation and/or productive complex formation of the biosynthetic machinery, and, when covalently bound, is involved in increasing the efficiency of dehydration to the C-terminal end of the prenisin substrate molecule.

  7. Atypical genetic locus associated with constitutive production of enterocin B by Enterococcus faecium BFE 900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C M; Worobo, R W; Quadri, L E; Schillinger, U; Holzapfel, W H; Vederas, J C; Stiles, M E

    1999-05-01

    A purified bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium BFE 900 isolated from black olives was shown by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analyses to be identical to enterocin B produced by E. faecium T136 from meat (P. Casaus, T. Nilsen, L. M. Cintas, I. F. Nes, P. E. Hernández, and H. Holo, Microbiology 143:2287-2294, 1997). The structural gene was located on a 2.2-kb HindIII fragment and a 12.0-kb EcoRI chromosomal fragment. The genetic characteristics and production of EntB by E. faecium BFE 900 differed from that described so far by the presence of a conserved sequence like a regulatory box upstream of the EntB gene, and its production was constitutive and not regulated. The 2.2-kb chromosomal fragment contained the hitherto undetected immunity gene for EntB in an atypical orientation that is the reverse of that of the structural gene. Typical transport and other genes associated with bacteriocin production were not detected on the 12.0-kb chromosomal fragment containing the EntB structural gene. This makes the EntB genetic system different from most other bacteriocin systems, where transport and possible regulatory genes are clustered. EntB was subcloned and expressed by the dedicated secretion machinery of Carnobacterium piscicola LV17A. The structural gene was amplified by PCR, fused to the divergicin A signal peptide, and expressed by the general secretory pathway in Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433.

  8. File list: NoD.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 No description Cell line Kc167 ERX402141,ERX402101,ERX40...RX402123,ERX402115,ERX402104,ERX402109 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167 dm3 Input control Cell line Kc167 SRX017470,SRX1021226,SRX74...,SRX495791,SRX335521 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.CeL.50.AllAg.Kc167.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.CeL.50.Cap-H2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.50.Cap-H2.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Cap-H2 Cell line SRX749024,SRX749025,S...RX749023,SRX749022,SRX511346 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.CeL.50.Cap-H2.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.CeL.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others mod(mdg4) Cell line S...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.CeL.50.modBRACKETLmdg4BRACKETR.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)205 Cell line... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR205.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.CeL.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CeL.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Cell line...70,SRX749072,SRX749071,SRX749073,SRX017852,SRX529168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.CeL.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  14. Impairment of the class IIa bacteriocin receptor function and membrane structural changes are associated to enterocin CRL35 high resistance in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masias, Emilse; Dupuy, Fernando G; da Silva Sanches, Paulo Ricardo; Farizano, Juan Vicente; Cilli, Eduardo; Bellomio, Augusto; Saavedra, Lucila; Minahk, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Enterocin CRL35 is a class IIa bacteriocin with anti-Listeria activity. Resistance to these peptides has been associated with either the downregulation of the receptor expression or changes in the membrane and cell walls. The scope of the present work was to characterize enterocin CRL35 resistant Listeria strains with MICs more than 10,000 times higher than the MIC of the WT sensitive strain. Listeria monocytogenes INS7 resistant isolates R2 and R3 were characterized by 16S RNA gene sequencing and rep-PCR. Bacterial growth kinetic was studied in different culture media. Plasma membranes of sensitive and resistant bacteria were characterized by FTIR and Langmuir monolayer techniques. The growth kinetic of the resistant isolates was slower as compared to the parental strain in TSB medium. Moreover, the resistant isolates barely grew in a glucose-based synthetic medium, suggesting that these cells had a major alteration in glucose transport. Resistant bacteria also had alterations in their cell wall and, most importantly, membrane lipids. In fact, even though enterocin CRL35 was able to bind to the membrane-water interface of both resistant and parental sensitive strains, this peptide was only able to get inserted into the latter membranes. These results indicate that bacteriocin receptor is altered in combination with membrane structural modifications in enterocin CRL35-resistant L. monocytogenes strains. Highly enterocin CRL35-resistant isolates derived from Listeria monocytogenes INS7 have not only an impaired glucose transport but also display structural changes in the hydrophobic core of their plasma membranes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Preservative Effect of Broad-Spectrum Enterocin LM-2 on Cold Sliced Ham%广谱乳酸菌细菌素enterocin LM-2对低温切片火腿的防腐保鲜效果(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国荣; 王成涛; 王洋; 张宝; 李平兰

    2012-01-01

    为考察广谱乳酸菌细菌素enterocin LM-2对低温切片火腿的防腐保鲜效果,并探讨其在低温肉制品防腐保鲜中的应用可行性。本研究在不添加任何化学防腐剂的前提下,分别添加80、320、1280AU/g enterocin LM-2处理低温切片火腿,分析不同浓度细菌素处理前后样品中微生物数量、理化指标以及感官特性的变化。结果发现:细菌素enterocin LM-2的添加可明显延长低温切片火腿的货架期,有效减少贮藏过程中挥发性盐基氮的生成及脂肪氧化程度,并保持产品原有色泽、气味、质构等感官特性。综合微生物和理化特性分析结果,确定添加1280AU/g enterocin LM-2的处理组防腐效果最好,可将低温切片火腿的货架期延长至49d。这些结果都显示出乳酸菌细菌素enterocin LM-2有作为天然生物防腐剂应用于低温肉制品防腐保鲜中的巨大应用潜力。%Enterocin LM-2,a broad-spectrum bacteriocin isolated from Chinese traditional cheese,was produced by Enterococcus faecium LM-2.In order to examine the potential of enterocin LM-2 as a biopreservative in sliced cooked ham,the effect of enterocin LM-2 at different concentrations(80,320,1280 AU/g) on microbiological,physicochemical and sensory quality properties of sliced cooked ham during the refrigerated storage at 4 ℃ was explored in this paper.The addition of enterocin LM-2 could substantially suppress the growth of microflora,especially Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis,and decrease the accumulation of TVB-N and lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage of sliced cooked ham.Overall,the most effective treatment was achieved by adding 1280 AU/g enterocin LM-2,which could extend the shelf life up to 49 days and produce a better sensory profile during the whole storage period.These results clearly indicate that enterocin LM-2 has a great potential as a biopreservative for enhancing the safety and quality of refrigerated sliced cooked

  16. Enterocin B3A-B3B produced by LAB collected from infant faeces: potential utilization in the food industry for Listeria monocytogenes biofilm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seraih, Alaa; Belguesmia, Yanath; Baah, John; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2017-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis B3A-B3B produces the bacteriocin B3A-B3B with activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringens, but apparently not against fungi or Gram-negative bacteria, except for Salmonella Newport. B3A-B3B enterocin has two different nucleotides but similar amino acid composition to the class IIb MR10A-MR10B enterocin. B3A-B3B consists of two peptides of predicted molecular mass of 5176.31 Da (B3A) and 5182.21 Da (B3B). Importantly, B3A-B3B impeded biofilm formation of the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes 162 grown on stainless steel. The antimicrobial treatment of stainless steel with nisin (1 or 16 mg ml(-1)) decreased the cell numbers by about 2 log CFU ml(-1), thereby impeding the biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes 162 or its nisin-resistant derivative strain L. monocytogenes 162R. Furthermore, the combination of nisin and B3A-B3B enterocin reduced the MIC required to inhibit this pathogen grown in planktonic or biofilm cultures.

  17. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  18. Better Than Nothing? Limitations of the Prediction Tool SecretomeP in the Search for Leaderless Secretory Proteins (LSPs) in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Andrew; Davis, Melissa J.; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony

    2016-01-01

    In proteomic analyses of the plant secretome, the presence of putative leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) is difficult to confirm due to the possibility of contamination from other sub-cellular compartments. In the absence of a plant-specific tool for predicting LSPs, the mammalian-trained SecretomeP has been applied to plant proteins in multiple studies to identify the most likely LSPs. This study investigates the effectiveness of using SecretomeP on plant proteins, identifies its limitations and provides a benchmark for its use. In the absence of experimentally verified LSPs we exploit the common-feature hypothesis behind SecretomeP and use known classically secreted proteins (CSPs) of plants as a proxy to evaluate its accuracy. We show that, contrary to the common-feature hypothesis, plant CSPs are a poor proxy for evaluating LSP detection due to variation in the SecretomeP prediction scores when the signal peptide (SP) is modified. Removing the SP region from CSPs and comparing the predictive performance against non-secretory proteins indicates that commonly used threshold scores of 0.5 and 0.6 result in false-positive rates in excess of 0.3 when applied to plants proteins. Setting the false-positive rate to 0.05, consistent with the original mammalian performance of SecretomeP, yields only a marginally higher true positive rate compared to false positives. Therefore the use of SecretomeP on plant proteins is not recommended. This study investigates the trade-offs of using SecretomeP on plant proteins and provides insights into predictive features for future development of plant-specific common-feature tools.

  19. One Gene and Two Proteins: a Leaderless mRNA Supports the Translation of a Shorter Form of the Shigella VirF Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Di Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available VirF, an AraC-like activator, is required to trigger a regulatory cascade that initiates the invasive program of Shigella spp., the etiological agents of bacillary dysentery in humans. VirF expression is activated upon entry into the host and depends on many environmental signals. Here, we show that the virF mRNA is translated into two proteins, the major form, VirF30 (30 kDa, and the shorter VirF21 (21 kDa, lacking the N-terminal segment. By site-specific mutagenesis and toeprint analysis, we identified the translation start sites of VirF30 and VirF21 and showed that the two different forms of VirF arise from differential translation. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo translation experiments showed that VirF21 is also translated from a leaderless mRNA (llmRNA whose 5′ end is at position +309/+310, only 1 or 2 nucleotides upstream of the ATG84 start codon of VirF21. The llmRNA is transcribed from a gene-internal promoter, which we identified here. Functional analysis revealed that while VirF30 is responsible for activation of the virulence system, VirF21 negatively autoregulates virF expression itself. Since VirF21 modulates the intracellular VirF levels, this suggests that transcription of the llmRNA might occur when the onset of the virulence program is not required. We speculate that environmental cues, like stress conditions, may promote changes in virF mRNA transcription and preferential translation of llmRNA.

  20. Better than nothing? Limitations of the prediction tool SecretomeP in the search for leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lonsdale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In proteomic analyses of the plant secretome, the presence of putative leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs is difficult to confirm due to the possibility of contamination from other sub-cellular compartments. In the absence of a plant-specific tool for predicting LSPs, the mammalian-trained SecretomeP has been applied to plant proteins in multiple studies to identify the most likely LSPs. This study investigates the effectiveness of using SecretomeP on plant proteins, identifies its limitations and provides a benchmark for its use. In the absence of experimentally verified LSPs we exploit the common-feature hypothesis behind SecretomeP and use known classically secreted proteins (CSPs of plants as a proxy to evaluate its accuracy. We show that, contrary to the common-feature hypothesis, plant CSPs are a poor proxy for evaluating LSP detection due to variation in the SecretomeP prediction scores when the signal peptide (SP is modified. Removing the SP region from CSPs and comparing the predictive performance against non-secretory proteins indicates that commonly used threshold scores of 0.5 and 0.6 result in false-positive rates in excess of 0.3 when applied to plants proteins. Setting the false-positive rate to 0.05, consistent with the original mammalian performance of SecretomeP, yields only a marginally higher true positive rate compared to false positives. Therefore the use of SecretomeP on plant proteins is not recommended. This study investigates the trade-offs of using SecretomeP on plant proteins and provides insights into predictive features for future development of plant-specific common-feature tools.

  1. Better Than Nothing? Limitations of the Prediction Tool SecretomeP in the Search for Leaderless Secretory Proteins (LSPs) in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Andrew; Davis, Melissa J; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2016-01-01

    In proteomic analyses of the plant secretome, the presence of putative leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) is difficult to confirm due to the possibility of contamination from other sub-cellular compartments. In the absence of a plant-specific tool for predicting LSPs, the mammalian-trained SecretomeP has been applied to plant proteins in multiple studies to identify the most likely LSPs. This study investigates the effectiveness of using SecretomeP on plant proteins, identifies its limitations and provides a benchmark for its use. In the absence of experimentally verified LSPs we exploit the common-feature hypothesis behind SecretomeP and use known classically secreted proteins (CSPs) of plants as a proxy to evaluate its accuracy. We show that, contrary to the common-feature hypothesis, plant CSPs are a poor proxy for evaluating LSP detection due to variation in the SecretomeP prediction scores when the signal peptide (SP) is modified. Removing the SP region from CSPs and comparing the predictive performance against non-secretory proteins indicates that commonly used threshold scores of 0.5 and 0.6 result in false-positive rates in excess of 0.3 when applied to plants proteins. Setting the false-positive rate to 0.05, consistent with the original mammalian performance of SecretomeP, yields only a marginally higher true positive rate compared to false positives. Therefore the use of SecretomeP on plant proteins is not recommended. This study investigates the trade-offs of using SecretomeP on plant proteins and provides insights into predictive features for future development of plant-specific common-feature tools.

  2. File list: Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR3-7.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR3-7.AllCell dm3 TFs and others Su(var)3-7 Cell line... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.CeL.50.SuBRACKETLvarBRACKETR3-7.AllCell.bed ...

  3. Effect of Enterocin 4231 in Slovak fermented salami Púchov after its experimental inoculation with Listeria innocua Li1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lauková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Enteroccocci occur and may compete well in fermented sausages and Enterococcus faecium represents that species of the lactic acid bacteria which can be found in the fermented sausages. The representatives of this species can produce bacteriocins with predominant anti-listerial effect. Therefore, the effect of enterocin (Ent 4231 produced by Enterococcus faecium CCM 4231 strain with probiotic properties was tested in a dry fermented salami Púchov (Slovak product experimentally inoculated with L. innocua Li1 strain (107 cfu/ml. Material and methods. The bulk salami mixture was prepared in the pilot plant and 2.5 kg for each of three trials were transferred to the laboratory for the experiments. Three independent trials were conducted, each comprising then five salami samples (0.500 g. Trial A (reference control involved only untreated salami mixture. Trial B represented salami mixture inoculated with Listeria innocua Li1 (107 cfu/ml. For trial C, Ent 4231 possessing activity 6400 AU/ml was added into the salami mixture inoculated with L. innocua Li1 (Li/Ent. The mixtures were stuffed into collagen casings and the flat shape salamis were transferred back to the pilot plant and treated according to conditions typical for this product and stored for 4 weeks. Results. The initial number of L. innocua Li1 in the inoculated salami mixture was 104 cfu/ml.After Ent 4231 addition, the count of Listeria detected in the salami samples inoculated with Li1 and treated with Ent 4231 was 3.64 ±0.14 cfu/ml; difference 0.40 logarithmic cycles was noted between Li samples and Li/Ent samples. On day 2, the difference 1.86 log cycles was noted between Li1 and Li/Ent samples. Although, in weeks 3 and 4, slight increase in Li1 cells was determined in Li salamis, the difference in the detection of Li1 cells in Li salamis and Li/Ent samples was even higher than that immedially after Ent addition (difference 2.30; 2.48 log cycles. Bacteriocin activity

  4. Combined effect of enterocin AS-48 and high hydrostatic pressure to control food-borne pathogens inoculated in low acid fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananou, Samir; Garriga, Margarita; Jofré, Anna; Aymerich, Teresa; Gálvez, Antonio; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva

    2010-04-01

    The single and combined effects of enterocin AS-48 and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonellaenterica, and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in fuet (a low acid fermented sausage) during ripening and storage at 7 degrees C or at room temperature. AS-48 (148 AU g(-1)) caused a drastic 5.5 log cfu g(-1) decrease in L. monocytogenes (Ppressurization (400 MPa) and storage Listeria counts remained below 5 cfu g(-1) in all fuets containing AS-48 (pressurized or not). HHP alone had no anti-Listeria effect. HHP treatment significantly reduced Salmonella counts, with lowest levels in pressurized fuets with AS-48. S. aureus showed similar growth for all treatments and storage conditions. These results indicate that AS-48 can be applied alone to control L. monocytogenes and combined with HHP treatment to control Salmonella in fuets.

  5. Inactivation of exopolysaccharide and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde-producing lactic acid bacteria in apple juice and apple cider by enterocin AS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Viedma, Pilar; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Valdivia, Eva; López, Rosario Lucas; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested against exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus dioliovorans and Pediococcus parvulus as well as two 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA)-producing Lb. collinoides strains causing apple cider spoilage. In fresh-made apple juice, a bacteriocin concentration of 2.5 microg/ml reduced the LAB viable cell counts below detection levels during the course of incubation at 10 and 22 degrees C for most strains tested, except for Lb. collinoides 5 and Lb. dioliovorans 29. These two strains were significantly inhibited at 10 degrees C by 5 microg/ml AS-48 or completely inactivated at 22 degrees C. In a commercial Basque apple cider, the added bacteriocin (2.5 microg/ml for Lb. collinoides strains 9 and 10, and 5 microg/ml for the rest of strains) completely inactivated all LAB strains tested during storage at 10 as well as 22 degrees C. In the commercial Asturian apple cider tested the LAB strains showed a poor capacity for survival, but the added bacteriocin was equally effective in reducing the numbers of survivors. When a cocktail of the five LAB strains was tested in commercial Basque apple cider, viable cell counts were reduced below detection levels after 2 days for a bacteriocin concentration of 12.5 microg/ml regardless of storage temperature. Comparison of RAPD-PCR profiles revealed that strain Lb. dioliovorans 29 was always the predominant survivor detected in bacteriocin-treated samples.

  6. Anti-MRSA activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and evidences on their role in the inhibition of biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khassaf eAL ATYA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a worrisome superbug worldwide. This work was aimed at studying the efficacies of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93, against MRSA-S1 grown in planktonic culture and embedded in biofilms. These bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity of these bacteriocins was shown in-vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. Afterwhich, a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics permitted unveiled a synergistic effect of these bacteriocins in combination with erythromycin and kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1. These bacteriocins alone or in combination with erythromycin and kanamycin were able to impede the formation of MRSA-S1 biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices as supported by the microbial cell counts, epifluorescence and Scanning Electron Microscope analyses.

  7. Use of synthetic genes for cloning, production and functional expression of the bacteriocins enterocin A and bacteriocin E 50-52 by Pichia pastoris and Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Gútiez, Loreto; Arbulu, Sara; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2014-06-01

    The use of synthetic genes may constitute a successful approach for the heterologous production and functional expression of bacterial antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) by recombinant yeasts. In this work, synthetic genes with adapted codon usage designed from the mature amino acid sequence of the bacteriocin enterocin A (EntA), produced by Enterococcus faecium T136, and the mature bacteriocin E 50-52 (BacE50-52), produced by E. faecium NRRL B-32746, were synthesized. The synthetic entA and bacE50-52 were cloned into the protein expression vectors pPICZαA and pKLAC2 for transformation of derived vectors into Pichia pastoris X-33 and Kluyveromyces lactis GG799, respectively. The recombinant vectors were linearized and transformed into competent cells selecting for P. pastoris X-33EAS (entA), P. pastoris X-33BE50-52S (bacE50-52), K. lactis GG799EAS (entA), and K. lactis GG799BE50-52S (bacE50-52). P. pastoris X-33EAS and K. lactis GG799EAS, but not P. pastoris X-33BE50-52S and K. lactis GG799BE50-52S, showed antimicrobial activity in their supernatants. However, purification of the supernatants of the producer yeasts permitted recovery of the bacteriocins EntA and BacE50-52. Both purified bacteriocins were active against Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes but not against Gram-negative bacteria, including Campylobacter jejuni.

  8. Chimeras of mature pediocin PA-1 fused to the signal peptide of enterocin P permits the cloning, production, and expression of pediocin PA-1 in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Criado, Raquel; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2007-12-01

    Chimeras of pediocin PA-1 (PedA-1), a bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici PLBH9, fused to the signal peptide of enterocin P (EntP), a sec-dependent bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium P13, permitted the production of PedA-1 in Lactococcus lactis. Chimeric genes encoding the EntP signal peptide (SP(entP)) fused to mature PedA-1 (pedA), with or without its immunity gene (pedB), were cloned into the expression vector pMG36c to generate the recombinant plasmids pMPP9 (SP(entP):pedA) and pMPP14i (SP(entP):pedA + pedB). Transformation of competent L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403, L. lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000, and L. lactis subsp. lactis DPC5598 with the recombinant plasmids has permitted the detection and quantitation of PedA-1 and the coproduction of nisin A and PedA-1 in supernatants of producer cells with specific anti-PedA-1 antibodies and a noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant L. lactis hosts carrying pMPP9 or pMPP14i displayed antimicrobial activity, suggesting that mature PedA-1 fused to SP(EntP) is the minimum requirement for the synthesis, processing, and secretion of biologically active PedA-1 in L. lactis. However, the production and antimicrobial activity of the PedA-1 produced by L. lactis was lower than that produced by the P. acidilactici control strains.

  9. Developing the Great Eight Competencies with Leaderless Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Robert D.; Donahue, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The Great Eight competencies are work behaviors that promote employee effectiveness in 21st-century organizations. These competencies include enterprising and performing, adapting and coping, organizing and executing, creating and conceptualizing, analyzing and interpreting, interacting and presenting, supporting and cooperating, and leading and…

  10. The Leaderless Revolution: How Ordinary People will take Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ways such as changing the way we think about politics by taking action ourselves ... that we should reject the state, institutions, hierarchy, authority, and exercise. 10 The ... makes no distinction between administrative problems and structural ...

  11. Balancing direct and indirect sources of navigational information in a leaderless model of collective animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Edward A; Bode, Nikolai W F

    2016-04-07

    Navigation is an important movement process that enables individuals and groups of animals to find targets in space at different spatio-temporal scales. Earlier studies have shown how being in a group can confer navigational advantages to individuals, either through following more experienced leaders or through the pooling of many inaccurate compasses, a process known as the 'many wrongs principle'. However, the exact mechanisms for how information is transferred and used within the group in order to improve both individual- and group-level navigational performance are not fully understood. Here we explore the relative weighting that should be given to different sources of navigational information by an individual within a navigating group at each step of the movement process. Specifically, we consider a direct goal-oriented source of navigational information such as the individual׳s own imperfect knowledge of the target (a 'noisy compass') alongside two indirect sources of navigational information: the previous movement directions of neighbours in the group (social information) and, for the first time in this context, the previous movement direction of the individual (persistence). We assume that all individuals are equal in their abilities and that direct navigational information is prone to higher errors than indirect information. Using computer simulations, we show that in such situations giving a high weighting to either type of indirect navigational information can serve to significantly improve the navigation success of groups. Crucially, we also show that if the quality of social information is reduced, e.g. by an individual׳s limited cognitive abilities, the best navigational strategy for groups assigns a considerable weighting to persistence, a behaviour that is neither social, nor directly aimed at navigating.

  12. The Leaderless Social Movement Organization: Unstoppable Power or Last-Ditch Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    220 Animal Liberation Front: Worldwide News and Information Resource about the A.L.F, “ALF Credo and Guidelines,” http...Worldwide News and Information Resource about the A.L.F, “ALF Credo and Guidelines.” 70 The NAALPO website explains that “because the ALF...Canada/SHACCanada.htm. ———. “ALF Credo and Guidelines.” Accessed September 18, 2010. http://www.animalliberationfront.com/ALFront/alf_credo.htm

  13. Microbial stability and safety of traditional Greek Graviera cheese: characterization of the lactic acid bacterial flora and culture-independent detection of bacteriocin genes in the ripened cheeses and their microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, John; Kakouri, Athanasia; Pappa, Eleni C; Matijasić, Bojana Bogovic; Georgalaki, Marina D; Tsakalidou, Effie; Rogelj, Andirena

    2010-07-01

    The microflora of four batches of traditional Greek Graviera cheese was studied at 5 weeks of ripening, and 200 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were phenotypically characterized and screened for antilisterial bacteriocins. The cheeses were also analyzed for organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and for the potential presence of 25 known LAB bacteriocin genes directly in cheese and their microbial consortia by PCR. All batches were safe according to the European Union regulatory criteria for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, enterobacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococci. The cheese flora was dominated by nonstarter Lactobacillus casei/paracasei (67.5%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (16.3%) strains, whereas few Streptococcus thermophilus (3.8%), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (0.6%), and Leuconostoc (1.9%) organisms were present. Enterococcus faecium (9.4%) and Enterococcus durans (0.6%) were isolated among the dominant LAB from two batches; however, enterococci were present in all batches at 10- to 100-fold lower populations than mesophilic lactobacilli. Sixteen E. faecium isolates produced antilisterial enterocins. In accordance, enterocin B gene was detectable in all cheeses and enterocin P gene was present in one cheese, whereas the consortia of all cheeses contained at least two of the enterocin A, B, P, 31, L50A, and L50B genes. Plantaricin A gene was also amplified from all cheeses. Mean concentrations of lactic, acetic, citric, and propionic acids in the ripened cheeses exceeded 1.5% in total, of which approximately 0.9% was lactate. Thus, organic acid contents constitute an important hurdle factor for inhibiting growth of pathogens in traditional Graviera cheese products, with LAB bacteriocins, mainly enterocins, potentially contributing to increased cheese safety.

  14. 6L50E自动变速器油路分析(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹利民

    2009-01-01

    @@ 二、主要液压部件说明 1.主要部件中英文名称 (1)手动阀(manual valve). (2)变矩器进给限制阀(converter feed limit valve). (3)执行器进给限制阀(actuator feed limit valve). (4)补偿器进给调节阀(compensator feed regulator valve). (5)CBK1/C456离合器调节阀(CBR1/C456 clutch regulator valve). (6)2-6离合器调节阀(2-6clutch regulator valre).

  15. Characterization of linear forms of the circular enterocin AS-48 obtained by limited proteolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Spolaore, Barbara; Pinato, Odra; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Fontana, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    AS-48 is a 70-residue circular peptide from Enterococcus faecalis with a broad antibacterial activity. Here, we produced by limited proteolysis a protein species carrying a single nicking and fragments of 55 and 38 residues. Nicked AS-48 showed a lower helicity by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism

  16. Virulence factors and bacteriocins in faecal enterococci of wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Patricia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Costa, Daniela; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    The production of antimicrobial, haemolytic and gelatinase activities was tested in 67 enterococci (39 E. faecium, 24 E. hirae, 2 E. faecalis, and 2 Enterococcus spp.), recovered from faecal samples of wild boars. In addition, the presence of genes encoding bacteriocin and virulence factors was also analysed by PCR and sequencing. Production of antimicrobial activity was checked in all enterococci against 9 indicator bacteria and it was detected in 11 E. faecium isolates (16.5%); eight and two of them harboured the genes encoding enterocin A + enterocin B and enterocin L50A/B, respectively. Sixty-seven per cent of our enterococci harboured different combinations of genes of the cyl operon, but none of them contained the complete cyl L(L)L(S)ABM operon, necessary for cytolysin expression. The presence of gel E gene, associated with the fsr ABC locus, was identified in 4 E. faecium and two E. faecalis isolates, exhibiting all of them gelatinase activity. beta -hemolytic activity was not found in our isolates. Both cpd and ace genes, encoding respectively the accessory colonisation factor and pheromone, were detected in two E. faecalis isolates, and the hyl gene, encoding hyalorunidase, in two E. faecium isolates, one of them gelatinase-positive. Genes encoding bacteriocins and virulence factors are widely disseminated among faecal enterococci of wild boars and more studies should be carried out to know the global distribution of these determinants in enterococci of different ecosystems.

  17. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121

  18. Characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-06-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu-->Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr-->Ala) and 15 (Leu-->Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an

  19. Characterization of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, Isolated from the Uropygial Gland of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; Valdivia, Eva; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Maqueda, Mercedes; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The uropygial gland (preen gland) is a holocrine secretory gland situated at the base of the tail in birds which produces a hydrophobic fatty secretion. In certain birds, such as the hoopoe, Upupa epops, the composition of this secretion is influenced by both seasonal and sexual factors, becoming darker and more malodorous in females and in their nestlings during the nesting phase. The secretion is spread throughout the plumage when the bird preens itself, leaving its feathers flexible and waterproof. It is also thought to play a role in defending the bird against predators and parasites. We have isolated from the uropygial secretion of a nestling a bacterium that grows in monospecific culture which we have identified unambiguously by phenotypic and genotypic means as Enterococcus faecalis. The strain in question produces antibacterial substances that are active against all gram-positive bacteria assayed and also against some gram-negative strains. Its peptide nature identifies it as a bacteriocin within the group known as enterocins. Two peptides were purified to homogeneity (MR10A and MR10B), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) analysis showed masses of 5201.58 and 5207.7 Da, respectively. Amino acid sequencing of both peptides revealed high similarity with enterocin L50A and L50B (L. M. Cintas, P. Casaus, H. Holo, P. E. Hernández, I. F. Nes, and L. S. Håvarstein, J. Bacteriol. 180:1988-1994, 1998). PCR amplification of total DNA from strain MRR10-3 with primers for the L50A/B structural genes and sequencing of the amplified fragment revealed almost identical sequences, except for a single conservative change in residue 38 (Glu→Asp) in MR10A and two changes in residues 9 (Thr→Ala) and 15 (Leu→Phe) in MR10B. This is the first time that the production of bacteriocins by a bacterium isolated from the uropygial gland has been described. The production of these broad-spectrum antibacterial substances by an

  20. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  1. Competitive advantage of bacteriocinogenic strains within lactic acid bacteria consortium of raw milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gene determinants for different bacteriocins has been already demonstrated in traditional Slovenian types of raw milk cheeses ‘Tolminc’ and ‘Kraški’. These genes were present also in the cultivable microbiota. In this research the aim was to establish how the presence of gene determinants for bacteriocins in microbial consortia is reflected in its antimicrobial activity. In addition, one of the goals was to determine whether the strains that carry gene determinants for bacteriocins have any competitive growth advantage in microbial population. Microbial consortium of ‘Tolminc’ cheese was propagated in milk and examined at the end of propagation its antimicrobial activity and the presence of gene determinants for bacteriocins. Comparison of the results obtained before and after propagation leaded to the conclusion that most of the strains possessing gene determinants for bacteriocins were unable to persist during propagation. The strains which did persist during propagation carried gene determinants for enterocins P, L50B and cytolysin. Antimicrobial activity of consortium before and after propagation was not substantially different and cannot be attributed to any of detected bacteriocins.

  2. Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahad, Ouissal Bourouni; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for their inhibitory activities against the most relevant seafood-spoilage and pathogenic bacteria potentially present in commercial products. The bioactive strains belonged to the genus Enterococcus and exhibited inhibition against Carnobacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum. Treatment of cell-free extracts of the LAB strains with proteases revealed the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. Interestingly, the cell-free extracts containing bacteriocins remained 100% active after treatment up to 100 °C for 30 min or 121 °C for 15 min. Molecular analysis led to identification of the bacteriocins investigated, including enterocins A, B, L50 and P. All of these proteins demonstrated remarkable anti-Listeria activity and were found to be heat-resistant small class IIa bacteriocins. The results presented in this work open the way for potential applications of these LAB strains to the biopreservation of minimally-processed seafood products.

  3. Bacteriocinogenic potential and safety evaluation of non-starter Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from home made white brine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Basaglia, Marina; Casella, Sergio; Hue, Isabelle; Dousset, Xavier; Gombossy de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2014-04-01

    Four LAB strains, isolated from Bulgarian home made white brine cheese, were selected for their effective inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes. According to their biochemical and physiological characteristics, the strains were classified as members of Enterococcus genus, and then identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing. Their bacteriocin production and inhibitory spectrum were evaluated together with the occurrence of several bacteriocin genes (entA, entB, entP, entL50B). Their virulence potential and safety was assessed both using PCR targeted to the genes gelE, hyl, asa1, esp, cylA, efaA, ace, vanA, vanB, hdc1, hdc2, tdc and odc and by phenotypical tests for antibiotic resistance, gelatinase, lipase, DNAse and α- and β-haemolysis. The E. faecium strains harboured at least one enterocin gene while the occurrence of virulence, antibiotic resistance and biogenic amines genes was limited. Considering their strong antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes strains, the four E. faecium strains exhibited promising potential as bio-preservatives cultures for fermented food productions.

  4. Cutting the Cord: Student-Led Discussion Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, John; McGuinness, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of leaderless group discussions and peer assessment in undergraduate classes to develop teamwork skills and the capacity for independent thought and action students will need on the job. (SK)

  5. The Significance of Fire Service Culture as an Impediment to Effective Leadership in the Homeland Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    many researchers have attempted to explain or define groups. Early researchers, like Freud , looked at groups as a means to explain social behaviors...within society. As a psychologist, Freud’s unit of analysis was the individual. Consequently, Freud bestowed undue levels of deference upon...acknowledge the development of similar behaviors within leaderless groups. Leaderless groups were classified by Freud as sociological units until they

  6. 1 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    electrophoresis after which the in vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus potential of the PPE was determined. Results: Enterocin (E3) was effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella ...... lactic acid bacteria isolated from cheeses and.

  7. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 22 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enterocin from Enterococcus faecium isolated from mangrove environment · EMAIL FREE ... Screening of culture condition for xylanase production by filamentous fungi ... SLO-105 isolated from Lake Oubeira sediments in North-East of Algeria ...

  8. Use of antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita

    2007-11-30

    The antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes of biodegradable films (alginate, zein and polyvinyl alcohol) containing enterocins was investigated. Survival of the pathogen was studied by means of challenge tests performed at 6 degrees C during 8 and 29 days, for air-packed and vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham, respectively. Air packaging was tested with two concentrations of enterocins (200 and 2000 AU/cm2). Control air-packed cooked ham showed an increase of L. monocytogenes from 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g after 8 days. By contrast, packaging with antimicrobial films effectively slowed down the pathogen's growth, leading to final counts lower than in control lots. Air-packaging with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins effectively controlled L. monocytogenes for 8 days. An increase of only 1 log unit was observed in zein and polyvinyl alcohol lots at the same enterocin concentration. Vacuum packaging with films containing enterocins (2000 AU/cm2) also delayed the growth of the pathogen. No increase from inoculated levels was observed during 15 days in antimicrobial alginate films. After 29 days of storage, the lowest counts were obtained in samples packed with zein and alginate films containing enterocins, as well as with zein control films. The most effective treatment for controlling L. monocytogenes during 6 degrees C storage was vacuum-packaging of sliced cooked ham with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins. From the results obtained it can concluded that antimicrobial packaging can improve the safety of sliced cooked ham by delaying and reducing the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  9. Divergent transcriptional and translational signals in Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torarinsson, E; Klenk, H. P.; Garrett, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    Many Archaea, in contrast to bacteria, produce a high proportion of leaderless transcripts, show a wide variation in their consensus Shine-Dalgarno (S-D) sequences and frequently use GUG and UUG start codons. In order to understand the basis for these differences, 18 complete archaeal genomes were...... examined for sequence signals that are positionally conserved upstream from genes. These functional motifs include box A promoter sequences for leaderless transcripts and S-D sequences for transcripts with leaders. Most of the box A sequences were preceded by a BRE-like motif and followed by a previously...... for the 18 Archaea, reveal that usage of high levels of both S-D motifs, and GUG and UUG start codons occurs exclusively in the shorter branched Archaea. High levels of leaderless transcripts are found in the longer branched Archaea....

  10. Teaching MBA Students Teamwork and Team Leadership Skills: An Empirical Evaluation of a Classroom Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles J.; Strupeck, David; Griffin, Andrea; Szostek, Jana; Rominger, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive educational program for teaching behavioral teamwork and team leadership skills was rigorously evaluated with 148 MBA students enrolled at an urban regional campus of a Midwestern public university. Major program components included (1) videotaped student teams in leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercises at the course beginning…

  11. Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Rae

    2011-01-01

    In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…

  12. Defining the Role and Responsibility of the Fire Service Within Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    High Low Strategy Canvas : The Fire Service’s Approach to Homeland Security Eliminate Raise Reduce Create A Holistic Approach to Homeland Security Red...The starfish and the spider : The unstoppable power of leaderless organizations. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. Bryson, J. (2004). Strategic

  13. The New ISR Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    The Quark and the jaguar : Adventures in the Simple and the Complex (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1994), 17. 18 Marc Sageman, Leaderless...Quark and the jaguar : Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1994. Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps, Marine

  14. Inactivation, complementation, and heterologous expression of encP, a novel bacterial phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Longkuan; Moore, Bradley S

    2002-09-06

    The enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the nonoxidative deamination of l-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, is ubiquitously distributed in plants. We now report its characterization for the first time in a bacterium. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase homologous gene encP from the "Streptomyces maritimus" enterocin biosynthetic gene cluster was functionally characterized and shown to encode the first enzyme in the pathway to the enterocin polyketide synthase starter unit benzoyl-coenzyme A. The disruption of the encP gene completely inhibited the production of cinnamate and enterocin, whereas complementation of the mutant with benzoyl-coenzyme A pathway intermediates or with the wild-type gene encP restored the formation of the benzoate-primed polyketide antibiotic enterocin. Heterologous expression of the encP gene under the control of the ermE* promoter in Streptomyces coelicolor furthermore led to the production of cinnamic acid in the fermented cultures, confirming that the encP gene indeed encodes a novel bacterial phenylalanine ammonia-lyase.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTILISTERIAL BACTERIOCINS PRODUCED BY E. FAECIUM AND E. DURANS ISOLATES FROM HISPANIC-STYLE CHEESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococci are often identified as constituents of the indigenous microflora from raw milk artisanal cheeses and are believed to contribute to the unique organoleptic qualities of these products. Many strains of enterococci are also known to produce antimicrobial peptides, enterocins, which may pr...

  16. Leader emergence: the case of the narcissistic leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunell, Amy B; Gentry, William A; Campbell, W Keith; Hoffman, Brian J; Kuhnert, Karl W; Demarree, Kenneth G

    2008-12-01

    These studies investigate whether individuals with high narcissism scores would be more likely to emerge as leaders during leaderless group discussions. The authors hypothesized that narcissists would emerge as group leaders. In three studies, participants completed personality questionnaires and engaged in four-person leaderless group discussions. Results from all three studies reveal a link between narcissism and leader emergence. Studies 1 and 2 further reveal that the power dimension of narcissism predicted reported leader emergence while controlling for sex, self-esteem, and the Big Five personality traits. Study 3 demonstrates an association between narcissism and expert ratings of leader emergence in a group of executives. The implications of the propensity of narcissists to emerge as leaders are discussed.

  17. Fault-Tolerant Consensus of Multi-Agent System With Distributed Adaptive Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Lulu; Liu, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, fault-tolerant consensus in multi-agent system using distributed adaptive protocol is investigated. Firstly, distributed adaptive online updating strategies for some parameters are proposed based on local information of the network structure. Then, under the online updating parameters, a distributed adaptive protocol is developed to compensate the fault effects and the uncertainty effects in the leaderless multi-agent system. Based on the local state information of neighboring agents, a distributed updating protocol gain is developed which leads to a fully distributed continuous adaptive fault-tolerant consensus protocol design for the leaderless multi-agent system. Furthermore, a distributed fault-tolerant leader-follower consensus protocol for multi-agent system is constructed by the proposed adaptive method. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  18. Mission Command and the Starfish Organizational Models: A Comparison of Organizational Philosophies in a Decentralized Combat Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    I am also grateful to my mother who for all her years as an English teacher is finally rewarded by her son completing a paper over six pages long...Leaderless Organizations (New York, NY: Portfolio , 2006). 7 management leadership and letting the community lead you as well,” Pierre Omidyar the... class officer also left a highly centralized command that allowed just a few to exercise initiative on the battlefield.20 In a sense, the French Army

  19. Dynamical Consensus Algorithm for Second-Order Multi-Agent Systems Subjected to Communication Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng-Lin; LIU Fei

    2013-01-01

    To solve the dynamical consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay,delay-dependent compensations are added into the normal asynchronously-coupled consensus algorithm so as to make the agents achieve a dynamical consensus.Based on frequency-domain analysis,sufficient conditions are gained for second-order multi-agent systems with communication delay under leaderless and leader-following consensus algorithms respectively.Simulation illustrates the correctness of the results.

  20. Functionality of enterococci in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugas, Marta; Garriga, M; Aymerich, M T

    2003-12-01

    The presence of enterococci in meat fermentation is a constant as reported in the literature. Despite the concern about pathogenicity of enterococci, recent studies point out that food and meat enterococci, especially Enterococcus faecium have a much lower pathogenicity potential than clinical strains. Enterococci possess a competitive advantage over other microbiota in meat fermentations, and many enterococci isolated from sausages have the ability to produce enterocins harbouring antimicrobial activity against pathogens and spoilage microorganisms of meat concern. The application of enterocins producing enterococci or their purified metabolites, as extra hurdles for preservation in sausage fermentation and in sliced-vacuum packed cooked meat products can be beneficial, preventing the outgrowth of Listeria monocytogenes and slime-producing lactic acid bacteria. Enterocins and bacteriocinogenic enterococci hold considerable promise as alternatives to traditional chemical preservatives and they could be exploited for the control of emergent pathogens in meat products. Their inhibitory effect can be increased when used in conjunction with particular physical and chemical processes, but current regulation is hampering the application of purified bacteriocins.

  1. Diversity of bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Mediterranean fish viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaw, Sarra; Ghrairi, Taoufik; Belguesmia, Yanath; Choiset, Yvan; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Hani, Khaled; Haertlé, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Nine lactic acid bacteria strains showing bacteriocin-like activity were isolated from various fresh fish viscera. The following species were identified based on 16S rDNA sequences: Enterococcus durans (7 isolates), Lactococcus lactis (1) and Enterococcus faecium (1). These strains were active against Listeria innocua and other LAB. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses showed four major patterns for the E. durans species. PCR analyses revealed a nisin gene in the genome of the Lc. lactis strain. Genes coding enterocins A, B and P were found in the genome of the E. faecium isolate. Enterocins A and B genes were also present in the genome of E. durans GM19. Hence, this is the first report describing E. durans strains producing enterocins A and B. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that the purified bacteriocin produced by the E. durans GMT18 strain had an exact molecular mass of 6,316.89 Da. This bacteriocin was designated as durancin GMT18. Edman sequencing failed to proceed; suggesting that durancin GTM18 may contain terminal lanthionine residues. Overall, the results obtained revealed the presence of a variety of enterococci in Mediterranean fish viscera, as evidenced by their genetic profiles and abilities to produce different bacteriocins. These strains could be useful for food biopreservation or as probiotics.

  2. Screening for anti-listerial bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from "Gueddid" a traditionally Tunisian fermented meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Belgacem, Zouhaier; Ferchichi, Mounir; Prévost, Hervé; Dousset, Xavier; Manai, Mohamed

    2008-04-01

    Forty eight lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from "Gueddid", a traditionally Tunisian fermented meat, were screened for bacteriocin production. Four strains named MMZ 04, 09, 13, and 17 showed antimicrobial activity and were identified as Enterococcus faecium by molecular methods based on the 16S-23S rDNA ISR, PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR and species-specific primers. The four antimicrobial compounds were heat stable (121°C for 15min), active over a wide pH range (3-9) and the antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin, α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K but not by lysozyme and lipase. The mode of action of enterocin MMZ17 was identified as bactericidal. The MMZ17 bacteriocin was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and C(18) Sep-Pack chromatography. The apparent molecular size of enterocin MMZ17 as indicated by activity detection after SDS-PAGE was lower than 6.5 KDa. According to these assays, enterocin MMZ17 can be classified as a small, heat-stable Listeria-active peptide, presumably belonging to class IIa bacteriocins.

  3. A single missense mutation in a coiled-coil domain of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S2 confers a thermosensitive phenotype that can be suppressed by ribosomal protein S1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Leonid V; Chugunov, Anton O; Efremov, Roman G; Boni, Irina V

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S2 is an essential component of translation machinery, and its viable mutated variants conferring distinct phenotypes serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of S2 in translation regulation. One of a few available rpsB mutants, rpsB1, shows thermosensitivity and ensures enhanced expression of leaderless mRNAs. In this study, we identified the nature of the rpsB1 mutation. Sequencing of the rpsB1 allele revealed a G-to-A transition in the part of the rpsB gene which encodes a coiled-coil domain of S2. The resulting E132K substitution resides in a highly conserved site, TKKE, a so-called N-terminal capping box, at the beginning of the second alpha helix. The protruding coiled-coil domain of S2 is known to provide binding with 16S rRNA in the head of the 30S subunit and, in addition, to interact with a key mRNA binding protein, S1. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a detrimental impact of the E132K mutation on the coiled-coil structure and thereby on the interactions between S2 and 16S rRNA, providing a clue for the thermosensitivity of the rpsB1 mutant. Using a strain producing a leaderless lacZ transcript from the chromosomal lac promoter, we demonstrated that not only the rpsB1 mutation generating S2/S1-deficient ribosomes but also the rpsA::IS10 mutation leading to partial deficiency in S1 alone increased translation efficiency of the leaderless mRNA by about 10-fold. Moderate overexpression of S1 relieved all these effects and, moreover, suppressed the thermosensitive phenotype of rpsB1, indicating the role of S1 as an extragenic suppressor of the E132K mutation.

  4. Effects of Kasugamycin on the Translatome of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian; Lehr, Matthias; Zerulla, Karolin; Ludwig, Petra; Schweitzer, Jens; Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F; Soppa, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    It is long known that Kasugamycin inhibits translation of canonical transcripts containing a 5'-UTR with a Shine Dalgarno (SD) motif, but not that of leaderless transcripts. To gain a global overview of the influence of Kasugamycin on translation efficiencies, the changes of the translatome of Escherichia coli induced by a 10 minutes Kasugamycin treatment were quantified. The effect of Kasugamycin differed widely, 102 transcripts were at least twofold more sensitive to Kasugamycin than average, and 137 transcripts were at least twofold more resistant, and there was a more than 100-fold difference between the most resistant and the most sensitive transcript. The 5'-ends of 19 transcripts were determined from treated and untreated cultures, but Kasugamycin resistance did neither correlate with the presence or absence of a SD motif, nor with differences in 5'-UTR lengths or GC content. RNA Structure Logos were generated for the 102 Kasugamycin-sensitive and for the 137 resistant transcripts. For both groups a short Shine Dalgarno (SD) motif was retrieved, but no specific motifs associated with resistance or sensitivity could be found. Notably, this was also true for the region -3 to -1 upstream of the start codon and the presence of an extended SD motif, which had been proposed to result in Kasugamycin resistance. Comparison of the translatome results with the database RegulonDB showed that the transcript with the highest resistance was leaderless, but no further leaderless transcripts were among the resistant transcripts. Unexpectedly, it was found that translational coupling might be a novel feature that is associated with Kasugamycin resistance. Taken together, Kasugamycin has a profound effect on translational efficiencies of E. coli transcripts, but the mechanism of action is different than previously described.

  5. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael J. D.; Brough, David

    2017-01-01

    In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation. PMID:28067797

  6. Finite-time Consensus of Heterogeneous Multi-agent Systems with Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ya-Kun; GUAN Xin-Ping; LUO Xiao-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the finite-time consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems composed of both linear and nonlinear dynamics agents are investigated. Nonlinear consensus protocols are proposed for the heterogeneous multi-agent systems. Some sufficient conditions for the finite-time consensus are established in the leaderless and leader-following cases. The results are also extended to the case where the communication topology is directed and satisfies a detailed balance condition on coupling weights. At last, some simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  7. International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Burnett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.

  8. 乳酸菌细菌素和超高压联合处理对低温切片火腿的防腐保鲜效果%Combinatorial Preservative Effect of Bacteriocin and High Hydrostatic Pressure on Refrigerated Sliced Vacuum-packaged Cooked Ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国荣; 孙勇; 王成涛; 郑海涛; 李平兰; 王洋

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate technological feasibility of combinatorial treatment using bacteriocin and high hydrostatic pressure as the preservative in refrigerated sliced vacuum-packaged cooked ham,the combinatorial effect of high hydrostatic pressure(600 MPa for 5 min) and enterocin LM-2(320 AU/g) on microorganism amount,and physicochemical and sensory properties of sliced cooked ham was analyzed during the storage at 4 ℃.Results indicated that the combinatorial treatment could substantially suppress the growth of microflora,inhibit the accumulation of TVB-N and decelerate lipid oxidation,and keep a better sensory profile during the storage period of refrigerated sliced cooked ham.The combinatorial treatment revealed the most effective preservation,which could extend the shelf life of sliced cooked ham up to 100 days.These results suggested the combinatorial application of enterocin LM-2 and high hydrostatic pressure has a great potential as a bio-preservative during the storage of refrigerated sliced cooked ham.%为了揭示乳酸菌细菌素和超高压联合处理对低温切片火腿的防腐保鲜效果,并探讨乳酸菌细菌素和超高压联合处理在低温肉制品防腐保鲜应用中的可行性,在不添加任何化学防腐剂的情况下,分别以乳酸菌细菌素(enterocin LM-2)添加量320AU/g、600MPa超高压处理5min以及两者联合处理低温切片火腿,考察联合处理对样品中微生物数量、理化指标以及感官特性的影响。结果表明:enterocin LM-2和超高压技术的联合使用可明显延长低温切片火腿的货架期,有效减少贮藏过程中挥发性盐基氮的生成及脂肪氧化,并保持产品原有色泽、气味、质构等感官特性。综合微生物和理化特性分析结果,联合处理组的防腐效果最好,可将低温切片火腿的货架期延长至100d。

  9. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Screening of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features like high survival rates under acidic or bile salts condition, high tolerance for the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain can reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification and discovered the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q. Based on this study findings, the strain E. faecium CM33 can be considered as a valuable nutraceutical and can be introduced as a new potential probiotic.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUSEF eNAMI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractScreening of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features, such as high-survival rates under acidic or bile salt conditions, high tolerance to the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According to the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain could reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon the assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification, and the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q were discovered. The findings of this study showed that the strain E. faecium CM33 could be considered a valuable nutraceutical, and it can be introduced as a new potential probiotic.

  11. Isolation and purification of two bacteriocins 3D produced by Enterococcus faecium with inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoub, Kaoutar; Mardad, Ilham; Ammar, Emna; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

    2011-02-01

    Strain 3D, isolated from fermented traditional Moroccan dairy product, and identified as Enterococcus faecium, was studied for its capability to produce two bacteriocins acting against Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins 3 Da and 3Db were heat stable inactivated by proteinase K, pepsin, and trypsin but not when treated with catalase. The evidenced bacteriocins were stable in a wide pH range from 2 to 11 and bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C. However, the combination of temperature and pH exhibited a stability of the bacteriocins. RP-HPLC purification of the anti-microbial compounds shows two active fractions eluted at 16 and 30.5 min, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that E. faecium 3D produce two bacteriocins Enterocin 3 Da (3893.080 Da) and Enterocin 3Db (4203.350 Da). This strain is food-grade organism and its bacteriocins were heat-stable peptides at basic, neutral, and acid pH: such bacteriocins may be of interest as food preservatives.

  12. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.

  13. Les entérocoques : avantages et inconvénients en biotechnologie (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Galvez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci: advantages and drawbacks in biotechnology, a review. Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria that have been used for centuries in food processing. These microorganisms play a vital role in conservation (extension of shelf life and in the bacteriological quality of food while keeping their nutritional and organoleptic properties. However, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are indicators of faecal contamination and are also implicated in nosocomial diseases. The genetic plasticity (transfer of genetic elements of these bacteria allows them not only to adapt to various ecosystems, but also to be vehicles of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence, which is of public health concern. Thus, the use of enterococci in the food industry is becoming controversial. However, enterococci are also involved in the fermentation of many foods (milk, vegetables, meats or fish and are able to produce various antimicrobial molecules (e.g. lactic acid, bacteriocins or hydrogen peroxide that make them indispensable in the food industry. Their use as probiotic must therefore be carefully characterized in order to prove their safety. The wide range of bacteriocins (enterocins found in these bacteria could also be valorized by developing purification methods to replace the bacterial strains themselves by their enterocins in foodstuffs, therefore eliminating the risk of direct use of bacteria.

  14. Decentralised consensus for multiple Lagrangian systems based on event-triggered strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Du, Changkun; Lu, Pingli; Yang, Dapeng

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers the decentralised event-triggered consensus problem for multi-agent systems with Lagrangian dynamics under undirected graphs. First, a distributed, leaderless, and event-triggered consensus control algorithm is presented based on the definition of generalised positions and velocities for all agents. There is only one triggering function for both the generalised positions and velocities and no Zeno behaviour exhibited under the proposed consensus strategy. Second, an adaptive event-triggered consensus control algorithm is proposed for such multi-agent systems with unknown constant parameters. Third, based on sliding-mode method, an event-triggered consensus control algorithm is considered for the case with external disturbance. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  15. Genome-wide mapping of transcription start sites yields novel insights into the primary transcriptome of Pseudomonas putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arrigo, Isotta; Bojanovic, Klara; Yang, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    was examined using an in vivo assay with GFP-fusion vectors and shown to function via a translational repression mechanism. Furthermore, 56 novel intergenic small RNAs and 8 putative actuaton transcripts were detected, as well as 8 novel open reading frames (ORFs). This study illustrates how global mapping...... elements of P. putida strain KT2440. A total of 7937 putative transcription start sites (TSSs) were identified, where over two-thirds were located either on the opposite strand or internal to annotated genes. For TSSs associated with mRNAs, sequence analysis revealed a clear Shine–Dalgarno sequence...... but a lack of conserved overrepresented promoter motifs. These TSSs defined approximately 50 leaderless transcripts and an abundance of mRNAs with long leader regions of which 18 contain RNA regulatory elements from the Rfam database. The thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch upstream of the thiC gene...

  16. A Design Approach of the LGD Construct Based on the Chinese Cultural%中国文化背景下的LGD设计构思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文明; 吴薇莉

    2009-01-01

    通过对领导学相关研究的论述,初步确定领导风格的评判标准,再结合无领导小组讨论目前比较盛行的三种设计思路(特质导向、行为导向及绩效导向)的论述,我们倡导一种适合于中国文化背景的评价方式,提出基于中国文化背景的无领导小组评价理论构思.%After the review of leadship study, the criterions to evaluate style of leadership were formed. Based on the three design ap-preaches (trait-oriented, behavior-oriented,performance-oriented)of leaderless group disscnsion prevalently, the theory dedign construct of LGD fit the Chinese cultural was recommended.

  17. Screening and characterization of novel bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendo, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are expected to be safe antimicrobial agents. While the best studied LAB bacteriocin, nisin A, is widely utilized as a food preservative, various novel ones are required to control undesirable bacteria more effectively. To discover novel bacteriocins at the early step of the screening process, we developed a rapid screening system that evaluates bacteriocins produced by newly isolated LAB based on their antibacterial spectra and molecular masses. By means of this system, various novel bacteriocins were identified, including a nisin variant, nisin Q, a two-peptide bacteriocin, lactococcin Q, a leaderless bacteriocin, lacticin Q, and a circular bacteriocin, lactocyclicin Q. Moreover, some LAB isolates were found to produce multiple bacteriocins. They were characterized as to their structures, mechanisms of action, and biosynthetic mechanisms. Novel LAB bacteriocins and their biosynthetic mechanisms are expected for applications such as food preservation and peptide engineering.

  18. Unconventional protein secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan; Wang, Junqi; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2012-10-01

    It is generally believed that protein secretion or exocytosis is achieved via a conventional ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-Golgi-TGN (trans-Golgi network)-PM (plasma membrane) pathway in the plant endomembrane system. However, such signal peptide (SP)-dependent protein secretion cannot explain the increasing number of SP-lacking proteins which are found outside of the PM in plant cells. The process by which such leaderless secretory proteins (LSPs) gain access to the cell exterior is termed unconventional protein secretion (UPS) and has been well-studied in animal and yeast cells, but largely ignored by the plant community. Here, we review the evidence for UPS in plants especially in regard to the recently discovered EXPO (exocyst-positive-organelle).

  19. Consensus Problem Over High-Order Multiagent Systems With Uncertain Nonlinearities Under Deterministic and Stochastic Topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Hamed; Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-12-06

    The leaderless consensus problem over a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) is studied. A robust protocol is proposed which guarantees achieving consensus in the network in the presences of uncertainties in agents models. Achieving consensus in the case of stochastic links failure is studied as well. Based on the concept super-martingales, it is shown that if the probability of the network connectivity is not zero, under some conditions, achieving almost sure consensus in the network can be guaranteed. Despite existing consensus protocols for high-order stochastic networks, the proposed consensus protocol in this paper is robust to uncertain nonlinearities in the agents models, and it can be designed independent of knowledge on the set of feasible topologies (topologies with nonzero probabilities). Numerical examples for a team of single-link flexible joint manipulators with fourth-order models verify the accuracy of the proposed strategy for consensus control of high-order MASs with uncertain nonlinearities.

  20. Mic Check/Reality Check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Vrasti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of months history has been unfolding with dizzying speed. The #occupy model of leaderless, demandless direct action, which in the beginning no one with only a slim understanding of how capitalism works thought could become anything more than a facile if charming jab at anti-corporate activism, has gone viral. Every morning we wake up to new reports about ‘occupying X’, where X can be anything from cities, campuses, boardrooms, buildings, highways, and public events, all the way to academic disciplines. What originally seemed like a romantic fantasy about temporary autonomous zones now feels like history. And no one likes to find themselves on thewrong side of history, especially not intellectuals, let alone intellectuals in the business of explaining global politics.

  1. Resilient distributed control in the presence of misbehaving agents in networked control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wente; Chow, Mo-Yuen

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of reaching a consensus among all the agents in the networked control systems (NCS) in the presence of misbehaving agents. A reputation-based resilient distributed control algorithm is first proposed for the leader-follower consensus network. The proposed algorithm embeds a resilience mechanism that includes four phases (detection, mitigation, identification, and update), into the control process in a distributed manner. At each phase, every agent only uses local and one-hop neighbors' information to identify and isolate the misbehaving agents, and even compensate their effect on the system. We then extend the proposed algorithm to the leaderless consensus network by introducing and adding two recovery schemes (rollback and excitation recovery) into the current framework to guarantee the accurate convergence of the well-behaving agents in NCS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through case studies in multirobot formation control and wireless sensor networks.

  2. Performing Leadership: Observations from the World of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Ladkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores leadership as an emergent social process. We begin by discussing and contesting the tradition privileging linear management processes, and offer as a counterpoint accounts of distributed leadership out of which our focus on leadership as a plural process grows. Our concept of leadership as a plural process is enriched by an inquiry into musical ensembles with formal leaders as well as those which are leaderless that find ways of moving collectively towards shared goals. The specific issues that we explore are: personal preparation, expressing readiness to begin, establishing a way of operating, and dealing with unexpected problems as they arise. We conclude by speculating about how these elements could inform our understanding of how leadership arises from teams beyond the musical world.

  3. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  4. Die New Age beweging - oorsig en beoordeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. de Bruyn

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Age Movement (NAM is a leaderless but powerful network, working to bring about radical change in the world. In fact the NAM is a transplantation of Hindu philosophy, with Buddist elements from the East to the West. This article explicates the origin of the NAM and describes its mystic, occult and feminist character. In the article it is stated that the NAM rests on monistic and astrological pillars and that its main doctrines are as follows: pantheism, emanation (instead of creation, reincarnation and the fact that Christ is one of the great Masters controlling the world. The views and doctrines of the NAM are then judged in the light of Scripture.

  5. Nucleotides Flanking the Start Codon in hsp70 mRNAs with Very Short 5'-UTRs Greatly Affect Gene Expression in Haloarchaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Chen

    Full Text Available Leaderless translation is prevalent in haloarchaea, with many of these leaderless transcripts possessing short 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs less than 10 nucleotides. Whereas, little is known about the function of this very short 5'-UTR. Our previous studies determined that just four nucleotides preceded the start codon of hsp70 mRNA in Natrinema sp. J7, with residues -3A and +4G, relative to the A of the ATG start codon, acting as the preferred bases around the start codon of all known haloarchaeal hsp70 genes. Here, we examined the effects of nucleotides flanking the start codon on gene expression. The results revealed that shortening and deletion of the short 5'-UTR enhanced transcript levels; however, it led to significant reductions in overall translational efficiency. AUG was efficiently used as start codons, in both the presence and absence of short 5'-UTRs. GUG also could initiate translation, even though it was so inefficient that it would not be detected without considerably elevated transcript. Nucleotide substitutions at position -4 to +6 were shown to affect gene expression by transcript and/or translational levels. Notably, -3A and A/U nucleotides at position +4~+6 were more optimal for gene expression. Nucleotide transversions of -3A to -3C and +4G to +4T with hsp70 promoter from either Haloferax volcanii DS70 or Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 showed the same effects on gene expression as that of Natrinema sp. J7. Taken together, our results suggest that the nucleotides flanking the start codon in hsp70 mRNAs with very short 5'-UTRs play an important role in haloarchaeal gene expression.

  6. Expression of mptC of Listeria monocytogenes induces sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnath, Manilduth; Arous, Safia; Gravesen, Anne; Hastings, John W; Héchard, Yann

    2004-08-01

    Sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria was recently associated with the mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) permease, in Listeria monocytogenes. To assess the involvement of this protein complex in class IIa bacteriocin activity, the mptACD operon, encoding, was heterologously expressed in an insensitive species, namely Lactococcus lactis, using the NICE double plasmid system. Upon induction of the cloned operon, the recombinant Lc. lactis became sensitive to leucocin A. Pediocin PA-1 and enterocin A also showed inhibitory activity against Lc. lactis cultures expressing mptACD. Furthermore, the role of the three genes of the mptACD operon was investigated. Derivative plasmids containing various combinations of these three genes were made from the parental mptACD plasmid by divergent PCR. The results showed that expression of mptC alone is sufficient to confer sensitivity to class IIa bacteriocins in Lc. lactis.

  7. Production of two bacteriocins in various growth conditions produced by gram-positive bacteria isolated from chicken cecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuju; Cui, Yizhe; Wang, Wenmei; Xu, Jili; Xu, Li

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CLP29 and Enterococcus faecium CLE34 isolated from the cecal contents of young broiler chicks were identified based on physiological and biochemical characteristics, and identification was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Both bacteria showed a broad range of inhibitory action against bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli and produced two peptides, plantaricin CLP29 and enterocin CLE34. Treatment with proteinase K, trypase, or benase resulted in the loss of activity of the two peptides, confirming their proteinaceous nature. The highest activity levels for both bacteria were recorded in de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe agar at pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0, at 37 °C. Carbon and nitrogen sources affected the antibacterial activities of the two bacteriocins in different combinations, which suggested that the antibacterial abilities of different bacteriocins produced in nutrient sources were various.

  8. A new hybrid bacteriocin, Ent35–MccV, displays antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Leonardo; Picariello, Gianluca; Sesma, Fernando; Morero, Roberto D.; Bellomio, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins and microcins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are usually active against phylogenetically related bacteria. Thus, bacteriocins are active against Gram-positive while microcins are active against Gram-negative bacteria. The narrow spectrum of action generally displayed by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represents an important limitation for the application of these peptides as clinical drugs or as food biopreservatives. The present study describes the design and expression of a novel recombinant hybrid peptide combining enterocin CRL35 and microcin V named Ent35–MccV. The chimerical bacteriocin displayed antimicrobial activity against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates, among other pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, Ent35–MccV may find important applications in food or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23650575

  9. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis N1-33 and its application as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomomi; Alemu, Melaku; Kobayashi, Miho; Suzuki, Chise; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

    2009-03-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain, N1-33, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot was identified as Enterococcus faecalis. The pH-adjusted culture supernatant of this strain consisted of several peptides with bacteriocin activity, and the supernatant inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. The major peptide with bacteriocin activity was purified, and the first 39 amino acid residues of the bacteriocin were found to be identical to enterocin MR10A produced by E. faecalis MRR10-3. Addition of the pH-adjusted and concentrated culture supernatant of strain N1-33 caused a marked reduction in the growth of Bacillus cereus in custard cream and L. monocytogenes in pickled cucumber. These results suggest the potential use of the bacteriocin produced by strain N1-33 in food biopreservation.

  10. Evaluation of technological properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, a strain isolated from human milk, for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Arroyo, Rebeca; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Ángela; Medina, Margarita; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fernández, Leonides

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a variety of biochemical properties of Enterococcus faecium CECT 8849, which had been isolated from breast milk, were analyzed. Its acidifying capacity and proteolytic activity were low but, in contrast, remarkable peptidase and esterase activities were observed. Ethanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were the most abundant volatile compounds found in experimental model cheese manufactured with E. faecium CECT 8849. This strain inhibited the growth of several Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains in vitro. Enterocin A and B structural genes were detected in E. faecium CECT 8849. Model fermented milk and cheeses were manufactured from milk inoculated or not with L. innocua CECT 8848 (2.5-3 log10 colony forming units mL(-1)) using E. faecium CECT 8849 or Lactococcus lactis ESI 153 as starter cultures. Although E. faecium CECT 8849 controlled Listeria growth in both dairy models, it led to lower reduction in Listeria counts when compared with L. lactis ESI 153.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10847-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _GS-28-01-01-1... 56 2e-07 4 ( FF434801 ) G142P60183RE5.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 l... 50 2e-07 4 ( ...4RD5.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 l... 50 2e-07 4 ( EJ993905 ) 1093023072306 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-3

  12. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose losartan/hydrochlorothiazide/amlodipine combination versus losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Numaguchi, Hirotaka; Nishida, Chisato; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Shirakawa, Masayoshi; Azuma, Kyoichi; Fujita, Kenji P

    2015-01-01

    Japanese patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension received single-blind losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (L50/H12.5) for 8 weeks. Patients whose blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled were randomized double-blind to fixed-dose losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg/amlodipine 5 mg (L50/H12.5/A5) or L50/H12.5 for 8 weeks followed by open-label L50/H12.5/A5 for 44 weeks. Adverse events were assessed. After 8 weeks, diastolic and systolic BP were reduced significantly more with L50/H12.5/A5 versus L50/H12.5 (both p < 0.001). Mean changes in diastolic and systolic BP were sustained for 44 weeks. L50/H12.5/A5 was well-tolerated and improved BP significantly versus L50/H12.5 in Japanese patients with uncontrolled essential hypertension.

  13. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the preservation of fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Jain, Sona

    2017-11-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-recognized for their potential as natural food preservatives. These antimicrobial peptides usually do not change the sensorial properties of food products and can be used in combination with traditional preservation methods to ensure microbial stability. In recent years, fruit products are increasingly being associated with food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and bacteriocins are important candidates to preserve these products. Bacteriocins have been extensively studied to preserve foods of animal origin. However, little information is available for their use in vegetable products, especially in minimally processed ready-to-eat fruits. Although, many bacteriocins possess useful characteristics that can be used to preserve fruit products, to date, only nisin, enterocin AS-48, bovicin HC5, enterocin 416K1, pediocin and bificin C6165 have been tested for their activity against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in these products. Among these, only nisin and pediocin are approved to be commercially used as food additives, and their use in fruit products is still limited to certain countries. Considering the increasing demand for fresh-tasting fruit products and concern for public safety, the study of other bacteriocins with biochemical characteristics that make them candidates for the preservation of these products are of great interest. Efforts for their approval as food additives are also important. In this review, we discuss why the study of bacteriocins as an alternative method to preserve fruit products is important; we detail the biotechnological approaches for the use of bacteriocins in fruit products; and describe some bacteriocins that have been tested and have potential to be tested for the preservation of fruit products.

  14. Cloning, production, and functional expression of the bacteriocin sakacin A (SakA) and two SakA-derived chimeras in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the yeasts Pichia pastoris and Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan J; Borrero, Juan; Diep, Dzung B; Gútiez, Loreto; Nes, Ingolf F; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2013-09-01

    Mature sakacin A (SakA, encoded by sapA) and its cognate immunity protein (SakI, encoded by sapiA), and two SakA-derived chimeras mimicking the N-terminal end of mature enterocin P (EntP/SakA) and mature enterocin A (EntA/SakA) together with SakI, were fused to different signal peptides (SP) and cloned into the protein expression vectors pNZ8048 and pMG36c for evaluation of their production and functional expression by different lactic acid bacteria. The amount, antimicrobial activity, and specific antimicrobial activity of SakA and its chimeras produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NZ9000 depended on the SP and the expression vector. Only L. lactis NZ9000 (pNUPS), producing EntP/SakA, showed higher bacteriocin production and antimicrobial activity than the natural SakA-producer Lactobacillus sakei Lb706. The lower antimicrobial activity of the SakA-producer L. lactis NZ9000 (pNUS) and that of the EntA/SakA-producer L. lactis NZ9000 (pNUAS) could be ascribed to secretion of truncated bacteriocins. On the other hand, of the Lb. sakei Lb706 cultures transformed with the pMG36c-derived vectors only Lb. sakei Lb706 (pGUS) overproducing SakA showed a higher antimicrobial activity than Lb. sakei Lb706. Finally, cloning of SakA and EntP/SakA into pPICZαA and pKLAC2 permitted the production of SakA and EntP/SakA by recombinant Pichia pastoris X-33 and Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 derivatives although their antimicrobial activity was lower than expected from their production.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05900-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39018 ) 1278280 NCCCWA 03RT Oncorhynchus mykiss cDNA clon... 50 0.15 1 ( CN809704 ) 2O5 Suppression subtractive hybridization... (SSH) l... 50 0.15 1 ( CN809695 ) 2E1 Suppression subtractive hybridization... (SSH) l... 50 0.15 1 ( CN809694 ) 2I24 Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) ... 50 0.15 ...1 ( CN809693 ) 1B14 Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) ... 50 0.15 1 ( CN809692 ) 2D5 Suppression subtractive hybridization... (SSH) l... 50 0.15 1 ( CN809691 ) 2D8 Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) l

  16. Experimental characterization of Cis-acting elements important for translation and transcription in halophilic archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Brenneis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal transcription apparatus of archaea is well characterized. However, much less is known about the mechanisms of transcription termination and translation initation. Recently, experimental determination of the 5'-ends of ten transcripts from Pyrobaculum aerophilum revealed that these are devoid of a 5'-UTR. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that many transcripts of other archaeal species might also be leaderless. The 5'-ends and 3'-ends of 40 transcripts of two haloarchaeal species, Halobacterium salinarum and Haloferax volcanii, have been determined. They were used to characterize the lengths of 5'-UTRs and 3'-UTRs and to deduce consensus sequence-elements for transcription and translation. The experimental approach was complemented with a bioinformatics analysis of the H. salinarum genome sequence. Furthermore, the influence of selected 5'-UTRs and 3'-UTRs on transcript stability and translational efficiency in vivo was characterized using a newly established reporter gene system, gene fusions, and real-time PCR. Consensus sequences for basal promoter elements could be refined and a novel element was discovered. A consensus motif probably important for transcriptional termination was established. All 40 haloarchaeal transcripts analyzed had a 3'-UTR (average size 57 nt, and their 3'-ends were not posttranscriptionally modified. Experimental data and genome analyses revealed that the majority of haloarchaeal transcripts are leaderless, indicating that this is the predominant mode for translation initiation in haloarchaea. Surprisingly, the 5'-UTRs of most leadered transcripts did not contain a Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence. A genome analysis indicated that less than 10% of all genes are preceded by a SD sequence and even most proximal genes in operons lack a SD sequence. Seven different leadered transcripts devoid of a SD sequence were efficiently translated in vivo, including artificial 5'-UTRs of random sequences. Thus, an interaction of

  17. Experiment list: SRX142538 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ontrol_50bp || control description=This data represents a control being compared to experiments using read l...50bp || control description=This data represents a control being compared to experiments using read length o

  18. Characterization of anti-Listeria bacteriocins isolated from shellfish: potential antimicrobials to control non-fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Melissa; Pinto, Cristina; Albano, Helena; Castilho, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A

    2009-01-31

    This work had as main objectives to characterize two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from non-fermented seafood, in order to evaluate their potential as new food protective agents. The two bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using genus- and species-specific primers, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing, as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The antimicrobial spectrum of each strain included several indicator microorganisms, some of them also isolated from seafood. Growth of Listeria innocua, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and other LAB species were inhibited, although no inhibition of Gram-negative microorganisms was observed. Proteolytic, but not lipolytic or glycolytic enzymes, completely inactivated the antimicrobial effect of both cell-free supernatants confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitors. The antimicrobial activity was maintained after treatment with NaCl, SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80 and EDTA after 2 h or 5 h of exposure and both bacteriocins were stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures. Production of bacteriocin by E. faecium (bacALP7) was detected initially at exponential phase and reached a maximum activity of 25,600 AU/ml in the early stationary phase, whereas bacteriocin production by P. pentosaceus ALP57 (bacALP57) reached the maximum at exponential phase with 12,800 AU/ml. The bacteriocins did not kill L. monocytogenes ESB54 nor L. innocua 2030c however, cellular growth was reduced. The partially purified bacteriocins, bacALP7 and bacALP57, were below 6.5 kDa in size as determined by Tricine-SDS gel electrophoresis. E. faecium and P. pentosaceus contained DNA fragments corresponding in size to those recorded for enterocin B and pediocin PA-1, respectively. Sequencing of the fragments from both bacteriocins confirmed the homology. To our knowledge, for the first time two LAB producing bacteriocins

  19. Structural and Operational Complexity of the Geobacter Sulfurreducens Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yu; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Park, Young S.; Lovley, Derek R.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zengler, Karsten

    2010-06-30

    Prokaryotic genomes can be annotated based on their structural, operational, and functional properties. These annotations provide the pivotal scaffold for understanding cellular functions on a genome-scale, such as metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe a systems approach to simultaneously determine the structural and operational annotation of the Geobacter sulfurreducens genome. Integration of proteomics, transcriptomics, RNA polymerase, and sigma factor-binding information with deep-sequencing-based analysis of primary 59-end transcripts allowed for a most precise annotation. The structural annotation is comprised of numerous previously undetected genes, noncoding RNAs, prevalent leaderless mRNA transcripts, and antisense transcripts. When compared with other prokaryotes, we found that the number of antisense transcripts reversely correlated with genome size. The operational annotation consists of 1453 operons, 22% of which have multiple transcription start sites that use different RNA polymerase holoenzymes. Several operons with multiple transcription start sites encoded genes with essential functions, giving insight into the regulatory complexity of the genome. The experimentally determined structural and operational annotations can be combined with functional annotation, yielding a new three-level annotation that greatly expands our understanding of prokaryotic genomes.

  20. Escherichia coli Quorum-Sensing EDF, A Peptide Generated by Novel Multiple Distinct Mechanisms and Regulated by trans-Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eshcerichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced toxin-antitoxin module mediating cell death and requiring a quorum-sensing (QS extracellular death factor (EDF, the pentapeptide NNWNN. Here we uncovered several distinct molecular mechanisms involved in its generation from the zwf mRNA encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In particular, we show that, under stress conditions, the endoribonuclease MazF cleaves specific ACA sites, thereby generating a leaderless zwf mRNA which is truncated 30 codons after the EDF-encoding region. Since the nascent ribosome peptide exit tunnel can accommodate up to 40 amino acids, this arrangement allows the localization of the EDF residues inside the tunnel when the ribosome is stalled at the truncation site. Moreover, ribosome stalling activates the trans-translation system, which provides a means for the involvement of ClpPX in EDF generation. Furthermore, the trans-translation is described as a regulatory system that attenuated the generation of EDF, leading to low levels of EDF in the single cell. Therefore, the threshold EDF molecule concentration required is achieved only by the whole population, as expected for QS.

  1. Genome-wide primary transcriptome analysis of H2-producing archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suhyung; Kim, Min-Sik; Jeong, Yujin; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kang, Sung Gyun; Cho, Byung-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    In spite of their pivotal roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes, the regulatory elements of archaeal genomes are not yet fully understood. Here, we determine the primary transcriptome of the H2-producing archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. We identified 1,082 purine-rich transcription initiation sites along with well-conserved TATA box, A-rich B recognition element (BRE), and promoter proximal element (PPE) motif in promoter regions, a high pyrimidine nucleotide content (T/C) at the −1 position, and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) motifs (GGDGRD) in 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs). Along with differential transcript levels, 117 leaderless genes and 86 non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) were identified, representing diverse cellular functions and potential regulatory functions under the different growth conditions. Interestingly, we observed low GC content in ncRNAs for RNA-based regulation via unstructured forms or interaction with other cellular components. Further comparative analysis of T. onnurineus upstream regulatory sequences with those of closely related archaeal genomes demonstrated that transcription of orthologous genes are initiated by highly conserved promoter sequences, however their upstream sequences for transcriptional and translational regulation are largely diverse. These results provide the genetic information of T. onnurineus for its future application in metabolic engineering. PMID:28216628

  2. Leadership emergence in engineering design teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Leaders emerge from leaderless groups as part of a more complex emerging social structure. Several studies have shown that the emerging structure is aptly described by a swallowtail catastrophe model where the control parameters differ depending on whether creative problem solving, production, coordination-intensive, or emergency management groups are involved. The present study explored creative problem solving further where the participants were engaged in real-world tasks extending over several months rather than short laboratory tasks. Participants were engineering students who were organized into groups of to people who designed, built, and tested a prototype product that would solve a real-world problem. At the th week of work they completed a questionnaire indicating who was most like the leader of their group, second most like the leader, along with other questions about individuals' contributions to the group process. Results showed that the swallowtail model (R = .) exhibited a strong advantage over the linear alternative model (R = .) for predicting leadership emergence. The three control variables were control of the task, creative contributions to the group's work, and facilitating the creative contributions of others.

  3. A comparison of key aspects of gene regulation in Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli using nucleotide-resolution transcription maps produced in parallel by global and differential RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, David A; Hasan, Ayad H; Lin, Yu-Fei; Kime, Louise; Ruiz-Larrabeiti, Olatz; Urem, Mia; Bucca, Giselda; Mamanova, Lira; Laing, Emma E; van Wezel, Gilles P; Smith, Colin P; Kaberdin, Vladimir R; McDowall, Kenneth J

    2014-09-30

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a model for studying bacteria renowned as the foremost source of natural products used clinically. Post-genomic studies have revealed complex patterns of gene expression and links to growth, morphological development and individual genes. However, the underlying regulation remains largely obscure, but undoubtedly involves steps after transcription initiation. Here we identify sites involved in RNA processing and degradation as well as transcription within a nucleotide-resolution map of the transcriptional landscape. This was achieved by combining RNA-sequencing approaches suited to the analysis of GC-rich organisms. Escherichia coli was analysed in parallel to validate the methodology and allow comparison. Previously, sites of RNA processing and degradation had not been mapped on a transcriptome-wide scale for E. coli. Through examples, we show the value of our approach and data sets. This includes the identification of new layers of transcriptional complexity associated with several key regulators of secondary metabolism and morphological development in S. coelicolor and the identification of host-encoded leaderless mRNA and rRNA processing associated with the generation of specialized ribosomes in E. coli. New regulatory small RNAs were identified for both organisms. Overall the results illustrate the diversity in mechanisms used by different bacterial groups to facilitate and regulate gene expression. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Yoga and social support reduce prenatal depression, anxiety and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression. Ninety-two prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to a yoga or a social support control group at 22 weeks gestation. The yoga group participated in a 20-min group session (only physical poses) once per week for 12 weeks. The social support group (a leaderless discussion group) met on the same schedule. At the end of the first and last sessions the yoga group reported less depression, anxiety, anger, back and leg pain as compared to the social support group. At the end of the last session the yoga group and the support group did not differ. They both had lower depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI) scores and improved relationship scores. In addition, cortisol levels decreased for both groups following each session. Estriol and progesterone levels decreased after the last session. At the postpartum follow-up assessment depression and anxiety levels were lower for both groups.

  5. Schooling Fish Under Attack Are Not All Equal: Some Lead, Others Follow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Animal groups such as fish schools, bird flocks and insect swarms appear to move so synchronously that they have long been considered egalitarian, leaderless units. In schooling fish, video observations of their spatial-temporal organization have, however, shown that anti-predator manoeuvres are not perfectly synchronous and that individuals have spatial preferences within the school. Nonetheless, when facing life-or-death situations, it is not known whether schooling fish react to a threat following a random or a hierarchically-based order. Using high-speed video analysis, here we show that schooling fish (Golden grey mullet, Liza aurata) evade a threat in a non-random order, therefore individuals that are first or last to react tend to do so repeatedly over sequential stimulations. Furthermore, startle order is strongly correlated with individual positional preferences. Because school members are known to follow individuals that initiate a manoeuvre, early responders are likely to exert the strongest influence on the escape strategy of the whole school. Our results present new evidence of the intrinsic heterogeneity among school members and provide new rules governing the collective motion of gregarious animals under predator attack. PMID:23776547

  6. Role of the inflammasome in defense against venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Noah W.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2013-01-01

    Venoms consist of a complex mixture of toxic components that are used by a variety of animal species for defense and predation. Envenomation of mammalian species leads to an acute inflammatory response and can lead to the development of IgE-dependent venom allergy. However, the mechanisms by which the innate immune system detects envenomation and initiates inflammatory and allergic responses to venoms remain largely unknown. Here we show that bee venom is detected by the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome and can trigger activation of caspase-1 and the subsequent processing and unconventional secretion of the leaderless proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in macrophages. Whereas activation of the inflammasome by bee venom induces a caspase-1–dependent inflammatory response, characterized by recruitment of neutrophils to the site or envenomation, the inflammasome is dispensable for the allergic response to bee venom. Finally, we find that caspase-1–deficient mice are more susceptible to the noxious effects of bee and snake venoms, suggesting that a caspase-1–dependent immune response can protect against the damaging effects of envenomation. PMID:23297192

  7. Unconventional protein secretion in plants: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David G; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is a collective term for mechanisms by which cytosolic proteins that lack a signal peptide ("leaderless secretory proteins" (LSPs)) can gain access to the cell exterior. Numerous examples of UPS have been well documented in animal and yeast cells. In contrast, our understanding of the mechanism(s) and function of UPS in plants is very limited. This review evaluates the available literature on this subject. The apparent large numbers of LSPs in the plant secretome suggest that UPS also occurs in plants but is not a proof. Although the direct transport of LSPs across the plant plasma membrane (PM) has not yet been described, it is possible that as in other eukaryotes, exosomes may be released from plant cells through fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the PM. In this way, LSPs, but also small RNAs (sRNAs), that are passively taken up from the cytosol into the intraluminal vesicles of MVBs, could reach the apoplast. Another possible mechanism is the recently discovered exocyst-positive organelle (EXPO), a double-membrane-bound compartment, distinct from autophagosomes, which appears to sequester LSPs.

  8. Distributed Containment Control for Multiple Unknown Second-Order Nonlinear Systems With Application to Networked Lagrangian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Ren, Wei; Li, Bing; Ma, Guangfu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the distributed containment control problem for multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics. More specifically, we focus on multiple second-order nonlinear systems and networked Lagrangian systems. We first study the distributed containment control problem for multiple second-order nonlinear systems with multiple dynamic leaders in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and external disturbances under a general directed graph that characterizes the interaction among the leaders and the followers. A distributed adaptive control algorithm with an adaptive gain design based on the approximation capability of neural networks is proposed. We present a necessary and sufficient condition on the directed graph such that the containment error can be reduced as small as desired. As a byproduct, the leaderless consensus problem is solved with asymptotical convergence. Because relative velocity measurements between neighbors are generally more difficult to obtain than relative position measurements, we then propose a distributed containment control algorithm without using neighbors' velocity information. A two-step Lyapunov-based method is used to study the convergence of the closed-loop system. Next, we apply the ideas to deal with the containment control problem for networked unknown Lagrangian systems under a general directed graph. All the proposed algorithms are distributed and can be implemented using only local measurements in the absence of communication. Finally, simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  9. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas identifies sRNAs with putative virulence functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Cornelius; Findeiß, Sven; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Kuhfuß, Juliane; Hoffmann, Steve; Vogel, Jörg; Stadler, Peter F.; Bonas, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) is an important model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the interaction with the host. To gain insight into the transcriptome of the Xcv strain 85–10, we took a differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach. Using a novel method to automatically generate comprehensive transcription start site (TSS) maps we report 1421 putative TSSs in the Xcv genome. Genes in Xcv exhibit a poorly conserved −10 promoter element and no consensus Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Moreover, 14% of all mRNAs are leaderless and 13% of them have unusually long 5′-UTRs. Northern blot analyses confirmed 16 intergenic small RNAs and seven cis-encoded antisense RNAs in Xcv. Expression of eight intergenic transcripts was controlled by HrpG and HrpX, key regulators of the Xcv type III secretion system. More detailed characterization identified sX12 as a small RNA that controls virulence of Xcv by affecting the interaction of the pathogen and its host plants. The transcriptional landscape of Xcv is unexpectedly complex, featuring abundant antisense transcripts, alternative TSSs and clade-specific small RNAs. PMID:22080557

  10. [Recombinant cephalosporin-acid synthesase: optimisation of expression in E.coli cells, immobilisation and application for biocatalytic cefazolin synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldarov, M A; Sklyarenko, A V; Dumina, M V; Medvedeva, N V; Jgoun, A A; Satarova, J E; Sidorenko, A I; Emperian, A S; Yarotsky, S V

    2015-01-01

    Cephalosporin acid synthetase (CASA) is responsible for specific to synthesis of cephalosporin-acids, its expression in Escherichia coli cells is accompanied by accumulation of unprocessed insoluble precursor. In order to optimize conditions of recombinant CASA production we have studied the effects of several parameters of strain cultivation, including growth media composition, temperature, and inoculation dose. Also plasmids for production of CASA variants with the signal sequence of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ansCASA) and "leaderless" CASA were created in search of more efficient expression constructs. Removal of the N-terminal secretion signal sequence reduced the production of functionally active CASA more than 10-fold and inhibited strain growth. Insertion of the L-asparaginase signal sequence increased the specific enzyme activity in the resultant recombinant strain. The ansCASA producing strain was used to develop the method of immobilization of the recombinant enzyme on an epoxy-activated macroporous acrylic support. The resultant biocatalyst performed effective synthesis of cefazolin from 3-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-il)-thiomethyl]-7- aminocephalosporanic acid (MMTD-7-ACA) and methyl ester of 1(H)-tetrazolilacetic acid (МETzAA), under mild conditions a transformation level of MMTD-7-ACA to cefazolin of 95% is reached.

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of translation initiation mechanisms for genes lacking the Shine–Dalgarno sequence in prokaryotes

    KAUST Repository

    Nakagawa, So

    2017-02-15

    In prokaryotes, translation initiation is believed to occur through an interaction between the 3\\' tail of a 16S rRNA and a corresponding Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in the 5\\' untranslated region (UTR) of an mRNA. However, some genes lack SD sequences (non-SD genes), and the fraction of non-SD genes in a genome varies depending on the prokaryotic species. To elucidate non-SD translation initiation mechanisms in prokaryotes from an evolutionary perspective, we statistically examined the nucleotide frequencies around the initiation codons in non-SD genes from 260 prokaryotes (235 bacteria and 25 archaea). We identified distinct nucleotide frequency biases upstream of the initiation codon in bacteria and archaea, likely because of the presence of leaderless mRNAs lacking a 5\\' UTR. Moreover, we observed overall similarities in the nucleotide patterns between upstream and downstream regions of the initiation codon in all examined phyla. Symmetric nucleotide frequency biases might facilitate translation initiation by preventing the formation of secondary structures around the initiation codon. These features are more prominent in species\\' genomes that harbor large fractions of non-SD sequences, suggesting that a reduced stability around the initiation codon is important for efficient translation initiation in prokaryotes.

  12. High-pressure processing and antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita

    2008-02-01

    The efficiency of combining high-pressure processing (HPP) and active packaging technologies to control Listeria monocytogenes growth during the shelf life of artificially inoculated cooked ham was assessed. Three lots of cooked ham were prepared: control, packaging with alginate films, and packaging with antimicrobial alginate films containing enterocins. After packaging, half of the samples were pressurized. Sliced cooked ham stored at 6 degrees C experienced a quick growth of L. monocytogenes. Both antimicrobial packaging and pressurization delayed the growth of the pathogen. However, at 6 degrees C the combination of antimicrobial packaging and HPP was necessary to achieve a reduction of inoculated levels without recovery during 60 days of storage. Further storage at 6 degrees C of pressurized antimicrobial packed cooked ham resulted in L. monocytogenes levels below the detection limit (day 90). On the other hand, storage at 1 degrees C controlled the growth of the pathogen until day 39 in non-pressurized ham, while antimicrobial packaging and storage at 1 degrees C exerted a bacteriostatic effect for 60 days. All HPP lots stored at 1 degrees C led to counts <100CFU/g at day 60. Similar results were observed when combining both technologies. After a cold chain break no growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in pressurized ham packed with antimicrobial films, showing the efficiency of combining both technologies.

  13. Biotechnological and safety characterization of Enterococcus lactis, a recently described species of dairy origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnological and safety properties of a recently described enterococcal species, Enterococcus lactis, were investigated. With regard to the technological properties, in milk all the strains tested had weak acidifying and proteolytic activities, generally medium reduction activity over 24 h (-102 mV detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance. The E. lactis strains showed good survival in simulated in vitro digestion and were able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Pseudomonas syringae. Screening for enterocin structural genes showed that all isolates harboured the entP gene. The presence of nine virulence factor genes (cylA, asa1, gelE, hyl, esp, ace, efaA, hdc and tdc) was investigated by PCR and no virulence determinants were detected. This study highlights that the recently described E. lactis may be a potential source of novel strains with interesting features that could be used for fermented dairy foods.

  14. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocinogenic lactic bacteria from M-Tuba and Tepache, two traditional fermented beverages in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Castañeda-Ramírez, José Cristobal; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Bideshi, Dennis K; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2015-09-01

    Mexican Tuba (M-Tuba) and Tepache are Mexican fermented beverages prepared mainly with pineapple pulp and coconut palm, respectively. At present, reports on the microbiota and nutritional effects of both beverages are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether M-Tuba and Tepache contain cultivable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) capable of producing bacteriocins. Tepache and M-Tuba contain mesophilic aerobic bacteria, LAB, and yeast. Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella spp, were the microorganisms most susceptible to metabolites produced by bacterial isolates. M-Tuba and Tepache contain bacteria that harbor genes coding for nisin and enterocin, but not pediocin. The presence of Lactococcus lactis and E. faecium in M-Tuba and Tepache, was identified by 16S rDNA. These bacteria produced bacteriocins of ∼3.5 kDa and 4.0-4.5 kDa, respectively. Partial purified bacteriocins showed inhibitory effect against Micrococcus luteus, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, Str. agalactiae, S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, and K. pneumoniae. We characterized, for the first time, cultivable microbiota of M-Tuba and Tepache, and specifically, identified candidate lactic bacteria (LAB) present in these beverages that were capable of synthesizing antimicrobial peptides, which collectively could provide food preservative functions.

  15. Enterococcus faecium isolated from Lombo, a Portuguese traditional meat product: characterisation of antibacterial compounds and factors affecting bacteriocin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, S D; Favaro, L; Gibbs, P; Vaz-Velho, M

    2012-12-01

    Strain ST211CH, identified as a strain of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from Lombo produced a bacteriocin that inhibited the growth of Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Klebsiella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The mode of action of the bacteriocin named as bacteriocin ST211Ch was bactericidal against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC19443. As determined by Tricine-SDS-PAGE, the approximate molecular mass of the bacteriocin was 8.0 kDa. Loss in antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Maximum activity of bacteriocin ST211Ch was measured in broth cultures of E. faecium strain ST211Ch after 24 h; thereafter, the activity was reduced. Bacteriocin ST211Ch remained active after exposure to various temperatures and pHs, as well as to Triton X-100, Tween-80, Tween-20, sodium dodecyl sulfate, NaCl, urea and EDTA. Effect of media components on production of bacteriocin ST211Ch was also studied. On the basis of PCR reactions targeting different bacteriocin genes, i.e. enterocins, curvacins and sakacins, no evidences for the presence of these genes in the total DNA of E. faecium strain ST211Ch was obtained. The bacterium most probably produced a bacteriocin different from those mentioned above. Based on the antimicrobial spectrum, stability and mode of action of bacteriocin ST211CH, E. faecium strain ST211Ch might be considered as a potential candidate with beneficial properties for use in biopreservation to control food spoilage bacteria.

  16. Bacteriocins with a broader antimicrobial spectrum prevail in enterococcal symbionts isolated from the hoopoe's uropygial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Soler, Juan J

    2013-09-01

    The use of compounds produced by symbiotic bacteria against pathogens in animals is one of the most exciting discoveries in ecological immunology. The study of those antibiotic metabolites will enable an understanding of the defensive strategies against pathogenic infections. Here, we explore the role of bacteriocins explaining the antimicrobial properties of symbiotic bacteria isolated from the uropygial gland of the hoopoe (Upupa epops). The antagonistic activity of 187 strains was assayed against eight indicator bacteria, and the presence of six bacteriocin genes was detected in the genomic DNA. The presence of bacteriocin genes correlated with the antimicrobial activity of isolates. The most frequently detected bacteriocin genes were those encoding for the MR10 and AS-48 enterocins, which confer the highest inhibition capacity. All the isolates belonged to the genus Enterococcus, with E. faecalis as the most abundant species, with the broadest antimicrobial spectrum and the highest antagonistic activity. The vast majority of E. faecalis strains carried the genes of MR10 and AS-48 in their genome. Therefore, we suggest that fitness-related benefits for hoopoes associated with harbouring the most bactericidal symbionts cause the highest frequency of strains carrying MR10 and AS-48 genes. The study of mechanisms associated with the acquisition and selection of bacterial symbionts by hoopoes is necessary, however, to reach further conclusions.

  17. Utilization of bacteriocin-producing bacteria in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Patrovský

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been used since ancient times for food preparation and for bio-conservation by fermentation. Selected strains are capable of producing antimicrobial peptides - bacteriocins, which can be natural preservatives, especially in products with short shelf lives. The present study is focused on inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin-producing bacteria strains Enterococcus faecium, Pediococccus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum against Listeria innocua as an indicator microorganism. Freeze-dried preparations of bacterial strains producing particular bacteriocins were tested by agar well-diffusion assay and by the traditional spread plate method. Plantaricin exhibited the highest anti-listerial effect among the tested bacteriocins. Pediocin also demonstrated a distinct inhibitory effect, but enterocin appeared to be heat labile and its efficiency was also suppressed under cold storage conditions. Plantaricin reduced Listeria innocua counts by 1 log in dairy spread made from cheese and quark. The formation of bacteriocins by various Lactobacillus plantarum strains were substantially influenced by the cultivation conditions of the mother culture and by the microbial preparation process before freeze-drying. Bacteriocins introduced into foodstuffs via protective cultures in situ offer new perspectives on enhancing food quality and safety.

  18. Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, an interesting bacteriocin producer to be used as a co-culture in food fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F; Foulquié Moreno, M R; De Vuyst, L

    2003-12-01

    Enterocins, bacteriocins produced by enterococci, are gaining interest because of their industrial potential. Due to its bacteriocin production, Enterococcus faecium RZS C5, a natural cheese isolate, has a strong activity towards Listeria monocytogenes. For this reason, the strain may be applicable as a bacteriocin-producing co-culture in food fermentation in order to reduce the risk on Listeria outgrowth. The strain displays remarkable bacteriocin production kinetics. Whereas most lactic acid bacteria produce bacteriocin in a growth-associated way until the beginning of the stationary phase, bacteriocin production by E. faecium RZS C5 in MRS broth at controlled pH values below 7.5 is characterised by a boost of bacteriocin activity levels in the very early growth phase. In addition, bacteriocin production kinetics are closely linked to the environmental and cultural conditions. However, no straightforward statement about the effect of environmental stress on bacteriocin production can be made since the effect is dependent on the type of stress applied. Kinetic experiments in milk and on pilot scale, applying Cheddar cheese-making conditions, have indicated that the strain may be effective as a bacteriocin-producing co-culture. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of E. faecium RZS C5 as a co-culture for the production of fermented sausage.

  19. Sensory and protein profiles of Mexican Chihuahua cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Van Hekken, Diane L; Renye, John A

    2014-11-01

    Native microflora in raw milk cheeses, including the Mexican variety Queso Chihuahua, contribute to flavor development through degradation of milk proteins. The effects of proteolysis were studied in four different brands of Mexican Queso Chihuahua made from raw milk. All of the cheeses were analyzed for chemical and sensory characteristics. Sensory testing revealed that the fresh cheeses elicited flavors of young, basic cheeses, with slight bitter notes. Analysis by gel electrophoresis and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) revealed that the Queseria Blumen (X) and Queseria Super Fino (Z) cheeses show little protein degradation over time while the Queseria America (W) and Queseria Lago Grande (Y) samples are degraded extensively when aged at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Analysis of the mixture of water-soluble cheese proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of short, hydrophobic peptides in quantities correlating with bitterness. All cheese samples contained enterococcal strains known to produce enterocins. The W and Y cheese samples had the highest number of bacteria and exhibited greater protein degradation than that observed for the X and Z cheeses.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11543-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) MUS11-M09.x1d-t SHGC-MUS Mytilus californianus cD... 50 0.20 1 ( DT726269 ) Le_lv0_62c07_SP6 Little Skate... Liver, Normalized L... 50 0.20 1 ( DT726053 ) Le_lv0_59h04_SP6 Little Skate Live...r, Normalized L... 50 0.20 1 ( DT726032 ) Le_lv0_59f06_SP6 Little Skate Liver, Normalized L... 50 0.20 1 ( F...F599829 ) Le_emcl1_12D11_M13Reverse Little Skate (Leucoraja... 50 0.20 1 ( DT245444 ) JGI_CAAU721.fwd CAAU P

  1. 基于胜任特征的高校教师选拔测评体系设计%Design on Competency Model Based Selection and Evaluation System for University Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐智华

    2014-01-01

    高校教师胜任特征模型由必备知识族、技能能力族、人格特质族3大族共26个要素组成。本着胜任特征导向、综合全面、重点突出、经济节约的原则,设计的高校人力资源招聘与选拔测评体系包含知识测试、行为性面试、工作样本、无领导小组讨论、大五人格测验、职业偏好量表等一系列测评方法。%Based on existing researches on university teachers'competency models ,extensive survey of university teachers and students ,as well as analysis of university teachers'positions ,this paper firstly builds the competency model of university teachers ,consisting of 26 specific elements ascribed to three di-mensions respectively .Under the guidance of the principles of orientation toward competency ,comprehen-siveness ,emphasis on key points and economy ,it designs competency model-based selection and evalua-tion system for university teachers ,comprising a few evaluating methods of knowledge test ,behavioral in-terview ,work sample ,leaderless group discussion ,big five personality test and vocational preference in-ventory ,w hich to be hoped to contribute to university human resource recruiting and selecting practices .

  2. Global regulatory functions of the Staphylococcus aureus endoribonuclease III in gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimia Lioliou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RNA turnover plays an important role in both virulence and adaptation to stress in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. However, the molecular players and mechanisms involved in these processes are poorly understood. Here, we explored the functions of S. aureus endoribonuclease III (RNase III, a member of the ubiquitous family of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases. To define genomic transcripts that are bound and processed by RNase III, we performed deep sequencing on cDNA libraries generated from RNAs that were co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type RNase III or two different cleavage-defective mutant variants in vivo. Several newly identified RNase III targets were validated by independent experimental methods. We identified various classes of structured RNAs as RNase III substrates and demonstrated that this enzyme is involved in the maturation of rRNAs and tRNAs, regulates the turnover of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, and autoregulates its synthesis by cleaving within the coding region of its own mRNA. Moreover, we identified a positive effect of RNase III on protein synthesis based on novel mechanisms. RNase III-mediated cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR enhanced the stability and translation of cspA mRNA, which encodes the major cold-shock protein. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved overlapping 5'UTRs of divergently transcribed genes to generate leaderless mRNAs, which constitutes a novel way to co-regulate neighboring genes. In agreement with recent findings, low abundance antisense RNAs covering 44% of the annotated genes were captured by co-immunoprecipitation with RNase III mutant proteins. Thus, in addition to gene regulation, RNase III is associated with RNA quality control of pervasive transcription. Overall, this study illustrates the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by RNase III.

  3. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Start Site Mapping and sRNA Identification in the Pathogen Leptospira interrogans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Anna; Fernandes, Luis Guilherme; Hugon, Perrine; Pappas, Christopher J.; Sismeiro, Odile; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Becavin, Christophe; Malabat, Christophe; Eshghi, Azad; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Yang, Frank X.; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Leptospira are emerging zoonotic pathogens transmitted from animals to humans typically through contaminated environmental sources of water and soil. Regulatory pathways of pathogenic Leptospira spp. underlying the adaptive response to different hosts and environmental conditions remains elusive. In this study, we provide the first global Transcriptional Start Site (TSS) map of a Leptospira species. RNA was obtained from the pathogen Leptospira interrogans grown at 30°C (optimal in vitro temperature) and 37°C (host temperature) and selectively enriched for 5′ ends of native transcripts. A total of 2865 and 2866 primary TSS (pTSS) were predicted in the genome of L. interrogans at 30 and 37°C, respectively. The majority of the pTSSs were located between 0 and 10 nucleotides from the translational start site, suggesting that leaderless transcripts are a common feature of the leptospiral translational landscape. Comparative differential RNA-sequencing (dRNA-seq) analysis revealed conservation of most pTSS at 30 and 37°C. Promoter prediction algorithms allow the identification of the binding sites of the alternative sigma factor sigma 54. However, other motifs were not identified indicating that Leptospira consensus promoter sequences are inherently different from the Escherichia coli model. RNA sequencing also identified 277 and 226 putative small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) at 30 and 37°C, respectively, including eight validated sRNAs by Northern blots. These results provide the first global view of TSS and the repertoire of sRNAs in L. interrogans. These data will establish a foundation for future experimental work on gene regulation under various environmental conditions including those in the host. PMID:28154810

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the Corynebacterium glutamicum transcriptome using an improved RNAseq technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer-Sancar, Katharina; Mentz, Almut; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2013-12-17

    The use of RNAseq to resolve the transcriptional organization of an organism was established in recent years and also showed the complexity and dynamics of bacterial transcriptomes. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the transcriptome of the industrially relevant amino acid producer and model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum by RNAseq in order to improve its genome annotation and to describe important features for transcription and translation. RNAseq data sets were obtained by two methods, one that focuses on 5'-ends of primary transcripts and another that provides the overall transcriptome with an improved resolution of 3'-ends of transcripts. Subsequent data analysis led to the identification of more than 2,000 transcription start sites (TSSs), the definition of 5'-UTRs (untranslated regions) for annotated protein-coding genes, operon structures and many novel transcripts located between or in antisense orientation to protein-coding regions. Interestingly, a high number of mRNAs (33%) is transcribed as leaderless transcripts. From the data, consensus promoter and ribosome binding site (RBS) motifs were identified and it was shown that the majority of genes in C. glutamicum are transcribed monocistronically, but operons containing up to 16 genes are also present. The comprehensive transcriptome map of C. glutamicum established in this study represents a major step forward towards a complete definition of genetic elements (e.g. promoter regions, gene starts and stops, 5'-UTRs, RBSs, transcript starts and ends) and provides the ideal basis for further analyses on transcriptional regulatory networks in this organism. The methods developed are easily applicable for other bacteria and have the potential to be used also for quantification of transcriptomes, replacing microarrays in the near future.

  5. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClafferty Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP

  6. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the transcriptional organization at ribosome-mediated attenuation sites in Corynebacterium glutamicum and identified a novel attenuator involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshat, Armin; Mentz, Almut; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2014-11-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum belongs to the order Corynebacteriales and is used as a producer of amino acids at industrial scales. Due to its economic importance, gene expression and particularly the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis has been investigated extensively. Applying the high-resolution technique of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), recently a vast amount of data has been generated that was used to comprehensively analyze the C. glutamicum transcriptome. By analyzing RNA-seq data from a small RNA cDNA library of C. glutamicum, short transcripts in the known transcriptional attenuators sites of the trp operon, the ilvBNC operon and the leuA gene were verified. Furthermore, whole transcriptome RNA-seq data were used to elucidate the transcriptional organization of these three amino acid biosynthesis operons. In addition, we discovered and analyzed the novel attenuator aroR, located upstream of the aroF gene (cg1129). The DAHP synthase encoded by aroF catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid synthesis. The AroR leader peptide contains the amino acid sequence motif F-Y-F, indicating a regulatory effect by phenylalanine and tyrosine. Analysis by real-time RT-PCR suggests that the attenuator regulates the transcription of aroF in dependence of the cellular amount of tRNA loaded with phenylalanine when comparing a phenylalanine-auxotrophic C. glutamicum mutant fed with limiting and excess amounts of a phenylalanine-containing dipeptide. Additionally, the very interesting finding was made that all analyzed attenuators are leaderless transcripts.

  7. Structural characterization of CYP144A1 – a cytochrome P450 enzyme expressed from alternative transcripts in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenge, Jude; Kavanagh, Madeline E.; Driscoll, Max D.; McLean, Kirsty J.; Young, Douglas B.; Cortes, Teresa; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Levy, Colin W.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Leys, David; Abell, Chris; Munro, Andrew W.

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes the disease tuberculosis (TB). The virulent Mtb H37Rv strain encodes 20 cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, many of which are implicated in Mtb survival and pathogenicity in the human host. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that CYP144A1 is retained exclusively within the Mycobacterium genus, particularly in species causing human and animal disease. Transcriptomic annotation revealed two possible CYP144A1 start codons, leading to expression of (i) a “full-length” 434 amino acid version (CYP144A1-FLV) and (ii) a “truncated” 404 amino acid version (CYP144A1-TRV). Computational analysis predicted that the extended N-terminal region of CYP144A1-FLV is largely unstructured. CYP144A1 FLV and TRV forms were purified in heme-bound states. Mass spectrometry confirmed production of intact, His6-tagged forms of CYP144A1-FLV and -TRV, with EPR demonstrating cysteine thiolate coordination of heme iron in both cases. Hydrodynamic analysis indicated that both CYP144A1 forms are monomeric. CYP144A1-TRV was crystallized and the first structure of a CYP144 family P450 protein determined. CYP144A1-TRV has an open structure primed for substrate binding, with a large active site cavity. Our data provide the first evidence that Mtb produces two different forms of CYP144A1 from alternative transcripts, with CYP144A1-TRV generated from a leaderless transcript lacking a 5‧-untranslated region and Shine-Dalgarno ribosome binding site.

  8. 管理心理学课程案例教学改革研究%A Research on Case Teaching Reform of Management Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君

    2015-01-01

    The article explored adopting managerial cases to reform the management psychology course. In classroom teaching, the article discussed how to use the computers and network technique to establish the system of management psychology teaching resources. The research explored adopting management theory and technique, such as management by objectives, organizational commitment theory and leaderless group discussion to reform the classroom teaching and the student evaluation.%本文探索利用管理学实际案例为核心和主要线索,重新组织管理心理学的教学内容,在每一案例中贯穿心理学理论.探索在课堂教学中,充分利用计算机多媒体和网络技术手段,加大教学内容的直观性和信息量,建立使用方便、内容丰富、易于更新的管理心理学教学资源系统.运用管理学理论和技术,例如目标管理理论、组织承诺理论、无领导小组讨论等等,作为课堂教学的管理方法.改革学生考试模式,引入情景模拟法,计算机网络考试和视频演示等方式作为学生考核模式.

  9. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Pugalenthi, Ganesan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe [Centre for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Biology, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Moeller, Steffen [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Suganthan, P.N. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Martinetz, Thomas, E-mail: martinetz@inb.uni-luebeck.de [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  10. Genes of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis from the hyperthermoacidophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: novel organization in a bipolar operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thia-Toong, Thia-Lin; Roovers, Martine; Durbecq, Virginie; Gigot, Daniel; Glansdorff, Nicolas; Charlier, Daniel

    2002-08-01

    Sequencing a 8,519-bp segment of the Sulfolobus acidocaldarius genome revealed the existence of a tightly packed bipolar pyrimidine gene cluster encoding the enzymes of de novo UMP synthesis. The G+C content of 35.3% is comparable to that of the entire genome, but intergenic regions exhibit a considerably lower percentage of strong base pairs. Coding regions harbor the classical excess of purines on the coding strand, whereas intergenic regions do not show this bias. Reverse transcription-PCR and primer extension experiments demonstrated the existence of two polycistronic messengers, pyrEF-orf8 and pyrBI-orf1-pyrCD-orf2-orf3-orf4, initiated from a pair of divergent and partially overlapping promoters. The gene order and the grouping in two wings of a bipolar operon constitute a novel organization of pyr genes that also occurs in the recently determined genome sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 and Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7; the configuration appears therefore characteristic of Sulfolobus. The quasi-leaderless pyrE and pyrB genes do not bear a Shine-Dalgarno sequence, whereas the initiation codon of promoter-distal genes is preceded at an appropriate distance by a sequence complementary to the 3' end of 16S rRNA. The polycistronic nature of the pyr messengers and the existence of numerous overlaps between contiguous open reading frames suggests the existence of translational coupling. pyrB transcription was shown to be approximately twofold repressed in the presence of uracil. The mechanism underlying this modulation is as yet unknown, but it appears to be of a type different from the various attenuation-like mechanisms that regulate pyrB transcription in bacteria. In contrast, the pyrE-pyrB promoter/control region harbors direct repeats and imperfect palindromes reminiscent of target sites for the binding of a hypothetical regulatory protein(s).

  11. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-07

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

  12. The Molecular Switch of Telomere Phages: High Binding Specificity of the PY54 Cro Lytic Repressor to a Single Operator Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Andre Hammerl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperate bacteriophages possess a molecular switch, which regulates the lytic and lysogenic growth. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54 and ɸKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB comprising genes for the prophage repressor, the lytic repressor and a putative antiterminator. The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI, Cro and Q, respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ɸKO2 are also reminiscent of lambda-like phages. By contrast, in silico analyses revealed the presence of only one operator (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\3 in PY54. The purified PY54 Cro protein was used for EMSA studies demonstrating that it exclusively binds to a 16-bp palindromic site (O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\3 upstream of the prophage repressor gene. The O\\(_{\\rm{R}}\\3 operator sequences of PY54 and ɸKO2/N15 only differ by their peripheral base pairs, which are responsible for Cro specificity. PY54 cI and cro transcription is regulated by highly active promoters initiating the synthesis of a homogenious species of leaderless mRNA. The location of the PY54 Cro binding site and of the identified promoters suggests that the lytic repressor suppresses cI transcription but not its own synthesis. The results indicate an unexpected diversity of the growth regulation mechanisms in lambda-related phages.

  13. Sexual dimorphism in size, age, maturation, and growth characteristics of boarfish (Capros aper) in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Coad, Julie Olivia; Farrell, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    . There is no significant difference in length at maturity nor age at maturity between the two sexes, with L50 = 9.7 cm and A50 = 3.4 years. Growth is dimorphic following von Bertalanffy growth characteristics, with a common t = –2.897, but significantly different K and Linf values, where females have K = 0.145 and Linf...

  14. Domain Modeling: NP_932069.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BETP FROM CORYNEBACTERIUM GLUTAMICUM WITH BOUND SUBSTRATE p2wita_ chr4/NP_932069.1/NP_932069.1_holo_6-365.pdb swppa 47F,48S,49L,50G,52S,54E,65P,95V,170V,171C,174I,178F,206L BET 0 ...

  15. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFA807 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 56 of the complete genome. 50 0.044 1 BQ868471 |BQ868471.1 QGD14B08.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas Lactuca ...l. 50 0.044 1 BQ875271 |BQ875271.1 QGI7K07.yg.ab1 QG_ABCDI lettuce salinas Lactuc

  17. EST Table: FS785457 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS785457 E_FL_fcaL_50O24_R_0 10/09/28 54 %/170 aa ref|XP_973768.1| PREDICTED: similar to orf 140; significa...0 aa gi|91088001|ref|XP_973768.1| PREDICTED: similar to orf 140; significant simi

  18. EST Table: FS769043 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS769043 E_FL_fcaL_50O24_F_0 10/09/28 54 %/170 aa ref|XP_973768.1| PREDICTED: similar to orf 140; significa...0 aa gi|91088001|ref|XP_973768.1| PREDICTED: similar to orf 140; significant simi

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15495-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 50 0.13 1 ( DQ916861 ) Raphionacme galpinii voucher Abbott s.n. (Z) 18S ... 50 0.13 1 ( DQ916859 ) Peripl...L)... 50 0.13 1 ( DQ916839 ) Cryptolepis capensis voucher Abbott 7761 (Z) 18S ... 50 0.13 1 ( DQ916838 ) Cry

  20. EST Table: FS785192 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS785192 E_FL_fcaL_50A18_R_0 10/09/28 99 %/127 aa ref|NP_001040476.1| muscular prot...ein 20 [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51467.1| muscular protein 20 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/09 76 %/127 aa FBpp0209358|DsimG

  1. A gravity survey of parts of quadrangles 26E, 26F, 27E, and 27F, northeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.H.; Showail, A.A.; Kane, M.F.; Khoja, I.A.; Al Ghandi, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A gravity survey using nearly 800 stations was conducted over an area of about 13,400 km2 located in the northeast part of the Arabian Shield. The stations were set on spot elevations of relative high density and shown on high-quality l:50,000-scale topographic base maps.

  2. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests.

  3. Virulence factors genes in enterococci isolated from beavers (Castor fiber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Strompfová, Viola; Kandričáková, Anna; Ščerbová, Jana; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Miltko, Renata; Belzecki, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Only limited information exists concerning the microbiota in beaver (Castor fiber). This study has been focused on the virulence factors genes detection in enterococci from beavers. In general, animals are not affected by enterococcal infections, but they can be a reservoir of, e.g. pathogenic strains. Moreover, detection of virulence factors genes in enterococci from beavers was never tested before. Free-living beavers (12), male and female (age 4-5 years) were caught in the north-east part of Poland. Sampling of lower gut and faeces was provided according to all ethical rules for animal handling. Samples were treated using a standard microbiological method. Pure bacterial colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) identification system. Virulence factors genes-gelE (gelatinase), agg (aggregation), cylA (cytolysin A), efaAfs (adhesin Enterococcus faecalis), efaAfm (adhesin Enterococcus faecium) and esp (surface protein) were tested by PCR. Moreover, gelatinase and antibiotic phenotypes were tested. Species detected were Enterococcus thailandicus, E. faecium, E. faecalis and Enterococcus durans. In literature, enterococcal species distribution was never reported yet up to now. Strains were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis EE9Tr1 possess cylA, efaAfs, esp and gelE genes. Strains were aggregation substance genes absent. Adhesin E. faecium (efaAfm) gene was detected in two of three E. faecium strains, but it was present also in E. thailandicus. Esp gene was present in EE9Tr1 and E. durans EDTr92. The most detected were gelE, efaAfm genes; in EF 4Hc1 also gelatinase phenotype was found. Strains with virulence factors genes will be tested for their sensitivity to antimicrobial enterocins.

  4. Qualitative detection of class IIa bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria from traditional Chinese fermented food using a YGNGV-motif-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Shi, John; Xue, Chaohui; Li, Hongbo; Jiao, Yuehua; Shigwedha, Nditange; Du, Ming; Han, Xue

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a YGNGV-motif-based assay was developed and applied. Given that there is an increasing demand for natural preservatives, we set out to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that produce bacteriocins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We here isolated 123 LAB strains from 5 types of traditional Chinese fermented food and screened them for the production of bacteriocins using the agar well diffusion assay (AWDA). Then, to acquire LAB producing class IIa bacteriocins, we used a YGNGV-motif-based assay that was based on 14 degenerate primers matching all class IIa bacteriocin-encoding genes currently deposited in NCBI. Eight of the LAB strains identified by AWDA could inhibit Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; 5 of these were YGNGV-amplicon positive. Among these 5 isolates, amplicons from 2 strains (Y31 and Y33) matched class IIa bacteriocin genes. Strain Y31 demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and the best match to a class IIa bacteriocin gene in NCBI, and was identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin from Enterococcus avium Y33 was 100% identical to enterocin P. Both of these strains produced bacteriocins with strong antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis, hence these bacteriocins hold promise as potential bio-preservatives in the food industry. These findings also indicated that the YGNGV-motif-based assay used in this study could identify novel class IIa bacteriocinogenic LAB, rapidly and specifically, saving time and labour by by-passing multiple separation and purification steps.

  5. In silico Prediction, in vitro Antibacterial Spectrum, and Physicochemical Properties of a Putative Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain L156.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Letícia de C; Silveira, Aline M M; Monteiro, Andréa de S; Dos Santos, Vera L; Nicoli, Jacques R; Azevedo, Vasco A de C; Soares, Siomar de C; Dias-Souza, Marcus V; Nardi, Regina M D

    2017-01-01

    A bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus L156.4 strain isolated from the feces of NIH mice was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The entire genome was sequenced using Illumina, annotated in the PGAAP, and RAST servers, and deposited. Conserved genes associated with bacteriocin synthesis were predicted using BAGEL3, leading to the identification of an open reading frame (ORF) that shows homology with the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) prebacteriocin gene. The encoded protein contains a conserved protein motif associated a structural gene of the Enterocin A superfamily. We found ORFs related to the prebacteriocin, immunity protein, ABC transporter proteins, and regulatory genes with 100% identity to those of L. rhamnosus HN001. In this study, we provide evidence of a putative bacteriocin produced by L. rhamnosus L156.4 that was further confirmed by in vitro assays. The antibacterial activity of the substances produced by this strain was evaluated using the deferred agar-spot and spot-on-the lawn assays, and a wide antimicrobial activity spectrum against human and foodborne pathogens was observed. The physicochemical characterization of the putative bacteriocin indicated that it was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, heat stable and maintained its antibacterial activity in a pH ranging from 3 to 9. The activity against Lactobacillus fermentum, which was used as an indicator strain, was detected during bacterial logarithmic growth phase, and a positive correlation was confirmed between bacterial growth and production of the putative bacteriocin. After a partial purification from cell-free supernatant by salt precipitation, the putative bacteriocin migrated as a diffuse band of approximately 1.0-3.0 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Additional studies are being conducted to explore its use in the food industry for controlling bacterial growth and for probiotic applications.

  6. Use of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, A; Kandričáková, A; Ščerbová, J

    2015-06-01

    Probiotic enterococci can produce bacteriocins. Enterococcus faecium AL41 is an Enterocin M-producing, probiotic strain which has previously shown beneficial effect in broiler chickens. In this study, it was used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches in a 42-day experiment with an experimental group (EG, 40 ostriches) and a control group (CG, 46). In addition to feed mixture, the ostriches in EG received Ent. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU ml(-1); by rifampicin-marked variant) 400 μl per animal per day in their drinking water for 21 days. Sampling was carried out at the start of the experiment (at day 0/1), at day 21 (after 21 days of AL41 application) and at day 42 (21 days after AL41 cessation). Faeces (mixture, n = 6) were treated using the standard microbiological dilution method and cultivated on selective media (ISO). The highest count of AL41 was found at day 42. Its identity was confirmed with PCR and Maldi-Tof. The ostriches were free of Salmonella and Campylobacter cells. At day 21, antimicrobial effect was demonstrated by significant reduction in coagulase-positive and negative staphylococci in EG compared to CG (P intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches. Significance and impact of the study: Ostriches are excellent for high intensity farming in a wide range of climates, requiring only limited space and giving high yields per hectare. They are reared mainly for their meat. Although adult birds possess quite good immunity, young birds can be threatened by spoilage bacteria, especially when they are transferred from the nests to the farm area. Based on our previous results related to the beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 in poultry or rabbits, we decided to test its ability to control intestinal microbiota in farming ostriches which has never been tested previously.

  7. Use of the usp45 lactococcal secretion signal sequence to drive the secretion and functional expression of enterococcal bacteriocins in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Juan; Jiménez, Juan J; Gútiez, Loreto; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Hernández, Pablo E

    2011-01-01

    Replacement of the signal peptide (SP) of the bacteriocins enterocin P (EntP) and hiracin JM79 (HirJM79), produced by Enterococcus faecium P13 and Enterococcus hirae DCH5, respectively, by the signal peptide of Usp45 (SP(usp45)), the major Sec-dependent protein secreted by Lactococcus lactis, permits the production, secretion, and functional expression of EntP and HirJM79 by L. lactis. Chimeric genes encoding the SP(usp45) fused to either mature EntP (entP), with or without the immunity gene (entiP) or to mature HirJM79 (hirJM79), with or without the immunity gene (hiriJM79), were cloned into the expression vector pMG36c, carrying the P(32) constitutive promoter, and into pNZ8048 under control of the inducible PnisA promoter. The production of EntP and HirJM79 by most of the L. lactis recombinant strains was 1.5- to 3.7-fold higher and up to 3.6-fold higher than by the E. faecium P13 and E. hirae DCH5 control strains, respectively. However, the specific antimicrobial activity of the recombinant EntP was 1.1- to 6.2-fold higher than that produced by E. faecium P13, while that of the HirJM79 was a 40% to an 89% of that produced by E. hirae DCH5. Chimeras of SP(usp45) fused to mature EntP or HirJM79 drive the production and secretion of these bacteriocins in L. lactis in the absence of specific immunity and secretion proteins. The supernatants of the recombinant L. lactis NZ9000 strains, producers of EntP, showed a much higher antimicrobial activity against Listeria spp. than that of the recombinant L. lactis NZ9000 derivatives, producers of HirJM79.

  8. High resolution crystal structure of PedB: a structural basis for the classification of pediocin-like immunity proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Sun-Shin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediocin-like bacteriocins, ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides, are generally coexpressed with cognate immunity proteins in order to protect the bacteriocin-producer from its own bacteriocin. As a step for understanding the mode of action of immunity proteins, we determined the crystal structure of PedB, a pediocin-like immunity protein conferring immunity to pediocin PP-1. Results The 1.6 Å crystal structure of PedB reveals that PedB consists of an antiparallel four-helix bundle with a flexible C-terminal end. PedB shows structural similarity to an immunity protein against enterocin A (EntA-im but some disparity to an immunity protein against carnobacteriocin B2 (ImB2 in both the C-terminal conformation and the local structure constructed by α3, α4, and their connecting loop. Structure-inspired mutational studies reveal that deletion of the last seven residues of the C-terminus of PedB almost abolished its immunity activity. Conclusion The fact that PedB, EntA-im, and ImB2 share a four-helix bundle structure strongly suggests the structural conservation of this motif in the pediocin-like immunity proteins. The significant difference in the core structure and the C-terminal conformation provides a structural basis for the classification of pediocin-like immunity proteins. Our mutational study using C-terminal-shortened PedBs and the investigation of primary sequence of the C-terminal region, propose that several polar or charged residues in the extreme C-terminus of PedB which is crucial for the immunity are involved in the specific recognition of pediocin PP-1.

  9. A Microplate Growth Inhibition Assay for Screening Bacteriocins against Listeria monocytogenes to Differentiate Their Mode-of-Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Paul Priyesh; Muriana, Peter M

    2015-06-11

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have historically been used in food fermentations to preserve foods and are generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) by the FDA for use as food ingredients. In addition to lactic acid; some strains also produce bacteriocins that have been proposed for use as food preservatives. In this study we examined the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 by neutralized and non-neutralized bacteriocin preparations (Bac+ preps) produced by Lactobacillus curvatus FS47; Lb. curvatus Beef3; Pediococcus acidilactici Bac3; Lactococcus lactis FLS1; Enterococcus faecium FS56-1; and Enterococcus thailandicus FS92. Activity differences between non-neutralized and neutralized Bac+ preps in agar spot assays could not readily be attributed to acid because a bacteriocin-negative control strain was not inhibitory to Listeria in these assays. When neutralized and non-neutralized Bac+ preps were used in microplate growth inhibition assays against L. monocytogenes 39-2 we observed some differences attributed to acid inhibition. A microplate growth inhibition assay was used to compare inhibitory reactions of wild-type and bacteriocin-resistant variants of L. monocytogenes to differentiate bacteriocins with different modes-of-action (MOA) whereby curvaticins FS47 and Beef3, and pediocin Bac3 were categorized to be in MOA1; enterocins FS92 and FS56-1 in MOA2; and lacticin FLS1 in MOA3. The microplate bacteriocin MOA assay establishes a platform to evaluate the best combination of bacteriocin preparations for use in food applications as biopreservatives against L. monocytogenes.

  10. In silico Prediction, in vitro Antibacterial Spectrum, and Physicochemical Properties of a Putative Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain L156.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de C. Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus rhamnosus L156.4 strain isolated from the feces of NIH mice was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The entire genome was sequenced using Illumina, annotated in the PGAAP, and RAST servers, and deposited. Conserved genes associated with bacteriocin synthesis were predicted using BAGEL3, leading to the identification of an open reading frame (ORF that shows homology with the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103 prebacteriocin gene. The encoded protein contains a conserved protein motif associated a structural gene of the Enterocin A superfamily. We found ORFs related to the prebacteriocin, immunity protein, ABC transporter proteins, and regulatory genes with 100% identity to those of L. rhamnosus HN001. In this study, we provide evidence of a putative bacteriocin produced by L. rhamnosus L156.4 that was further confirmed by in vitro assays. The antibacterial activity of the substances produced by this strain was evaluated using the deferred agar-spot and spot-on-the lawn assays, and a wide antimicrobial activity spectrum against human and foodborne pathogens was observed. The physicochemical characterization of the putative bacteriocin indicated that it was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, heat stable and maintained its antibacterial activity in a pH ranging from 3 to 9. The activity against Lactobacillus fermentum, which was used as an indicator strain, was detected during bacterial logarithmic growth phase, and a positive correlation was confirmed between bacterial growth and production of the putative bacteriocin. After a partial purification from cell-free supernatant by salt precipitation, the putative bacteriocin migrated as a diffuse band of approximately 1.0–3.0 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Additional studies are being conducted to explore its use in the food industry for controlling bacterial growth and for probiotic applications.

  11. High-throughput identification of promoters and screening of highly active promoter-5'-UTR DNA region with different characteristics from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieping Wang

    Full Text Available In bacteria, both promoters and 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs of mRNAs play vital regulatory roles in gene expression. In this study, we identified 1203 active promoter candidates in Bacillus thuringiensis through analysis of the genome-wide TSSs based on the transcriptome data. There were 11 types of σ-factor and 34 types of transcription factor binding sites found in 723 and 1097 active promoter candidates, respectively. Moreover, within the 1203 transcriptional units (TUs, most (52% of the 5'-UTRs were 10-50 nucleotides in length, 12.8% of the TUs had a long 5'-UTR greater than 100 nucleotides in length, and 16.3% of the TUs were leaderless. We then selected 20 active promoter candidates combined with the corresponding 5'-UTR DNA regions to screen the highly active promoter-5'-UTR DNA region complexes with different characteristics. Our results demonstrate that among the 20 selected complexes, six were able to exert their functions throughout the life cycle, six were specifically induced during the early-stationary phase, and four were specifically activated during the mid-stationary phase. We found a direct corresponding relationship between σ-factor-recognized consensus sequences and complex activity features: the great majority of complexes acting throughout the life cycle possess σ(A-like consensus sequences; the maximum activities of the σ(F-, σ(E-, σ(G-, and σ(K-dependent complexes appeared at 10, 14, 16, and 22 h under our experimental conditions, respectively. In particular, complex Phj3 exhibited the strongest activity. Several lines of evidence showed that complex Phj3 possessed three independent promoter regions located at -251∼-98, -113∼-31, and -54∼+14, and that the 5'-UTR +1∼+118 DNA region might be particularly beneficial to both the stability and translation of its downstream mRNA. Moreover, Phj3 successfully overexpressed the active β-galactosidase and turbo-RFP, indicating that Phj3 could be a proper

  12. Nucleus-encoded periplastid-targeted EFL in chlorarachniophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gile, Gillian H; Keeling, Patrick J

    2008-09-01

    Chlorarachniophytes are cercozoan amoeboflagellates that acquired photosynthesis by enslaving a green alga, which has retained a highly reduced nucleus called a nucleomorph. The nucleomorph lacks many genes necessary for its own maintenance and expression, suggesting that some genes have been moved to the host nucleus and their products are now targeted back to the periplastid compartment (PPC), the reduced eukaryotic cytoplasm of the endosymbiont. Protein trafficking in chlorarachniophytes is therefore complex, including nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, nucleomorph-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, and nucleus-encoded periplastid-targeted proteins. A major gap in our understanding of this system is the PPC-targeted proteins because none have been described in any chlorarachniophytes. Here we describe the first such protein, the GTPase EFL. EFL was characterized from 7 chlorarachniophytes, and 2 distinct types were found. One is related to foraminiferan EFL and lacks an amino-terminal extension. The second, distantly related, type encodes an amino-terminal extension consisting of a signal peptide followed by sequence sharing many characteristics with transit peptides from nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted proteins and which we conclude is most likely PPC targeted. Western blotting with antibodies specific to putative host and PPC-targeted EFL from the chlorarachniophytes Bigelowiella natans and Gymnochlora stellata is consistent with posttranslational cleavage of the leaders from PPC-targeted proteins. Immunolocalization of both proteins in B. natans confirmed the cytosolic location of the leaderless EFL and a distinct localization pattern for the PPC-targeted protein but could not rule out a plastid location (albeit very unlikely). We sought other proteins with a similar leader and identified a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 encoding a bipartite extension with the same properties. Transit peptide sequences were characterized from all 3

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16219-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FF436463 ) G142P60204RD10.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 ... 50 3e-14 3 ( FF429418 ) G142P60105RE9.T0 ...42P60239RB12.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 ... 50 4e-14 3 ( FF466669 ) G50P63...18RA10.T0 Acorn worm gastrula/neurula pCMVS... 50 4e-14 3 ( FF434492 ) G142P60179RF10.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport...6 ... 50 4e-14 3 ( FF431656 ) G142P60136RF7.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 l... 50 4e-14 3 ( FF...429836 ) G142P60111RD6.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 l... 50 4e-14 3 ( FF4403

  14. Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton

    2015-12-01

    The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE) sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE) has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported here: include the parameters for the lipophilicity of the plasticizer compound used and the amount of cyclic polyamine ionophore incorporated in the PVC membrane. Six candidate plasticizers with a range of lipophilicity were evaluated for their effect on the useable lifetime, sensitivity, and selectivity of the ISE against 13 different anions. Selectivity was determined by a modified fixed interferent method, sensitivity was determined without interferents, and the usable lifetime evaluated at the elapsed time where 50% of the HPO4-ISE failed (L50). The results show that choosing a plasticizer that has a lipophilicity similar to the ionophore's results in the best selectivity and sensitivity and the longest L50.

  15. Plasticizer Effects in the PVC Membrane of the Dibasic Phosphate Selective Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Carey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The PVC membrane of an ion-selective electrode (ISE sensitive to dibasic phosphate ions (HPO4-ISE has not been optimized for maximum selectivity, sensitivity, and useable ISE lifetime and further work was necessary to improve its performance. Two areas of investigation are reported here: include the parameters for the lipophilicity of the plasticizer compound used and the amount of cyclic polyamine ionophore incorporated in the PVC membrane. Six candidate plasticizers with a range of lipophilicity were evaluated for their effect on the useable lifetime, sensitivity, and selectivity of the ISE against 13 different anions. Selectivity was determined by a modified fixed interferent method, sensitivity was determined without interferents, and the usable lifetime evaluated at the elapsed time where 50% of the HPO4-ISE failed (L50. The results show that choosing a plasticizer that has a lipophilicity similar to the ionophore’s results in the best selectivity and sensitivity and the longest L50.

  16. Results of Sediment Sampling and Elutriate Testing at the Proposed Indian Cave State Park Shallow Water Habitat Project Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    WATER QUALITY STANDARDS – Manganese ; Warmwater Aquatic Life Class A and Public Drinking Water Constituent Acute Standard (Dissolved...Chronic Standard (Dissolved) Public Drinking Water Standard Manganese N/A 1,000 µg/L 50 µg/L Comparison of Manganese Elutriate Tests to...criterion for Manganese . The non-filtered elutriate tests exceeded the 50 µg/l public drinking water standard. However, Nebraska’s water

  17. Functionally graded doped lanthanum cobalt ferrite and ceria-based composite interlayers for advancing the performance stability in solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Koyel Banerjee; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta; Basu, Rajendra N.

    2016-10-01

    Functionally graded composite interlayer based on 50% of La0.54Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ and 50% of La0.54Sr0.4Fe0.2Co0.8O3-δ (CF-1) and cobalt and gadolinium doped ceria (CoCGO) is synthesized varying the mass ratio as CF-1:CoCGO = 80:20(L80-C20), 50:50(L50-C50) and 20:80(L20-C80). Detail study using impedance spectroscopy of symmetrical cell fabricated with CoCGO as electrolyte reveals the lowest electrode polarization 0.04 Ω cm2 at 800 °C for L80-C20 composite. Electrode and ohmic polarization is also evaluated configuring the symmetric cell as CF-1/L80-C20||CoCGO||L80-C20/CF-1. Symmetric cell with varying composition of the composite interlayer (L80-C20/L50-C50/L20-C80||CoCGO||L20-C80/L50-C50/L80-C20) shows considerably low electrode polarization of 0.067 Ω cm2 at 800 °C with activation energy 1.19 eV. Electrochemical performances evaluated using single cell configuration Ni-YSZ||YSZ||CoCGO/L20-C80/L50-C50/L80-C20/CF-1 shows power density as high as 2.03 W cm-2 at 800 °C at 0.7 V. Addition of composite interlayers increases the stability significantly and the voltage degradation is found negligible (0.9%) for first 300 h at a constant load of 0.5 A cm-2 which is further increased to 2.9% for next 300 h. The cell stability is clinically correlated with layer wise elemental 'Sr' mapping in the applied quad interlayers.

  18. 泰国政府全力支持印刷业的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kriengkrai Thiennukul; 王以俊

    2008-01-01

    @@ 我谨代表泰国印刷协会,感谢论坛年会的组织者让我荣幸地向各位呈现泰国印刷业的前景. 大约l50年前,泰国--以前称为暹罗(Siam)--在国王Rama四世陛下统治时期开启了印刷术应用之门.

  19. Van der Waals Type Model and Structure in π-p Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, F.

    1982-10-01

    The most recent measurement of the angular distribution for π-p elastic scattering at pL =50 and 200 GeV/c which show a structure near -t ≈ 4(GeV/c)2, with squared four momentum transfer -t extended to 10(GeV/c)2, and the total cross section data for 50 ≤ pL ≤ 370 GeV/c have been simultaneously explained by using Van der Waal's type model.

  20. Dipole pomeron and. pi. /sup -/p elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-E-Aleem (Panjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Physics Dept.)

    1982-10-16

    The differential cross-sections for high-energy ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering showing structure near -t=4 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ for psub(L)=50 and 200 GeV/c together with total cross-sections for 50<=psub(L)<=370 GeV/c, and with -t extending up to 11 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ have been fitted by using a dipole pomeron model.

  1. Van der Waals Type Model and Structure in bar{p}p Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, F.

    1983-10-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution for bar{p}p elastic scattering at pL=50, 100 and 200 GeV/ c which show a structure near -t=1.4 (GeV/ c)2, with squared four momentum transter -t extended to 5(GeV/ c)2, and the total cross section data for 50 <= pL <= 280GeV/ c have been simultaneously fitted by using the Van der Waals type model.

  2. Predicting size at first sexual maturity from length/weight relationship: a case study with an Amazonian catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Relationship between length and weight (LWR is used to describe aspects concerning the life cycle of fish, but does not considers possible changes during the lifetime mainly due to the sexual maturation. Thus, this study aims to identify the size at first maturity of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae and infer if the reproductive engagement could change growth pattern, concerning the LWR. Estimates of the size at first maturity (L 50 were made by visual identification of gonadal development and through the gonadosomatic index (G SI . L 50 was estimated as 12.5 cm for males and 13.0 cm for females when applied visual identification of gonads development. L 50 estimates increased to 13.05 cm for males and 13.7 cm for females when estimated from G SI values. LWR was adjusted by using a regular power function and through the polyphasic growth model, with proportionality and allometric coefficients changing in a two phases. The results indicate differences in the growth pattern concerning males and females, as well as polyphasic growth. The change in the growth pattern of the polyphasic LWR was estimated at 11.42 cm for males and 12.53 cm for females, suggesting that changes in the growth pattern can sign-out the attainment maturity in this catfish.

  3. Fibre degradability of oil palm frond pellet, supplemented with Arachis pintoi in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodee Khamseekhiew

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of Arachis pintoi (AP supplementation on rumen environment [(rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3N and volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentration] and degradability of oil palm frond (OPF. Three Kedah-Kelantan (KK cattle of about 2 1/2 years of age with an average body weight (BW173±17.2 kg, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used. The cattle were kept in individual pens and fed the treatment diets at 1.5% of BW. The diets comprised the following four OPF:AP ratios; 80:20 (L20, 70:30 (L30, 60:40 (L40, 50:50 (L50 in a 4 × 4 incomplete Latin Square Design. The DM an NDF degradation rates of OPF were significantly affected by AP supplementation. Ruminal pH was not significantly different (p>0.05 among the four different diets. The concentration of NH3N was significantly (p<0.05 higher in cattle fed L50 than those in L40, L30 and L20. Similarly, increasing levels of AP supplementation significantly increased the total VFAs concentration from 59.9 mmol/L for L20 to 69.2 mmol/L for L50. It is suggested that AP can be used as a protein supplement to improve fibre degradability of OPF in cattle.

  4. 海洋微生物次级代谢产物生物合成的研究进展%Progress in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 张光涛; 朱义广; 张长生

    2012-01-01

    Marine microbial secondary metabolites often have novel and complex chemical structures, indicating their unique biosynthetic pathways and enzymatic mechanisms. Enterocin was the first marine microbial natural product for which a complete gene cluster was demonstrated in 2000. Since then, biosynthetic gene clusters of a total of 27 marine microbial secondary metabolites have been identified and characterized. These metabolites were mainly derived from four typical biosynthetic systems, including polyketide synthases (PKSs), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), hybrid PKS/NRPS, etc. In this review we presented the recent progress in elucidating biosynthetic pathways of marine microbial secondary metabolites, as well as the application of combinatorial biosynthesis in their structural diversification.%海洋微生物次级代谢产物往往具有新颖的化学结构,蕴含着独特的生物合成途径、酶学机理和不同于陆生放线菌次级代谢产物的生物合成机制.自从2000年第一例海洋微生物天然产物enterocin的生物合成基因簇被阐明以来,迄今已克隆和鉴定了27种海洋微生物次级代谢产物的完整生物合成基因簇.这些次级代谢产物的生物合成主要源于四种途径,包括聚酮合酶途径,非核糖体肽合成酶途径,聚酮-非核糖体肽合成酶杂合途径,以及其他途径.本文综述了近年来一些重要海洋微生物活性次级代谢产物的生物合成途径,以及组合生物合成技术在海洋微生物次级代谢产物结构多样化方面的应用.

  5. Evaluation of lactic acid bacterium fermentation products and food-grade chemicals to control Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, A J; Kaspar, C W; Otwell, W S; Tamplin, M L; Luchansky, J B

    1994-01-01

    Fresh blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) meat was obtained from retail markets in Florida and sampled for viable Listeria monocytogenes. The pathogen was found in crabmeat in three of four different lots tested by enrichment and at levels of 75 CFU/g in one of the same four lots by direct plating. Next, crabmeat was steam sterilized, inoculated with a three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (ca. 5.5 log10 CFU/g), washed with various lactic acid bacterium fermentation products (2,000 to 20,000 arbitrary units [AU]/ml of wash) or food-grade chemicals (0.25 to 4 M), and stored at 4 degrees C. Counts of the pathogen remained relatively constant in control samples during storage for 6 days, whereas in crabmeat washed with Perlac 1911 or MicroGard (10,000 to 20,000 AU), numbers initially decreased (0.5 to 1.0 log10 unit/g) but recovered to original levels within 6 days. Numbers of L. monocytogenes cells decreased 1.5 to 2.7 log10 units/g of crabmeat within 0.04 day when washed with 10,000 to 20,000 AU of Alta 2341, enterocin 1083, or Nisin per ml. Thereafter, counts increased 0.5 to 1.6 log10 units within 6 days. After washing with food-grade chemicals, modest reductions (0.4 to 0.8 log10 unit/g) were observed with sodium acetate (4 M), sodium diacetate (0.5 or 1 M), sodium lactate (1 M), or sodium nitrite (1.5 M). However, Listeria counts in crabmeat washed with 2 M sodium diacetate decreased 2.6 log10 units/g within 6 days. In addition, trisodium phosphate reduced L. monocytogenes counts from 1.7 (0.25 M) to > 4.6 (1 M) log10 units/g within 6 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7944362

  6. Bacteriocin-based strategies for food biopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; López, Rosario Lucas; Ben Omar, Nabil

    2007-11-30

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced by different groups of bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce bacteriocins with rather broad spectra of inhibition. Several LAB bacteriocins offer potential applications in food preservation, and the use of bacteriocins in the food industry can help to reduce the addition of chemical preservatives as well as the intensity of heat treatments, resulting in foods which are more naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. This can be an alternative to satisfy the increasing consumers demands for safe, fresh-tasting, ready-to-eat, minimally-processed foods and also to develop "novel" food products (e.g. less acidic, or with a lower salt content). In addition to the available commercial preparations of nisin and pediocin PA-1/AcH, other bacteriocins (like for example lacticin 3147, enterocin AS-48 or variacin) also offer promising perspectives. Broad-spectrum bacteriocins present potential wider uses, while narrow-spectrum bacteriocins can be used more specifically to selectively inhibit certain high-risk bacteria in foods like Listeria monocytogenes without affecting harmless microbiota. Bacteriocins can be added to foods in the form of concentrated preparations as food preservatives, shelf-life extenders, additives or ingredients, or they can be produced in situ by bacteriocinogenic starters, adjunct or protective cultures. Immobilized bacteriocins can also find application for development of bioactive food packaging. In recent years, application of bacteriocins as part of hurdle technology has gained great attention. Several bacteriocins show additive or synergistic effects when used in combination with other antimicrobial agents, including chemical preservatives, natural phenolic compounds, as well as other antimicrobial proteins. This, as well as the combined use of different bacteriocins may also be an attractive approach to

  7. 基因组水平预测稻瘟菌分泌蛋白组及富集分析%Prediction for Secretome from Magnaporthe oryzae at Genome Scale and Its Enrichment Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹继东; 刘俊; 李遂焰

    2016-01-01

    ,further the CSPs involved in the degradation of plant derived compounds were predicted. Total 789 CSPs were found in M. oryzae genome and the amino acid lengths of CSPs were mainly concentrated between 100 to 500 aa exclusively. GO function analysis of CSPs indicated that they were enriched in the secreting pathways and in the interactions with host. Interestingly,the results of KEGG metabolism and domain analysis of CSPs suggested that some of them contributed to sugar metabolism. Around 156 CSPs were recruited in the degradation of cell walls of plants. Besides,many non-classical leaderless secreted proteins were discovered in the M. oryzae secretome. In summary,by designing the informatics procedure,we predicted the secretome of M. oryzae,CSPs were able to degrade plant derived compounds such as cell walls, and some were involved in sugar metabolism. In addition,M. oryzae. harbored many non-classical leaderless secreted proteins.

  8. Inhibition of both HIV-1 reverse transcription and gene expression by a cyclic peptide that binds the Tat-transactivating response element (TAR RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Lalonde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The RNA response element TAR plays a critical role in HIV replication by providing a binding site for the recruitment of the viral transactivator protein Tat. Using a structure-guided approach, we have developed a series of conformationally-constrained cyclic peptides that act as structural mimics of the Tat RNA binding region and block Tat-TAR interactions at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. Here we show that these compounds block Tat-dependent transcription in cell-free systems and in cell-based reporter assays. The compounds are also cell permeable, have low toxicity, and inhibit replication of diverse HIV-1 strains, including both CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic primary HIV-1 isolates of the divergent subtypes A, B, C, D and CRF01_AE. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the cyclic peptidomimetic L50 exhibited an IC(50 ∼250 nM. Surprisingly, inhibition of LTR-driven HIV-1 transcription could not account for the full antiviral activity. Timed drug-addition experiments revealed that L-50 has a bi-phasic inhibition curve with the first phase occurring after HIV-1 entry into the host cell and during the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. The second phase coincides with inhibition of HIV-1 transcription. Reconstituted reverse transcription assays confirm that HIV-1 (- strand strong stop DNA synthesis is blocked by L50-TAR RNA interactions in-vitro. These findings are consistent with genetic evidence that TAR plays critical roles both during reverse transcription and during HIV gene expression. Our results suggest that antiviral drugs targeting TAR RNA might be highly effective due to a dual inhibitory mechanism.

  9. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of poplar defoliator,Clostera restitura on different poplar clones in north-western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurmail Singh; K.S. Sangha

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated ten poplar clones (G-3,G-48,L-50/88,L154/84,L-156/89,S7C8,S7C15.WSL-22,WSL-29 and Uday) for ovipositional preference and larval performance of Clostera restitura.Female moths did not show any preference with respect to clones for oviposition.Significant differences were observed for number of eggs laid on different plant parts.C.restitura laid eggs in clusters,preferably on upper surface of leaf and size of the egg cluster varied from 15 to 167 eggs.Clones varied for their relative resistance and susceptibility to C.restitura.L-50/88; L-156/89 were identified as most resistant clone based on minimum leaf consumption,whereas S7C15 was found to be most susceptible clone to C.restitura.In multiple choice experiments,no feeding preference by C restitura larvae was detected amongst different poplar clones.After initial settlement of larvae on a particular clone,the larvae remained confined to that clone and negligible inter-clonal movement was noticed subsequently.The fresh pupal weight was correlated negatively (r =-0.37) with percentage surface leaf area eaten and positively (r =0.47) with length of larval period,measured on different clones.Relationship between percentage leaf area eaten and length of larval period was negative (r =-0.23).Owing to relative resistance of L50/88 and L-156/89 against C.restitura,these clones can be recommended for plantation in defoliator prone areas in north-western India.

  10. Simulated Effects of 1/f Noise on an SKA Intensity Mapping Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, Stuart E; Battye, Richard; Olivari, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed recently that the SKA1-MID could be used to conduct an HI intensity mapping survey that could rival upcoming Stage IV dark energy surveys. However, measuring the weak HI signal is expected to be very challenging due to contaminations such as residual Galactic emission, RFI, and instrumental 1/f noise. Modelling the effects of these contaminants on the cosmological HI signal requires numerical end-to-end simulations. Here we present how 1/f noise within the receiver can double the effective uncertainty of an SKA-like survey to HI on large angular scales (l < 50).

  11. Clinical Profile of Vitiligo in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranne, R V; Sehpgal, V N; Sachdeva, K G

    1986-01-01

    A clinical analysis of L50 patients having vitiligo revealed the incidence among new patients to be 1.25%. The male /female ratio was 1.3:1. Patients below the age of 30 years constituted 85%. Family history of vitiligo was available in 240/o. The different morphologic, Patterns consisted of vitiligo vulgaris (90 cases), vitiligo areata (22 cases), vitiligo acro-facialis (11 cases), vitiligo univers (11 cases , vitiligo mucoaae (9 cases),and vitiligo zosteriformis (7 cases). Association with diabetes meffitus (5 cases), alopecia areata (4 cases), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (1 case) and pemphigus vulgaris ( 1 case ) was observed.

  12. Barbunya (Mullus barbatus L., 1758 ve Isparoz (Diplodus annularis L., 1758 İçin Standart ve Dar Trol Torbaların Seçiciliği.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Kaykaç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Türkiye’deki, demersal balıkçılıkta kullanılan dip trol torbaları (40 mm PE düşük seçicilik özelliğindedir. Bu yüzden dip trol ağlarında torba seçiciliğinin geliştirilmesi demersal balık stoklarının korunması bakımından önem kazanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada Ege Denizi’nde barbunya (Mullus barbatus ve ısparoz (Diplodus annularis balık türlerine ait, Türkiye dip trol balıkçılığında ticari olarak kullanılan standart torba (çevre göz sayısı 200 ve dar torbanın (çevresinde 200 göz yerine 100 göz olan seçicilik özellikleri araştırılmıştır. Deniz çalışmaları İzmir Körfezinde 3 Haziran ve 27 Temmuz 2004 tarihleri arasında araştırma gemisi “Egesüf” ile yürütülmüştür. Veriler örtü torba tekniği kullanılarak elde edilmiş ve ‘En Yüksek Olabilirlik Yöntemi’ ile lojistik denklem kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Dar torba (L50=13,9 cm, barbunya için standart torbadan (L50=11,8 cm daha yüksek bir ortalama L50 değeri göstermiştir. Buna karşın, Isparoz için torbaların ortalama L50 değerleri arasında önemli bir fark yoktur (p>0,05. Sonuç olarak, daraltılmış torba standart torba ile karşılaştırıldığında barbunya seçiciliğinde önemli iyileştirmeler sağladığı tespit edilmiştir

  13. Department of the Air Force Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1988/89 Budget Estimates Submitted to Congress. Descriptive Summaries. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-09

    b b x c a ON b O O Tl b C > BBU BB -4 CO 4MNWC30 a r-> b a - b B •o a a...H U U a ɜuɜ(34««a<aa ɝl-50rsw-5rQJc< rrH ao oo u 41 e 41 O a 0) i 1 1 I r 81 hf a 4M h, « 3 i- 9 « H u 3 SSI 0

  14. EST Table: FS915115 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS915115 E_FL_fufe_34E16_F_0 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 51 %/158 aa ref|XP_315489.2| AGA... 49 %/183 aa FBpp0265444|DyakGE20434-PA 10/08/29 low homology 10/09/10 51 %/158 aa AGAP005486-PA Protein|2L:...09/10 44 %/162 aa gi|91089379|ref|XP_973709.1| PREDICTED: similar to mitochondrial ribosomal protein L50 CG8612-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS915115 fufe ...

  15. The effects of subsampling and between-haul variation on the size-selectivity estimation of Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi Los efectos de submuestreo y variación entre lances en la estimación de la selectividad a la talla de la merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the data collected in a size selectivity experiment on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi carried out in 2000, the selectivity parameters for four codend mesh sizes (100, 110, 130, and 140 mm of mesh size opening were estimated and modelled by the SELECT model. These analyses included considerations of the sampling proportions of the catch in the codend and cover. Furthermore, the analyses took into account between-haul variation. The l50 values were 30.8, 29.9, 30.0, and 41.2 cm of total length, respectively, values lower than the estimates obtained from previous studies. The contribution of explanatory variables to the selectivity model was also tested in order to determine the role of mesh size, catch size (in number, and towing speed. Increases in catch size and in towing speed were accompanied by decreases in the l50 estimates. These results demonstrate how incorporation of subsampling effect and explanatory variables to model between-haul variation can improve selectivity estimates and management of a valuable resource.Usando los datos recolectados en un experimento de selectividad a la talla de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi realizado en el año 2000, se estimaron y modelaron los parámetros de selectividad para copos de cuatro tamaños de malla (100, 110, 130 y 140 mm de tamaño de malla interno mediante el modelo SELECT. Los análisis incluyeron consideraciones de las proporciones de muestreo de la captura en el copo y en el cubrecopo. Además, los análisis tuvieron en cuenta la variación entre lances. Los valores de l50 fueron 30,8; 29,9; 30,0 y 41,2 cm longitud total respectivamente, valores menores que los obtenidos en estudios previos. Se probó también la contribución de variables explicatorias al modelo de selectividad, para determinar el aporte del tamaño de malla, el volumen de captura (en número y la velocidad de arrastre. Los incrementos en el volumen de captura y en la velocidad de arrastre produjeron una

  16. Effect of high glucose on the expression of CD36 and lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high glucose on regulating the expression of CD36 and lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages.Methods THP-1 macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of D-glucose(5.6,11,20,30 and 35 mmol/L),50 mg/L oxidized low density lipoprotein(ox-LDL),50 mg/L oxLDL+20 mmol/L D-glucose for 24 h.Total cholesterol content in THP-1 macrophages was determined by high performance liquid chromatography,the lipid accumulation was detected by oil red O stain.CD36 mRNA and

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_006254.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 54.1_apo_4-63.pdb blast 4L,5R,6V,10A,11Q,13K,14V,17F,18R,21L,22C,24K,25T,26E,28L,29L,30G,32Y,33F,34P,36K,37I,38S,40L,41D,43F,44L,46E,48A,49L,50N,51E,54L,56N,57L,58K,59A,60P,61L,63I 0 ...

  18. Size selection of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in square mesh codends: A study based on assessment of decisive morphology for mesh penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Madsen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    measures of haddock morphology are important for size selection through meshes. We quantified between-individual variation in morphology and used simulation techniques to estimate that this variation can account for less than 28% (range 15–28%) of the SR values found during experimental fishing...... diamond mesh codends. However, experimental results demonstrated considerable between-haul variations in the selection parameters (L50 and SR). It was speculated that these results could be linked to differences in morphology of individual haddock of the same length. In the present study we assessed which...

  19. CO2 Laser Glazing Treatment of a Veneering Porcelain: Effects on Porosity, Translucency, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, R; dos Reis, M C; Salvadori, M C; Hernandes, A C; Cesar, P F; Medeiros, I S

    2015-01-01

    This work tested CO2 laser as a glazing agent and investigated the effects of irradiation on the porosity, translucency, and mechanical properties of veneering porcelain. Sixty discs (diameter 3.5 × 2.0 mm) of veneering porcelain for Y-TZP frameworks (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik) were sintered and had one of their faces mirror polished. The specimens were divided into six groups (n=10/group) according to surface treatment, as follows: no treatment-control; auto-glaze in furnace following manufacturer's instructions (G); and CO2 laser (45 or 50 W/cm(2)) applied for four or five minutes (L45/4, L45/5, L50/4, L50/5). Optical microscopy (Shimadzu, 100×) was conducted and the images were analyzed with Image J software for the determination of the following porosity parameters: area fraction, average size, and Feret diameter. The translucency parameter studied was masking ability, determined by color difference (ΔE) over black and white backgrounds (CM3370d, Konica Minolta). Microhardness and fracture toughness (indentation fracture) were measured with a Vickers indenter (HMV, Shimadzu). Contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) (50 × 50 μm(2), Nanoscope IIIA, Veeco) was performed at the center of one sample from each group, except in the case of L45/5. With regard to porosity and translucency parameters, auto-glazed and laser-irradiated specimens presented statistical similarity. The area fraction of the surface pores ranged between 2.4% and 5.4% for irradiated specimens. Group L50/5 presented higher microhardness when compared to the G group. The higher (1.1) and lower (0.8) values for fracture toughness (MPa.m(1/2)) were found in laser-irradiated groups (L50/4 and L45/4, respectively). AFM performed after laser treatment revealed changes in porcelain surface profile at a submicrometric scale, with the presence of elongated peaks and deep valleys.

  20. Foreign Military Sales: A Growing Concern. Departments of State and Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    tipoing the United States by 12 perc0nt~ In lY74 this margin was increased to L 50 percent. Soviet arms wore directed at a few ~ountries with Syria...er the sales market . It is also evident that ~any na~ions want ~ot only the eauipment but also the follow-on support and assistance which, when...restraint in * * * the overall level of u.s. arms sales, the percentage of each national defense market the United States enjoys, the

  1. 锂电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical investigation of LiMn{sub}20{sub}4 cathodes in gel electrolyte at various temperatures,Electrochemical investigation of LiNi{sub}0.5Mn{sub}l.50{sub}4 thin film intercalation electrodes,ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF MOLTEN NITRATE ELECTROLYTES AND APPLICATIONS FOR HIGH VOLTAGE LITHIUM CELLS, In situ electrochemical scanning probe microscopy of lithium battery cathode materials, vanadium pentoxide (V{sub}20{sub}5),Influence of additives in electrolyte solutions on safety and cycle life of lithium cells,Lithium battery electrolyte using an aliphatic type ionic liquid,Lithium Insertion into Vanadium Pentoxide Xerogels Containing Some Metal Cations。

  2. NiO/活性炭催化氧化降解水中LAS研究%Study on Degradation of Aqueous Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Using NiO/Activated Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建峰; 徐春彦; 白婷婷

    2008-01-01

    以NiO/活性炭为催化剂,并加入H2O2,催化氧化降解100 mL 50 mg/L十二烷基苯磺酸钠(LAS).结果表明,H2O2用量为4.9 mmol/L,温度为50℃,pH值在3~4之间,反应时间为2.0 h,LAS降解率接近80%,COD M去除率为71.6%.

  3. Gila Bend AAF, Gila Bend, Arizona, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-23

    temperature, means and standard dviatin of dr-hllh, wmt-hlh (nypIre) DD IJ 1473 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT . SIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(Wh.n Dfl. ntr.d) 19...o80F &93 F Toa WetB 14306 212 68. 5.310 310 67.5 21.0 91 93 10- DoPo.t 1095480 17L 50.0 9.894 3.0 1. 18. , 3.6 931 .. .. .... i r C DATA PRbCCSS! 4G

  4. Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390. Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

  5. Effect of leptin on cell proliferation and apoptosis of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC7901 and colon cancer cell line-HT-29

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Wen Yu; Bi-Sheng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore effect of leptin on cell proliferation and apoptosis of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC7901 and colon cancer cell line-HT-29.Methods: MTT and flow cytometry were adopted for detecting the effect of exogenous leptin on cell cycle of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC7901 and colon cancer cell line-HT-29.Results: Leptin with mass concentration (0 ng/mL, 5 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL) could stimulate the growth of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC7901 and colon cancer cell line-HT-29; exogenous leptin with mass concentration (5 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL) could inhibit cell growth of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line-SGC7901 and colon cancer cell line-HT-29 after 72 h; among which, inhibiting effects of cell line-SGC7901 and cell line-HT-29 were the most significant under the effect of exogenous leptin with mass concentration-200 ng/mL.Conclusion:Within a certain concentration and action time, exogenous leptin can stimulate the growth of gastric adenocarcinoma cell line and colon cancer cell line, and then promot the tumor cell proliferation and/or inhibit the tumor cell apoptosis.

  6. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    A recent addition to the anthropogenic sources of underwater noise is offshore wave energy converters. Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter located at Hastholm, Denmark (57°7.73´N, 8°37.23´E). The Wavestar is a full-scale test and demonstration converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  7. Selectivity in a trawl codend during haul-back operation: An overlooked phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Skeide, R.; Breen, M.;

    2008-01-01

    ), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), respectively, the mean percentages escaping at the surface were 16, 12 and 38% of the total escape while 17, 8 and 28% escaped during the haul-up phase. Compared to towing, the escape rate (no./min) increased for haddock by a factor...... 2.7 during haul-up and by a factor 1.7 at the surface, whereas the escape rates of whiting were similar for the three phases. The escape rate of Norway lobster increased by a factor of approximately 7 for both the haul-up and surface phases, compared to the towing phase. The selectivity parameters L......50 (50% retention length) and SR (selection rangeá=áL75-L25) were estimated and compared for the three different phases and for the whole haul for haddock, whiting and Norway lobster. For all three species there was no significant (Pá>á0.05) difference in L50 between the three phases of the haul...

  8. Reproductive Biology of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in the Western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurmeea, Zahirah; Zudaire, Iker; Chassot, Emmanuel; Cedras, Maria; Nikolic, Natacha; Bourjea, Jérôme; West, Wendy; Appadoo, Chandani

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the western Indian Ocean was examined through analysis of the sex ratio, spawning season, length-at-maturity (L50), spawning frequency and fecundity. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 923 female and 867 male albacore were sampled. A bias in sex ratio was found in favor of females with fork length (LF) reproduction through their longer spawning period compared to small individuals. The L50 (mean ± standard error) of female albacore was estimated at 85.3 ± 0.7 cm LF. Albacore spawn on average every 2.2 days within the spawning region and spawning months, from November to January. Batch fecundity ranged between 0.26 and 2.09 million oocytes and the relative batch fecundity (mean ± standard deviation) was estimated at 53.4 ± 23.2 oocytes g-1 of somatic-gutted weight. The study provides new information on the reproductive development and classification of albacore in the western Indian Ocean. The reproductive parameters will reduce uncertainty in current stock assessment models which will eventually assist the fishery to be sustainable for future generations. PMID:28002431

  9. Effect of the litter material on drinking water quality in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of drinking water and its effect on broiler performance, drinking water quality was studied using six different litter materials. The presence of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli was investigated. The following litter materials were used in the trial: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped Napier grass (Pennisetum pupureum, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% wood shavings, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% rice husks, and plain sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L.. A number of 1620 Ross® one-day-old chicks were reared in 54 pens measuring 4.5 m² each, equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder. Water samples were collected in sterile tubes on days 28 and 42 of the rearing period, and submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Microbiological data were organized by classes expressed in a logarithm scale, where the lowest contamination corresponds to class 1 and the highest contamination to class 4. Results showed that total coliform contamination was higher on day 28 than in the end of the rearing period, and that E. coli presence was detected during both analyzed periods. The litter materials that presented lower degree of water contamination, predominantly class 1, were sugarcane bagasse and 50% of sugarcane bagasse and 50% of rice husks.

  10. Recognition and management of vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Paula; Ghetu, Maria V; Langan, Robert C

    2009-10-15

    Vitamin D deficiency affects persons of all ages. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, proximal muscle weakness, muscle aches, and throbbing bone pain elicited with pressure over the sternum or tibia. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be obtained in patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 20 ng per mL (50 nmol per L), and insufficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 30 ng per mL (50 to 75 nmol per L). The goal of treatment is to normalize vitamin D levels to relieve symptoms and decrease the risk of fractures, falls, and other adverse health outcomes. To prevent vitamin D deficiency, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants and children receive at least 400 IU per day from diet and supplements. Evidence shows that vitamin D supplementation of at least 700 to 800 IU per day reduces fracture and fall rates in adults. In persons with vitamin D deficiency, treatment may include oral ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) at 50,000 IU per week for eight weeks. After vitamin D levels normalize, experts recommend maintenance dosages of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) at 800 to 1,000 IU per day from dietary and supplemental sources.

  11. Sequestration of Alkyltin(IV Compounds in Aqueous Solution: Formation, Stability, and Empirical Relationships for the Binding of Dimethyltin(IV Cation by N- and O-Donor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatino Casale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequestering ability of polyamines and aminoacids of biological and environmental relevance (namely, ethylenediamine, putrescine, spermine, a polyallylamine, a branched polyethyleneimine, aspartate, glycinate, lysinate toward dimethyltin(IV cation was evaluated. The stability of various dimethyltin(IV / ligand species was determined in NaClaq at t=25∘C and at different ionic strengths (0.1≤I/mol L-1≤1.0, and the dependence of stability constants on this parameter was modeled by an Extended Debye-Hückel equation and by Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT approach. At I=0.1 mol L−1, for the ML species we have log K=10.8, 14.2, 12.0, 14.7, 11.9, 7.7, 13.7, and 8.0 for ethylenediamine, putrescine, polyallylamine, spermine, polyethyleneimine, glycinate, lysinate, and aspartate, respectively. The sequestering ability toward dimethyltin(IV cation was defined by calculating the parameter pL50 (the total ligand concentration, as−log CL, able to bind 50% of metal cation, able to give an objective representation of this ability. Equations were formulated to model the dependence of pL50 on different variables, such as ionic strength and pH, and other empirical predictive relationships were also found.

  12. First gonadal maturation of Pinirampus pirinampu (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available Information regarding the reproductive cycle of commercially exploited fish species is extremely important for their appropriate management. The reproductive size of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, 1829 was determined for a population studied in the Pantanal wetlands of western Brazil. Samples were taken in September, October, and December 1997, and in February and March 1998. Gonadal stages were macroscopically determined and a monthly gonadossomatic index (GSI was used to determine the breeding period. The length of the first gonadal maturation was determined by classifying male and female adults and immature fish into length classes. The data on the adult individuals were plotted on graphs and the median values estimated to find the length at which 50% of the individuals reached maturity (L50. L100 was also determined. Males and females in the gonadal maturation process were recorded from October on, and the highest frequency was found to occur in February. Individuals with empty gonads occurred from February onwards. The GSI showed that gonadal development began in September and reached its peak in February. The L50 was 574 mm for females and 536 mm for males, while the L100 was 590 mm for females and 580 mm for males.

  13. Reproduction of Cichla kelberi Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 introduced into an artificial lake in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the reproduction of Cichla kelberi in an artificial lake, located in the municipality of Leme, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, and summer. The L50 and the L100 of this species were 192 and 235 mm (L50, for males and females, respectively, and 290 mm (L100 for both sexes. Spawning was parceled. The oocytes matured at a size of 428.4 µm, reaching their maximum at 2,203.2 µm. A mean of fecundity were of 12,129.2 oocytes, with the mean of oocytes in each batch of 4,897.7. This species has external fertilization, is nonmigratory, and with parental care of the young. Various attributes of the peacock bass make their introduction a temptation. However, due to their feeding and reproductive characteristics, they have no natural predators, making it difficult to control their population growth or eradicate them.

  14. SU-E-T-165: Characterization of Dose Distributions in High-Dose-Rate Surface Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzurovic, I; Hansen, J; Bhagwat, M; O’Farrell, D; Damato, A; Friesen, S; Devlin, P; Cormack, R [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize dose distributions in high-dose-rate(HDR) surface brachytherapy using an Ir-125 source for different geometries, field sizes and topology of the clinical targets(CT). To investigate the depth doses at the central axis(CAX), edges of the treatment fields(E), and lateral dose distributions(L) present when using flap applicators in skin cancer treatments. Methods: When malignancies diagnosed on the skin are treated, various geometries of the CT require proper adaptation of the flap or custom-made applicators to the treatment site. Consequently, the dose at the depth on CAX and field edges changes with variation of the curvatures and size of the applicators. To assess the dose distributions, we created a total of 10 treatment plans(TP) for 10×10 and 20×20 field sizes(FS) with a step size of 1cm. The geometry of the applicators was: planar(PA), curved to 30(CA30) and 60(CA60) degrees with respect to the CAX, half-cylinder(HC), and cylindrical shape(CS). One additional TP was created in which the applicators were positioned to form a dome shape(DS) with a diameter of 16cm. This TP was used to emulate treatment of the average sized scalp. All TPs were optimized to deliver a prescription dose at 8mm equidistantly from the planes containing the dwell positions. This optimization is equivalent to the clinical arrangement since the SSD for the flap applicators is 5mm and the prescription depth is 3mm in the majority of clinical cases. Results: The depths (in mm) of the isodose lines were: FS(10×10):PA[90%(9.1CAX,8.0E,7.6L),50%(28.3CAX,20E,17.3L), 25%(51.1CAX,40E,27L)],CA30[90%(10.3CAX,8.2E,7.9L),50%(32.1CAX, 16.2E,15.8L),25%(61.3CAX,36.7E,31.8L)],CA60[90%(12.2CAX,6.1E,6.3L ),50%(47CAX,14E,16.6L),25%(70.8CAX,31.9E,35.4L)],HC[90%(11.1CA X,6.3E,7.3L),50%(38.3CAX,14.6E,16.1L),25%(66.2CAX,33.8E,34.2L)];FS (20×20):PA[90%(11.1CAX,9.0E,7.0L),50%(34.4CAX,21.9E,15.3L),25%(7 0.4CAX,50.9E,34.8L)],CA30[90%(10.9CAX,7.5E,7.1L),50%(38.8CAX,16. 7E,15.4L),25

  15. Effect of siRNA interference on nerve growth factor in intervertebral disc inflammation rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Lei Lang; Ai-Lin Qin; Jian-Min Li; Peng Fu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the inhibition effect of siRNA interference onNGF induced by inflammatory factorIL-6, andIL-1 so as to provide novel targets for clinical treatment of discogenic low back pain.Methods:The intervertebral disc nucleus and annulus fibrosus cells of rats were separated .The cells were co-cultured with different concentrations(10 nmol/L,20 nmol/L,50 nmol/L,100 nmol/L) ofIL-6 andIL-1β.TheNGF- siRNA was leaded into the co-cultured cells with its import ability assessed by flow cytometry instrument tests,before and after which theNGF mRNA expression was detected by real-timeQ-PCR and theNGF content was detected byELISA.Results:Flow cytometry instrument test results showed that theNGF-siRNA cell conversion rate was99.8%.Real-timeQ-PCR detection results showed that compared with negative control group, theNGF mRNA expression of co-cultured cells treated by10 nmol/L,20 nmol/L,50 nmol/L,100 nmol/LIL-6 andIL-1β were respectively raised3.4,3.7,4.7, 3.7 times which were all significantly down-regulated after the import ofNGF- siRNA.EILSA detection results showed that compared with negative control group, theNGF content of co-cultured medium treated by10 nmol/L,20 nmol/L,50 nmol/L,100 nmol/LI-L6 andIL-1β were respectively raised2.9,3.3,4.5,7.4 times which were all significantly decreased after the import ofNGF- siRNA.Conclusions:These molecular biological results suggest that inflammatory factorIL-6 andIL-1β could stimulateNGF on intervertebral disc cells in vitro culture model and its efficiency is concentration dependent, while siRNA interference can inhibit the stimulation effect ofIL-6 andIL-1β on intervertebral disc cell, which provides a new targets for the clinical treatment of discogenic low back pain.

  16. Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize seasonally and locally the reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus). The study area included three rivers (Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande) in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, summer, and autumn. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 16 to 18 cm and 26 to 28 cm, respectively. Spawning was total, with synchronous development in two groups. The size of mature oocytes was 1,346.4 microm, reaching a maximum of 2,570.4 microm, with a mean fecundity of 9,190.5 oocytes. This species has external fertilization, is non-migratory, and lacks parental care of the young. Preservation of the Pirapitinga do Sul depends, in great part, on maintaining water quality, preservation of the riverine forests, and access to breeding areas.

  17. Study of annoyance due to urban automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubree, D.; Auzou, S.; Rapin, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous traffic noise measurements were carried out over 48 hour periods in front of a hundred buildings in different types of streets in Paris and its suburbs. Physical interpretation of the results provides a noise prediction formula for a traditional type of street. The noise at each point was characterized by a limited number of parameters by means of factor analysis, and their effect on the degree of disturbance by 700 individuals questioned near the measurement stations was studied. It was found that many additional factors affect disturbance besides noise, and that the dispersion of replies for any given noise situation is very wide. A disturbance index is proposed which takes into account the daylight level L(50), the position of rooms in the dwelling exposed to noise, and the individual degrees of satisfaction with the area.

  18. Influencia de la viscosidad en el desgaste por fatiga en contactos de rodadura de lubricantes sintéticos poliglicoles // Influence of the viscosity in the fatigue wear in rolling contacts of synthetic poliglycols lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández Battez

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la vida a fatiga en contactos de rodadura de bolas de acero AISI 52100 de tres aceitessintéticos poliglicoles (P.A.G.-9, P.A.G.-12 y BREOX-B-135X con viscosidades de 9, 12 y 21 cSt a 100ºC,respectivamente. La evaluación del mecanismo de fallo se realiza mediante ensayos de rodadura en la máquina decuatro bolas Seta-Shell modificada para ensayos de Extrema Presión. Una vez realizados los ensayos (de acuerdo con lanorma IP-300/82/87, con los aceites descritos, se determinan las gráficas de vida a fatiga utilizando la leyprobabilística de Weibull para mínimos, calculando los valores de L10 (probabilidad de fallo del 10 %, L50(probabilidad de fallo del 50 %, Lm (vida media a fatiga y a (pendiente de Weibull. Se realizan también las gráficasS-T (tensión- tiempo o curvas de probabilidad a fallo constante para L10 y L50. El trabajo evidencia la mejorasignificativa de la vida a fatiga al aumentar la viscosidad de los aceites utilizados. Este efecto también se produce a altascargas.Palabras claves: fatiga, rodadura, máquina de cuatro bolas, aceites sintéticos, poliglicoles, viscosidad,lubricación elastohidrodinámica (EHL.____________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this work is evaluated the fatigue life in rolling contacts of steel balls AISI 52100 of three synthetic polyglicols oils (P.A.G. -9,P.A.G. -12 and BREOX-B-135X with viscosities of 9, 12 and 21 cSt at 100ºC, respectively. The evaluation of the failuremechanism is carried out by means of rolling rehearsals in the four balls Seta-Shell modified machine for rehearsals of extremepressure. Once the rehearsals are carried out (in accordance with the norm IP-300/82/87, with the described oils, the graphs offatigue life are determined by means of the Weibull probabilistic law for minimum, calculating the values of L10 (probability offailure of 10%, L50 (probability of failure of 50%, Lm (half life to fatigue and a (Weibull

  19. Evaluation of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of CELSS Wheat Residue Cellulose at a Scale Environment to NASA's KSC Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass processing at the Kennedy Space Center CELSS breadboard project has focused on the evaluation of breadboard-scale enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat residue cellulose (25%, w/w). Five replicate runs of cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei (QM9414) and enzymatic hydrolysis of residue cellulose were completed. Enzymes were produced in 1 0 days (5 L, 25 g (dry weight) residue). Cellulose hydrolysis (12 L, 50 g (dry weight) residue) using these enzymes produced 5.5 to 6.0 g glucose liter(exp -1) in 7 days. Cellulose conversion efficiency was 29%. These processes are feasible technically on a breadboard scale, but would only increase the edible wheat yield 10%.

  20. Deconfined criticality flow in the Heisenberg model with ring-exchange interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Huang, Yuan; Deng, Youjin; Kuklov, A B; Prokof'ev, N V; Svistunov, B V

    2013-05-03

    Quantum transition points in the J-Q model--the test bed of the deconfined critical point theory--and the SU(2)-symmetric discrete noncompact CP(1) representation of the deconfined critical action are directly compared by the flowgram method. We find that the flows of two systems coincide in a broad region of linear system sizes (10 < L < 50 for the J-Q model), implying that the deconfined critical point theory correctly captures the mesoscopic physics of competition between the antiferromagnetic and valence-bond orders in quantum spin systems. At larger sizes, however, we observe significant deviations between the two flows which both demonstrate strong violations of scale invariance. This reliably rules out the second-order transition scenario in at least one of the two models and suggests the most likely explanation for the nature of the transition in the J-Q model.

  1. Study of the reproduction of (Sparidae) of Nouadhibou coast (Mauritania)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    L’étude de la reproduction de Diplodus sargus cadenati, de la côte de Nouadhibou a porté sur 513 individus de longueurs à la fourche comprises entre 13,2 cm et 32,2 cm. Cette étude a montré que la période de ponte de cette espèce s’étend de janvier à avril, période où la température de l’eau est en moyenne de 18,4°c. La taille (L50) à la laquelle 50% des individus sont matures est de 21,47 ± 0,45 cm de longueur à la fourche (Lf) pour les mâles et de 20,79 ± 0,55 cm pour les femelles. L’étude ...

  2. Assessment of vacuum-dried peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) as a source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Elsa; Marín, Daniela; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Rodríguez, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature in the vacuum drying process of Mentha piperita L. (50 to 90 °C). Generally, drying processes affect the quality of product, however, vacuum drying works under sub-atmospheric pressures. In order to investigate how temperature affects this herb, as to color, chlorophyll, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, antioxidant activity by DPPH and ORAC methods. Mineral, vitamin C and sugar contents were also evaluated. A slight change in color and chlorophyll content was observed in the samples. The highest values for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity methods were obtained at 50 and 70 °C however, a decrease in the vitamin C content was observed. Minerals such as K, Ca, Mg and Na were found. Sucrose showed the highest sugar content. This work suggests that M. piperita L. can be used as a natural antioxidant, whether fresh or dried.

  3. 自干型水溶性醇酸树脂的配方设计%Formulating of Recipe of Self-Drying Water-Soluble Alkyd Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅; 阚成友; 刘德山

    2004-01-01

    建立了适合于水溶性醇酸树脂配方设计的通用程序.讨论了醇酸树脂的基本参数K、油度L、醇超量R及酸值Sv对醇酸树脂干燥时间和硬度的影响.结果表明当K=1、L=50%、R=1.2时,醇酸树脂膜有最短的干燥时间,所得膜的硬度也最高;Sv越大,干燥时间越长,但是膜的硬度越大.

  4. Reproductive biology of female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) reared in monoculture and polyculture with African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoko, A P; Limbu, S M; Mrosso, H D J; Mgaya, Y D

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproductive biology and early breeding behaviour of female Oreochromis niloticus reared in monoculture and polyculture with Clarias gariepinus in earthen ponds for 8 months. Results revealed no significant difference in length at first maturity (L50) between females reared in monoculture and polyculture systems. Similarly, no significant differences were detected in absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, gonado-somatic index and condition factor between the two culture systems. The absolute fecundity was more strongly correlated with total length and body weight than with ovary weight. The study concluded that early breeding of O. niloticus in captivity is not affected by the culture systems used. Therefore, O. niloticus production in either system can be improved only through proper pond management techniques.

  5. Anticlastogenic Effect of Redistilled Cow's Urine Distillate in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Challenged With Manganese Dioxide and Hexavalent Chromium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIPANWITA DUTTA; S.SARAVANA DEVI; K. KRISHNAMURTHI; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the anticlastogenic effect of redistilled cow's urine distillate (RCUD) in human peripheral lymphocytes (HLC) challenged with manganese dioxide and hexavalent chromium. Methods The anticlastogenic activity of redistilled cow's urine distillate was studied in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (HPNLs) and human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro challenged with manganese dioxide and hexavalent chromium as established genotoxicants and clastogens which could cause induction of DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus. Three different levels of RCUD: 1 μL/mL, 50 μL/mL and 100μL/mL, were used in the study. Results Manganese dioxide and hexavalent chromium caused statistically significant DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus formation, which could be protected by redistilled cow's urine distillate. Conclusion The redistilled cow's urine distillate posseses strong antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic properties against HPNLs and HLC treated with Cr+6 and MnO2. This property is mainly due to the antioxidants present in RCUD.

  6. Mechanism of Deep-focus Earthquakes Anomalous Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Linnik, E P; Mavrodiev, S C; Zelentsova, T N; Pintelina, L; Smolyar, V P; Pekevski, L

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the NEIC-data we have shown that the spatial deep-focus earthquake distribution in the Earth interior over the 1993-2006 is characterized by the clearly defined periodical fine discrete structure with period L=50 km, which is solely generated by earthquakes with magnitude M 3.9 to 5.3 and only on the convergent boundary of plates. To describe the formation of this structure we used the model of complex systems by A. Volynskii and S. Bazhenov. The key property of this model consists in the presence of a rigid coating on a soft substratum. It is shown that in subduction processes the role of a rigid coating plays the slab substance (lithosphere) and the upper mantle acts as a soft substratum. Within the framework of this model we have obtained the estimation of average values of stress in the upper mantle and Young's modulus for the oceanic slab (lithosphere) and upper mantle.

  7. Crescimento de rainha-do-abismo (Sinningia leucotrichia (Hochene Moore - Gesneriaceae em resposta à nutrição.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Iuchi

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de adubo foliar Bayfolan Extra A sobre o crescimento de rainha-do-abismo (Sinningia leucotricha (Hoehne Moore. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha O ml.l-', 25 ml.l-', 50 ml.1-1,75 ml.l-' e 100 ml.l-', num regime de 2 ml da solução por frasco, em dias alternados. Os parâmetros avaliados foram altura da planta, comprimento da folha, comprimento das raizes, número de folhas e número de haste. O tratamento de 25 ml.l-' de Bayfolan Extra A foi o que promoveu maior crescimento de parte aérea, sendo que níveis mais altos foram prejudiciais.

  8. Understanding the size selectivity in diamond mesh codends based on flume tank experiments and fish morphology: effect of catch size and fish escape behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    (Gadus morhua) and Nephrops (N. norvegicus) to simulate potential size selection. By assuming certain patterns of fish escape behaviour in the codend, it was demonstrated that it was possible to replicate results for size selection based on sea trials with similar codends. Results show that L50 can......This study quantifies potential size selection of a fish and a crustacean species in di-amond mesh codends during a fishing process. Changes in mesh geometry along the codends and at different catch weights were recorded in a flume tank and subse-quently used together with the morphology of cod...... happens mostly in the area of catch accu-mulation. In response to questions, it was also noted that FISHSELECT methodology has been used. Mesh penetrations were simulated for each individual. Considering the relationship between catch weight and codend selectivity, studies with lower catches can...

  9. The HI Environment of Three Superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S; Staveley-Smith, L; Smith, R C

    2002-01-01

    The ambient interstellar environment of wind- and supernova-driven superbubbles strongly affects their evolution, but its properties are rarely well-determined. We have therefore obtained HI aperture synthesis imaging of the environment around three similar, optically-selected superbubble nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The resulting HI maps show that the ambient gas distribution around these superbubbles differ to an extreme: DEM L25 shows no neutral shell component, but is nestled within an HI hole; DEM L50 shows a massive neutral shell component, but is otherwise within an HI void; and DEM L301 shows no correspondence at all between the optical nebula and HI distribution. There is also poor correspondence between the HI and optical kinematics. These results strongly caution against inferring properties of the ambient neutral environment of individual superbubbles without direct observations. Finally, all three objects show some evidence of shock activity.

  10. Vitamin D in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency is of great concern for public health. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and mortality. These findings are, however, not universally accepted and there exists certain controversy regarding the potential benefits of vitamin D. Whereas vitamin D might also be relevant for extra-skeletal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or infections, the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are solely based on skeletal effects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range from 600 to 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day, corresponding to a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Consequently, there exists a substantial gap between the RDA and the actual high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in general populations, particularly among the elderly. Therefore, achieving the RDA will require additional efforts including food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and health campaigns.

  11. 日本蟳入笼行为及其地笼网逃逸口选择性的实验研究%Ingress behavior and escape vent selectivity of Charybdis japonica in the cage net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 张秀梅

    2013-01-01

    To improve the selectivity of cage nets and protect juvenile crab resources, effect of cage-net escape vent size on selecting Charybdis japonica was evaluated. At the same time, the impact of illumination and bait on the behaviour of C. japonica was observed. C. japonica were photophobic: under bright conditions they preferred to be in the four corners of the water tank. Under dark conditions, they were randomly distributed. Both bait and the colour of black entice C. japonica into the cage. The rectangular escape vents at the bottom of the cage net were 4 cm×3 cm, 4.5 cm×3 cm, 5 cm×3 cm and 5.5 cm×3 cm length by height, which corresponded to L50 (the corresponding carapace length with 50% retention) of C. japonica being 3.75 cm, 4.24 cm, 4.54 cm and 5.08 cm, respectively, and SR (the selection range) being 0.65 cm, 0.45 cm, 0.62 cm and 0.82 cm, respectively. L50 has a linear relationship with the length of the escape vent, being about 92.3% of its length. Based on the minimum carapace length of sexually mature C. japonica, the minimum market-acceptable size standard and the experimen-tal results, we conclude that the most appropriate size (length×height) of the escape vent is 4.3 cm×3 cm.%  选取山东沿海捕获的体质健壮日本(Charybdis japonica),在实验室水槽内暂养1周后开展相关实验.观察蟳光照、诱饵条件对日本入笼行为的影响.结果表明,蟳日本畏光,在明亮条件下大多数分布于养殖水槽的四角,蟳在黑暗条件下趋向随机分布,遮黑处理和放置诱饵均能增加日本的入笼比例;在地笼网底部设置尺寸(长×高)分蟳别为4 cm×3 cm、4.5 cm×3 cm、5 cm×3 cm、5.5 cm×3 cm 的长方形逃逸口时,日本50%选择甲长(L50)分别为3.75蟳cm、4.24 cm、4.54 cm、5.08 cm,选择范围(SR)分别为0.65 cm、0.45 cm、0.62 cm、0.82 cm; L50与逃逸口长度呈线性相关关系,约为逃逸口长度的92.3%.根据实验结果,结合日本最小性成熟甲长和市场

  12. Caffeine degradation in water by gamma irradiation, ozonation and ozonation/gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Murat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions of caffeine were treated with ozone and gamma irradiation. The amounts of remaining caffeine were determined after solid phase extraction as a function of absorbed dose and ozonation time. In addition to this, some important parameters such as inorganic ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD dissolved oxygen and total acidity changes were followed. Caffeine (50 ppm is found to be completely decomposed at 3.0 kGy and 1.2 kGy doses in the absence of H2O2 and in 1.20 mM H2O2 solutions, respectively. In the case of gamma irradiation after ozonation, 50 ppm caffeine was removed at 0.2 kGy when the solution was ozonized for 100 s at a rate of 10 g O3 h-1 in 400 mL 50 ppm paracetamol solution.

  13. Properties of LiCoO{sub 2}-coated NiO MCFC cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, S.T.; Kim, C.K.; Chun, H.S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, H.J. [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    PVA-assisted sol-gel method is useful in producing metal oxides with large surface area at low temperature. We fabricated LiCoO{sub 2}-coated NiO(LC-NiO) cathode by PVA-assisted sol-gel method and measured its properties, The electrical conductivity of LC-NiO cathode was measured to be more than 5 times as high as that of NiO and unit cell test showed improved performance. From the SEM images and Raman spectra. we confirmed that the structure of LC-NiO was different from that of NiO. For 250 hours of steady operation of unit cells. the mean voltage of the cells were 0.78V for NiO and 0.85V for LiCoO{sub 2}-Coated NiO at a current density of l50mA/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Theoretical study of the effect of round straps on the selectivity in a diamond mesh cod-end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Priour, D.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    2006-01-01

    FEMNET, a numerical tool based on the finite element method, was applied to estimate the shapes of various diamond-mesh cod-end designs during fishing. The only design differences rest in the use of round straps of different lengths, positions and numbers. The cod-end shape estimates were...... then entered in the selectivity simulation tool PRESEMO to simulate the selectivity processes of the various cod-end designs under the same varying fishing conditions. This enabled us to demonstrate how one or two round straps along the cod-end axis may change the selectivity of the cod-end compared...... with a reference cod-end, without round straps. We predict that in cod-end designs, which comply with the EU legislation, the 50% retention length (L50) may be reduced by up to 1.5 cm (5%) for haddock....

  15. Effect of Curcumin on the Gene Expression of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms and effective target ponits of lipid-lowering drug, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, and study the effect of curcumin on the expression of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in macrophages in mice. Methods: Macrophages in mice were treated with curcumin, which was purified from the ethanolly extraction of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae for 24 h. The LDL receptors expressed in the macrophages were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assay of Dil labeled LDL uptake by flow cytometer. Results: It was found for the first time that 10 μmol/L-50μmol/L curcumin could obviously up-regulate the expression of LDL receptor in macrophages in mice, and a dose-effect relationship was demonstrated. Conclusion: One of the lipid-lowering mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, was completed by the effect of curcumin through the up-regulation of the expression of LDL receptor.

  16. Cluster Headache Secondary to Macroprolactinoma with Ipsilateral Cavernous Sinus Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 25 year-old man with episodic cluster headache that was refractory to all standard pharmacological prophylactic and abortive treatments. Because of the lack of response, an MRI brain was performed which showed a large pituitary tumour with ipsilateral cavernous sinus invasion. The serum prolactin was significantly elevated at 54,700 miU/L (50–400 confirming a macro-prolactinoma. Within a few days of cabergoline therapy the headache resolved. He continues to be headache free several years after starting the dopamine agonist. This case highlights the importance of imaging the pituitary fossa in patients with refractory cluster headache, It also raises the potential anatomical importance of the cavernous sinus in pituitary-associated headache.

  17. Asymptomatic hyperCKemia during a two-year monitoring period: A case report and literature overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinis, Spyridon; Symeonidis, Athanasios; Karanasios, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.

    2017-01-01

    High creatine kinase (CK) levels can be associated with many disorders, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic, endocrine and traumatic. Idiopathic hyperCKemia is a diagnostic dilemma for physicians even though its long-term prognosis is usually benign. We report a case of a Caucasian 61-year-old woman who presented as completely asymptomatic to her general practitioner with a serum CK (sCK) level at 6,122 IU/l. A complete diagnostic evaluation, including physical and laboratory examinations, electromyogram and muscle biopsy were negative for any neuromuscular or other disorder. Two years later the patient remains asymptomatic, active and overall healthy but sCK levels remain elevated, ≤6,591 IU/l (>50-fold higher than normal values). PMID:28123712

  18. Estrutura populacional e biologia reprodutiva de Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae na baía de Ubatuba-Enseada, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-01-01

    primeira maturação gonadal (L50 foi estimado em 16,7cm para fêmeas e 15,4cm para machos. O período reprodutivo ocorreu nas estações quentes, e a espécie apresentou desova múltipla. O índice hepatossomático apresentou variação sazonal similar à descrita para o índice gonadossomático, e pode ser considerado bom indicador da desova. O fator de condição não foi um bom indicador do período de desova, mas esteve relacionado com o processo de recuperação e maturação das gônadas. Características da dinâmica populacional mostraram que M. americanus utiliza a área de estudo para reprodução e recrutamento.

  19. The association between lead and micronutrient status, and children's sleep, classroom behavior, and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Casavantes, K Marcela; Mendoza, Cristina; Lopez, Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; Rosado, Jorge L; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2007-01-01

    The role of lead exposure or micronutrient deficiencies in children's sleep problems is unknown. Although elevated blood lead concentrations (BPb) are clearly related to behavior problems in children, few researchers have used objective observations. The authors investigated relationships between lead, micronutrient status, sleep, classroom behavior, and activity in Mexican children aged 6-8 years living close to a metal foundry. Mean BPb was 11.5 +/- 6.1 microg/dL; 50% had levels >or= 10 microg/dL. Ten percent of children had hemoglobin or= 10 microg/dL was associated with later waking time and shorter duration of sleep. Anemia was linked to more off-task behaviors, lower physical activity, earlier bedtime, and shorter sleep onset. Researchers should investigate these relationships further, using more sensitive measures.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14038-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available turicatae 91E135, complete genome. 40 3e-04 2 ( FG746532 ) G1146P36FN10.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma...l... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG793956 ) G1148P318FN2.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled normal...... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG793983 ) G1148P318FL16.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG707317 ) G1144P346FA9.T0 Anolis caroline...nsis pooled normal... 50 3e-04 2 ( FG692864 ) G1144P35FN11.T0 Anolis carolinensis p...orsitans Fat body ... 40 0.061 2 ( FG724038 ) G1144P310FJ8.T0 Anolis carolinensis

  1. [Turbinella angulata and Busyconperversum (Mesogasteropoda: Turbinellidae and Melongenidae) population and reproductive dynamics in the Campeche Bank, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Josefina Santos; Díaz, Martha Enríquez; Aranda, Dalila Aldana

    2013-03-01

    Turbinella angulata and Busycon perversum are two marine gastropods that support the 90% of conch fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico, nevertheless there is no information available to support a management strategy for both species. The aim of this work was to obtain preliminary fishery information to promote management actions for both species in the Campeche Bank. The population of conchs was sampled in 12 transects (150x1.5m) by SCUBA diving from April 2008 to March 2010. All conchs were collected and siphonal length (SL) was measured. These samples were complemented with data from the commercial catches, analyzing a total of 2 832 individuals of T angulata. Siphonal length varied between 63 and 282mm. Sex ratio was of 0.98:1 female:male. The von Bertalanffy growth equation parameters were: L infinity =346mm; K=0.30 and t(0)=-0.24. Spawning extended from January to May with a long resting stage from June to September for over 80% of the adult population. The first gonadic maturity (L50) was at 210mm (SL) for females and 200mm for males. For B. perversum a total of 1655 individuals were analyzed. Siphonal length varied between 78 and 291mm with significant differences between male and female (p<0.05). Sex ratio was of 1:0.25 female:male. The growth parameters obtained were: Linifinity=360mm; K=0.35 and t(0)=-0.19. The spawning period was from August to December with resting stage from January to April. The L50 was 215mm (LS) for females and 190mm for males. Both species presented one recruitment pulse. These results will be useful to design management schemes based on population dynamics and reproductive attributes.

  2. Evaluation of analgesic efficacy of intra-articular bupivacaine, bupivacaine plus fentanyl, and bupivacaine plus tramadol after arthroscopic knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sukanya; Kaushal, Harpreet; Gupta, Ravi K

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) bupivacaine, bupivacaine-fentanyl, and bupivacaine-tramadol for relief of postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. In a randomized double-blind design, 60 adult American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or class II patients undergoing elective arthroscopic knee surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to 3 groups: all received 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine, plus either 1 mL of normal saline solution (group I), 1 mL (50 μg) of fentanyl (group II), or 1 mL (50 mg) of tramadol (group III). Pain was assessed by use of a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours postoperatively. Intramuscular diclofenac sodium was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative adverse effects were noted. The mean VAS pain scores were the lowest for group II, intermediate for group III, and highest for group I. There was a significant main effect for group differences on pain scores (F = 41.138, P tramadol were better than IA bupivacaine, and bupivacaine with fentanyl was better than that with tramadol. However, both the combinations were comparable to each other with regard to the secondary outcome measure (supplementary analgesic requirement). Thus IA bupivacaine-fentanyl appears to be the best combination for relief of postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery, followed by IA bupivacaine-tramadol. Level I, randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  4. In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of hemodialysate (Solcoseryl® as a wound healing agent in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Eissa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin wounds are the most prevalent daily affections intruding fishes in an aquaculture facility. Such skin affections are considered to be the most common portals of entry for disease agents affecting fishes. This persistent phenomenon necessitates a comprehensive search for an efficient healing therapy to combat the ongoing dermal damage and its pathological consequences. In the current study, the core hypothesis has been vigorously tested through the experimental application of hemodialysate (Solcoseryl® solution in several exposure methods including bath, intraperitoneal (I.P., intramuscular (I.M., and local infiltration routes. All tested routes were capable of inducing different degrees of healing in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The core hypothesis of the current research has been experimentally accomplished through assessing the resultant healing degrees based on both gross as well as tissue alteration dynamics among total of 5 experimental groups. Each group consisted of 10 fishes/aquarium. The swift tissue healing of the induced wounds in Nile tilapia were completely achieved 4 days post I.M. injection of the Solcoseryl® solution (10 μl/50 g fish as a single dose with an excellent healing grade (+++++. However, bath treatment (1 ml/Lwater as a single dose and local infiltration (10 μl/50 g fish as a single dose have proved to be second on the race (complete healing was achieved 6 days post treatment with very good grade (+++. This study demonstrates the clinical value of fish models in establishment of new approach for combating prevalent invasive skin affections in aquaculture.

  5. Circulating SCCA-IgM complex is a useful biomarker to predict the outcome of therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Maria; Di Costanzo, Giovan G; Gallotta, Andrea; Tortora, Raffaella; Paneghetti, Laura; Auriemma, Francesco; Tuccillo, Concetta; Fassina, Giorgio; Caporaso, Nicola; Morisco, Filomena

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops in about 3-4% of cirrhotic patients every year. The squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) has been found elevated in liver cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry, and detected in complex with IgM (SCCA-IgM) in the serum of patients with HCC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of serological SCCA-IgM levels to predict the efficacy of HCC therapy. From April 2012 to April 2014, 131 patients with a new diagnosis of HCC were enrolled. The HCC diagnosis was made according to the EASL guidelines. The patients were staged and treated according to the BCLC Staging System: BCLC stages A and B were treated with locoregional therapy, and BCLC stage C was treated with Sorafenib. Response to therapy was evaluated according to the mRECIST criteria. Serum SCCA-IgM levels were determined by a commercially available ELISA kit at basal time (T0) and after one month of treatment (T1). At baseline and one month into therapy, SCCA-IgM levels were significantly lower (p value <.05) in patients who responded to therapy compared to those who did not respond (median SCCA-IgM level [25th + 75th percentile] at T0:115.1 AU/mL [50.0 + 174.4] vs. 149.1 AU/mL [111.3 + 198.8]; median SCCA-IgM level [25th + 75th percentile] at T1: 113.4 AU/mL [50.0 + 194.2] vs. 170.6 AU/mL [111.7 + 344.2]). Our study suggests that the SCCA-IgM determination could be helpful in predicting the response to therapy in patients with HCC.

  6. Rapid Synthesis and Photocatalytic Performance of Milky and Rod-like Nanometer Zinc Oxide by Combustion Method%燃烧法快速合成乳白色棒状纳米氧化锌及其光催化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣祥; 李秀萍

    2012-01-01

    Zinc nitrate as the oxidant, ascorbic acid as reducing agent and combustion agent, milky and rod-like zinc oxide rapid synthesized by combustion method. The sample was characterized by XRD, IR, UV, SEM. The Rhodamine B acted as target of degradation, the experiment inspected various sample, illumination time, dosage of zinc oxide, dosage of H2O2 , pH value and rotation speed of centrifuge impact on photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. The optimal experiment conditions: zinc nitrate: ascorbic acid is 1 : 3, ZnO of 0. 4g/50mL,H2O2 of 0. 2mL/50mL, pH value 8, rotating at 2500r/min, Rhodamine B faded to colorless in 150min.%以硝酸锌为氧化剂,抗坏血酸为还原剂和燃烧剂,采用燃烧法快速制备乳白色棒状纳米氧化锌.用XRD,IR,UV,SEM等技术手段进行了表征.以罗丹明B为目标降解物,考察了不同样品、光照时间、催化剂用量、双氧水加入量、Ph值、离心机转数对罗丹明B催化效果的影响.最佳的光催化条件为:硝酸锌与抗坏血酸摩尔比为1∶3、催化剂用量为0.4g/50 L、双氧水用量为0.2mL/50mL、Ph为8、转速为2500r/min,在150min内罗丹明B褪为无色.

  7. Intra-specific variability in life-history traits of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the mangrove ecosystem of the Southern coast of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis; Licandeo, Roberto; Cubillos, Luis A; Mora, Elba

    2014-06-01

    Anadara tuberculosa is one of the most important bivalves along the Western Pacific coast because of its commercial value. Nevertheless, the variability in growth, long-life span, natural mortality and reproductive parameters of this mangrove cockle has not yet been described. The aim of this study was to analyze these life-history traits in three areas of the Southern coast of Ecuador. Empirical and length-based methods were used to estimate these biological parameters. Body size data were collected from the commercial fishery between 2004 and 2011 in landing ports near to the Archipelago of Jambeli [Puerto Bolivar (PB), Puerto Jeli (PJ) and Puerto Hualtaco (PH)]. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for combined sex were estimated between 70.87 to 93.45mm for L(infinity) and 0.22 to 0.80/year for k. The growth indices (PHI') ranged from 3.17 to 3.85, while the overall growth performance (OGP) ranged from 5.03 to 5.82. The mean of long-life span (t(max)), size and age at maturity (L50% and t50%) were estimated in 7.71 +/- 2.53 years, 39.13 +/- 2.24mm and 1.46 +/- 0.56 years for PB; 9.51 +/- 2.85 years, 37.78 +/- 1.95mm and 1.37 +/- 0.41 years for PJ and 5.81 +/- 2.11 years, 39.73 +/- 3.31mm and 0.94 +/- 0.41 years for PH. Natural mortality (M) ranged from 0.46 to 1.28/year. We concluded that significant intra-specific variation was observed in a temporal scale in PHI' and OGP indices as well as L50% and M. Therefore, temporal changes in these life-history traits should be taken into account when assessing the status of the mangrove cockle fishery.

  8. Allosteric communication in myosin V: from small conformational changes to large directed movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecchini

    Full Text Available The rigor to post-rigor transition in myosin, a consequence of ATP binding, plays an essential role in the Lymn-Taylor functional cycle because it results in the dissociation of the actomyosin complex after the powerstroke. On the basis of the X-ray structures of myosin V, we have developed a new normal mode superposition model for the transition path between the two states. Rigid-body motions of the various subdomains and specific residues at the subdomain interfaces are key elements in the transition. The allosteric communication between the nucleotide binding site and the U50/L50 cleft is shown to result from local changes due to ATP binding, which induce large amplitude motions that are encoded in the structure of the protein. The triggering event is the change in the interaction of switch I and the P-loop, which is stabilized by ATP binding. The motion of switch I, which is a relatively rigid element of the U50 subdomain, leads directly to a partial opening of the U50/L50 cleft; the latter is expected to weaken the binding of myosin to actin. The calculated transition path demonstrates the nature of the subdomain coupling and offers an explanation for the mutual exclusion of ATP and actin binding. The mechanism of the uncoupling of the converter from the motor head, an essential part of the transition, is elucidated. The origin of the partial untwisting of the central beta-sheet in the rigor to post-rigor transition is described.

  9. The codevelopment of coastal fisheries monitoring methods to support local management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schemmel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries across the globe provide critical food security, livelihoods, and human well-being, but are threatened by a combination of local and global stressors, including overexploitation, pollution, and climate change. Participatory approaches to management, especially those that incorporate local communities and customary knowledge can provide meaningful biological information that supports sustainable fisheries management and builds local adaptive capacity to changing ocean conditions. Through a collaboration between fishers, scientists, NGOs, and regulating agencies, we developed a low-cost, low-tech method to assess the seasonal spawning peaks, lunar spawning cycles, and size at maturity (L50 for key targeted reef fish, combining traditional knowledge and practice with modern scientific approaches, including gonadosomatic index (GSI and histology. Two years of community-based monitoring resulted in data from 57 species and 15 families of reef and nearshore fishes (n = 2595, with detailed information for 10 species at 4 locations across the Hawaiian Islands. Comparisons between community-collected GSI data and scientifically (histologically assessed spawning cycles and size at reproductive maturity produced similar results suggesting that these approaches can be applied in data-poor fisheries to assess spawning seasons and size at maturity (L50, both of which are critical needs for effective fisheries management. Semistructured surveys revealed a large body of local knowledge on spawning times and harvest practices based on allowing spawning to occur before harvesting and protecting small and large size classes, but little evidence that fishers understand temporal patterns of spawning. This suggests that monitoring methods that fill key gaps such as this and are congruent with these local knowledge systems and customary harvest practices may be key for local stewardship and adaptive management.

  10. Reproductive biology of alfonsino Beryx splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Wiff, R; Gálvez, P; Díaz, E

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to provide a detailed analysis of the reproductive cycle of Beryx splendens in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. The gonadosomatic index (I(G)) and maturity ogives in both sexes were estimated using an extensive database collected by onboard scientific observers between January 2006 and October 2009. A histological analysis of maturation was also completed for females collected between May and December 2001. Variations in both I(G) and proportion of mature individuals were observed in fish with a fork length (L(F)) >37 cm for females and >33 cm for males. The main reproductive season was in the austral winter and spring (June to November). Fork length at 50% maturity (L(50)) was estimated as 39·67 cm for females (95% c.i. =39·34, 40·02 cm) and 36·88 cm for males (95% c.i. =36·45, 37·36 cm) using macroscopic analysis of gonads. Estimates for females using histological data varied slightly with an estimated L(50) of 43·67 cm (95% c.i. =42·82, 44·91 cm). Changes in I(G) and maturity were modelled as a function of month and L(F) within a generalized additive model framework. A high porportion of immature individuals were found throughout the year. The results of this study are compared with reproductive traits reported for B. splendens in other areas of its distribution and are discussed with reference to exploitation, vulnerability and conservation of the B. splendens stock in Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  11. Germinação de sementes de jenipapeiro submetidas à pré-embebição em regulador e estimulante vegetal Seed germination of genipap submitted to pre-soaking in regulator and plant stimulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Prado Neto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de jenipapo (Genipa americana L. submetidas à pré-embebição em regulador e estimulante vegetal. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes e oito tratamentos, nos quais as sementes foram embebidas por 12 horas em: T1 - água, T2 - Giberelina líquida a 4% de GA3 (GA3 4% L a 50 mL L-1, T3 - (GA3 4% L a 100 mL L-1, T4 - (GA3 4% L a 200 mL L-1 , T5 - (GA3 4% L a 300 mL L-1, T6 - (GA3 4% L a 400 mL L-1, T7 - Stimulate® a 5 mL L-1 e T8 - Stimulate® a 10 mL L-1. As sementes foram dispostas sobre folhas de papel toalha previamente umedecidas com água destilada e levadas para o germinador, regulado a 28ºC, avaliando-se porcentagem de germinação, comprimento da raiz, do hipocótilo e total da plântula 21 dias após a semeadura e Índice de Velocidade de Germinação. Não houve efeito da pré-embebição na germinação das sementes com variação entre 89 a 95%. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a pré-embebição de sementes de jenipapo por 12 horas em 4% GA3 L (50, 100 e 200 mL L-1 e Stimulate® (10 mL L-1, proporcionam maiores índices de velocidade de germinação. O Stimulate® 10 mL L-¹, em pré-embebição por 12 horas proporciona maiores comprimentos das raízes e total das plântulas de jenipapo em relação aos demais tratamentos.This work aimed to evaluate the genipap (Genipa americana L. seed germination and its initial seedling growth, submitted to pre-soaking in regulator and vegetal stimulant. It was arranged in a randomized design with four repetitions of 25 seeds and eight treatments, in which seeds were impregnated for 12 hours: T1 - water, T2 - Liquid gibberellins 4% GA3 (GA3 4% L (50 mL L-1, T3 - (GA3 4% L (100 mL L-1, T4 - (GA3 4% L (200 mL L-1, T5 - (GA3 4% L (300 mL L-1, T6 - (GA3 4% L (400 mL L-1, T7 - Stimulate® (5 mL L-1 e T8 - Stimulate® (10 mL L-1. The seeds were disposed on a

  12. Maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho, Itamaracá, PE, Brasil Sexual maturity of females of Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in the estuaries of the Botafogo and Carrapicho rivers, Itamaracá, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline do Vale Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869, siri-azul, constitui um importante recurso pesqueiro nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a maturidade sexual das fêmeas de C. danae. Os espécimes foram capturados, entre outubro de 2003 a junho de 2004, com auxílio de um barco de pesca equipado com rede de arrasto do tipo "wing-trawl" e arrastados durante 5 minutos. No laboratório, os siris foram contados, numerados, sexados, pesados e mensurados. A largura da carapaça (LC foi medida na base do espinho lateral e a largura do abdome (LA mensurada na altura da articulação do quinto esternito abdominal. Um total de 596 fêmeas de C. danae foram analisadas: 417 (69,97% no rio Botafogo e 179 (30,03% no Carrapicho; as fêmeas não-ovígeras apresentaram LC de 18,38 a 101 mm (59,14 ± 13,65 mm e 26,70 a 83,48 mm (59,16 ± 13,77 mm, nos respectivos rios; a LC de fêmeas ovígeras foi de 57,04 a 83,30 mm (67,68 ± 6,56 mm. As médias de larguras das carapaças não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas O conhecimento da maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae é de grande importância para o seu manejo e conservação. O L50 gonadal foi estimado em 63,58 mm (chi2 = 140,47; g.l. = 1; p Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869 is an important fishery resource in the Botafogo and Carrapicho river estuaries. The aim of this study was to estimate the sexual maturity of C. danae. Specimens were captured between October 2003 and June 2004 with the aid of a fishing boat equipped with a wing-trawl and trawling took place during 5 minutes each time. In the laboratory, the crabs were counted, numbered, sexed, weighed, and measured. The carapace width (CW was measured at the base of the lateral spine and the abdomen width (AW was measured at the point of the articulation of the fifth abdominal esternite. A total of 596 females of C. danae were analyzed: 417 (69.97% from Botafogo River and 179 (30.03% from

  13. Concentración mínima inhibitoria de higromicina B en callos embriogénicos de arroz (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Barbosa Cepeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Minimum inhibitory concentration of higromycin B in rice embryogenic calli (Oryza sativa L. RESUMEN Uno de los elementos imprescindibles en la ingeniería genética de plantas es un sistema de selección eficiente. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la sensibilidad al marcador de selección higromicina B, de callos embriogénicos obtenidos a partir del escutelo de semilla de tres variedades colombianas de arroz (FEDEARROZ 2000, FEDEARROZ 50 y FEDEARROZ 369. Además, se validó la respuesta de estas variedades al protocolo de regeneración empleado. Se probaron cuatro concentraciones del antibiótico (25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 75 mg/L y 100 mg/L más un control sin higromicina B. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que una concentración de 50 mg/L de antibiótico en el medio de regeneración es adecuada para la selección. Con esta concentración se impide la formación de brotes, aunque los callos no mueren completamente. Por otra parte, se estableció que el protocolo de regeneración utilizado es de baja eficiencia y, por consiguiente, es necesario optimizarlo para poder usarlo en procesos de ingeniería genética de cultivares colombianos de arroz.   Palabras clave: variedades colombianas de arroz, FEDEARROZ 2000, FEDEARROZ 50, FEDEARROZ 369, sistema de selección, antibiótico.   ABSTRACT An efficient selection system is one of the most important elements of plant genetic engineering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of  scutellum-derived embriogenic calli obtained from three colombian rice varieties (FEDEARROZ 2000, FEDEARROZ 50 and FEDEARROZ 369, to the selection marker hygromycin B. Aditionally, the response of these varieties to the regeneration protocol was measured. Four antibiotic concentrations were tested (25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 75 mg/L and 100 mg/L plus one control without hygromycin B. The results show that 50 mg/L of antibiotic in the regeneration medium is adequate for selection. This

  14. Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed, and rearing environment against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics constitutes an alternative strategy to the antibiotic treatment for disease control in aquaculture. Enterococci are currently used as probiotics in human and animal health. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 64 enterococci isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed and rearing environment, and their antimicrobial activity against 9 fish pathogens. The 64 enterococcal isolates were identified to the species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for the different enterococcal species, and confirmed by superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae were the most common species (42.2 and 35.9%, respectively). A total of 48 isolates (75%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least 1 antibiotic determined by a disk-diffusion method, and 25 isolates (39.1%) harbored at least 1 antibiotic resistance gene [erm(B), tet(M), tet(S), tet(K), tet(L), tet(T), vanC2, and aad(E)], detected by PCR. One (1.6%) isolate produced gelatinase and none produced hemolysin, using a plate assay. The virulence genes gelE (46.9%), efaAfs (17.2%), agg (1.6%), and hyl (1.6%) were detected by PCR. A total of 48 isolates (75%) exerted antimicrobial activity against 1 or more of the tested fish pathogens, using a stab-on-agar test. From these isolates, 21 (43.8%) harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene (entP, entL50A and entL50B, hirJM79, entSE-K4, entQ and entA), detected by PCR. None of the enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities. A total of 17 enterococcal isolates (26.6%) that did not harbor any antibiotic resistance or virulence factor were considered safe for application as probiotics, including 6 isolates (35.3%) that showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 fish pathogen and harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene. Rainbow trout, feed, and rearing environment constitute an appropriate source for the

  15. Comparison of three Methods for Activity Assay of Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase%重组人透明质酸酶3种活性测定方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玉; 刘飞; 张莉; 朱希强; 凌沛学; 张天民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the activity of recombinant human hyaluronidase by different methods and determine the optimal methods for activity assay of recombinant human hyaluronidase under different conditions. Methods 3.5Dinitrosalicylic acid(DNS), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde(DMAB) and turbidimetry methods were used to measure the activity of hyaluronidase from Pichia pastoris fermentation supernatant and gel filtration products. and the results were analyzed. Results The linear ranges of DNS. DMAB and turbidimetry methods were 50-450 U/mL. 50-350 U/ mL and 0-10 U/mL, respectively. The RSDs were 2.71 %,11.71 % and 0.65%, respectively. Conclusion DNS method is suitable for the activity assay of hyaluronidase from the fermentation supernatant and turbidimetry is suitable for that from gel filtration products.%目的 采用不同的检测方法测定重组人透明质酸酶活性,以确定不同条件下最适宜的检测方法.方法 采用3,5-二硝基水杨酸法、对-二甲氨基苯甲醛法、浊度法测定重组毕赤酵母发酵上清液和凝胶过滤分离产物中透明质酸酶活性,并分析比较其结果.结果 3,5-二硝基水杨酸法与对-二甲氨基苯甲醛法的线性范围分别是50~450 U/mL,50~350 U/mL.浊度法的线性范围较小,为O~10 U/mL.3种方法的RSD值分别是2.71%,11.71%,0.65%.结论 发酵上清液中的透明质酸酶适合用3,5-二硝基水杨酸法测定,凝胶过滤产物用浊度法测定效果良好.

  16. Reproduction period of Mimagoniates microlepis, from an Atlantic Forest Stream in Southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Rennó Braga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimagoniates microlepis was collected between January and December/2002. Three sample points were chosen at higher, medium and lower portions of Ribeirão river, located at the east of Paraná state. The reproduction period was observed by the frequency of gonad developmental stages, variation of the gonosomatic relation (RGS and gonad condition (K. The average length at the first sexual maturity (L50 and the average length when 100% of individuals were adults (L100 were calculated. The intensity of the reproductive activity (IAR was estimated at each sample point. The reproduction period started in the winter and ended at the end of spring. The high values of IAR encountered demonstrated that the reproductive activity occurred in the whole study area, mainly at the middle portion of the river. Apparently M. microlepis synchronize its fecundation and spawning with the rain regimes using the most suitable times for the cospecific encounters and offspring survival.Exemplares de Mimagoniates microlepis foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2002. Foram escolhidos três pontos amostrais localizados em regiões a montante, média e a jusante do rio Ribeirão no litoral do Paraná. A época reprodutiva foi determinada através da freqüência de estágios de desenvolvimento das gônadas, índice gonadosomático (RGS e fator de condição gonadal (K. O comprimento médio da primeira maturação (L50 e o comprimento médio em que 100% dos indivíduos são adultos (L100 foi calculado. Também foi estimado o índice de atividade reprodutiva (IAR em cada ponto amostral. O período reprodutivo teve inicio durante o inverno e terminou ao final da primavera. Os valores altos do IAR demonstram que a atividade reprodutiva ocorre em toda área estudada e principalmente na porção média do rio. Aparentemente M. microlepis sincroniza sua fecundação e desova com o ciclo das chuvas, utilizando os momentos mais adequados para encontros coespecíficos e para

  17. Reproducción de la raya eléctrica Narcine bancroftii (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae en Santa Marta, Caribe colombiano Reproduction of the electric ray Narcine bancroftii (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

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    Fabián Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron aspectos reproductivos de la raya eléctrica Narcine bancroftii, capturada como bycatch con una red playera de cerco en dos playas del sector de El Rodadero, Santa Marta, Caribe colombiano. Los ejemplares fueron sexados, pesados y medidos, se identificó su estado de desarrollo gonadal mediante características morfológicas externas e internas. Se evaluó la condición reproductiva con el comportamiento de los índices biológicos (gonadosomático IGS y hepatosomático IHS y la talla a la madurez sexual (l50%. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el IGS tiene un máximo anual entre septiembre y diciembre cuando probablemente ocurre la cópula. El IHS presentó su mayor valor en enero, cuando termina su periodo reproductivo. La talla media de madurez en hembras fue de 32,2 cm y en machos de 20,2 a 22,9 cm. El período de gestación es de cuatro meses y las crías nacen de febrero a abril.This paper provides information about reproductive aspects of the electric ray Narcine bancroftii, caught as bycatch with beach seines in two beaches of El Rodadero, Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean, between August (2005 and October (2006. The electric rays obtained were separate by sex, weighed and measured; the development of reproductive stage was identified by external and internal characteristics. The reproductive condition was determinate by (gonadosomatic GSI and hepatosomatic HSI indexes and the size at sexual maturity (l50%. The results showed that the GSI has one peak at year between September and December when probably the copulation carried out, the HSI presented its highest value in January, which corresponds to the end of the reproductive period. The size at sexual maturity was 32.2 cm in females and it was between 20.2 and 22.9 cm in males. We propose that the gestation period extends during four months, starting with the birth of individuals in February and finishing in April.

  18. Intra-specific variability in life-history traits of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia in the mangrove ecosystem of the Southern coast of Ecuador

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    Luis Flores

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anadara tuberculosa is one of the most important bivalves along the Western Pacific coast because of its commercial value. Nevertheless, the variability in growth, longlife span, natural mortality and reproductive parameters of this mangrove cockle has not yet been described. The aim of this study was to analyze these lifehistory traits in three areas of the Southern coast of Ecuador. Empirical and length-based methods were used to estimate these biological parameters. Body size data were collected from the commercial fishery between 2004 and 2011 in landing ports near to the Archipelago of Jambeli [Puerto Bolivar (PB, Puerto Jeli (PJ and Puerto Hualtaco (PH]. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for combined sex were estimated between 70.87 to 93.45mm for L∞ and 0.22 to 0.80/year for k. The growth indices (Φ’ ranged from 3.17 to 3.85, while the overall growth performance (OGP ranged from 5.03 to 5.82. The mean of long-life span (t max, size and age at maturity (L50% and t50% were estimated in 7.71±2.53years, 39.13±2.24mm and 1.46±0.56years for PB; 9.51±2.85years, 37.78±1.95mm and 1.37±0.41years for PJ and 5.81±2.11years, 39.73±3.31mm and 0.94±0.41years for PH. Natural mortality (M ranged from 0.46 to 1.28/year. We concluded that significant intra-specific variation was observed in a temporal scale in Φ’ and OGP indices as well as L50% and M. Therefore, temporal changes in these life-history traits should be taken into account when assessing the status of the mangrove cockle fishery.

  19. 甘草RAPD-PCR反应体系正交优化研究%Optimization of RAPD-PCR Reaction System for Glycyrrhiza uralensis Based on Orthogonal Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增福; 董建力; 李明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to obtain the optimum RAPD-PCR reaction system for Glycyrrhiza uralensis. [ Method] Orthogonal design was adopted to screen the suitable concentration of major factors (dNTPs, primer, Taq polymerase, DNA template) in PCR reaction system. [ Result] The optimal protocol was accomplished by orthogonal design in 25 μl reaction volume containing 10 × PCR buffer solution(include MgCl2) 2.5 μl, 10 mmol/L dNTPs 2.5 μl, 50 ng DNA template 2.0 μl, 10 μmol/L primer 2. 0 μl, 5 U/μl Taq polymerase 0.4 μl; the optimum annealing temperature was 34 ℃. [ Conclusion] Orthogonal design was an effective method for the optimization of RAPD-PCR reaction system for C. Uralensis.%[目的]建立一套适合甘草分子学研究的RAPD-PCR反应体系.[方法]以甘草种质为试材,采用正交试验法设计,对影响RAPD-PCR扩增的主要因素dNTPs、引物、Taq酶和DNA模板进行优化筛选.[结果]总体积25μl的甘草RAPD-PCR最佳反应体系为:10 ×PCR缓冲液(含MgCl2 )2.5 μl,10 mmol/L dNTPs 2.5 μl,50 ng DNA 2.0μl,10 μmol/L引物2.0μl,5 U/μl Taq酶0.4μl.对引物的退火温度进行了梯度筛选,34℃时扩增效果较好.[结论]进行甘草RAPD-PCR反应体系的正交优化非常有效.

  20. Lupeol及其衍生/修饰物对肝癌细胞增殖影响的研究%Effects of Lupeol and its modified compounds on cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芬; 何艳; 李云森; 朱永明; 刘海燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of lupeol and its modified compounds on proliferation of hepatocel-lular carcinoma cells HepG2 and SMMC7721. Methods: The structure of lupeol was modified. Then cell viability of HepG2 and SMMC7721 was measured by MTT assay after treatment with increasing concentration of lupeol or its modified compounds. Results: MTT results showed that lupeol and its modified compounds inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells in a concentration dependent manner. IC50 of lupeol, H1 , T1 and T2 were 40 μmol/L -50μmol/L, about 120μmol/L, about 50μmol/L and 70μmol/L -80μmol/L, respectively. Conclusion: Modification of lupeol performed in the current study did not improve its therapeutic effects in hepatocellular carcinoma.%目的:探讨lupeol及其结构改造后衍生/修饰物对肝癌细胞HepG2和SMMC7721细胞增殖的作用.方法:对lupeol进行化学结构修饰,然后应用MTT方法检测lupeol及其衍生/修饰物对HepG2和SMMC7721细胞增殖的作用.结果:MTT数据显示,lupeol及其衍生/修饰物均能抑制HepG2和SMMC7721细胞增殖,并且具有浓度依赖性.Lupeol、H1、T1和T2的IC50分别为40 μmol/L -50 μmol/L、约120 μmol/L、约50 μmol/L和70 μmol/L -80 μmol/L.结论:lupeol结构改造后,并没有提高其对肝细胞肝癌细胞增殖的抑制作用.

  1. Improvement of 5 Synthetic Pigment with HPLC Method for the Determination of Cooked Meat Products%高效液相色谱法测定熟肉制品中5种合成色素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧; 汪洋; 王敏

    2016-01-01

    To establish a HPLC method for the determination of 5 kinds of synthetic pigment in cooked meat products, the selection of the maximum absorption wavelength of 5 synthetic pigment in the samples was deter-mined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, after the degreasing of the cooked meat products and the pigment extraction. The obtained regression equations of 5 kinds of synthetic pigment showed a good lin-ear relationship (r>0.999) in 0.10μg/mL-50.0μg/mL linear range, with the detection limit of 0.035μg/mL-0.040μg/mL, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.79%to 1.30%. The samples were spiked with recovery experiment, and the absolute recoveries were in the range of 91.5%-101.0%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, which is suitable for determination of the synthetic pigment in cooked meat products.%建立熟肉制品中5种合成色素的高效液相色谱法测定方法。熟肉制品经过脱脂后提取色素,选择样品中5种色素的最大吸收波长用高效液相色谱仪分析测定。在0.10μg/mL~50.0μg/mL线性范围内,所得5种合成色素的回归方程均呈较好的线性关系(r>0.999)。该方法的检出限为0.035μg/mL~0.040μg/mL,相对标准偏差在0.79%~1.30%之间。对样品进行加标回收试验,绝对回收率在91.5%~101.0%之间。本方法简便、快速、准确,适用于熟肉制品中合成色素的测定。

  2. Effect of Different Antibiotic Chemotherapies on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection In Vitro of Primary Human Corneal Fibroblast Cells

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    Maria del Mar Cendra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of bacterial keratitis (BK worldwide. Inappropriate or non-optimal antibiotic chemotherapy can lead to corneal perforation and rapid sight loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 invades primary human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs in vitro and persists intracellularly, despite chemotherapy with antibiotics used commonly to treat BK. In rank order, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and polymyxin B showed the highest activity against planktonic PAO1 growth (100% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤1 μg/mL, followed by gentamicin and ofloxacin (100% inhibitory concentration ≤50 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL. These bactericidal antibiotics (50–200 μg/mL concentrations all killed PAO1 in the extracellular environment of infected hCF monolayers. By contrast, the bactericidal antibiotic cefuroxime and the bacteriostatic antibiotic chloramphenicol failed to sterilize both PAO1 broth cultures, even at a concentration of ≥200 μg/mL and infected hCF monolayers. Statistically, all antibiotics were able to prevent LDH release from PAO1-infected hCF monolayers at both concentrations tested. Intracellular Pseudomonas were significantly reduced (>99%, P < 0.05 following treatment with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin, whereas gentamicin, polymyxin B and cefuroxime failed to clear intracellular bacteria over 24 h. Intracellular Pseudomonas infection was resistant to chloramphenicol, with hCF death observed by 9 h. Eventual growth of remaining intracellular Pseudomonas was observed in hCF after removal of all antibiotics, resulting in re-infection cycles and cell death by 48 h. All of the antibiotics reduced significantly (P < 0.05 IL-1β secretion by hCF infected with a Multiplicity Of Infection (MOI = 1 of PAO1. With higher MOI, no pro-inflammatory effects were observed with antibiotic treatment, expect with polymyxin B and

  3. Crescimento do niquim (Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner 1876, em diferentes condições de luminosidade e tipos de alimento = Niquim (Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner 1876 growth, in different luminosity conditions and types of food

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    Ruy Albuquerque Tenório

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O niquim Lophiosilurus alexandri é um peixe endêmico do rio São Francisco e foi prejudicado após o represamento das águas, sendo uns dos peixes mais valorizados na região do Submédio e apresentando potencial para a piscicultura. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliaro seu crescimento durante as fases ontogênicas iniciais, em diferentes condições de luminosidade e tipos de alimento, fornecendo subsídios técnicos à piscicultura e aos programas de propagação da espécie. O experimento foi realizado em incubadoras com luminosidades de 100% (L, 50% (ML e 0% (SL com quatro repetições e dois critériosalimentares: plâncton+ração e Dendrocephalus brasiliensis+ração. A Análise de Variância (Anova foi realizada para verificar o efeito de diferentes condições de luz e de alimento sobre o comprimento dos niquins. O teste de Tukey (PNiquim Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic fish from the San Francisco River and was harmed after the damming up of the waters, being one of the most valuable fish in the Sub-medium region and presenting potential for pisciculture. This study aimed to evaluate its growth during the initial ontogenic phases, under different luminosity conditions and types of food, supplying technical subsidies to the pisciculture and to the species propagation programs. The experiment was conducted in incubators with luminosity at 100% (L, 50% (ML and 0% (SL with four repetitions and two alimentary criteria: plankton+ration and Dendrocephalus braziliensis+ration. The variance analysis (ANOVA was carried out to verify the effect of different light conditions and food on the Niquins' length. The Tukey test (P<0.05 was used to verify the differences between the treatment's averages. There was a significantdifference for the light treatment (ANOVA LUZ: P=0.0030 and the Tukey test indicated the smaller average measurement for the L treatment. The greatest average of the last biometric taken was 74.70±5.95 mm much superior to

  4. 汕头市区281名3~5岁儿童血浆视黄醇水平测定%Plasma Retinol Levels of Preschool Children Aged 3~5 Years in Shantou City of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 罗文鸿; 陈玲; 张源; 黄再强; 常丽梅

    2000-01-01

    Objactive:To assess the vitamin A nutritional status of preschool children in Shantou city,Guangdong Province of China.Method:Plasma retinol level was used as indicator and determined by HPLC.Result:The results indicated 25.6% of the children with plasma retinol level between (10~30)μg/dL, 50.2% of the children with plasma retinol level between(30~40)μg/dL,and only 24.2% of the children with plasma retinol level higher than 40μg/dL.There was no significant difference between the average plasma retinol concentrations of the male and female children.Conclusion:The conclusions were that among the 281 children,one fourth of them were at the status of marginal deficient of vitamin A,and no children were apparently vitamin A deficient.%目的:通过测定血浆视黄醇水平以了解汕头市区儿童维生素A的营养状况.方法:采用高效液相色谱法对汕头市区281名3~5岁儿童进行了血浆视黄醇水平测定.结果:25.6%的儿童血浆视黄醇水平处于(10~30)μg/dL;50.2%(30~40)μg/dL;24.2%>40μg/dL;血浆视黄醇水平平均值没有性别差异.结论:所调查的281名3~5岁的儿童中,没有严重缺乏维生素A者,但有约四分之一的儿童处于亚临床维生素A缺乏或维生素A摄入不足.

  5. Crescimento do niquim (Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner 1876, em diferentes condições de luminosidade e tipos de alimento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.160 Niquim (Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner 1876 growth, in different luminosity conditions and types of food- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.160

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    José Patrocínio Lopes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O niquim Lophiosilurus alexandri é um peixe endêmico do rio São Francisco e foi prejudicado após o represamento das águas, sendo uns dos peixes mais valorizados na região do Submédio e apresentando potencial para a piscicultura. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o seu crescimento durante as fases ontogênicas iniciais, em diferentes condições de luminosidade e tipos de alimento, fornecendo subsídios técnicos à piscicultura e aos programas de propagação da espécie. O experimento foi realizado em incubadoras com luminosidades de 100% (L, 50% (ML e 0% (SL com quatro repetições e dois critérios alimentares: plâncton+ração e Dendrocephalus brasiliensis+ração. A Análise de Variância (Anova foi realizada para verificar o efeito de diferentes condições de luz e de alimento sobre o comprimento dos niquins. O teste de Tukey (PNiquim Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic fish from the San Francisco River and was harmed after the damming up of the waters, being one of the most valuable fish in the Sub-medium region and presenting potential for pisciculture. This study aimed to evaluate its growth during the initial ontogenic phases, under different luminosity conditions and types of food, supplying technical subsidies to the pisciculture and to the species propagation programs. The experiment was conducted in incubators with luminosity at 100% (L, 50% (ML and 0% (SL with four repetitions and two alimentary criteria: plankton+ration and Dendrocephalus braziliensis+ration. The variance analysis (ANOVA was carried out to verify the effect of different light conditions and food on the Niquins' length. The Tukey test (P<0.05 was used to verify the differences between the treatment's averages. There was a significant difference for the light treatment (ANOVA LUZ: P=0.0030 and the Tukey test indicated the smaller average measurement for the L treatment. The greatest average of the last biometric taken was 74.70±5.95 mm much superior

  6. The influence of population structure and reproductive aspects of the genus Stellifer (Oken, 1817 on the abundance of species on the southern Brazilian coast

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    JL. Rodrigues-Filho

    Full Text Available The differences between abundance and the relationship with aspects of population and reproductive Stellifer rastrifer, Stellifer stellifer and Stellifer brasiliensis were analysed. Data were collected monthly trawl directed for capture of seabob shrimp in Armação do Itapocoroy, an important fishing area on the southern Brazilian coast. The chi-square test showed that the population of S. rastrifer presented values of capture significantly higher than others in all evaluated periods. The frequency distribution of total length curves combined with records of the size at first maturity (L50 showed that S. rastrifer is a species with a majority of the adults effectively participating in the reproductive period. The frequency of occurrence of individuals in reproduction monthly examined together with changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI and the reproductive activity index indicated that spring was the main breeding season for the three species. However, it was observed that the reproductive period of S. rastrifer was more pronounced and more extensive than that of its congeners, apparently providing it with ecological advantages and enabling a more effective population balance given the pressure exerted by fishing in the study area.

  7. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    tristearin (SSS) and linoleic (L) or conjugated linoleic (cL) acids (1:6, mol/mol). The other was between tristearin and the mixture of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids (1:3:3, mol/mol/mol). Acyl incorporation and migration together with triacylglycerol composition of the products were monitored...... with gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...... between tristearin and linoleic acid; whereas there were 2.4% cLcLcL, 10.4% cLScL, 50.9% cLSS, and 36.2% SSS in the product for a system between tristearin and conjugated linoleic acid. The results suggest that linoleic acid was more reactive than conjugated linoleic acid in the enzymatic acidolysis...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Enterococcus strains isolated from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseppi, Ramona; Messi, Patrizia; Anacarso, Imacolata; Bondi, Moreno; Sabia, Carla; Condò, Carla; de Niederhausern, Simona

    2015-07-01

    We investigated presence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistances and other biological characters in enterococci isolated from faeces of healthy dogs and cats because these microorganisms represent important human and veterinary pathogens/opportunists, and a significant burden for healthcare systems. In all samples (n=115) we detected enterococci, with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (42; 36.5%) and Enterococcus faecalis (36; 31.3%) species, endowed with virulence traits and multidrug-resistance. The two predominant resistance patterns (erythromycin, tetracycline) were examined by polymerase chain reaction for tet and erm genes. Only tetM for tetracycline, and ermA and ermB for erythromycin were detected. PCR for gelatinase gene (gelE) was positive in 62.6% of isolates, but only 26.1% produce gelatinase suggesting the existence of silent genes. efaAfs and efaAfm genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. 89.6% of isolates produced bacteriocin-like substances with a prevailing action against Listeria genus and, among these, 33.9% were positive for the bacteriocin structural genes entA, entL50 or entP. According to our study, pet animals can be considered a reservoir of potentially pathogenic enterococci and we cannot exclude that those microorganisms may be responsible for opportunistic infections in high-risk pet owners.

  9. Development of dipsticks for simultaneous detection of vip3A and cry1Ab/cry1Ac transgenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    The number of genetically modified (GM) crops being cultivated and its produce reaching market is increasing every year. The transgenes (vip3A, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac) from Bacillus thuringiensis are being used by plant breeders, apart from other transgenes for developing insect pest-resistant GM crops. It is therefore necessary to develop an easy, rapid, and reliable detection assay to discriminate GM crops and non-GM crops. Dipstick strips using colloidal gold-labeled polyclonal antibodies were developed for simultaneous detection of Vip3A and Cry1Ab/CrylAc proteins. The assay was essentially based on the sandwich format of immunoassay, which was completed within 10 min, and the results were evaluated visually. The detection limits were 50 ng/mL (50 ppb) for both CrylAc and CrylAb proteins, and 100 ng/mL (100 ppb) for Vip3A protein. The developed dipsticks are suitable for on-site simultaneous screening of GM crops bearing two proteins, which, in turn, reduce cost and time of the assay.

  10. Emodin suppresses cadmium-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Ren, Shuai; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Zhongqiu; Wen, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Environmental level of cadmium (Cd) exposure can induce bone loss. Emodin, a naturally compound found in Asian herbal medicines, could influence osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation. However, the effects of emodin on Cd-induced bone damage are not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of emodin on Cd-induced osteoporosis. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups which were given 0mg/L, 50mg Cd/L and 50mg Cd/L plus emodin (50mg/kg body weight). Bone histological investigation, microCT analysis, metabolic biomarker determination and immunohistochemical staining were performed at the 12th week. The bone mass and bone microstructure index of rats treated with Cd were obviously lower than in control. Cd markedly enhanced the osteoclast formation compared with control. Emodin significantly abolished the Cd-induced bone microstructure damage (p<0.05), osteoclast formation and increase of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b level (p<0.05). Our data further showed that emodin attenuated the Cd-induced inhibition of osteoprotegerin expression and stimulation of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand expression. Our data show that emodin suppresses the Cd-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel adsorbent from agricultural waste (cashew NUT shell for methylene blue dye removal: Optimization by response surface methodology

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    Ramalingam Subramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon, prepared from an agricultural waste, cashew nut shell (CNS was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption study was carried out with variables like pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time. The response surface methodology (RSM was applied to design the experiments, model the process and optimize the variable. A 24 full factorial central composite design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The parameters pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and time considered for this investigation play an important role in the adsorption studies of methylene blue dye removal. The experimental values were in good agreement with the model predicted values. The optimum values of pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and time are found to be 10, 2.1846 g/L, 50 mg/L and 63 min for complete removal of MB dye respectively.

  12. The EAGLE simulations of galaxy formation: calibration of subgrid physics and model variations

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Bower, Richard G; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Frenk, Carlos S; McCarthy, Ian G; Helly, John C; Jenkins, Adrian; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli M; White, Simon D M; Trayford, James W

    2015-01-01

    We present results from thirteen cosmological simulations that explore the parameter space of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) simulation project. Four of the simulations follow the evolution of a periodic cube L = 50 cMpc on a side, and each employs a different subgrid model of the energetic feedback associated with star formation. The relevant parameters were adjusted so that the simulations each reproduce the observed galaxy stellar mass function at z = 0.1. Three of the simulations fail to form disc galaxies as extended as observed, and we show analytically that this is a consequence of numerical radiative losses that reduce the efficiency of stellar feedback in high-density gas. Such losses are greatly reduced in the fourth simulation - the EAGLE reference model - by injecting more energy in higher density gas. This model produces galaxies with the observed size distribution, and also reproduces many galaxy scaling relations. In the remaining nine simulations, a sin...

  13. An investigation on in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of the antidepressant: amitriptyline hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurup Mandal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride was obtained in a dry powder form and was screened against 253 strains of bacteria which included 72 Gram positive and 181 Gram negative bacteria and against 5 fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by inoculating a loopful of an overnight peptone water culture of the organism on nutrient agar plates containing increasing concentrations of amitriptyline hydrochloride (0, 10 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL. Amitriptyline hydrochloride exhibited significant action against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at 25-200 µg/mL. In the in vivo studies it was seen that amitriptyline hydrochloride at a concentration of 25 µg/g and 30 µg/g body weight of mouse offered significant protection to Swiss strain of white mice when challenged with 50 median lethal dose (MLD of a virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74. The in vivo data were highly significant (p<0.001 according to the chi-square test.

  14. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummer, Christian; Pandis, Marlene; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R.; Gaksch, Martin; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieber, Thomas R.; Pilz, Stefan; Schwetz, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status. PMID:27775585

  15. Survival Analysis and Actuarial Parameters of Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermina Socías, María; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Murúa, María Gabriela; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    The soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus Boheman 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a very serious soybean pest in the Neotropical region. Both adults and larvae feed on soybean, causing significant yield losses. Adult survival was evaluated during three soybean growing seasons under controlled environmental conditions. A survival analysis was performed using a parametric survival fit approach in order to generate survival curves and obtain information that could help optimize integrated management strategies for this weevil pest. Sex of the weevils, crop season, fortnight in which weevils emerged, and their interaction were studied regarding their effect on adult survival. The results showed that females lived longer than males, but both genders were actually long-lived, reaching 224 and 176 d, respectively. Mean lifetime (l50) was 121.88±4.56 d for females and 89.58±2.72 d for males. Although variations were observed in adult longevities among emergence fortnights and soybean seasons, only in December and January fortnights of the 2007–2008 season and December fortnights of 2009–2010 did the statistically longest and shortest longevities occur, respectively. Survivorship data (lx) of adult females and males were fitted to the Weibull frequency distribution model. The survival curve was type I for both sexes, which indicated that mortality corresponded mostly to old individuals.

  16. Effects of intra-articular levobupivacaine, fentanyl-levobupivacaine and tramadol-levobupivacaine for postoperative pain in arthroscopic knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, Pınar; Dobrucalı, Hale; Türk, Hacer Şebnem; Totoz, Tolga; Işıl, Canan Tülay; Hancı, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intra-articularly injected levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine-fentanyl, and levobupivacaine-tramadol combinations. Eighty patients scheduled for elective knee arthroscopy were divided randomly into 4 groups of 20 patients each. Group 1 (the control group) received intra-articular saline, Group 2 received levobupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml, Group 3 received levobupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml + tramadol 50 mg, and Group 4 received levobupivacaine 2.5 mg/ml + fentanyl l50 mcg. All patients were operated on under general anesthesia, and a total of 20 ml study solution was injected: 7 ml subcutaneously before surgery and 13 ml intra-articularly upon completion of surgery. For postoperative, pain visual analogue scale (VAS) was assessed at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 24th hours postoperatively. Patients with a VAS score over 5 received diclofenac sodium, and the need for rescue analgesics was recorded. At the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 24th postoperative hours, Group 3 and Group 4 had statistically significant lower VAS scores of pain (p0.05). The results indicated that levobupivacaine combined with either fentanyl or tramadol decreased rescue analgesic requirements when compared to levobupivacaine alone.

  17. REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INDONESIA MAHSEER (Tor tambroides, Bleeker, 1854, IN TWO DIFFERENT RIVERS IN WESTERN SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive characteristics of mahseer, Tor. tambroides, were studied in Manna River and Batang Tarusan River, which are located on each side of Western Sumatera River. The reproductive period of T. tambroides is largely consistent with that described for the species in other areas, however monthly variations in the extent and timing of peak spawning are recorded. The analysis of the sex ratio indicates an increase in the percentage of females with size, more marked in largest sizes. Seasonal patterns in the occurrences of spawning showed that the spawning season in Manna River lasted was similar with that in Batang Tarusan River, although a second prominent increase of GSI was observed in April and September in Manna River, meanwhile the GSI of Batang Tarusan River fish were below 2 without an apparent variation. L50s of Manna River and Batang Tarusan River mahseer were estimated as 24.5 cm and 20.66 cm, respectively, indicating a high variability in size at first maturity of the mahseer population. Our study provides some important information on the reproductive biology of T. tambroides that will be helpful in similar studies and contributed to fisheries management of this species.

  18. 金针菇FV908菌株液体培养工艺的研究%CULTURE TECHNOLOGY OF Flammulina velutipes FV908 IN LIQUID MEDIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秀荣

    2002-01-01

    通过单因子试验统计分析,优化筛选了适于金针菇(Flammulina velutipes)FV908的适宜培养基和摇瓶培养条件,结果表明,其适宜的液体培养基组成为玉米粉 5.0 %,麸皮 2.0 %,KH2PO4 0.1 %,MgSO4*7H2O 0.05 %,10 μg VB1/100 mL,50 μg VB2/100 mL;适宜的摇瓶培养条件为:培养基的起始pH 6.0~7.0,500 mL摇瓶装量为 150 mL,接种量为 10 %,培养温度 25 ℃,摇床转速为 120 r/min,菌丝干收率 39 g/L.

  19. Ocular Biocompatibility of Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the safety of intravitreal injections of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM tissue adhesive in rabbit eyes. Methods. Twelve study rabbits received an intravitreal injection of 0.1 mL 50% pNIPAM in the right eye. Follow-up examinations included color fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FA, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and electroretinography (ERG. Subsequent to the last follow-up assessment, the rabbits were sacrificed and histopathological study on the scleral incision sites was performed. Results. All study animals developed mild to moderate levels of inflammatory reaction in the conjunctiva, anterior chamber, and the anterior vitreous during the first month of follow-up. After this period, the level of the inflammatory reaction progressively decreased and completely disappeared after the third month of follow-up. The lens and cornea remained clear during the entire follow-up period. OCT and FA did not show areas of retinal damage or neovascularization. Histological and ERG studies of eyes injected with pNIPAM demonstrated absence of retinal toxicity. Conclusion. Intravitreal injections of pNIPAM were nontoxic in this animal study, and pNIPAM may be safe to be used as a bioadhesive in certain retinal diseases.

  20. Reproductive strategy and fecundity of meagre Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801 (Pisces: Sciaenidae: implications for restocking programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Mar Gil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the meagre (Argyrosomus regius is not currently found around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean, the Balearic government is carrying out a restocking programme to recover its population. The success of this programme is critically dependent on improved knowledge of the meagre’s life cycle, and particularly its reproductive biology. Data on key reproductive parameters based on both reared and wild specimens are reported here. Histological examinations and gonadosomatic indices from 342 reared specimens demonstrated that 1 the potential reproductive season ranged from April to June and peaked in May, and 2 length at maturity (L50 was 49.3 cm for males and 57.2 cm for females, age at maturity (A50 was 2.7 years for males and 3.5 years for females, and weight at maturity (W50 was 1396 g for males and 1892 g for females. Histological examinations of 37 wild fish from Cádiz (SW Spain demonstrated that the meagre has determinate fecundity. The annual potential fecundity of reared females ranged from 0.9 to 4.2 million oocytes, which is exponentially dependent upon female size.

  1. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri, E-mail: swije2001@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Li Xiufen [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Jian Chen, E-mail: jchen@sytu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ({approx}1000 mg/L, {approx}2000 mg/L, {approx}3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  2. Synthesis of [{sup 123}I]IBZM: a reliable procedure for routine clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zea-Ponce, Yolanda E-mail: yolanda@neuron.cpmc.columbia.edu; Laruelle, Marc

    1999-08-01

    The single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radiotracer [{sup 123}I]IBZM, is prepared by electrophilic radioiodination of the precursor BZM with high-purity sodium [{sup 123}I]iodide in the presence of diluted peracetic acid. However, in our hands, the most commonly used procedure for this radiosynthesis produced variable and inconsistent labeling yields, to such extent that it became inappropriate for routine clinical studies. Our goal was to modify the labeling procedure, to obtain consistently better labeling and radiochemical yields. The best conditions found for the radioiodination were as follows: 50 {mu}g precursor in 50 {mu}L EtOH mixed with buffer pH 2; Na[{sup 123}I]I in 0.1 M NaOH (<180 {mu}L), 50 {mu}L peracetic acid diluted solution, heating at 65 deg. C for 14 min. Purification was achieved by solid phase extraction (SPE) and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under these conditions, labeling yield average was 76{+-}4% (n=31); radiochemical yield was 69{+-}4% and radiochemical purity was 98{+-}1%. With larger volumes of the Na[{sup 123}I]I solution the yields were consistent but lower. For example, for volumes between 417 and 523 {mu}L the labeling yield was 61{+-}5% (n=21), radiochemical yield was 56{+-} 5% and radiochemical purity was 98{+-}1%.

  3. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  4. Wladimir Andreff (Ed., Disequilibrium Sports Economics: Competitive Imbalance and Budget Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas SCELLES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The economics of professional team sport leagues has been built on three main pillars in the US literature: economic equilibrium for the product market and labour market for talent; profit maximisation; and competitive balance between teams (sporting equilibrium. The European literature has brought a fourth pillar: win maximisation with a hard budget constraint (break-even accounting rule. These four pillars have remained little questioned until recently. This emerging literature is one of the motivations for launching a book dealing with disequilibrium. Another is the editor’s conviction that the reality in team sport leagues does not fit with general equilibrium solutions. The first chapter introduces the previous elements and more generally the book while the seven following chapters develop a specific aspect related to disequilibrium: an attempt at modelling; a dynamic non-equilibrium simulation; the metrics of competitive imbalance; gender imbalance on the sports programme market; and the last three chapters on soft budget constraints with three different focuses (comparison between European and US leagues; governance and agency problem; regulation regarding the new UEFA club licensing and Financial Fair Play. As a whole, the book provides an original and realistic view that can and perhaps even must shape the future of sports economics.Keywords. Disequilibrium Sports Economics; Competitive Imbalance; Budget Constraints.JEL. Z20, L83, D50, L50, P20.

  5. Using mariculture as a breeding site: reproduction of Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Actinopterygii: Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Possamai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in estuaries provides substrate for colonization by fouling organisms, thus attracting small cryptic fish species hitherto unknown in this environment. The blenny Hypleurochilus fissicornis is one of the species that is associated with this new system and is found in high abundance in bivalve farming. To understand the reproductive strategy that this species uses in this new environment, we collected specimens monthly in a mariculture on the southern coast of Paraná State (Brazil. After obtaining morphometric data, we removed gonads to determine sex and maturity stage. Gonads were weighed and analysed histologically. Oogenesis showed the same pattern as in other teleosts, but spermatogenesis showed a very complex dynamics. The spawning is multiple and synchronous between sexes, lasting eight months (May to December and peaking in winter. Hypleurochilus fissicornis was reproductively successful using the mariculture as a breeding site. The species has a variety of tactics to protect its offspring (e.g. batch spawning, long reproductive period, reduced L50, parental care and a reproductive peak in winter.

  6. Growth-inhibitory Effects of Curcumin on Ovary Cancer Cells and Its Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽端; 童强松; 吴翠环

    2004-01-01

    Summary: To study the growth-inhibitory ettects ot curcumin on human ovary cancer A2780 cells in vitro and its molecular mechanisms, the growth inhibition rates of A2780 cancer cells, after being treated with 10 μmol/L-50 μmol/L curcumin for 6-24 h, were examined by MTT method. The morphological changes of cancer cells were observed under inversion microscopy. Cellular apoptotic rates were determined by using TUNEL. The protein expression levels of bcl-2, p53 and MDM2 in cancer cells were examined by SP immunohistochemistry. After being treated by various concentrations of curcumin, the growth of cancer cells was inhibited significantly. Some cancer cells presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis. The rates of apoptosis were 6.41% -28.48% (P<0.01). The expression of bcl-2 and p53 was decreased, which depended on the action time (P<0.01). There were no obvious changes in MDM2 expression. It was concluded that curcumin could significantly inhibit the growth of ovary cancer cells. The induction of apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of bcl-2 and p53 was probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  7. Production of biomass, polysaccharides, and ganoderic acid using non-conventional carbon sources under submerged culture of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Paola; Rojas, Diego; Atehortúa, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different non-conventional carbon sources was studied in the submerged culture of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, for simultaneous production of mycelial biomass, bioactive ganoderic acid, and polysaccharides, in less time, using non-conventional carbon sources to minimize the high costs of current culture media. The optimal medium composition was defined as (g/L): 50 of barley flour, 0.2 of KH2PO4, 0.1 of MgSO4ⁱ7H2O, and 1 NH4Cl. Cultivated under this complex culture medium, the mycelial biomass production was 23.49 ± 0.37 g/L; the extracellular polysaccharides production was 2.72 ± 0.11 g/L; the intracellular polysaccharides production was 2.22 ± 0.06 g/L; the ganoderic acids production was 299.67 ± 11.63 mg/L. One liter of culture medium developed in this project was priced at USD $ 0.11 if barley flour is used as carbon source or $ 0.13 with oat flour in order to get a good amount of products of interest.

  8. Size of catch, reproduction and feeding of the small-eye smooth-hound, Mustelus higmani (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae, in Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tagliafico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mustelus higmani is categorized as “least concern” according to the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, but gaps in population trends occur in most of its distribution range. In Venezuela, this species has local importance because it is part of typical dishes. The aim of this work is to analyse the population structure, reproduction and feeding of M. higmani from Margarita Island’s artisanal fishery landings for management purposes. Between 2006 and 2008, 2223 specimens were analysed: 1156 females (24.8-88.4 cm total length [TL] and 1067 males (20-69.2 cm TL. Temporal variations in sex ratio and length class structure were detected. Changes in body size were detected throughout different years of sampling. A decrease in TL and an increase in immature specimens in the catch were observed in 2008. Mean length at maturity (L50 was estimated at 46.7 cm TL for females and 47.6 cm TL for males. Female fecundity was 4±1.8 embryos (n=388. Length at birth was between 20 and 29 cm TL, and no differences in sex ratio were detected for embryos. Feeding analyses (n=266 stomachs showed a diet mainly based on decapod crustaceans, small fish, stomatopods and cephalopods. The trophic level was 3.3, which shows feeding based on benthic and demersal species of the continental shelf, especially crustaceans.

  9. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  10. Peak career in world-ranked swimmers: Age’s analysis of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to: (i describe the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games swimmer’s ages and; (ii compare ages according to swimmer’s gender. It was analyzed 1101 inscriptions (588 men and 513 women for all swimming events held at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: 50 meters freestyle (L50, 100 meters freestyle (L100, 200 meters freestyle (L200, 400 meters freestyle (L400, 800 meters freestyle (L800, only women 1500 meters freestyle (L1500, only men, 100 meters backstroke (C100, 200 meters backstroke (C200, 100 meters breaststroke (B100, 200 meters breaststroke (B200, 100 meters butterfly (M100, 200 meters butterfly (M200. The final result lists was consulted at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games official internet site, collecting the swimmer’s name and chronological age for each event. Afterwards, chronological age was converted into decimal age at the day of the event heats. From the quartile analysis became clear that there was a tendency for the age median and variance to decrease from the shorter to the longest events for both genders. There were significant variations in the age, according to gender at the L400 ( p = .01, L1500/L800 ( p = .02, C100 ( p < .01, C200 ( p < .01, B100 ( p = .02, B200 ( p = .04, M100 ( p = .05 and M200 ( p < .01. For all these events, decimal age was higher for men than for women.

  11. Effect of Sintering Atmosphere and Solution Treatment on Density, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels Developed from Pre-alloyed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Arun Prasad; Mahendran, Sudhahar; Ramajayam, Mariappan; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Chinnaraj, Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Powder Metallurgy (P/M) of Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of different compositions were prepared through pre-alloyed powders and elemental powders with and without addition of copper. The powder mix was developed by pot mill for 12 h to obtain the homogeneous mixture of pre-alloyed powder with elemental compositions. Cylindrical green compacts with the dimensions of 30 mm diameter and 12 mm height were compacted through universal testing machine at a pressure level of 560 ± 10 MPa. These green compacts were sintered at 1350 °C for 2 h in hydrogen and argon atmospheres. Some of the sintered stainless steel preforms were solution treated at 1050 °C followed by water quenching. The sintered as well as solution treated samples were analysed by metallography examination, Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of mechanical properties. Ferrite content of sintered and solution treated DSS were measured by Fischer Ferritoscope. It is inferred that the hydrogen sintered DSS depicted better density (94% theoretical density) and tensile strength (695 MPa) than the argon sintered steels. Similarly the microstructure of solution treated DSS revealed existence of more volume of ferrite grains than its sintered condition. Solution treated hydrogen sintered DSS A (50 wt% 316L + 50 wt% 430L) exhibited higher tensile strength of 716 MPa and elongation of 17%, which are 10-13% increment than the sintered stainless steels.

  12. Optimization of the Parameters Affecting the Fenton Process for Decolorization of Reactive Red 198 (RR-198 from the Aqueous Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there has been a great concern about the consumption of dyes because of their toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and persistence in the aquatic environment. Reactive dyes are widely used in textile industry. Advanced oxidation processes are one of the cost-effective methods for the removal of these dyes. The main aims of this study were determining the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing Reactive Red 198 (RR-198 dye from aqueous solution and determining the optimal conditions. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at a laboratory scale. A total of 69 samples were considered and the effect of pH, Fe (II concentration, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration and reaction time were investigated. Results: According to the results, a maximum removal efficiency of 92% was obtained at pH of 3 and the reaction time of 90 min; also, the concentration of Fe (II, H2O2, initial dye concentration were 100 mg/L, 50 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, respectively. The results revealed that by increasing the concentration of Fe (II, H2O2 and initial dye, the removal efficiency was increased. Conclusions: The results showed that Fenton process could be used as a cost-effective method for removing RR-198 dye from textile wastewater efficiently.

  13. Milk yield, composition and qua­li­ty of organic milk of ewes crossbreeds of Lacaune, East Friesian and Improved Wallachian during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Pokorná

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of milk yield, composition and quality of organic milk of crossbreeds of Lacaune (L, East Friesian (EF and Improved Wallachian (IW, (n = 10, L 50 EF 43.75 IW 6.25 during lactation was carried out on organic farm in Valašská Bystřice in 2007. All sheep were on the third lactation and during study they were reared on permanent pasture. The stage of lactation (SL had a highly significant effect on milk yield (MY and contents of total solids (TS, fat (F, protein (P, casein (C, lactose (L and urea (U. The SL had also a highly significant effect on pH and titrable acidity (TA, whereas on rennet clotting time (RCT the SL had a significant effect. On the other hand the SL had not a significant effect on somatic cell counts (SCC and rennet curd quality (RCQ. The highest contents of TS, F and C were found at the end of the lactation, whereas their lowest contents were found on the 120th day. Between the second and the last sampling the lactose content decreased. The content of U and RCT were the most variable indicators whithin the frame of our study. On the other hand SCCs were, during the whole lactation, very well-balanced and relatively low. Between pH and SCC was found positive correlation. TA gradually increased and RCT gradually prolonged with advanced lactation.

  14. Cytotoxicity screening of Melastoma malabathricum extracts on human breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurfariza; Ahmad; Roslen; Nur; Aizura; Mat; Alewi; Hadji; Ahamada; Mohammad; Syaiful; Bahari; Abdull; Rasad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To screen the cytotoxic activity of Melasloma malabathricum(M,malubathricum)against human breast carreer cell line(MCF-7)in vitro.Methods:A three steps extraction protocol using n-hexane,chloroform and methanol as the solvents systems was carried out on leaves,stems and flowers of M.nalabathricum.Dimethyl sulfoxide was used in extracts dilution and serial dilutions were conducted to obtain five different extract concentrations(100μg/mL,50μg/mL,25μg/mL,123μg/rnL and 6.25μg/mL).The evaluation of cell growth was determined using methylene blue assay.Results:Methanol extract from the leaves showed significant anticancer activity against MCF-7cell lines with the TC50value of 7.14μg/ml while methanol and chloroform extract from the flowers exhibited a moderate activity towards MCF-7 cell line,with the IC50value of 33.63μg/mL and 45.76μg/mL respectively after 72 h of treatment.Conclusions:The extracts from leaves and flowers of M.nulabatkricum showed promising anticancer activity toward human breast cancer cell lines with the lowest IC50at 7.14μg/mL while the extracts from stems showed less growth inhibition activity.

  15. Waterborne exposure to microcystin-LR causes thyroid hormone metabolism disturbances in juvenile Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zidong; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Ying; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong

    2015-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of MC-LR in fish. In the present study, juvenile Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0 µg/L, 50 µg/L, 100 µg/L, and 500 µg/L) for 7 d. The whole-body thyroid hormone content, the histology of thyroid follicle epithelial cells, the activities of hepatic iodothyronine deiodinases, and the transcription of selected genes associated with thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and metabolism were analyzed. Following exposure to MC-LR, whole-body concentrations of both thyroxine (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ) were significantly decreased. The levels of messenger RNA for sodium/iodide symporter, transthyretin, thyroid hormone receptor-α, iodothyronine deiodinase2, and iodothyronine deiodinase3 were significantly down-regulated after exposure to 500 µg/L MC-LR. A significant decrease in ID2 activity was also observed in the 500-µg/L MC-LR exposure group. Moreover, hypertrophy of thyroid follicle epithelial cells was observed after exposure to MC-LR. The results indicate that acute MC-LR exposure has the potential to disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormone metabolism, leading to a hypothyroidism state in the juvenile Chinese rare minnow.

  16. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern.

  17. Observations on the reproductive cycle, age and growth of the salema, Sarpa salpa (Osteichthyes: Sparidae along the western central coast of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Criscoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The sexual maturation and the growth of the salema, Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758, along the Italian Mediterranean coast (central Italy, were studied in fish (n = 105 killed incidentally by underwater explosions during the construction of Civitavecchia harbour in 1999 and specimens collected with trammel nets (n = 339. This species is characterized by a protandric hermaphroditism and the sex change process occurs between 24 and 31 cm TL corresponding to a wide range of ages (3-7 years. Size at maturity (L50 was 19.5 cm, at which almost all the individuals were males. Two distinct spawning periods were observed: one in spring, from March to May, and the other in autumn, from the end of September to November. During the first year, compensatory growth occurred in the individuals born in the two periods. An annual regular pattern of ring deposition was identified in the otoliths: the translucent ring was laid down during the winter months, while the opaque ring was formed during the summer months. Back-calculated lengths at age were used to estimate the parameters of the Von Bertalanffy growth equation which were: L∞ = 37.27 cm, K = 0.27 year-1 and t0 = -0.53 year. Salema showed isometric growth (b = 3.04; P = 0.84; t = 0.19.

  18. Detection of vibrio cholerae O1 by using cerium oxide nanowires - based immunosensor with different antibody immobilization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Hoang, Nguyen Luong; Lan, Hoang; Vuong, Pham Hung; Anh, Ta Thi Nhat; Huy, Tran Quang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effects of different antibody immobilization strategies on the response of a CeO2-nanowires (NWs)-based immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection. Accordingly, the changes in the electron-transfer resistance ( R et ) from before to after cells bind to an antibody-modified electrode prepared by using three different methods of antibody immobilization were determined. The values were 16.2%, 8.3%, and 6.65% for the method that utilized protein A, antibodies activated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), and absorption, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the change in the current was highest for the immunosensors prepared using protein A (11%), followed by those prepared with EDC/NHS-activated antibodies (9%), and finally, those prepared through absorption (7.5%). The order of the antibody immobilization strategies in terms of resulting immunosensor detection limit and sensitivity was as follows order: absorption (3.2 × 103 CFU/mL; 45.1 Ω/CFU·mL-1) < EDC/NHS-activated antibody (1.0 × 103 CFU/mL; 50.6 Ω/CFU·mL-1) < protein A (1.0 × 102 CFU/mL; 65.8 Ω/CFU·mL-1). Thus, we confirmed that the protein A - mediated method showed significantly high cell binding efficiencies compared to the random immobilization method.

  19. The reproductive biology of the rainbow runner, Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 caught in the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Pinheiro

    Full Text Available The rainbow runner, Elagatis bipinnulata, which belongs to the Carangidae family, has a circumtropical distribution. It is found throughout the Atlantic Ocean, from Massachusetts (USA to Bahia (Brazil. The reproductive biology of the rainbow runner was studied, using specimens captured off the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. From July 1999 to November 2003, a total of 352 fishes were analysed (201 females and 151 males. Fork length (FL was measured and specimens were gutted for gonads collection. In the laboratory, gonads length, width and weight were measured, and sexes identified macroscopically. Through histological analysis, five different maturation stages were identified for females: immature, maturing, mature, spent and resting. A predominance of maturing and mature females was observed from January to May. The highest gonad index (GI values were also observed during this period, ranging from 7.7 to 55. Mean sexual maturity size (L50 for females was estimated at 64.6 cm (FL. In the studied area the species exhibited total spawning, with two synchronous groups. Testicles were histologically very similar making them impossible to differentiate sexual maturation stages. Considerable variation was observed in the male gonads weight, hampering the assessment of size at maturity. However, GI values for males were also higher from January to May. These results suggest that the spawning period of the rainbow runner in the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago occurs during the first semester of the year.

  20. Reproductive biology of Haemulon plumieri (Teleostei: Haemulidae) in Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki-Mendes, R A; Santander-Neto, J; Silva, J R F; Hazin, F H V

    2013-05-01

    The Haemulon plumieri is a typical reef-associated and tropical species found in warm and temperate waters of the Western Atlantic. Due to the large fishing effort directed to H. plumieri, the knowledge about its reproductive biology is essential for correct stock management and conservation. The aim of this study was to characterise reproductive biology with a focus on its seasonal variation of gonadal maturation stages, first maturation size and fecundity. Specimens were monthly collected and a total of 119 females and 136 males were analysed. The reproductive cycle of Haemulon plumieri is seasonal, with higher activity between March and May. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 16.86 and 18.55 cm for females and males, respectively. The total fecundity ranged between 17,816 and 120,333 mature oocytes per female and relative fecundity was 235 ± 63 oocyte.g-1 whereas batch fecundity varied between 20 and 25% from total fecundity. Since the species is widely caught, we suggest a closed season from March to May and to establish a minimum catch size of 18.5 cm for both sexes, since there is no evident sexual dimorphism.

  1. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua

    2015-01-01

    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  2. A geospatial model of ambient sound pressure levels in the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennitt, Daniel; Sherrill, Kirk; Fristrup, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a model that predicts measured sound pressure levels using geospatial features such as topography, climate, hydrology, and anthropogenic activity. The model utilizes random forest, a tree-based machine learning algorithm, which does not incorporate a priori knowledge of source characteristics or propagation mechanics. The response data encompasses 270 000 h of acoustical measurements from 190 sites located in National Parks across the contiguous United States. The explanatory variables were derived from national geospatial data layers and cross validation procedures were used to evaluate model performance and identify variables with predictive power. Using the model, the effects of individual explanatory variables on sound pressure level were isolated and quantified to reveal systematic trends across environmental gradients. Model performance varies by the acoustical metric of interest; the seasonal L50 can be predicted with a median absolute deviation of approximately 3 dB. The primary application for this model is to generalize point measurements to maps expressing spatial variation in ambient sound levels. An example of this mapping capability is presented for Zion National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument in southwestern Utah.

  3. 电磁搅拌条件下小方坯结晶器内钢液流动行为的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Flow Field in Mold for Small Billets Under Electromagnetic Stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国旭

    2012-01-01

    采用数模分析结合生产实践的方法,对小方坯连铸结晶器电磁搅拌过程及相关问题进行了理论与实践分析.结果表明,电流强度与频率对磁感应强度有直接影响;150 mm×150 mm断面的最佳搅拌频率为4Hz;当搅拌电流在250~400 A之间变化时,搅拌速度大小范围在0.71~ 1.06 m/s;该计算应用于生产实践取得了较好的生产实效.%The electromagnetic stirring process and related problems of the mold for small billets were theoretically and practically analyzed with the method of combining digital-to-analog analysis with production practice. The results show that the current strength and its frequency has a direct impact on the magnetic induction. The best stirring frequency is 4 Hz for 150 mm×l50 mm section; and when the mixing current changes in the range of 250~400 A, corresponding stirring speed is in the rage of 0.71~1.06 m/s. Applying the simulation results to practical production, a good production efficiency has been obtained.

  4. Effect of a preparation containing lactic fermentation bacteria on the hygienic status and aerobic stability of silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwet, M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of biological silage additive (Bonsilage) on the hygiene quality and nutritive value of maize and grass-legume silages. The experiments were conducted on FAO 240 maize (Zea mays L.) and a mixture of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), 50% with alfalfa (Medicago media Pers.), 50%. Group 1 was a control and comprised silage without any additives, group 2 was ensiled with the addition of 4 cm3 kg(-1) biological silage additive. After 60 days of silage process individual silages were subjected to microbiological composition, and chemical analyses of silages were also determined. Similar analyses were repeated at day 7 following exposure to oxygen. The applied biological silage additive was found to reduce (Psilages. Chemical analysis of the maize silage showed that the biological additive caused an increase (Psilage samples from the grass-legume mixture showed that the additive caused an increase (Psilage with the addition of an inoculant were characterized by a lower (Psilages in the aerobic phase.

  5. Transovarial Transmission of Dengue Virus on Aedes aegypti (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Desiree Seran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dengue virus to maintain its existence in nature through two mechanisms, both horizontal and vertical transmission (transovarial of the infective female mosquitoes to the next generation. This study aims to investigate the transovarial transmission and transovarial infection rate (TIR of dengue virus in eggs Aedes aegypti infected mother has a peroral virus DEN-2. This study is an experimental study in the laboratory. The population of the study was Ae. aegypti adults who have previously been infected with DEN-2 virus orally and proved to be infected with DEN-2 transovarially (Fl. The research sample was egg of Ae. aegypti from F2 generation which colonized from DEN-2 transovarially infected Ae. aegypti (Fl. Egg squash preparations made as many as 50 samples from jive difJerent mosquito parents. The presence of dengue virus antigen in mosquitoes FO and Fl were checked by SPBC immunocytochemistry method and using monoclonal antibodies DSSC7 (l:50 as standardized primary antibodies. The results shows the existence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in eggs Ae. aegypti (F2 were seen in squash preparations in the form of a brownish color egg spread on embryonic tissues (TIR= 52%. It concludes that dengue virus is able to be transmitted vertically through the egg.

  6. Light and scanning electron microscopy study of in vitro effects of artesunate in newly excysted metacercariae of Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Joyce G R; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Garcia, Juberlan S; Gomes, Ana Paula N; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosangela; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy of food-borne trematodes relies on two drugs, praziquantel and tricabendazole, and there is growing interest in finding alternative therapies. Plant oil extracts have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine as sources of bioactive compounds with antiparasitic activity. Species of the genus Echinostoma are used as good models to test effective compounds against food-borne trematodes. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of crude artesunate extracts in vitro on newly excysted metacercariae of Echinostoma paraensei by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The flukes were incubated with 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL of artesunate for 4, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. When the exposure time and concentration of artesunate increased, there were changes in motor activity, tegument damage and death. Blebs and swelling were the most common damages quantified on the tegument. The in vitro study reproduced results described for other immature flukes incubated with artemisinin derivatives. Excysted metacercariae of E. paraensei constitute a good model to study in vitro drug effects.

  7. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account.

  8. An immunosensor based on magnetic relaxation switch and polystyrene microparticle-induced immune multivalency enrichment system for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. Stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi ping; Zou, Ming qiang; Wang, Da ning; Li, Yong liang; Xue, Qiang; Xie, Meng xia; Qi, Cai

    2013-05-15

    A rapid, sensitive, and simple immunosensor has been developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. Stewartii (Pss). This immunosensor combines magnetic relaxation switch (MRS) assay with polystyrene microparticle-induced immune multivalency enrichment system. Comparing to conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the immunosensor developed in this study provides higher sensitivity and requires less analysis time. The detection limit of Pss obtained by immunosensor was determined to be 10(3)cfu/mL, 50 times lower than that by ELISA (5×10(4)cfu/mL), while the analysis time required by immunosensor is 30min much shorter than that by ELISA. The average recoveries studied with Pss at various spiking levels ranged from 85.5% to 93.4% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 6.0%. No cross-reaction with the other five strains was found, demonstrating a good specificity of Pss detection. The results showed that the MRS immunosensor combined with PS-induced immune multivalency enhancement system is a promising platform for the determination of large biological molecules due to its high sensitivity, specificity, homogeneity, and speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D and the endothelium: basic, translational and clinical research updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinkoo Dalan

    2014-09-01

    Results and conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin D stabilizes the quiescent endothelium, modulates certain stages of endothelial activation, and is involved in the repair of the damaged endothelium in vitro and in vivo. Twelve recent cross sectional studies, including 2086 subjects of varying ethnic groups, show an association between endothelial dysfunction and vitamin D deficiency. Yet 10 recent RCTs of vitamin D supplementation involving 824 subjects have failed to show significant improvements in endothelial function in the short term. So far, RCTs have not been able to confirm or refute the benefit of vitamin D supplementation on vascular mortality. Longer term randomized controlled trials using doses of vitamin D to optimize serum 25(OHD concentrations to 20.0–40.0 ng/mL (50.0–100.0 nmol/L or using vitamin D analogues with no calciotropic effects are needed to assess endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes.

  10. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  11. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method for determination of the non-imidazole H3-receptor antagonist UPR1056 in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Morini, Giovanni; Bordi, Fabrizio; Flammini, Lisa; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco

    2011-07-01

    The non-imidazole H3 receptor antagonist UPR1056 was dosed in plasma samples from rats individually administered with a single i.p. dose of 1.25 mg/kg by means of a newly validated HPLC-MS method. UPR1056 was extracted from rat plasma by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and was separated by linear gradient elution, employing water and methanol both additioned with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases. UPR1056 was detected in MS using an electrospray ion source operating in positive ion mode. Acquisition was performed in single ion monitoring mode at m/z=349.3. The method was validated over the concentration range of 17.43-1743 ng/mL (50-5000 pmol/mL). Within- and between-run precision for the low, mid and high quality controls (QC) levels were 6.75% or less and accuracy ranged from 95.8 to 107.6%. The lower limit of quantification was 17.43 ng/mL. The analysis of the time course of UPR1056 concentrations over the 24-h period revealed a C(max) of 1147 ng/mL after 2 h from peripheral administration of the non-imidazole H(3)-receptor antagonist, with a prolonged elimination half-life of over 9 h.

  12. Effect of Sintering Atmosphere and Solution Treatment on Density, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels Developed from Pre-alloyed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Arun Prasad; Mahendran, Sudhahar; Ramajayam, Mariappan; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Chinnaraj, Raj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In this research, Powder Metallurgy (P/M) of Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of different compositions were prepared through pre-alloyed powders and elemental powders with and without addition of copper. The powder mix was developed by pot mill for 12 h to obtain the homogeneous mixture of pre-alloyed powder with elemental compositions. Cylindrical green compacts with the dimensions of 30 mm diameter and 12 mm height were compacted through universal testing machine at a pressure level of 560 ± 10 MPa. These green compacts were sintered at 1350 °C for 2 h in hydrogen and argon atmospheres. Some of the sintered stainless steel preforms were solution treated at 1050 °C followed by water quenching. The sintered as well as solution treated samples were analysed by metallography examination, Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of mechanical properties. Ferrite content of sintered and solution treated DSS were measured by Fischer Ferritoscope. It is inferred that the hydrogen sintered DSS depicted better density (94% theoretical density) and tensile strength (695 MPa) than the argon sintered steels. Similarly the microstructure of solution treated DSS revealed existence of more volume of ferrite grains than its sintered condition. Solution treated hydrogen sintered DSS A (50 wt% 316L + 50 wt% 430L) exhibited higher tensile strength of 716 MPa and elongation of 17%, which are 10-13% increment than the sintered stainless steels.

  13. Molecular epidemiology and risk factors for Anisakis simplex s.l. infection in blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean: Differences between A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Valero, Adela; Morales-Yuste, Manuel; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2016-09-02

    Our study determined parameters of parasitization of Anisakis simplex s.l. in Micromesistius poutassou in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean, with a total prevalence of 82%. Also, in the three seasons analyzed, high prevalence's values were found, reaching 100% in spring; however mean intensity and abundance values were higher in winter. The use of molecular techniques to differentiate between Anisakis genotypes of the larvae characterized allowed obtaining values of 99.7% Anisakis simplex s.l. (50.1% A. simplex s.s., 42.9% A. pegreffii, 7.0% A. simplex s.s. - A. pegreffii hybrids) and 0.3% A. typica. The infections found in the fish were of both single and mixed species, in all the different possible combinations. The presence of A. simplex s.l. in the viscera varied according to genotype and season. Likewise, factors associated with the presence of the parasite in the ventral or dorsal musculature were different, where A. simplex s.s. proportion was double than that of A. pegreffii. The ecology of the two sibling species with regard to their location in fish and the influence of the season were different.

  14. Collapse and revival of a Dicke-type coherent narrowing in potassium vapor confined in a nanometric thin cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Armen; Pashayan-Leroy, Yevgenya; Leroy, Claude; Sarkisyan, David

    2016-04-01

    A nanometer-thin cell (in the direction of laser beam propagation) has been elaborated with the thickness of the atomic vapor column varying smoothly in the range of L=50-1500 {nm}. The cell allows one to study the behavior of the resonance absorption over the D 1 line of potassium atoms by varying the laser intensity and the cell thickness (from L=λ /2 to L=2λ with the step λ /2 where λ =770 {nm} is the resonant wavelength of the laser). It is shown that despite the huge Doppler broadening (\\gt 0.9 {GHz} at the cell temperature 170{}\\circ {{C}}), at low laser intensities a narrowing of the resonance absorption spectrum is observed for L=λ /2 (∼ 120 {MHz} at FWHM) and L=3/2λ , whereas for L=λ and L=2λ the spectrum broadens. At moderate laser intensities narrowband velocity selective optical pumping (VSOP) resonances appear at L=λ and L=2λ with the linewidth close to the natural one. A comparison with saturated absorption spectra obtained in a 1.4 cm-sized K cell is presented. The developed theoretical model well describes the experiment.

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_003766.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .1/NP_003766.1_holo_16-348.pdb psi-blast 16L,17A,21H,30N,33G,34R,35L,36A,37G,38R,49L,50R,51G,54V,55A,58C,59L,62L,66L,90L,93L,94L,...97A,99Y,122E,123G,126F,127T,130A,134F,172L,173A,175L,176L,187L,188C,189A,190F,192R,195S...,204Y,208C,211I,212F,260F,264W,265G,266P,267L,268F,269G,270L,271L,273A,275V,278S,280L,...281W,282A,283Q,284E,293L,296A,297V,298L,301A,302V,305I,308S,309F,312R,315C,319L,322L,323C,324C,325G,330G,331M,332R HTG,HTO,NAG,PLM,RET,_ZN 0 ...

  16. Domain Modeling: NP_000721.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available b blast 37K,38E,39W,40Q,41P,42A,43V,44Q,45I,46L,50L,52F,53L,54L,55S,85V,88L,89M,92L,96P,98N,99L,100I,102N,103L,104L,...117T,118T,121M,122G,125V,126S,130F,168L,169S,171T,172I,193A,194N,195M,196C,201P,202N,207Q,213L,214L,217L,...218F,275R,276P,277P,321L,322F,326W,330F,331S,336R,338Y,342S,343A,344E,345R,3...46R,351P,352I,353S,354F,357L,359S,360Y,361T,364C,365V,368I,369I,371C,372F,378R,382M,385F,386P,389P BNG,HTO,NAG,PLM,RET,_ZN 0 ...

  17. Domain Modeling: NP_002556.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available b blast 31E,32D,33F,36I,37L,40V,42Y,43A,44V,46F,48L,50L,55P,57L,79L,82T,83L,86L,88L,90T,92I,93Y,94Y,96A,97A,...98H,99N,111V,112R,115F,116Y,119L,120Y,123V,124L,162V,163V,164A,165G,166C,167L,184L,185C,186H,191P,198V,204V,208L,...209F,254F,258F,261F,263I,264T,265R,269Y,271A,274L,275E,276A,277D,278C,279R,280V,281L,...282N,283I,284V,285N,286V,287V,292R,293P,295A,300C,301L,304V,307L,308L,314R,320L,321C BNG,HTO,NAG,PLM,RET,_ZN 0 ...

  18. Usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium in prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rey, J A; Chantada-de la Fuente, D; Peteiro-Cancelo, M Á; Gómez-de María, C; San Miguel-Fraile, M P

    2017-04-28

    The incidental presence of seminal vesicle epithelium in prostate needle biopsies is generally recognisable through routine microscopy. However, the biopsy can sometimes be erroneously interpreted as malignant due to its architectural and cytological characteristics, and immunohistochemistry can be useful for correctly identifying the biopsy. Our objective was to analyse the potential usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium. Through immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal anti-GATA-3 antibody (clone L50-823), we studied seminal vesicle sections from 20 prostatectomy specimens, 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal vesicle tissue and 68 prostate biopsies without seminal vesicle epithelium, 36 of which showed adenocarcinoma. Staining for GATA-3 was intense in the 20 seminal vesicles of the prostatectomy specimens and in the 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal epithelium. In the 60 biopsies without a seminal vesicle, GATA-3 was positive in the prostate basal cells and even in the secretory cells (57 cases), although with less intensity in 55 of the cases. One of the 36 prostatic adenocarcinomas tested positive for GATA-3. The intense immunohistochemical expression of GATA-3 in the seminal vesicle epithelium can help identify the epithelium in prostate biopsies. This marker is also positive in the basal cells of healthy prostates and, with less intensity, in the secretory cells. Positivity, weak or moderate, is observed on rare occasions in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Fagopyrum tataricum (Buckwheat Improved High-Glucose-Induced Insulin Resistance in Mouse Hepatocytes and Diabetes in Fructose-Rich Diet-Induced Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60% induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw, quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw, and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  20. Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Shen, Siou-Ru; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, She-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75% ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33 mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60%) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100 μg/mL; 50 mg/kg bw), quercetin (6 μg/mL; 3 mg/kg bw), and rutin (23 μg/mL; 11.5 mg/kg bw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPARγ degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48 h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.

  1. Prep-aration and Photocatalysis of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped in Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber Mats%静电纺丝制备TiO2/PAN纳米纤维毡及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 余阳; 薛罡; 周美华

    2009-01-01

    采用超声波水解技术水解TiCl4制备纳米TiO2粒子,与聚丙烯腈(PAN)的N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)溶液共混后,通过静电纺丝制得具有光催化活性的TiO2/PAN纳米纤维毡,并用其对模拟废水中苯酚进行光催化降解实验.X射线衍射(XRD)表征结果显示制备的TiO2为锐钛矿.用场发射扫描电镜(FE-SEM)观察纤维毡的形态,显示纤维的直径随纺丝液浓度增大而增大.对苯酚进行光催化降解结果表明:纺丝液浓度质量分数为5%TiO2/PAN纤维毡对苯酚的降解率最高,对100 mg/L,50 mg/L和20 mg/L苯酚的降解率分别为51.1%,87.5%和99.6%.纤维毡循环使用5次后对于20 mg/L苯酚的降解率为87.4%.

  2. Prospective phase 1/2 study of rituximab in childhood and adolescent chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carolyn M.; Rogers, Zora R.; Kinnamon, Daniel D.; Bussel, James B.; Mahoney, Donald H.; Abshire, Thomas C.; Sawaf, Hadi; Moore, Theodore B.; Loh, Mignon L.; Glader, Bertil E.; McCarthy, Maggie C.; Mueller, Brigitta U.; Olson, Thomas A.; Lorenzana, Adonis N.; Mentzer, William C.; Buchanan, George R.; Feldman, Henry A.; Neufeld, Ellis J.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed safety and efficacy of rituximab in a prospective study of 36 patients, age 2.6 to 18.3 years, with severe chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The primary outcome of sustained platelets above 50 × 109/L (50 000/mm3) during 4 consecutive weeks, starting in weeks 9 to 12, was achieved by 11 of 36 patients (31%, confidence interval [CI], 16% to 48%). Median response time was 1 week (range, 1 to 7 weeks). Attainment of the primary outcome was not associated with age, prior pharmacologic responses, prior splenectomy, ITP duration, screening platelet count, refractoriness, or IgM reduction. First-dose, infusion-related toxicity was common (47%) despite premedication. Significant drug-related toxicities included third-dose hypotension (n = 1) and serum sickness (n = 2). Peripheral B cells were depleted in all subjects. IgM decreased 3.4% per week, but IgG did not significantly decrease. Rituximab was well tolerated, with manageable infusion-related side effects, but 6% of subjects developed serum sickness. Rituximab is beneficial for some pediatric patients with severe, chronic ITP. PMID:16352811

  3. Prospective phase 1/2 study of rituximab in childhood and adolescent chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carolyn M; Rogers, Zora R; Kinnamon, Daniel D; Bussel, James B; Mahoney, Donald H; Abshire, Thomas C; Sawaf, Hadi; Moore, Theodore B; Loh, Mignon L; Glader, Bertil E; McCarthy, Maggie C; Mueller, Brigitta U; Olson, Thomas A; Lorenzana, Adonis N; Mentzer, William C; Buchanan, George R; Feldman, Henry A; Neufeld, Ellis J

    2006-04-01

    We assessed safety and efficacy of rituximab in a prospective study of 36 patients, age 2.6 to 18.3 years, with severe chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The primary outcome of sustained platelets above 50 x 10(9)/L (50,000/mm3) during 4 consecutive weeks, starting in weeks 9 to 12, was achieved by 11 of 36 patients (31%, confidence interval [CI], 16% to 48%). Median response time was 1 week (range, 1 to 7 weeks). Attainment of the primary outcome was not associated with age, prior pharmacologic responses, prior splenectomy, ITP duration, screening platelet count, refractoriness, or IgM reduction. First-dose, infusion-related toxicity was common (47%) despite premedication. Significant drug-related toxicities included third-dose hypotension (n = 1) and serum sickness (n = 2). Peripheral B cells were depleted in all subjects. IgM decreased 3.4% per week, but IgG did not significantly decrease. Rituximab was well tolerated, with manageable infusion-related side effects, but 6% of subjects developed serum sickness. Rituximab is beneficial for some pediatric patients with severe, chronic ITP.

  4. Scouring and dyeing of T/C knitted fabric in one bath%涤棉针织物练染同浴工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏武; 张伟; 张艳

    2013-01-01

    选用精练剂M-191A,Argazol NF型活性染料和Artelon AQE型分散染料,设计相应的工艺实现涤棉针织物同浴练染.优化的处理工艺为:M-191A 2g/L,50℃处理30 min,加入染料和元明粉,130 ℃染色40min;水洗、皂洗、水洗.染中、深色时,同浴练染工艺染色效果和色牢度与传统工艺相当.%Scouring and dyeing of polyester/cotton knitted fabric in one bath is carried out with scouring agent M-191A, reactive dyes Argazol NF and disperse dyes Artelon AQE. The optimized process is as follows: M-191A2 g/L,scouring at 50 ℃ for 30 min, then dyes and anhydrous sodium sulfate are added, dyeing at 130 ℃ for 40 min, then washing, soaping, and washing. Dyeing results and color fastness of medium to dark color are similar to those of traditional process. Scouring and dyeing in one bath has advantages of short and efficient process, water, energy and steam-saving, as well as improved production efficiency.

  5. Relationship between the serum GH levels and the GH adenomas invasiveness and recurrence%血清GH水平与GH腺瘤侵袭性和复发的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑川玉; 丁学华; 吴玉萃; 袁坚

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨血清生长激素(GH)水平与GH腺瘤侵袭性和复发的关系.方法 119例GH腺瘤患者手术前后测量血清GH水平,并对其病例资料进行回顾性研究.结果 术前平均GH水平为(69.0±24.8)μg/L,>50μg/L的患者侵袭性腺瘤发生率(69.2%)明显高于≤20μg/L和20~50μg/L的患者(24.1%和31.4%,P5μg/L患者(50%,P50μg/L的患者侵袭性腺瘤发生率较高;术后早期GH<5μg/L可作为GH腺瘤长期缓解的预测指标之一.

  6. Effect of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture combined with pancuronium on neuromuscular transmission in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assunção Braga, Angelica de Fátima; Carvalho, Vanessa Henriques; da Silva Braga, Franklin Sarmento; Potério, Gloria Maria Braga; Santos, Filipe Nadir Caparica; Junqueira, Fernando Eduardo Féres

    2015-11-01

    Local anaesthetics are drugs that are widely used in clinical practice. However, the effects of these drugs on the neuromuscular junction and their influence on the blockade produced by non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs are still under investigation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the influence of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture on neuromuscular transmission and neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium. Rats were distributed into three groups (n = 5) according to the drug studied namely, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture (5 μg/mL); pancuronium (2 μg/mL); 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture + pancuronium. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) Effects of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture on membrane potential (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs); (2) amplitude of diaphragmatic response before and 60 min after the addition of a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture; the degree of neuromuscular block with pancuronium and pancuronium combined with a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture. A 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture did not alter the amplitude of muscle response (MP) but decreased the frequency and amplitude of MEPP. The block produced by pancuronium was potentiated by a 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture. A 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture used alone did not affect neuromuscular transmission, but potentiated the neuromuscular block produced by pancuronium. No action was shown on the muscle fibre, and alterations on MEPPs demonstrated a presynaptic action.

  7. Cytotoxicity screening of Melastoma malabathricum extracts on human breast cancer cell lines in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurfariza Ahmad Roslen; Nur Aizura Mat Alewi; Hadji Ahamada

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic activity of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in vitro. Methods: A three steps extraction protocol using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol as the solvents systems was carried out on leaves, stems and flowers of M. malabathricum. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used in extracts dilution and serial dilutions were conducted to obtain five different extract concentrations (100 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 12.5 µg/mL and 6.25 µg/mL). The evaluation of cell growth was determined using methylene blue assay.Results:Methanol extract from the leaves showed significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell lines with the IC50 value of 7.14 µg/ml while methanol and chloroform extract from the flowers exhibited a moderate activity towards MCF-7 cell line with the IC50 value of 33.63 µg/mL and 45.76 µg/mL respectively after 72 h of treatment.Conclusions:The extracts from leaves and flowers of M. malabathricum showed promising anticancer activity toward human breast cancer cell lines with the lowest IC50 at 7.14 µg/mL while the extracts from stems showed less growth inhibition activity.

  8. EMBRYO RESCUE Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. USING IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Yuni Astriani Dewi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyse germination percentage, effect of coconut water addition in the media to number of last stage embryos and development of final stage D. anosmum Lindl. embryo. Research was conducted at Plant Structure and Development of Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Udayana and UPT. Balai Benih Induk Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Provinsi Bali from February 2015 to July 2015. Three type of media were employed, i.e. PDA, Organic, MS. Three different concentration of coconut was added to media, i.e. 0 ml/L 50 ml/L, 100 ml/L. Results showed that seed D. anosmum Lindl. on PDA, Organic and MS has not germinated yet on all media, only swollen cells observed. Seed dormancy and maturity of seed were the main factors affecting seed germination. Addition of 100 ml / L coconut water in MS showed that media is capable to increase the formation of final stages embryos (> 32 cells. Embryo development on PDA and Organic largely showed cell stage embryos 1 to 8 cells, while MS media already showed embryo development stages of > 32 cells.

  9. TiO2 photocatalytic degradation and transformation of oxazaphosphorine drugs in an aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Webber Wei-Po; Lin, Hank Hui-Hsiang; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen

    2015-04-28

    This study investigated the TiO2 photocatalytic degradation and transformation of the oxazaphosphorines ifosfamide (IFO), cyclophosphamide (CP) and trofosfamide (TRO). Under the optimum conditions of TiO2=100mg/L, IFO=100μg/L and solution pH=5.5, IFO was completely removed within 10min (k=0.433min(-1)). The results indicated that OHfree radicals generated by valence holes in the bulk solution were the predominant species for the degradation of IFO. At higher initial concentrations of oxazaphosphorines (20mg/L), >50% of TOC remained after 6h of reaction time, indicating that parent compounds were transformed to byproducts, which exhibit higher Microtox acute toxicities; chlorinated byproducts were likely the source of toxicity. Photocatalytic degradation pathways of the three oxazaphosphorines were proposed. IFO, CP and TRO follow very similar pathways and bond-breaking processes: ketonization and breaking of the CCl bond, the PN bond and the CN bond (N-dechloroethylation). Chloride (Cl(-)) release is likely the first and primary step in the decomposition process. Several of the identified byproducts were also metabolites, which implies that photocatalytic oxidation proceeds through pathways that are similar to metabolic pathways.

  10. Dose-dependent response of nitrogen stable isotope ratio to proportion of legumes in diet to authenticate lamb meat produced from legume-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devincenzi, T; Delfosse, O; Andueza, D; Nabinger, C; Prache, S

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the dose-dependent response in lamb meat of stable nitrogen isotope ratio to the dietary proportion of legumes, and the ability of the nitrogen isotope signature of the meat to authenticate meat produced from legume-rich diets. Four groups of nine male Romane lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture were supplemented with different levels of fresh alfalfa forage to obtain four dietary proportions of alfalfa (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) for 98 days on average before slaughter (groups L0, L25, L50 and L75). We measured the stable nitrogen isotope ratio in the forages and in the longissimus thoracis muscle. The δ(15)N value of the meat decreased linearly with the dietary proportion of alfalfa. The distribution of the δ(15)N values of the meat discriminated all the L0 lambs from the L75 lambs, and gave a correct classification score of 85.3% comparing lambs that ate alfalfa with those that did not.

  11. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value.

  12. EFEKTIVITAS TRANSFER DAN ANALISIS EKSPRESI GEN IMUNOGENIK TAHAN KOI HERPES VIRUS (KHV PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Syahputra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian transfer gen imunogenik tahan KHV (krt-GP11 pada ikan mas telah dilakukan dengan metode elektroporasi sperma menggunakan konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA optimal yang efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen pada ikan mas. Sperma dielektroporasi menggunakan tipe kejutan square wave dengan voltase 50 V dan jumlah kejutan tiga kali. Konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan adalah 10 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, dan 100 μg/mL. Deteksi transgen pada sperma, embrio, dan larva dilakukan dengan metode PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk gen krt-GP11. Ekspresi transgen pada embrio dan larva dianalisis secara semi-kuantitatif dengan metode reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen krt-GP11 terdeteksi pada sperma, embrio, dan larva. Pemberian konsentrasi DNA 10 μg/mL lebih efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen krt-GP11 pada ikan mas, sedangkan peningkatan konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan tidak memberikan hasil yang berbeda terhadap keberhasilan transfer gen pada ikan mas. Ekspresi gen krt-GP11 yang berhasil diintroduksikan pada ikan mas baru dapat teramati dengan baik pada fase embrio.

  13. Color variation and characterization of broiler breast meat during processing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, M; Betti, M; Bianchi, M; Cavani, C

    2004-12-01

    The variation in broiler breast meat color (CIE values L*a*b*) that normally occurs during processing was evaluated on 6,997 broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major muscles) from 79 flocks using a Minolta Chroma Meter. The samples were randomly collected at 3 to 6 h postmortem from the deboning line at a single major Italian processing plant. In addition, 216 fillets were selected based on lightness (L*) values as being dark (L* 56), and were analyzed for ultimate pH, intact and ground meat cooking loss, and shear value. The overall range in measured lightness (L*) was considerable and varied from 40 (dark) to 66 (pale), indicating that high breast meat color variation during processing could exist. Broiler breast meat during summer was found to be paler (+1.7 L* unit), less red (-1.0 a* unit), and less yellow (-0.7 b* unit) than breast meat samples collected during the winter, confirming that the incidence of pale meat is greater during summer as indicated by nonscientific observations of plant personnel. It was also determined that paler (L* > 56) breast meat is associated with lower ultimate pH and poorer water-holding capacity, whereas darker (L* < 50) breast meat is associated with higher muscle pH and cooking yield.

  14. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 decreases the concentrations of antiepileptic drugs in cortical extracellular fluid in amygdale kindling rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-hui CHEN; Cui-cui WANG; Xia XIAO; Li WEI; Guoxiong XU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate whether multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was responsible for drug resistence in refractory epilepsy in amygdale kindling rats.Methods:Rat amygdale kindling was used as a model of refractory epilepsy.The expression of MRP1 mRNA and protein in the brains was examined using RT-PCR and Western blot.MRP1-positive cells in the cortex and hippocampus were studied with immunohistochemical staining.The rats were intraperitoneally injected with phenytoin (50 mg/kg) or carbamazepine (20 mg/kg),and their concentrations in the cortical extracellular fluid were measured using microdialysis and HPLC.Probenecid,a MRP1 inhibitor (40 mmol/L,50 μL) was administered through an inflow tube into the cortex 30 min before injection of the antiepileptic drugs.Results:The expression of MRP1 mRNA and protein was significantly up-regulated in the cortex and hippocampus in amygdale kindling rats compared with the control group.Furthermore,the number of MRP1-positive cells in the cortex and hippocampus was also significantly increased in amygdale kindling rats.Microdialysis studies showed that the concentrations of phenytoin and carbamazepine in the cortical extracellular fluid were significantly decreased in amygdale kindling rats.Pre-administration of probenecid could restore the concentrations back to their control levels.Conclusion:Up-regulation of MRP1 is responsible for the resistance of brain cells to antiepileptic drugs in the amygdale kindling rats.

  15. Effects of phototherapy on cartilage structure and inflammatory markers in an experimental model of osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Poliani; Santos, Anderson Amaro; Rodrigues, Tamara; Tim, Carla Roberta; Pinto, Karina Zambone; Magri, Angela Maria Paiva; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Mattiello, Stela M.; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Anibal, Fernanda Freitas; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser phototherapy on the degenerative modifications on the articular cartilage after the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in the knee of rats. Eighty male rats (Wistar) were distributed into four groups: intact control group (IG), injured control group (CG), injured laser treated group at 10 J/cm2 (L10), and injured laser treated group at 50 J/cm2 (L50). Animals were distributed into two subgroups, sacrificed in 5 and 8 weeks postsurgery. The ACLT was used to induce knee osteoarthritis in rats. After 2 weeks postsurgery, laser phototherapy initiated and it was performed for 15 and 30 sessions. The histological findings revealed that laser irradiation, especially at 10 J/cm2, modulated the progression of the degenerative process, showing a better cartilage structure and lower number of condrocytes compared to the other groups. Laser phototherapy was not able to decrease the degenerative process measured by Mankin score and prevent the increase of cartilage thickness related to the degenerative process. Moreover, it did not have any effect in the biomodulation of the expression of markers IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and metalloprotein-13. Furthermore, laser irradiated animals, at 50 J/cm2 showed a lower amount of collagen type 1.

  16. 甘氨酸在痕量铜分析中的应用条件研究%Study on Application Conditions of Glycine for Trace Copper Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 张小菊

    2011-01-01

    The cloud point extraction-UV spectrophotometry method was adopted to detect Cu2+ with glycine as a complexing agent, and the influential factors on the cloud point extraction efficiency of Cu2+ were investigated. The optimum cloud point extraction conditions for Cu2+ were determined as follows: the detecting wavelength was 230 nm, the pH value was 9.0, the dosage of NaCl solution was 4.0 mi, the dosage of 50.0 mg· mL-1 of Triton X-100 solution was 1.0 mL and the extraction time was 10 min.%以甘氨酸为络合剂,运用浊点萃取-紫外分光光度法进行铜离子的检测,对影响铜离子浊点萃取效率的相关因素进行研究,确定最佳的铜离子浊点萃取条件为:检测波长230nm,pH值9.0、NaCl溶液用量4.0mL,50.0mgmL-1 Triton X-100溶液用量1.0mL,萃取时间10min.

  17. Beneficial Effects of UV-Radiation: Vitamin D and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Trummer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L. However, studies conducted in the general population revealed a much lower overall intake of vitamin D than the proposed RDAs. Thus, strategies to increase the vitamin D intake in the general population, e.g., food fortification or vitamin D supplementation, are needed to match the existing evidence and recommendations. Therefore, several currently ongoing projects aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the general population and try to establish food-based solutions to improve vitamin D status.

  18. Biology of Isopisthus parvipinnis: an abundant sciaenid species captured bycatch during sea-bob shrimp fishery in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Romero

    Full Text Available Trawling is the most common method of shrimp harvesting. This technique causes a negative impact on the fauna due to the high bycatch rates and to the animals that are accidentally caught and generally returned to the sea dead. The consequences of this technique and the biological aspects of the involved species are poorly studied, specially in the Brazilian northeast. The objective of this study was to show some aspects of the population biology of Isopisthus parvipinnis (Bigtooth corvina captured as bycatch during sea-bob (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri shrimp fishing in the region of Ilhéus, in the state of Bahia in Brazil. A total of 1290 individuals were caught in a monthly sampling at three different stations, from March, 2003 to February, 2005. The standardized Morisita index of dispersion suggests that this species has a clumped distribution in the studied area. The number of individuals showed a significant variation (p < 0.0001 between the seasons, being higher during the winter. The estimated first maturation length (L50 was about 159 mm, and 95% of the captured individuals were below this value. The sexual ratio found was 1.5 males for each female. Concerning to diet, 10 feeding categories were identified, and Decapoda Dendobranchiata was the most important in numeric frequency and occurrence. This fact suggests that Isopisthus parvipinnis is a carnivorous species, with a tendency toward crustacean-eating at least in the younger individuals.

  19. 参照C28-A2确定胱抑素C的参考值范围%Determine the reference intervals of cystatin C according to CLSI C28-A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏保鑫; 周帅

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立本实验室胱抑素C(胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制荆,Cytatin C,Cys-C)免疫透射比浊法测定试剂盒的参考值范围.方法 随机湘取240例健康人员的新鲜血清,利用市售胱抑素C测定试剂盒(免疫透射比浊法)进行测定,测定结果按CLSI C28-A2(临床实验室参考值范围的定义和确认-第2版)进行统计处理.结果 本实验室1~49岁健康人群胱抑素C参考值范围为0.59~1.06mg/L,50~88岁健康人群胱抑素C参考值范围为0.48~1.32mg/L.结论 实验室有必要根据CLSI C28-A2文件的规定建立自己的参考值范围.

  20. Quantification of pork belly and boston butt quality attribute preferences of South Korean customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonada, M L; Bidner, B S; Belk, K E; McKeith, F K; Lloyd, W R; O'Connor, M E; Smith, G C

    2000-10-01

    U.S. packers must have quantitative criteria for selection of pork bellies and Boston butts for export to South Korea. Pork bellies (IMPS 409A) and Boston butts (IMPS 409A, 406B, 407) were selected from normal production in a U.S. pork packing plant and transported to Seoul, South Korea, via seafreighter in refrigerated containers (frozen 0 degrees C; frozen Food Show were surveyed about their preferences for specific quality attributes of these cuts. Bellies were selected to differ in seam fat content (low = 40% extractable fat), lean color (pale = L* > 50, medium = L* 48-50, dark = L* 20% extractable fat), lean color (pale = L* > 44, medium = L* 40-42, dark = L* food show were asked to rate the displayed samples for each quality attribute on a standardized ballot. Mid-weight (3.82 kg) Boston butts that displayed Moderate or higher USDA marbling scores with moderate amounts of seam fat, Japanese lean color scores of 2 or 4, round geometric shape, and that were vacuum-packaged and transported to Korea in the freshly chilled state best characterized the quality attribute preferences of respondents. Pork bellies that exhibited moderate amounts of seam fat, Japanese lean color scores of 3, square shape, belly thickness of 3.94 cm, approximate weight of 4.04 kg, and that were vacuum-packaged and transported to Korea in the freshly chilled state best met the quality needs of South Korean customers.

  1. Biologie de la reproduction du Cyprinidae, Barbus callensis dans le lac de barrage Hamiz (Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould Rouis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive Biology of the Cyprinidae, Barbus callensis in an Algerian Dam. The freshwater fish, Barbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842 was studied from 2005 to 2007 for the first time in Hamiz dam. This species endemic of North African continent is widely spread in the rivers of Algeria. This reservoir is situated in Boumerdes 35 km southeast of Algiers. During these three years, the monthly sampling was carried out by trammel nets, fishing near the dike during one night. At the same time, the fry was captured with a transparent plastic bottle baited with breadcrumbs put down near the lakeshore. The monthly follow-up of the gonadosomatic ratio (RGS reveals that the spawning period occurred between April and May. The evolution of the condition factor (K shows low seasonal variations. However, a lower value appears in spring when the temperature increases and the breeding begins. The sex ratio is higher for the adult females (1:2.8, more than 26 cm. The first sexual maturity size (L50 is lower for males (19.6 cm than for females (27.7 cm.

  2. The reproductive biology of the rainbow runner, Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) caught in the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P; Oliveira, P G V; Carvalho, F; Rêgo, M G

    2011-02-01

    The rainbow runner, Elagatis bipinnulata, which belongs to the Carangidae family, has a circumtropical distribution. It is found throughout the Atlantic Ocean, from Massachusetts (USA) to Bahia (Brazil). The reproductive biology of the rainbow runner was studied, using specimens captured off the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. From July 1999 to November 2003, a total of 352 fishes were analysed (201 females and 151 males). Fork length (FL) was measured and specimens were gutted for gonads collection. In the laboratory, gonads length, width and weight were measured, and sexes identified macroscopically. Through histological analysis, five different maturation stages were identified for females: immature, maturing, mature, spent and resting. A predominance of maturing and mature females was observed from January to May. The highest gonad index (GI) values were also observed during this period, ranging from 7.7 to 55. Mean sexual maturity size (L50) for females was estimated at 64.6 cm (FL). In the studied area the species exhibited total spawning, with two synchronous groups. Testicles were histologically very similar making them impossible to differentiate sexual maturation stages. Considerable variation was observed in the male gonads weight, hampering the assessment of size at maturity. However, GI values for males were also higher from January to May. These results suggest that the spawning period of the rainbow runner in the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago occurs during the first semester of the year.

  3. Population structure and reproductive aspects of puffer fish Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns, 1842 (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae, landed in Teacapán, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Candelaria Valdez-Pineda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The puffer fish Sphoeroides annulatus is an important target species for the artisanal fishing fleets of NW Mexico. To obtain information on population structure of the local stock, we determined the total length and total weight (TL and TW ranges, sex ratio and reproductive stages of 745 specimens of this species, landed from May 2010 to April 2011 in Teacapán, Sinaloa, NW Mexico. TL ranged from 15 to 40 cm and TW from 100 to 1600 g. There were no differences between mean TL (27.41 ± 4.14 cm and TW (534.5 ± 226.0 g of males and females respectively. Sex ratio was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.03, P > 0.05 from 1F:1M. The length-weight relationship for both sexes was TW = 0.044TL2.815, R² = 0.895. The value of the slope b was significantly lower than 3 (P < 0.05, and indicated negative allometric growth. The distribution of maturity stages indicated one main reproductive period from June to September and one less intense, from November to December for females, and in December for males. Size at first maturity (L50% of females was 26.52 cm and that of males was 27.41 cm.

  4. Reproductive and population parameters of discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rossoni

    Full Text Available The ornamental discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904, is a popular endemic cichlid species from the Amazon basin, however scientific information concerning biology and ecology in its natural habitat is scarce despite its importance on the international aquarium trade. In this study we evaluated reproductive parameters of S. aequifasciatus in natural habitat in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Brazilian Amazon. Males are more frequent in the larger size classes and this might be related to the complex breeding behavior known for S. aequifasciatus. Values of L50 for both sexes corresponded to more than 60% of the maximum attained length which may indicate that energy allocation for somatic growth takes longer in S. aequifasciatus than in other species. Average fecundity for female discus was 1490, ranging from 950 to 1892 oocytes and its correlations with standard length and total weight were very low, probably due to the highly compressed discus' body shape. Egg size distribution showed four types of patterns, indicating one to four modes besides the reserve oocytes group. Our results indicate that S. aequifasciatus shows total spawning, in the beginning of flooding period, with the peculiar capacity of releasing multiple egg batches as a strategy that potentially enhances reproductive success.

  5. Characterization of artisanal fishery with camboa net at the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarded as relevant nursery areas for fishes, the estuarine systems shelter many commercially important species. From October 2008 to November 2009, we investigated the ichthyofaunal composition and described the routine of artisanal fishing with camboa net in the estuary at the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted in three rivers, during the new and full moons. A total of 1,074 fishes were caught in 17 fisheries with nets, belonging to 26 species and 17 families, with a total biomass of 378.4 kg. The Gerreidae and Centropomidae families were the most abundant ones, and there was a predominance of catches. Out of the total, 50% of individuals which were at the first gonadal maturation (L50 described in the literature had a size less than the expected one, indicating growth overfishing. We recommends the establishment of management systems shared between the actors involved in this fishing art and the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve managers, in order to reduce the capture of individuals below the first gonadal maturation size.

  6. Far off-resonance laser frequency stabilization using multipass cells in Faraday rotation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Li, Yang; Li, Rujie; Shang, Huining; Fang, Zishan; Qin, Jie; Wan, Shuangai

    2016-04-01

    We propose a far off-resonance laser frequency stabilization method by using multipass cells in Rb Faraday rotation spectroscopy. Based on the detuning equation, if multipass cells with several meters optical path length are used in the conventional Faraday spectroscopy, the detuning of the lock point can be extended much further from the alkali metal resonance. A plate beam splitter was used to generate two different Faraday signals at the same time. The transmitted optical path length was L=50  mm and the reflected optical path length was 2L=100  mm. When the optical path length doubled, the detuning of the lock points moved further away from the atomic resonance. The temperature dependence of the detuning of the lock point was also analyzed. A temperature-insensitive lock point was found near resonance when the cell temperature was between 110°C and 130°C. We achieved an rms fluctuation of 0.9 MHz/23 h at a detuning of 0.5 GHz. A frequency drift of 16 MHz/h at a detuning of -5.6  GHz and 4 MHz/h at a detuning of -5.2  GHz were also obtained for the transmitted and reflected light Faraday signal.

  7. Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-体系阳极过程的电化学Peltier热%Electrochemical Peltier heats of anodic process for Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中发; 方正; 王少芬; 张正华

    2011-01-01

    The thermo-electrochemical technique was applied to study the electrochemical Peltier heat of electrode reaction. In this experiment, a precision system for thermo-electrochemical measurements with controlled temperature of ±0.001 K was set up, which consists of SRC-100 solution isoperibol calorimeter and an electrochemical workstation. A thermo-sensitive resistor was directly attached to the surface of working electrode to measure the change in potential signal due to temperature change of electrode. The curves of the electrode potential and temperature change against time for equal molar ratio of Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- couple with 5 sets of different concentrations were obtained under the condition of various constant-current polarizations. Using the thermo-electrochemical method for data-processing, the electrochemical Peltier heat of anodic process of Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- couple under various concentrations at 298.15 K are determined as 41.51 kJ/mol (0.075 mol/L), 43.48 kJ/mol (0. 10 mol/L), 46.95 kJ/mol(0.15 mol/L), 50.77 kJ/mol(0.20 mol/L)and 54.81 kJ/mol(0.25 mol/L), respectively. The entropy change derived from these Peltier heat for the standard hydrogen electrode on absolute scale at this temperature is also given.%采用热电化学方法测定电极反应电化学Peltier热.实验中将高灵敏度热敏电阻紧贴于工作电极表面,结合SRC-100溶解-反应量热仪与电化学工作站组装成高精度热电化学测试系统,其控温精度达±0.001K.运用该测试系统分别对5个不同浓度等物质的量比的Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-体系阳极过程进行恒电流极化,得到该电极反应电极电势和温度变化与时间的关系曲线,运用热电化学方程,得到298.15K时Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64-体系阳极过程电化学Peltier热,分别为41.51 kJ/mol(0.075 mol/L),43.48 kJ/mol(0.10 mol/L),46.95 kJ/mol(0.15 mol/L),50.77kJ/mol(0.20 mol/L)和54.81 kJ/mol(0.25 mol/L),由此获得该温度下的标准氢电极反应在绝对标度下的熵变.

  8. Investigation of the physics potential and detector development for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlerich, Martin

    2010-02-15

    In this thesis, we investigate two rather separate topics - the precision measurement of the Higgs boson mass and of its coupling to the neutral gauge boson Z and the research and development of sensors for BEAMCAL, which is a sub-detector system of the ILC detector. We employ the Higgs-strahlung process for this purpose. A virtual Z boson is created in the e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, which emits a Higgs-boson while becoming on-shell. Using the so-called recoil technique, we determine the Higgs boson mass by reconstructing the Z boson momentum and using the center-of-mass energy of the colliding leptons. Monte-Carlo studies including a full detector simulation and a full event reconstruction were performed to simulate the impact of a realistic detector model on the precision of the Higgs boson mass and production cross-section measurement. Also, an analytical estimate of the influence of a given detector performance on the Higgs boson mass measurement uncertainty is given. We included a complete sample of background events predicted by the Standard Model, which may have a detector response similar to the signal events. A probabilistic method is used for the signal-background separation. Several other probabilistic methods were used to investigate and improve the measurement of the Higgs-strahlung cross-section and the Higgs boson mass from the recoil mass spectrum obtained after the signal-background separation. For a Higgs boson mass of 120 GeV, a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=250 GeV and an integrated luminosity of L=50 fb{sup -1}, a relative uncertainty of 10 % is obtained for the cross-section measurement, and a precision of 118 MeV for the Higgs boson mass. For a Higgs boson mass of 180 GeV and {radical}(s)=350 GeV, a statistics corresponding to L=50 fb{sup -1} is not sufficient to achieve the necessary significance of the recoil mass peak above the background. The BEAMCAL is a calorimeter in the very forward region, about 3 m away from the nominal

  9. Reproductive and population parameters of discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rossoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental discus fish Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904, is a popular endemic cichlid species from the Amazon basin, however scientific information concerning biology and ecology in its natural habitat is scarce despite its importance on the international aquarium trade. In this study we evaluated reproductive parameters of S. aequifasciatus in natural habitat in Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS-PP, lower Purus River, Brazilian Amazon. Males are more frequent in the larger size classes and this might be related to the complex breeding behavior known for S. aequifasciatus. Values of L50 for both sexes corresponded to more than 60% of the maximum attained length which may indicate that energy allocation for somatic growth takes longer in S. aequifasciatus than in other species. Average fecundity for female discus was 1490, ranging from 950 to 1892 oocytes and its correlations with standard length and total weight were very low, probably due to the highly compressed discus' body shape. Egg size distribution showed four types of patterns, indicating one to four modes besides the reserve oocytes group. Our results indicate that S. aequifasciatus shows total spawning, in the beginning of flooding period, with the peculiar capacity of releasing multiple egg batches as a strategy that potentially enhances reproductive success.O acará-disco (Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin, 1904 é uma espécie popular de ciclídeo endêmico da bacia amazônica, porém são poucas as informações científicas sobre biologia e ecologia em seu habitat natural, apesar de sua importância no comércio internacional de aquário. Neste estudo avaliamos parâmetros reprodutivos de S. aequifasciatus em vida livre na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Piagaçu-Purus (RDS-PP, baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil. Os machos são mais frequentes em classes de comprimento maiores, o que provavelmente está relacionado com o complexo

  10. 核桃壳粉对水溶液中Pb2+的吸附%Adsorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by walnut shell powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振; 李云春; 姜友军; 孟令银

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption of Pb^2+ from aqueous solution by walnut shell powder was investiga- ted. The effect of experimental parameters, such as sorbent size, dosage, pH and initial Pb^2+ concentration,as well as adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics were also examined. The results show that the removal efficiency increased with the decreasing sorbent size, increasing sorbent dosage and initial Pb2+ concentration. Under opti- mized conditions, 0 - 0.3 mm 15 g/L sorbent could remove 96.98% of Pb2 + from 50 mL 50 mg/L Pb^2+ solution at pH = 5 and 298 K. The experimental data closely followed Sips isotherms, with adsorption capacity of 18.25, 18.27 and 20.94 mg/g at 283, 293 and 303 K, respectively. The overall adsorption process was exothermic, entropy reduced and spontaneous. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second order model, and the rate constant decreased with the increasing temperature. The adsorption equilibrium could be reached within 90 and 120 min at 293 and 303 K, respectively. Combined with FTIR and SEM methods, the process of adsorption Pb^2+ on walnut shell powder was found to be complex and dominated by physical adsorption, accompanied with minor ion exchange, chelation and intra-particle diffusion process.%实验通过间歇吸附方式研究了核桃壳粉对水溶液中Pb^2+的吸附特性,探讨了核桃壳粉粒径及用量、溶液pH、Pb^2+初始浓度等参数对吸附的影响,并讨论了吸附过程的热力学和动力学特征。结果表明,核桃壳粉对Pb^2+吸附的最佳pH为5.0,去除率随吸附剂粒径的减小、用量的增加、Pb^2+初始浓度的减小而增加。优化实验条件下,0~0.3mm15g/L的吸附剂在298K时,对pH=5的50mL50mg/LPb^2+溶液的去除率达96.98%。核桃壳粉对Pb^2+的吸附等温线符合Sips模型,在283、293和303K的最大吸附量分别为18.25、18.27和20.94mg/g。吸附过程是放热的、混乱度减小的自

  11. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by microinjection of capsaicin into area postrema in rats%最后区微量注射辣椒素对大鼠血压、心率和肾交感神经放电的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛保建; 何瑞荣

    2000-01-01

    The effects of capsaicin microinjection into area postrema (AP) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were investigated in 36 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The results obtained are as follows. (1) Following microinjection of capsaicin (10 μmol/L, 50 nl) into the AP, MAP, HR and RSNA were significantly increased from 12.34±0.53 kPa, 328.52±7.54 bpm and 100±0% to 15.17±0.25 kPa (P<0.001), 354.81±8.54 bpm (P<0.001) and 156.95±7.57% (P<0.001), respectively. (2) Ruthenium red (RR, 100 mmol/L, 0.2 ml, iv), a capsaicin receptor antagonist, significantly inhibited these effects of capsaicin. (3) Pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (500 μg/kg, 0.2 ml, iv) also reduced these effects of capsaicin. The above results indicate that microinjection of capsaicin into AP induces excitatory effects on MAP, HR and RSNA, which are mediated by capsaicin receptors with glutamate involvement.%在36只麻醉Sprague-Dawley大鼠, 观察了最后区内微量注射辣椒素(10 μmol/L, 50 nl)对平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)和肾交感神经放电(RSNA)的影响.实验结果如下:(1)最后区内注射辣椒素可引起 MAP、HR 和RSNA明显增加, 分别由12.34±0.53 kPa、 328.52±7.54 bpm 和100±0% 增至15.17±0.25 kPa (P<0.001)、 354.81±8.54 bpm (P<0.001) 和156.95±7.57% (P<0.001);(2) 静脉注射辣椒素受体阻断剂钌红(100 mmol/L, 0.2 ml) 后, 辣椒素的上述效应可被明显抑制;(3) 预先应用NMDA 受体阻断剂MK-801 (500 μg/kg, 0.2 ml, iv)也明显抑制辣椒素的兴奋效应.以上结果提示, 最后区微量注射辣椒素对血压、心率和肾交感神经放电有兴奋作用, 而此作用由辣椒素受体介导并有谷氨酸参与.

  12. Reproductive biology of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Perciformes: Centropomidae in two tropical habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Southeastern Mexico, Centropomus undecimalis is an important fish species of sport and commercial fisheries for coastal and riverine communities. Fisheries along rivers and coasts depend on migratory habits of this species, and these movements are probably related to reproduction. In spite of its economic importance, few studies have been conducted focusing on its reproductive biology, and this research aims to analyze these habits. Samples (fork length, somatic and gonads weight, and macroscopic maturity stages were obtained from organisms collected by fishermen from the largest fishing cooperatives along the coastal and riverine areas of Tabasco, from July 2006 to March 2008. Fish size ranged from 34 to 112cm fork length, with an average age of 6.42 years for males and 9.12 years for females. In riverine areas, fish sizes ranged from 30 to 85cm and the average age was 5.5 years for males and 6.6 years for females. Significant differences were recorded between lengths of males and females from the two areas (Kruskal-Wallis, p0.05. A curve for eviscerated weight was calculated for both sexes, for coastal fishes SW=0.0059(FL 3.07, and the riverine ones SW=0.0086(FL 2.98, with an isometric growth (b=3. The period of maximum reproduction was from July to August, with temperatures of 28 to 30°C. A significant correlation between the gonadosomatic index (GSI and rainfall was recorded for samples of both males and females from coastal areas (r=0.63, r=0.70 whereas only one positive correlation was recorded for riverine females (r=0.57. The size at first maturity (L50 was estimated at 60cm and 80cm (FL, corresponding to 5.5 and 8.5 years of age, for males and females, respectively. An important proportion of mature females of eight years and older, suggests that these ages contribute significantly to the reproductive biomass. The results indicate that due to changes in the exploitation period, we recommend to protect populations of the common snook

  13. In vitro and in vivo toxicity studies of Agrobacterium radiobacter k84 biopolymer (ARBEstudos in vitro e in vivo de toxicidade de biopolímero de Agrobacterium radiobacter k84 (ARB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Donizette Malvezi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane molasses is a cheaper carbon source alternative than glucose traditionally used in fermentation processes. In the present study a biopolymer soluble from Agrobacterium radiobacter k84 (ARB was obtained by fermentation using sugar cane molasses as a carbon source in a process with yield of 10.0 g.L-1. The ARB is composed by minerals (40%, carbohydrate (35% and protein (15%. In vitro test of the cytotoxic effect of ARB at concentrations 2.5 mg/mL, 5.0 mg/mL and 10.0 mg/mL in LLC MK2 (Rhesus Monkey Kidney cells revealed a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 of 9.32 mg/mL. In a 30-day in vivo oral toxicity study, Swiss mice were administered ARB by gavage at 5 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 150 mg/mL (approximately 25 mg/kg/day, 75 mg/kg/day, 250 mg/kg/day and 750 mg/kg/day. The results did not present any hematological or histopathological signs of adverse effects, leading us to define the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL as 150 mg/mL (approximately 750 mg/kg/day.O melaço de cana-de-açúcar é uma fonte de carbono alternativa de menor custo que a glicose tradicionalmente utilizada em processos fermentativos. No presente estudo, um biopolímero solúvel de Agrobacterium radiobacter k84 (ARB foi obtido por fermentação utilizando melaço de cana de açúcar como fonte de carbono em um processo com rendimento de 10,0 g.L-1. O ARB é composto de minerais (40%, carboidratos (35% e proteínas (15%. O teste do efeito citotóxico do ARB in vitro nas concentrações de 2,5 mg/mL, 5,0 mg/mL e 10,0 mg/mL em células LLC MK2 (Rim de Macaco Rhesus revelou uma concentração citotóxica 50% (CC50 de 9,32 mg/mL. Em estudo in vivo de toxicidade oral durante 30 dias, camundongos Swiss receberam por gavagem soluções de ARB nas concentrações de 5 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL e 150 mg/mL (aproximadamente 25 mg/kg/dia, 75 mg/kg/dia, 250 mg/ kg/dia e 750 mg/kg/dia. Os resultados não apresentaram sinais hematológicos ou histopatológicos de efeitos

  14. Composición por tallas y ciclo reproductivo de Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Pisces: Mullidae en el Pacífico central Mexicano

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    G Lucano-Ramírez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available De junio de 1995 a diciembre de 1998 se realizaron muestreos mensuales y se colectaron en total 492 Pseudupeneus grandisquamis utilizando redes de arrastre sobre fondos blandos en el Pacífico central mexicano (Jalisco y Colima. La relación talla-peso indica que el crecimiento es alométrico (p = 0.0035 L3.46 y r² =0.97. La proporción sexual fue de 1:1.15 (hembras:machos. La talla total promedio fue de 153.8 mm. Se observó una progresión en las tallas de los organismos, esto es, las tallas máximas promedios se capturaron a finales de 1996 y durante 1997. La talla promedio de las hembras (162 mm fue mayor a la de los machos (150 mm. En ambos sexos se observaron los primeros cuatro estadios de madurez gonádica; el estadio mas frecuente en las hembras fue el IV (gónadas maduras, 48.6 % y en los machos fue el III (gónadas en maduración, 45.0%. Se identificaron siete etapas microscópicas de desarrollo de los ovocitos, para los cuales se registró un desarrollo de tipo asincrónico. Los testículos maduros presentaron espermatozoides dentro del lumen lobular y en el conducto. Los valores máximos del índice gonadosomático, así como los mayores porcentajes de individuos con gónadas maduras (a nivel macroscópico y microscópico, fueron observados en invierno y verano, sugiriendo que esta especie tiene dos picos de reproducción por año. La longitud en la que el 50% de los individuos presento gónadas en maduración (L50fue de 183 mm para las hembras y 181 mm para los machos.Size composition and reproductive cycle of Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Pisces: Mullidae in the Central Mexican Pacific. From June 1995 to December 1998 we used shrimp trawl nets to capture 492 Pseudupeneus grandisquamis in soft-bottom grounds off the central Mexican Pacific (Jalisco and Colima. The ength-weight ratio indicates allometric growth (p =0.0035 L3.46 y r² =0.97. The total sex ratio was 1:1.15 (females: males. Mean total length was 153.8 mm (range 77

  15. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae in the Southeast coast of Brazil

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    Evandro Severino-Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.Hay pocos estudios sobre la ecología de C. sapidus en el Atlántico Sur, a pesar de su importancia económica en la región. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer la fecundidad, periodo reproductivo y talla de primera madurez morfológica de las hembras de C. sapidus, con el fin de contribuir a una mejor comprensión de la especie en el Atlántico occidental, así como ayudar en la toma de medidas de gestión en la región. Las

  16. 盐胁迫对芜菁种子萌发的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Seeds Germination of Turnip (Brassica rapa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施月婕; 高杰; 赵建军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]盐胁迫对芜菁种子萌发的影响,为芜菁栽培土壤选择及抗盐品种的选育提供理论依据.[方法]实验设置5个NaCl浓度梯度20、50、100、150和200 mmol/L和5个NaSO浓度梯度10、50、100、150和200mmol/L,对芜菁种子进行盐胁迫处理,测定其种子发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数和活力指数等.[结果]在NaCl浓度低于150 mmoL/L时,芜菁种子的发芽率、发芽势、相对盐害率与对照差异不大,在浓度为200 mmol/L时受抑制较大,150 mmol/L NaCl溶液适合于芜菁种子耐盐性的选择;在NaSO浓度低于100 mmol/L时对芜菁种子萌发的抑制作用相对较小,当超过150 mmol/L时出现明显的抑制作用,种子的萌发、相对活力指数等指标均呈明显下降的趋势.[结论]盐胁迫对芜菁种子萌发有明显抑制效应,而且随着盐浓度的增加,发芽率、发芽势、相对活力指数逐渐降低、相对盐害率升高,芜菁种子在萌发期间具有一定的耐盐性.%[Objective] This study was carried out to investigate the efFects of different NaC1 and Na2SO4 concentration on tumip( Brassica rapa L. ) seeds gemunation. [ Method] The experiment set six NaC1 concentration streas , which are respectively 0 mmol/L, 20 mmol/L , 50 mmol/L , 100 mmol/L, 150 mmol/L and 200 mmol/L; and six Na2SO4 concentration stress, which are respectively 0 mmol/L, 10 mmol/L, 50 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L, 150mmol/L and 200mmol/L. The seeds of rapa tumip were treated under salt stress and the seeds germination rate, germination potential, germination index. and vitality index were measured . [ Result] The result showed that seeds germination rate, germination potential, and relative salty harming rate had no big difference compared with the control . the inhibition is big when the concentration reached 200 mmol/L. When Na2SO4 concentration is lower than 100 mmol/L,it had little inhibition on tumip seed germination, and when the concentraion is over 150 mmol/L,it has an obvioua

  17. EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS PARA O CONTROLE DE Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleracea var. capitata COMPARISON OF INSECTICIDE CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS OF Plutella xylostella (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE IN CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Shigeo Takatsuka

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido em uma área sob plantio contínuo de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata em Goianápolis - GO, no período de setembro a novembro de 1996, visando comparar inseticidas para o controle da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: teflubenzuron, nas doses de 25 mL, 30 mL e 40 mL de produto comercial (p.c./100 L de água; chlorfenapyr, nas doses de 30 mL, 50 mL e 100 mL de p.c./100 L de água; deltamethrin, na dose de 30 mL de p.c./100 L de água; e testemunha. Para cada tratamento realizaram-se aplicações semanais após o transplantio. As avaliações foram realizadas na colheita, contando-se o número de furos causados pela traça, em cinco cabeças comerciais de repolho, tomadas ao acaso, por parcela. Pôde-se concluir que os inseticidas teflubenzuron e chlorfenapyr foram mais eficientes que deltamethrin no controle da traça-das-crucíferas P. xylostella nas doses testadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Inseticida; traça; controle químico.

    The research was carried out in an area under continuous cabbage cropping (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in Goianápolis, Goiás State, Brazil, from September to November 1996. The aim was to compare insecticides for diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella control. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were teflubenzuron in the doses of 25 mL, 30 mL and 40 mL of commercial product (c.p. / 100 L of water; chlorfenapyr in the doses of 30 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL of c.p./ 100 L of water; deltamethrin in the dose of 30 mL of c.p. / 100 L of water; and control. Treatments were applied weekly

  18. Reproducción de la morena, Gymnothorax equatorialis (Pisces: Muraenidae en Jalisco y Colima, México

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    G Lucano-Ramírez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de analizar los aspectos reproductivos de Gymnothorax equatorialis se recolectaron mensualmente 707 organismos en las costas de Jalisco y Colima, México, de diciembre de 1995 a diciembre de 1998 y de agosto a diciembre de 1999. Las hembras fueron más numerosas y presentaron una longitud (54.7 cm mayor a la de los machos (52.1 cm. La fecundidad total mínima fue de 9 660 huevos, la máxima de 99 992 y la media fue 32 029 huevos. La talla en la que el 50 % de los individuos presentan gónadas maduras (L50 fue de 43.7 cm de longitud total en hembras y de 42.7 cm en machos. Los ovarios presentaron dos tipos de ovocitos, los pequeños inmaduros en fase cromatina nucleolo (85.1 µm y los grandes maduros en fase de vitelogénesis secundaria (701.6 µm. En el testículo maduro se observó una gran cantidad de espermatozoides en el tubo seminal y el desarrollo del testículo es de tipo lobular. Con base en las características de las gónadas y la evolución temporal del índice gonadosomático, se concluye que G. equatorialis se reproduce dos veces al año (a mediados y finales del año.Reproduction of the fish Gymnothorax equatorialis (Pisces: Muraenidae in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. A total of 707 Gymnothorax equatorialis were collected monthly in the Jalisco and Colima coast, Mexico, from December 1995 to December 1998 and from August to November 1999, in order to determine their reproduction patterns. Females outnumbered and had longer bodies (mean length 54.7 cm than males (52.1 cm. The minimum, maximum and mean values of total fecundity were respectively 9 660, 99 992 and 32 029 eggs. The total body length at which 50 percent of individuals have ripe gonads (L50 was 43.7 cm for females and 42.7 cm TL for males. Ovaries had two main types of oocytes: small inmature in cromatin nucleolus phase (85.1 µm and large mature in secundary vitellogenesis phase (701.6 µm. High numbers of spermatozoa were observed in the seminal tubes of ripe

  19. Emerald zoyzia grass development regarding photosynthetically active radiation in different slopes Desenvolvimento da grama-esmeralda em relação à radiação fotossinteticamente ativa em diferentes declividades

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    Ruchele M. Coan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With this study, the objective was to estimate the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and to correlate it with the dry matter (MMSPA of the emerald zoysia (Zoysia japonica Steud. on surfaces with different expositions and slopes. The research was conducted at the Experimental Watershed of the Agricultural Engineering Department, School of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences of São Paulo State University (FCAV/UNESP, Brazil, where the surfaces (H, 10 N, 30 N, 50 N, 10 S, 30 S, 50 S, 10 L, 30 L, 50 L, 10 O, 30 O and 50 O were used. To obtain the global solar radiation, it was installed an automated weather station where the PAR (dependent variable was obtained by the equation y = a + bx, and the global radiation was independent. To compare means of MMSPA, it was used the Tukey test at 5% probability, and to assess the relation PAR/MMSPA, the simple linear correlation coefficient. The result showed that the accumulation of these effects in the PAR increases with North exposure and decreases with the South, and exposure to 50N is most suitable for slopes, not having correlation between the PAR and the MMSPA for the surfaces evaluated for the study period.Com este trabalho, o objetivo foi estimar a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR e correlacioná-la com a massa de matéria seca (MMSPA da grama-esmeralda (Zoysia japonica Steud., em superfícies com diferentes exposições e declividades. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Bacia Hidrográfica Experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, FCAV/UNESP, Brasil, onde foram utilizadas as superfícies (H; 10 N; 30 N; 50 N; 10 S; 30 S; 50 S; 10 L; 30 L; 50 L; 10 O; 30 O e 50 O. Para a obtenção da radiação solar global, foi instalada uma estação meteorológica automatizada, onde a PAR (variável dependente foi obtida por meio da equação y = a + bx, e a radiação global foi a independente. Para comparação de médias da MMSPA, utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade, e para

  20. High-performance solution-processed amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Hyun Sung; Ha, Young-Geun; He, Jiaqing; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2010-08-04

    Films of the high-performance solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor a-ZnIn(4)Sn(4)O(15), grown from 2-methoxyethanol/ethanolamine solutions, were used to fabricate thin-film transistors (TFTs) in combination with an organic self-assembled nanodielectric as the gate insulator. This structurally dense-packed semiconductor composition with minimal Zn(2+) incorporation strongly suppresses transistor off-currents without significant mobility degradation, and affords field-effect electron mobilities of approximately 90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) maximum obtained for patterned ZITO films), with I(on)/I(off) ratio approximately 10(5), a subthreshhold swing of approximately 0.2 V/dec, and operating voltage <2 V for patterned devices with W/L = 50. The microstructural and electronic properties of ZITO semiconductor film compositions in the range Zn(9-2x)In(x)Sn(x)O(9+1.5x) (x = 1-4) and ZnIn(8-x)Sn(x)O(13+0.5x) (x = 1-7) were systematically investigated to elucidate those factors which yield optimum mobility, I(on)/I(off), and threshold voltage parameters. It is shown that structural relaxation and densification by In(3+) and Sn(4+) mixing is effective in reducing carrier trap sites and in creating carrier-generating oxygen vacancies. In contrast to the above results for TFTs fabricated with the organic self-assembled nanodielectric, ZnIn(4)Sn(4)O(15) TFTs fabricated with SiO(2) gate insulators exhibit electron mobilities of only approximately 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with I(on)/I(off) ratios approximately 10(5), and a subthreshhold swing of approximately 9.5 V/dec.

  1. Oxidative metabolism and muscle biochemical profile of polo horses supplemented with an ADE vitamin complex

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    Rebeca A. Weigel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horses used for the game of polo experience abrupt and frequent changes in exercise intensity. To meet this variable energy demand, the horses use both aerobic and anaerobic pathways in varying proportions and intensities. In this context, there must be a balance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the action of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress and its consequences. The effect of supplementation with an ADE vitamin complex on oxidative metabolism was evaluated in 18 crossbred horses randomly divided between a treated group (TG and a control group (CG. The TG animals received the ADE vitamin complex (1mL/50 kg of body weight by deep intramuscular injection at 30 and 15 days before the game. The CG horses received 10ml of saline by the same administration route and schedule. During the polo match, the animals played for a total of 7.5 min. Blood samples were collected on the same days as the treatments were administered, and immediately before and at 15, 90 and 180 minutes after the game. The concentrations of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, lactate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured in the blood samples. After the game, the TG demonstrated higher levels of AST, lactate and glucose than the CG, suggesting more efficient energy use by the treated animals. The higher GSH and lower lactate levels in the TG before the game suggest the presence of a greater antioxidant supply in the treated animals. The maintenance of the MDA levels indicates that neither of the groups exhibited oxidative stress.

  2. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: efficacy and duration with repeated treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Phillipa L; Cerdan-Sanz, Suzanne; Lowe, Nicholas J

    2003-05-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) has been shown to be effective for the temporary reduction of local hyperhidrosis. To investigate the duration of efficacy of BTX-A with repeat treatments for axillary hyperhidrosis. Patients who completed a prior randomized, controlled, parallel-group study comparing BTX-A with vehicle for bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis were eligible for this 18-month, open-label, noncomparative, follow-up study. Patients had to request further treatment, fulfill the preceding study inclusion/exclusion criteria, and have spontaneous sweat production that was more than 50% of the baseline value of the previous study. Patients received up to four treatments of intradermal BTX-A (2 mL, 50 U). All of the 12 patients who were enrolled completed the study. Two of the 12 patients (17%) were previously treated with placebo. In the 18 months of study and follow-up, five patients (42%) required a total of two active injections. Three patients (25%) required a total of three active injections, and four patients (33%) required a total of four active injections. The response rate was 83% (10 of 12) at 4 weeks after the first treatment. The mean percentage change from baseline in overall sweat production was approximately 80% at Week 4. The mean time between the first and second treatment in this study was just over 29 weeks, with a range of 17.8 to 57.5 weeks. BTX-A is an effective repeat treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis giving variable but clinically helpful remission. No clinically relevant changes in vital signs or safety parameters were noted.

  3. NaCl胁迫对菊苣种子萌发的影响%Effect of NaCI Stress on Seed Germination of Chicory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丹丹

    2012-01-01

    Solutions of NaC1 concentration of 0 mmol/L ,50 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L, 150 mmol/L ,200 mmol/L,250 mmol/L,300 mmol/L were used to handle the three chicory seeds, the physiological indicators such as germination rate ,germinability, root length, seedling length and fresh weight of chicory were studied.Results indicated that seed germination rate and concentration of NaC1 showed a significant negative correlation. 150 mmol/L NaC1 was semi-lethal salt concentration for chicory seeds. 250 mmol/L NaC1 was the limit salt concentration for chicory seeds. The effect of 100 mmol/L NaC1 on the growth after seed germination of chicory was significant.%分别用0、50、100、150、200、250、300mmol/L的NaCl溶液对3种菊苣种子进行处理,并对发芽率、发芽势、根长、苗长和鲜重等生理指标进行研究。结果表明:种子萌发率与NaC1浓度呈明显的负相关。150mmol/L的NaCl浓度为菊苣种子耐盐半致死浓度,250mmol/L的NaCl浓度为菊苣种子耐盐极限浓度。100mmol/L的NaCl对菊苣种子萌发后的生长影响显著。

  4. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

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    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  5. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  7. Validation of analytical method to calculate the concentration of conjugated monoclonal antibody; Validacao de metodo analitico para calculo de concentracao de anticorpo monoclonal conjugado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Lais F.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: lais_alcarde@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the antibody concentration in conjunction with bifunctional chelator. Assays were performed using a high performance liquid chromatograph, and the following conditions were used: flow rate of 1 mL / min, 15 min run time, 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 as the mobile phase and column of molecular exclusion BioSep SEC S-3000 (300 x 7.8 mm, 5 μM - Phenomenex). The calibration curve was obtained with AcM diluted in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 by serial dilution, yielding the concentrations: 400 μg/mL, 200 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL and 12.5 μg/mL. From the calibration curve calculated the equation of the line and with it the concentration of the immunoconjugate. To ensure the validity of the method accuracy and precision studies were conducted. The accuracy test consisted in the evaluation of 3 samples of known concentration, being this test performed with low concentrations (50 μg/mL), medium (100 μg/mL) and high (200 μg/mL). The precision test consisted of 3 consecutive measurements of one sample of known concentration, subject to the conditions set forth above for the other tests. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve was greater than 97%, the accuracy was satisfactory at low concentrations as well as accuracy. The method was validated by showing it for the accurate and precise determination of the concentration of the immunoconjugate. Furthermore, this assay was found to be extremely important, because using the correct mass of the protein, the radiochemical purity of the radioimmunoconjugate was above 95% in all studies.

  8. Practical recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, with special attention to residual risk. Spanish adaptation of a European Consensus of Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document has discussed clinical approaches to managing cardiovascular risk in clinical practice, with special focus on residual cardiovascular risk associated with lipid abnormalities, especially atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD). A simplified definition of AD was proposed to enhance understanding of this condition, its prevalence and its impact on cardiovascular risk. AD can be defined by high fasting triglyceride levels (≥2.3mmol/L / ≥200mg/dL) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (≤1,0 / 40 and ≤1,3mmol/L / 50mg/dL in men and women, respectively) in statin-treated patients at high cardiovascular risk. The use of a single marker for the diagnosis and treatment of AD, such as non-HDL-c, was advocated. Interventions including lifestyle optimization and low density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering therapy with statins (±ezetimibe) are recommended by experts. Treatment of residual AD can be performed with the addition of fenofibrate, since it can improve the complete lipoprotein profile and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with AD. Others clinical condictions in which fenofibrate may be prescribed include patients with very high TGs (≥5.6mmol/L / 500mg/dL), patients who are intolerant or resistant to statins, and patients with AD and at high cardiovascular risk. The fenofibrate-statin combination was considered by the experts to benefit from a favorable benefit-risk profile. In conclusion, cardiovascular experts adopt a multifaceted approach to the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with lifestyle optimization, LDL-lowering therapy and treatment of AD with fenofibrate routinely used to help reduce a patient's overall cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Effects of Curcumin on Invasion and Metastasis in the Human Cervical Cancer Cells Caski

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang XU; Xiao-ling MU; Jing ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of curcumin on invasion and metastasis in the human cervical cancer cells Caski.Methods: Caski cells were treated with 10, 25, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48, 72 h. Proliferation of Caski cells was measured with MTT assay. When treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h, the expressions of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB of cells were detected by Western-blot, and invasion and metastasis of Caski cells were evaluated with transwell chamber.Results: After being treated with 10μmol/L, 25μmol/L, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48 and 72 h, the proliferation of Caski cells was inhibited in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB were decreased when being treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h. After treatment with 50μmol/L curcumin, in invasion assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter coated with Matrigel was reduced compared with control group(P<0.05). Meanwhile, in migration assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter was also decreased compared with control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: Curcumin could affect the invasion and metastasis of the human cervical cancer cells Caski. Inhibiting the expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB was probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  10. Obesity is associated with larger prostate volume but not with worse urinary symptoms: analysis of a large multiethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhindi, Bimal; Margel, David; Trottier, Greg; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hersey, Karen M; Finelli, Antonio; Trachtenberg, John; Zlotta, Alexandre; Toi, Ants; Evans, Andrew; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Fleshner, Neil E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI) and prostate volume (PV) and lower urinary tract symptoms in a multiethnic cohort. A cohort of men without prostate cancer seen at our institution was assembled, excluding those with previous transurethral resection of the prostate. Height and weight were measured to compute BMI, PV was measured by transrectal ultrasound, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was administered. After stratified bivariate analyses, multiple linear regression and ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effect of BMI on PV and IPSS, respectively. The cohort included 1613 patients, and mean BMI was 27.1 kg/m(2). Patients with a BMI of obese men. There were no significant differences in IPSS or usage of benign prostatic hyperplasia medications between BMI categories. In multivariable analyses, higher BMI was associated with larger PV (P <.001) but not IPSS (P = .91). On the basis of our model, given a PV of 40 mL, 50 mL, and 60 mL, each 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a 2.19 mL, 2.74 mL, and 3.29 mL increase in PV, respectively. Body weight (P <.001) but not height (P = .13) was associated with PV. Higher BMI is associated with larger PV but not worse lower urinary tract symptoms (measured using IPSS). Usage rate of alpha blockers or 5 alpha reductase inhibitors was not significantly different between BMI categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Changing Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Metabolic Syndrome: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong-Minh Pham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a poor vitamin D status may increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which leaves the question whether improving one’s vitamin D status may reduce the risk for the syndrome. Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations on metabolic syndrome among Canadians enrolled in a preventive health program that promotes vitamin D supplementation. We accessed and analyzed data of 6682 volunteer participants with repeated observations on serum 25(OHD concentrations and metabolic syndrome. We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OHD and temporal increases in serum 25(OHD to the development of metabolic syndrome. In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OHD concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We observed a statistical significant inverse relationship of increases in serum 25(OHD with risk for metabolic syndrome. Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OHD concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 nmol/L, 50 to 75 nmol/L, and more 75 nmol/L had respectively 0.76, 0.64, 0.59, 0.56 times the risk for metabolic syndrome at follow up. These estimates were independent of the effect of baseline serum 25(OHD concentrations on metabolic syndrome. Improvement of vitamin D status may help reduce the public health burden of metabolic syndrome, and potential subsequent health conditions including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Prolonged-release nicotinic acid for the management of dyslipidemia: an update including results from the NAUTILUS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Vogt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Anja Vogt1, Ursula Kassner1, Ulrike Hostalek2, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen11Charite-Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, GermanyAbstract: Low HDL-cholesterol (<1.02 mmol/L [40 mg/dL] in men or <1.29 mmol/L [50 mg/dL] in women occurs in about one-third of European patients with dyslipidemia and is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Simultaneous correction of low HDL-cholesterol and high totalcholesterol and LDL-cholesterol may provide reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond those possible with statins alone. Nicotinic acid (niacin in the US is the most effective means of increasing HDL-cholesterol available and has been shown to reduce cardiovascular event rates significantly. Niaspan® (prolonged-release nicotinic acid provides a convenient, once-daily means of administering nicotinic acid. Clinical studies with Niaspan® have demonstrated marked, long-term increases in HDL-cholesterol with additional useful benefits on triglycerides, LDLcholesterol, and lipid sub-profiles. The NAUTILUS study demonstrated the beneficial efficacy and tolerability profiles of Niaspan® in a usual-care setting. The most common side-effect of Niaspan® is flushing, which infrequently causes treatment discontinuation and which usually subsides over continued treatment. The ARBITER 2 and ARBITER 3 studies showed 1–2 years of treatment with Niaspan® plus a statin induced regression of atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. The effect of Niaspan®-statin treatment, relative to a statin alone, on clinical cardiovascular outcomes is currently under evaluation. Niaspan® represents a practical means of correcting low HDL-cholesterol, an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: prolonged-release nicotinic acid, Niaspan®, niacin, dyslipidemia, HDL-cholesterol cardiovascular risk

  13. Constraining the density dependence of the symmetry energy using the multiplicity and average pT ratios of charged pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    The charged pion multiplicity ratio in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, a probe of the density dependence of symmetry energy above the saturation point, has been proven in a previous study to be extremely sensitive to the strength of the isovector Δ (1232 ) potential in nuclear matter. As there is no knowledge, either from theory or experiment, about the magnitude of this quantity, the extraction of constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation by using exclusively the mentioned observable is hindered at present. It is shown that, by including the ratio of average pT of charged pions / in the list of fitted observables, the noted problem can be circumvented. A realistic description of this observable requires accounting for the interaction of pions with the dense nuclear matter environment by the incorporation of the so-called S -wave and P -wave pion optical potentials. This is performed within the framework of a quantum molecular dynamics transport model that enforces the conservation of the total energy of the system. It is shown that constraints on the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density and the strength of the Δ (1232) potential can be simultaneously extracted. A symmetry energy with a value of the slope parameter L >50 MeV is favored, at 1 σ confidence level, from a comparison with published FOPI experimental data. A precise constraint will require experimental data more accurate than presently available, particularly for the charged pion multiplicity ratio, and better knowledge of the density and momentum dependence of the pion potential for the whole range of these two variables probed in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  14. Use of ZnO as antireflective, protective, antibacterial, and biocompatible multifunction nanolayer of thermochromic VO{sub 2} nanofilm for intelligent windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Bao, Shanhu [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Jian [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Xuanyong, E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jin, Ping, E-mail: p-jin@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A multifunctional VO{sub 2}/ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. • The ZnO top layer can enhance the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions of the VO{sub 2} film. • The ZnO top layer can endow VO{sub 2} film with excellent antibacterial performance. • The ZnO top layer can attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO{sub 2} thin film. - Abstract: A multifunctional VO{sub 2}/ZnO bilayer film is designed and deposited by magnetron sputtering apparatus. The integration of the antireflective, antioxidative and anti-corrosion functions, and antibacterial performance makes the heterostructure film a promising candidate in the energy-saving smart window. The ZnO thin film as the antireflection layer can markedly boost the solar regulation efficiency (ΔT{sub sol}) from 7.7% to 12.2% and possesses excellent luminous transmittance (T{sub lum-L} = 50.3%) in the low-temperature semiconductor phase. The ZnO layer as the protection barrier can not only protect VO{sub 2} thin film from oxidation to much toxic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, but also decrease the release of V ions. Besides, the synergistic effect of releasing killing by Zn{sup 2+} ions and contact killing by ZnO NPs makes ZnO thin film an outstanding antibacterial coating. In terms of the biological safety, ZnO coating with appropriate film thickness can effectively attenuate the cytotoxicity of VO{sub 2} on human HIBEpiC cells. We hope this work can provide new insights for better designing of novel multifunctional VO{sub 2}-based intelligent energy-saving windows.

  15. Robotic radical cystectomy and intracorporeal urinary diversion: The USC technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis de Castro Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radical cystectomy is the gold-standard treatment for muscle-invasive and refractory nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer. We describe our technique for robotic radical cystectomy (RRC and intracorporeal urinary diversion (ICUD, that replicates open surgical principles, and present our preliminary results. Materials and Methods: Specific descriptions for preoperative planning, surgical technique, and postoperative care are provided. Demographics, perioperative and 30-day complications data were collected prospectively and retrospectively analyzed. Learning curve trends were analyzed individually for ileal conduits (IC and neobladders (NB. SAS ® Software Version 9.3 was used for statistical analyses with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Between July 2010 and September 2013, RRC and lymph node dissection with ICUD were performed in 103 consecutive patients (orthotopic NB=46, IC 57. All procedures were completed robotically replicating the open surgical principles. The learning curve trends showed a significant reduction in hospital stay for both IC (11 vs. 6-day, P < 0.01 and orthotopic NB (13 vs. 7.5-day, P < 0.01 when comparing the first third of the cohort with the rest of the group. Overall median (range operative time and estimated blood loss was 7 h (4.8-13 and 200 mL (50-1200, respectively. Within 30-day postoperatively, complications occurred in 61 (59% patients, with the majority being low grade (n = 43, and no patient died. Median (range nodes yield was 36 (0-106 and 4 (3.9% specimens had positive surgical margins. Conclusions: Robotic radical cystectomy with totally ICUD is safe and feasible. It can be performed using the established open surgical principles with encouraging perioperative outcomes.

  16. Benefits and requirements of vitamin D for optimal health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B; Holick, Micael F

    2005-06-01

    Vitamin D sufficiency is required for optimal health. The conditions with strong evidence for a protective effect of vitamin D include several bone diseases, muscle weakness, more than a dozen types of internal cancers, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. There is also weaker evidence for several other diseases and conditions. There are good reasons that vitamin D sufficiency be maintained during all stages of life, from fetal development to old age. Adequate calcium intake is also recommended. The current vitamin D requirements in the United States are based on protection against bone diseases. These guidelines are being revised upward in light of new findings, especially for soft-tissue health. The consensus of scientific understanding appears to be that vitamin D deficiency is reached for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels less than 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L), insufficiency in the range from 20-32 ng/mL, and sufficiency in the range from 33-80 ng/mL, with normal in sunny countries 54-90 ng/mL, and excess greater than 100 ng/mL. Solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is the primary source of vitamin D for most people. In general, the health benefits accruing from moderate UV irradiation, without erythema or excess tanning, greatly outweigh the health risks, with skin pigmentation (melanin) providing much of the protection. In the absence of adequate solar UVB irradiation due to season, latitude, or lifestyle, vitamin D can be obtained from fortified food, oily fish, vitamin D supplements, and artificial sources of UVB radiation.

  17. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Yu-Chih Liang; Jane CJ Chao; Li-Hsueh Tsai; Chun-Chao Chang; Chia-Chi Wang; Shiann Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo bilobaextract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats.METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gaveGbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers,gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1)GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH oontents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanolproduced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosawhich also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE;and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretionin pylorus-ligated rats.CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation;(2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3)blockade of cell apoptosis.

  18. Epidemiology of Chronic Urticaria in Korea Using the Korean Health Insurance Database, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nami; Lee, Jeong Dong; Lee, Hyun Young; Kang, Dae Ryong; Ye, Young Min

    2017-09-01

    There are very few epidemiological studies on chronic urticaria (CU). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of CU and to depict demographics and medication patterns for the disease in a nationwide population-based study. Data on urticaria (L50 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) from 2010 to 2014 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Algorithms designed to evaluate prescription drug claims for antihistamines were applied to identify CU. The crude prevalence of CU was 2,256.5 per 100,000 person-years and tended to increase every year. The age-standardized prevalence of CU was significantly higher in females than in males (2,466.8 vs 1,819.2 per 100,000 person-years, P<0.001). Age-specific prevalence was highest for older adults over the age of 65 years and lowest for ages 10-29 years. The median duration of CU was 591 days, and symptoms lasted for at least 1 year in 61.9% of patients. Gastrointestinal disease was the most common comorbidity in adults, whereas allergic rhinitis and common cold were more prevalent in children with CU. Around a third of CU patients were taking antihistamine treatment alone, and 70% were treated with both antihistamines and systemic corticosteroids. Cyclosporine was prescribed for 0.02% of CU patients. The present study outlines recent longitudinal epidemiological data on the prevalence of CU in Korea. In light of limitations on the use of claims data, including no specific disease code for CU and a possible discordance between drug claims and the presence of urticaria symptoms, further investigations are necessary to describe the exact epidemiologic profile of CU patients.

  19. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Sperb Rubin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure.Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2% had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30% died, and 11 (14% did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66% were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted, 1.48 L (52% of predicted, and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL and FEV1 (350 mL. In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL in FVC and 1% (50 mL in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL in FVC and 16% (430 mL in FEV1.Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF.

  20. Using CR1aa versus KSOM as the culture medium for in vitro embryo production of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Triwulaninngsih

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization in the Department of Animal Science University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. Oocytes were matured in TCM- 199 medium (in 5% CO2 incubator and at 390C enriched with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization medium Tyroide Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in CR1aa (n=1549 medium versus modification of protein-free pottasium simplex optimized medium (KSOM (n=675 up to blastocyst stage and were fed FCS 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6, as treatment A and B respectively. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design with SAS program. Percentages of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst, unfertilized and degenerated ova in this study were 91.4% vs 75.6 %; 75.6% vs 58.9%; 61.5% vs 38.5%; 31.2% vs 5.1%, 8.6% vs 24.4%, 15.7% vs 8% which were significantly different (P<0.01 for treatment CR1aa and KSOM respectively. Based on this study, CR1aa medium is better culture medium than KSOM for efficient in vitro production (IVP of bovine embryos.

  1. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Southeast coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino-Rodrigues, Evandro; Musiello-Fernandes, Joelson; Moura, Alvaro A S; Branco, Geisa M P; Canéo, Victor O C

    2013-06-01

    C sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt), and cephalothorax width (CW) was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We) and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne). A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50) occurred at CW = 10.33 cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100) was CW = 11.20 cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11 cm of carapace width.

  2. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae in the Southeast coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Severino-Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.

  3. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Ceria Nanoparticles on Different Cell Lines in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santucci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their radical scavenging and UV-filtering properties, ceria nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs are currently used for various applications, including as catalysts in diesel particulate filters. Because of their ability to filter UV light, CeO2-NPs have garnered significant interest in the medical field and, consequently, are poised for use in various applications. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of short-term (24 h and long-term (10 days CeO2-NP exposure to A549, CaCo2 and HepG2 cell lines. Cytotoxicity assays tested CeO2-NPs over a concentration range of 0.5 μg/mL to 5000 μg/mL, whereas genotoxicity assays tested CeO2-NPs over a concentration range of 0.5 μg/mL to 5000 μg/mL. In vitro assays showed almost no short-term exposure toxicity on any of the tested cell lines. Conversely, long-term CeO2-NP exposure proved toxic for all tested cell lines. NP genotoxicity was detectable even at 24-h exposure. HepG2 was the most sensitive cell line overall; however, the A549 line was most sensitive to the lowest concentration tested. Moreover, the results confirmed the ceria nanoparticles’ capacity to protect cells when they are exposed to well-known oxidants such as H2O2. A Comet assay was performed in the presence of both H2O2 and CeO2-NPs. When hydrogen peroxide was maintained at 25 μM, NPs at 0.5 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 500 μg/mL protected the cells from oxidative damage. Thus, the NPs prevented H2O2-induced genotoxic damage.

  4. On-chip detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism without polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinhee; Tan, Matthew; Sudheendra, Lakshmana; Weiss, Robert H; Kennedy, Ian M

    2014-09-01

    A nanoparticle-assembled photonic crystal (PC) array was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The assay platform with PC nanostructure enhanced the fluorescent signal from nanoparticle-hybridized DNA complexes due to phase matching of excitation and emission. Nanoparticles coupled with probe DNA were trapped into nanowells in an array by using an electrophoretic particle entrapment system. The PC/DNA assay platform was able to identify a 1 base pair (bp) difference in synthesized nucleotide sequences that mimicked the mutation seen in a feline model of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) with a sensitivity of 0.9 fg/mL (50 aM)-sensitivity, which corresponds to 30 oligos/array. The reliability of the PC/DNA assay platform to detect SNP in a real sample was demonstrated by using genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from the urine and blood of two PKD(-) wild type and three PKD positive cats. The standard curves for PKD positive (PKD(+)) and negative (PKD(-)) DNA were created using two feline-urine samples. An additional three urine samples were analyzed in a similar fashion and showed satisfactory agreement with the standard curve, confirming the presence of the mutation in affected urine. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.005 ng/mL which corresponds to 6 fg per array for gDNA in urine and blood. The PC system demonstrated the ability to detect a number of genome equivalents for the PKD SNP that was very similar to the results reported with real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The favorable comparison with quantitative PCR suggests that the PC technology may find application well beyond the detection of the PKD SNP, into areas where a simple, cheap and portable nucleic acid analysis is desirable.

  5. ANÁLISE FITOQUÍMICA E MICROBIOLÓGICA DA ATIVIDADE DO EXTRATO BRUTO ETANÓLICO DA ANDIROBA, Carapa guianensis Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ramon Parente da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia, a população, de uma forma geral, costuma utilizar medicamentos fitoterápicos como as plantas medicinais para as mais variadas doenças. Dentre as plantas medicinais que são utilizadas encontra-se a Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Andiroba, que possui crescente aplicação, não só terapêutica, como também, na indústria química e cosmética. O Extrato Bruto Etanólico das cascas do caule de Carapa guianensis Aubl., foi investigado usando estudo fitoquímico preliminar e atividade antimicrobiana. A prospecção fitoquímica foi realizada pelos métodos clássicos descritos por Matos (1997 apud Rodrigues (2010. No ensaio antimicrobiano foi utilizado método de Kirby-Bauer modificado, apud Charles (2009, usando o teste de difusão em disco com cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e antibióticos padronizados, o Extrato Bruto Etanólico foi utilizado nas concentrações 25mg/mL, 50mg/mL e 100mg/mL. A análise fitoquímica preliminar evidenciou a presença de fenóis, taninos e antraquinonas. O extrato apresentou baixa atividade antimicrobiana frente as cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae, e nenhuma atividade frente as cepas de S. aureus e E. coli. Palavras-chave: Carapa guianensis Aubl., andiroba, antimicrobiano. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p10-14

  6. Nondestructive laser system for the in-situ study of the kinetics of the adsorption processes at solid/liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoran, Radu; Sharkany, Josif P.

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a laser-optical fiber system which allows us to estimate continuously and 'in situ' the evolution of the adsorption layer at the interface solid-liquid. Locally, the kinetics of the evolution of the adsorption layer at the interface between a mineral and a xanthate organic solution, is investigated. In this case, the knowledge for the kinetics of the adsorption process is extremely important for explaining the intimate mechanisms of the flotation industrial processes. The monitoring system for the kinetics of the adsorption of xanthate organic molecules on the mineral support is based, during its run, on the variation in the relative reflectance of the interface due to the adsorption layer evolution. The method, designed to study the evolution kinetics of the adsorption layer at the interface between a xanthate solution and a sulphuric mineral, is based on the proportionally link between the evolution of the adsorption layer and the relative variation of its refraction index. The experimental appliance used a coherent and monochromatic unpolarized laser radiation, with its wavelength (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometer, which corresponds to the near IR range. This wavelength has been chosen both for physical performed using an Al mirror as standard for maximum (100%) reflectance, and by immersing it into different xanthate solutions having successively the following concentrations: 25 mg/l; 50 mg/l; 100 mg/l and 3 g/l, respectively. This procedure allowed to observe that the reflection given by the mirror, in these cases, has a relatively narrow spectral range in UV, for which it has values greater for 4 - 6%. The following ones have been used: isobutyl xanthate, amyl xanthate and ethyl xanthate. The reflection spectrum on the mirror (if neglecting the attenuation in liquid and the transmission spectrum) was measured by means of a spectrophotometer SPECORD M40 (made in Germany), and the determinations were performed in the range from 200 to 950 nm.

  7. Persistent efficacy of 3.5% doramectin compared to 3.15% ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in experimentally-infected cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Sakamoto, Claudio A M; de Lima, Roberto Cesar Araújo; Valarelli, Rodrigo Lechugo; Paiva, Pablo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the persistent efficacy of a 3.5% doramectin(*) (700 μg/kg) formulation compared to 3.15% ivermectin(**) (630 μg/kg) treatment, administered subcutaneously at a dose of 1 mL/50 kg body weight in cattle experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Seventy-two male crossbred Holstein cattle that were negative for helminth infection were divided into nine groups. Treatments of 3.5% doramectin (Groups 2, 4, 6 and 8) and 3.15% ivermectin (Groups 3, 5, 7 and 9) were administered on days 49, 42, 35 and 28 prior to challenge with infectious nematode larvae (L3). Animals in the control group (Group 1) received saline solution on day 49 before challenge. Beginning on day zero, each animal received 50 mL orally of a mixed culture containing approximately 3,000 third stage larvae (L3) of Haemonchus (60%), Oesophagostomum (20%), Cooperia (15%) and Trichostrongylus (5%) for seven consecutive days, resulting in a total challenge of 21,000 larvae/animal. Due to the large number of cattle, autopsies were performed between days 28 and 35 after the last day of inoculation. The formulation containing doramectin (700 mcg/kg) achieved persistent efficacy against H. placei and C. punctata for 49 and 35 days, respectively. The persistent efficacy of ivermectin (630 mcg/kg) against H. placei lasted for 49 days, but this treatment was ineffective against C. punctata. Both formulations demonstrated persistent efficacy against T. axei for 49 days. The persistent efficacy of doramectin (700 mcg/kg) and ivermectin (630 mcg/kg) lasted for 49 and 42 days against O. radiatum, respectively.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE FEED QUALITY OF FESTULOLIUM BRAUNII MIXTURES WITH MICROBIOLOGICALLY SUPPLIED RED CLOVER AND ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience with cultivation of Festulolium braunii (Felopa variety in mixtures with red clover (Tenia variety, and alfalfa (Tula variety, was founded in April 2007 on an experimental object of Grassland Department and Green Areas Creation UP-H in Siedlce. The first experimental factor were 3-grass-legumes mixtures having the following composition: M1 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Trifolium pretense L. 50%, M2 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Medicago sativa ssp. media 50%, M3 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Trifolium pratense L. 25%, Medicago sativa ssp. media 25%. Combinations with soil’s medium amendment was marked as UG, and without soil’s medium amendment – BUG. In addition, nitrogen fertilization in the annual dose of 60 kg N∙ha-1, potassium 120 kg K2O∙ha-1 and phosphorus in the amount of 80 kg P2O5∙ha-1 were applied on all plots. Detailed study included the chemical composition of plant, which was determined at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The obtained results were used to calculate the following measures of the energy of and protein value feed: NEL – net energy of lactation, JPM∙kg-1D.M. – feed unit for milk production, JPŻ∙kg-1 D.M. – feed unit for livestock production, nBO – useful protein, BNŻ – rumen nitrogen balance. Furthermore, using the multivariate comparative of taxonomic analysis method the synthetic comparative measure of forage quality Q was evaluated. The use of soil’s medium amendment, regardless of the types of mixture, cuts and years of research, resulted in higher values of all measures. However, the analysis of synthetic measure of feed quality showed that in terms feed quality the best was the three component Festulolium braunii mixture with Trifolium pratense L. and Medicago sativa ssp. media.

  9. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavrič, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-02-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated, continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a working tank.

  10. Economic and environmental impacts on ports and harbors from the convention to ban harmful marine anti-fouling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, Michael A

    2003-08-01

    The recent Diplomatic Conference held (1-5 October 2001) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London adopted the Draft Convention prepared by The Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO for the "Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems for Ships." The convention has been developed to immediately ban the use of Tributyltin (TBT) globally in anti-fouling paints to "protect the marine environment". The ban on TBT has come about because TBT has detrimental effects on non-target marine organisms. In November 1999, IMO agreed that a treaty be developed by the MEPC to ensure a ban on the application of TBT based anti-fouling paints by 1 January 2003, and a ban on the use of TBT by 1 January 2008. At the meeting surious concern was expressed by some experts for the need to identify in the treaty the necessary regulatory language for: (1) the "safe" removal, treatment, and disposal of marine anti-foulants deemed "harmful" by the treaty and (2) who is liable for the future dredging and disposal of TBT-contaminated port and harbor sediments--to also "protect the marine environment". The requirement for "safe" removal and disposal was incorporated at MEPC 46 as Article 5 in the treaty, without it shipyards complying with existing national and local discharge regulations (most have none for discharge of TBT) could inadvertently release more TBT to ports and harbors in the five-year compliance period than has been leached from ships (hulls) in the past 40 years to the same waters. Virginia is the only State in the US that regulates the discharge to below 50 ng/l (50 parts per trillion). However, the liability for the future dredging and disposal costs of TBT-contaminated port and harbor sediments has not been addressed.

  11. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs.

  12. Reproduction of Mugil curema (Pisces: Mugilidae from the Cuyutlán lagoon, in the Pacific coast of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Cabral-Solís

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la reproducción de la lebrancha o liseta Mugil curema (Valenciennes, 1836 en la laguna de Cuyutlán, Colima, México. La relación macho:hembra fue 0.63:1.00. Los peces fueron capturados durante un año. Se observaron hembras ovígeras todo el año, con dos picos: uno en verano (agosto y otro en invierno (enerofebrero. Los machos y las hembras mostraron características de madurez sexual (L50 a la talla promedio, de 270 mm, y de 255 mm, que corresponden a cuatro y cinco años de edad, respectivamente. La talla mínima de reproducción en machos y hembras fue 105 mm de longitud total. El índice gonadosomático fue más alto en agosto y febrero. La relación alométrica del índice hepatosomático fue LW = 6.00·10-6·TL4.013. Los factores de condición de Fulton y Safran se incrementaron de diciembre a marzo. La fecundidad varió, de 9,612 a 238,795 ovocitos en hembras de cero a cinco años de edad, y la fecundidad relativa promedio fue de 1,120 oocitos·g-1 (850 a 1,176 ovocitos·g-1. Los resultados sugieren establecer una temporada de veda del 15 de junio al 15 de septiembre, y el uso del tamaño de malla reglamentario, que es de 2 ¾ pulgadas, en las redes agalleras.

  13. Biology and Thermal Requirements of Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared on Ceratitis capitata Eggs (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, M Z; Loeck, A E; Nornberg, S D; Bernardi, D; Nava, D E

    2017-05-04

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a solitary parasitoid of eggs and the first instar larvae of Tephritidae. Due to the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in various regions and under several climatic conditions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on the embryonic development (egg-adult) and determine thermal requirements and the number of annual generations F. arisanus on eggs of C. capitata. In the laboratory, eggs of C. capitata (24 h) were submitted to parasitism of F. arisanus during 6 h. Later, the eggs were placed in plastic containers (50 mL) (50 eggs/container) on a layer of artificial diet and packed in chambers at temperatures 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 12 h. The largest number of offspring, emergence rate, and weight of adults of F. arisanus were observed at 25°C. The highest sex ratios (sr > 0.75) were recorded at 15 and 18°C, being statistically higher than the temperatures 20°C (0.65), 22°C (0.64), 25°C (0.65), 28°C (0.49), and 30°C (0.47). At 32°C, there was no embryonic development of F. arisanus. The egg-adult period was inversely proportional to temperature. Based on the development of the biological cycle (egg-adult), the temperature threshold (T t) was 10.3°C and thermal constant (K) of 488.34 degree-days, being the number of generations/year directly proportional to the temperature increase. The data show the ability of F. arisanus to adapt to different thermal conditions, which is important for biological control programs of C. capitata.

  14. Phytochemical and biological activities ofCrataegus sinaica growing in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alaa Tawfeek Refaat; Abdelaaty Abdelaziz Shahat; Nermine Ahmed Ehsan; Nemat Yassin; Faiza Hammouda; Elsayed Abou Tabl; Shams Imbabi Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the cardiac activity and hepatoprotection ofCrataegus sinaica (C. sinaica).Methods: All the isolated compounds were isolated by open-column liquid chromatography (CC) using sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Elution of the column was performed with EtOH or MeOH. The phytochemical investigation of the young stem ofC. sinaica for the first time together with the leaves and flowers lead to the isolation and identification of quercetin, hyperoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and procyanidins C1.Results: Rats treated with the low and high dose ofC. sinaica leaves with flowers extract showed 15% and 17% reduction in the heart rate, and reduction in the ST-segment by 107% and 57%; respectively. The T-amplitude was decreased by 59% of the high dose extract. On the other hand, the young stems and leaves with flowers extracts ofC. sinaica on primary culture of rat hepatocytes monolayer indicated a hepatoprotection for the total extract, ethyl acetate, butanol, and chloroform fractions at 100 μg/mL, 75 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 25μg/mL; respectively.Conclusions:The results of these chemical and biological studies suggest the use ofC. sinaica growing in Egypt as a preventive drug against cardiovascular and hepatic diseases. The chemical studies suggest the use of woody young stems as a newly investigated bioactive organ. The extraction of unsaturated fatty acids from the seeds of the plant would serve as a good health and nutritive product.

  15. CIE L*a*b*: comparison of digital images obtained photographically by manual and automatic modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Takatsui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the color alterations performed by the CIE L*a*b* system in the digital imaging of shade guide tabs, which were obtained photographically according to the automatic and manual modes. This study also sought to examine the observers' agreement in quantifying the coordinates. Four Vita Lumin Vaccum shade guide tabs were used: A3.5, B1, B3 and C4. An EOS Canon digital camera was used to record the digital images of the shade tabs, and the images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software. A total of 80 observations (five replicates of each shade according to two observers in two modes, specifically, automatic and manual were obtained, leading to color values of L*, a* and b*. The color difference (ΔE between the modes was calculated and classified as either clinically acceptable or unacceptable. The results indicated that there was agreement between the two observers in obtaining the L*, a* and b* values related to all guides. However, the B1, B3, and C4 shade tabs had ΔE values classified as clinically acceptable (ΔE = 0.44, ΔE = 2.04 and ΔE = 2.69, respectively. The A3.5 shade tab had a ΔE value classified as clinically unacceptable (ΔE = 4.17, as it presented higher values for luminosity in the automatic mode (L* = 54.0 than in the manual mode (L* = 50.6. It was concluded that the B1, B3 and C4 shade tabs can be used at any of the modes in digital camera (manual or automatic, which was a different finding from that observed for the A3.5 shade tab.

  16. Impact of Exhaled Breath Acetone in the Prognosis of Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). One Year of Clinical Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Mangini, Sandrigo; Issa, Victor S.; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M.; Bocchi, Edimar A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of new biomarkers of heart failure (HF) could help in its treatment. Previously, our group studied 89 patients with HF and showed that exhaled breath acetone (EBA) is a new noninvasive biomarker of HF diagnosis. However, there is no data about the relevance of EBA as a biomarker of prognosis. Objectives To evaluate whether EBA could give prognostic information in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods After breath collection and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by spectrophotometry, the 89 patients referred before were followed by one year. Study physicians, blind to the results of cardiac biomarker testing, ascertained vital status of each study participant at 12 months. Results The composite endpoint death and heart transplantation (HT) were observed in 35 patients (39.3%): 29 patients (32.6%) died and 6 (6.7%) were submitted to HT within 12 months after study enrollment. High levels of EBA (≥3.7μg/L, 50th percentile) were associated with a progressively worse prognosis in 12-month follow-up (log-rank = 11.06, p = 0.001). Concentrations of EBA above 3.7μg/L increased the risk of death or HT in 3.26 times (HR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.56–6.80, p = 0.002) within 12 months. In a multivariable cox regression model, the independent predictors of all-cause mortality were systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate and EBA levels. Conclusions High EBA levels could be associated to poor prognosis in HFrEF patients. PMID:28030609

  17. Dinámica poblacional y reproductiva de Turbinella angulata y Busycon perversum (Mesogasteropoda: Turbinellidae y Melongenidae en el Banco de Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Santos Valencia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella angulata y Busycon perversum aportan la mayor captura de caracol en el Golfo de México (90%.Se realizaron muestreos mediante transectos lineales (150x1.5m de abril 2008 a marzo 2010 y en las capturas comerciales del Banco de Campeche (18°-20º N - 90°- 91º O. 2 832 individuos de T. angulata fueron medidos, las tallas variaron entre 63-282mm (LS, la proporción hembras:machos fue 0.98:1. Los valores de crecimiento fueron: L=346mm, K=0.30 y t0=-0.24. El periodo reproductivo fue de enero a mayo con reposo de junio a septiembre (80%. La talla de primera madurez (L fue de 210mm (LS en hembras y 200mm en machos. De B. perversum,1 655 ejemplares fueron analizados con tallas entre 78-292mm, presentando diferencias significativas entre longitudes de machos y hembras (p0.05. La proporción hembras:machos fue 1:0.25. Los valores de crecimiento fueron L=360 mm, K=0.35 y t=-0.19. El periodo reproductivo fue de agosto a diciembre con reposo de enero a abril. La L50 fue de 215mm (LS en hembras y 190mm en machos. Se observó un pulso de reclutamiento anual en ambas especies relacionado con el incremento en la temperatura marina. Los resultados ayudarán a definir un esquema de manejo basado en los atributos poblacionales y reproductivos de las especies.

  18. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of {approximately}3.07 m (120.7 {+-} 2 in. from sidewall bottom or {approximately}132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19{degrees}C (66{degrees}F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992.

  19. I-131 Extraction from Fresh water and Sewage plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souti, Maria-Evangelia; Hormann, Volker; Toma, Edda; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Alle 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The amount of maximum I-131 body activity of a patient released from a hospital in Germany (250 MBq) is comparable to the yearly reported total release of I-131 from all commercial nuclear power plants to ambient air and water. A large fraction of the body activity will be excreted and find its way to surface waters, through the sewage system. Thus medical iodine is the major contributor to the environmental I-131 in surface waters. Due to the path it follows (patient-sewage-sewage plant-fresh water) it can form organic complexes and as a result its concentration of organic iodine is relatively high. Existing methods, focusing on the removal of mainly iodide (I{sup -}) and iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), were found to be insufficient to successfully extract the iodine from environmental samples, leading to highly variable results depending on the contribution of organic iodine. The reported work is based on testing and modifying existing methods. In order to accomplish the highest iodine yield, the inorganic iodine extraction is followed by a supplementary procedure for additionally separating the iodine bound to dissolved organic matter. The results show only slight variations of the I-131 extraction yield which is close to 90%, constituting this method as appropriate for successfully extracting I-131 from environmental samples (WWTP effluent, river water, lake water). Another advantage of our method is its applicability to high volume samples (20 L, 50 L), making it possible for a gamma spectrometer to detect activities as low as 0.5 mBq/l. (authors)

  20. Effect of firocoxib or flunixin meglumine on recovery of ischemic-injured equine jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Vanessa L; Meyer, Colleen T; Campbell, Nigel B; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether treatment of horses with firocoxib affects recovery of ischemic-injured jejunum, while providing effective analgesia. 18 horses. Horses (n = 6 horses/group) received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/50 kg, IV), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or firocoxib (0.09 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) before 2 hours of jejunal ischemia. Horses were monitored via pain scores and received butorphanol for analgesia. After 18 hours, ischemic-injured and control mucosa were placed in Ussing chambers for measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeability to lipopolysaccharide. Histomorphometry was used to determine denuded villus surface area. Western blots for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 were performed. Plasma thromboxane B(2) and prostaglandin E(2) metabolite (PGEM) concentrations were determined. Pain scores did not significantly increase after surgery in horses receiving flunixin meglumine or firocoxib. Transepithelial resistance of ischemic-injured jejunum from horses treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than in saline- or firocoxib-treated horses. Lipopolysaccharide permeability across ischemic-injured mucosa was significantly increased in horses treated with flunixin meglumine. Treatment did not affect epithelial restitution. Cyclooxygenase-1 was constitutively expressed and COX-2 was upregulated after 2 hours of ischemia. Thromboxane B(2) concentration decreased with flunixin meglumine treatment but increased with firocoxib or saline treatment. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib prevented an increase in PGEM concentration after surgery. Flunixin meglumine retarded mucosal recovery in ischemic-injured jejunum, whereas firocoxib did not. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib were effective visceral analgesics. Firocoxib may be advantageous in horses recovering from ischemic intestinal injury.

  1. 从软锰矿酸浸沉淀渣中回收钴镍%Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Precipitation of Pyrolusite Leaching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯骥; 粟海锋; 文衍宣

    2012-01-01

    以软锰矿酸浸工艺中除杂产生的二甲基二硫代氨基甲酸盐沉淀为原料,在酸性条件下利用硝酸钠氧化浸出钴和镍.考察硝酸钠用量、硫酸浓度、反应温度和时间等因素对钴和镍浸出效果的影响.结果表明,在硝酸钠用量35.0 g/L,硫酸浓度1.84 mol/L,50℃浸出3h的条件下,钴和镍的浸出率分别达到96%和94%.%Dimethyldithiocarbamate precipitation, formed by the addition of sodium dimethyldithiocarbam-ate to purify the neutralized filtrate of pyrolusite reductive leaching process, was used as raw materials to extract nickel and cobalt with sodium nitrate as oxidant in dilute sulfuric acid medium. The effects of dosage of sodium nitrate, concentration of sulfuric acid, leaching temperature, and reaction time on extraction of nickel and cobalt were investigated. The results show that the leaching rate is 96% for cobalt and 94% for nickel, respectively, under the optimal conditions including H2SO4 concentration of 1.84 mol/L, NaNO3 dosage of 35. 0 g/L, and 3 h at 50 °C.

  2. Leptin as a marker of nutrition and cardiovascular risk in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; Rebollo, Francisco; Díez, Juan J; Díaz, Candido; Paiva, Ana; Codoceo, Rosa; Selgas, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Anorexia and protein malnutrition, occasionally associated with obesity, are frequently observed in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Both are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Leptin is produced by adipocytes and regulates body-fat mass through a satiety central effect. Leptin accumulates in the uremic state. We analyzed the relationship between plasma leptin levels, nutritional status, obesity, CV risk factors, and atherosclerosis in PD patients. Leptin was determined using a polyclonal antibody [radioimmunoassay: Linco Research, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.]. The normal range was 1-7.8 ng/mL. We studied 38 PD patients. Mean leptin levels were 59.1 +/- 57.5 ng/mL (elevated in 32 patients). Women (n = 21) showed higher leptin levels than did men (80.4 +/- 60 ng/mL vs. 32.3 +/- 43.3 ng/mL, p risk factors (Framingham study), such as serum triglycerides 150 mg/dL (44.2 +/- 53.2 ng/mL vs. 80 +/- 58.4 ng/mL, p 250 mg/dL, (50 +/- 55.6 mg/dL vs. 84.7 +/- 57.7 mg/dL, p 7 mg/dL (47 +/- 53.7 mg/dL vs. 93.1 +/- 56.6 mg/dL, p score (CAS). Nineteen patients had low CAS scores, and they showed higher plasma leptin values than did the other patients (82.4 +/- 65.7 ng/mL vs 35.8 +/- 36.6 ng/mL, p nutrition, including albumin (r = 0.63, p 40 ng/mL and sex and LVH. All of those features suggest that plasma leptin levels could be considered a marker of CV risk and food intake in non obese PD patients without inflammation.

  3. Impacts of acute exposure of industrial chemicals and pesticides on the survival of fish (Tilapia guineensis and earthworms (Aporrectodea longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris F. Ogeleka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecotoxicological effects of industrial chemicals (Rig wash, Oil eater, Nalco, Glycol™ and pesticides (Propoxur, Deltamethrin, Atrazine, Furadan on Tilapia guineensis (fish and Aporrectodea longa (earthworms were tested using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD # 203 and 207 protocols. The water and soil ratings indicate that the test chemicals were toxic to the organisms. The estimated 96 hour lethal concentration LC50 values for Rig wash, Oil eater, Nalco EC1304A/COT 505, Glycol, Propoxur, and Deltamethrin were 26.34±0.46, 6.02±0.30, 3.07±0.14, 1.31±0.01, 20.91±0 and 0.01±0 mg/l respectively. In the earthworm bioassay, the estimated 14-day LC50 values for Rigwash, Oil eater, Nalco EC1304A/COT 505, Glycol, Atrazine and Furadan were 80.05±3.5, 151.55±10.7, 172.63±14.2, 63.72±2.43, 4.97±0 and 0.29±0 mg/kg respectively. Safety factors are arbitrarily built in around the LC50 values in order to arrive at environmentally tolerable concentrations. The concentration of a chemical in the receiving environment should not exceed 10% of the L50. The organisms exposed to the test chemicals showed significant difference when compared with the levels measured in the control group. The observed sensitivity of the test organisms to the chemicals indicates that adherence to standard safety limits/measures should be maintained during use and disposal of hazardous chemicals. This would ensure that the biotic components of the Nigerian Niger Delta ecosystem are prudently protected.

  4. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group) after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w.)/day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50) with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis. PMID:26822962

  5. A high-fish-oil diet prevents adiposity and modulates white adipose tissue inflammation pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Fish oil improves obesity and its comorbidities, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We evaluate the effects of a diet rich in fish oil in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation pathways, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). To achieve our aims, four groups of male C57BL/6 mice were fed different diets: standard chow diet (SC; 10% energy from fat), SC+fish oil diet (SC-FO; 10% energy from fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L; 50% energy from lard) and HF fish oil diet (HF-FO; 50% energy from fish oil). We evaluated body mass, epididymal fat pad mass, food intake and glucose tolerance. In WAT, we assessed adipocyte hypertrophy, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 immunofluorescence, and gene and protein expression of insulin signaling, inflammation, MAPKs, RAS, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In relation to the results, the HF-L group, as expected, showed elevated body mass and adiposity, glucose intolerance and hypertrophied adipocytes. In WAT, we found a defect in insulin signaling, infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory markers with the associated activation of MAPKs and local RAS. On the contrary, the HF-FO group did not present increased body mass, adiposity or glucose intolerance. In this group, insulin signaling, macrophage infiltration and inflammation were reduced in WAT in comparison with the HF-L group. We also observed decreases of MAPKs and local RAS and elevation of PPAR and AMPK. In summary, fish oil activates PPAR (the three isoforms) and AMPK, decreases WAT insulin resistance and inflammation, and inhibits MAPK and RAS pathways activation.

  6. Blood Lead Concentration Is Not Altered by High Dose Vitamin D Supplementation in Children and Young Adults with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Herold, Rachel A; Schall, Joan I; Wagner, Julia L; Dougherty, Kelly A; Zemel, Babette S; Rutstein, Richard M; Stallings, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Optimal vitamin D status is known to have beneficial health effects and vitamin D supplements are commonly used. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may increase blood lead in children and adults with previous lead exposure. The objective was to determine the safety regarding lead toxicity during 12 weeks of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in children and young adults with HIV. METHODS Subjects with HIV (age 8 to 24 yrs) were randomized to vitamin D3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and followed at 6 and 12 weeks for changes in 25D and whole blood lead concentration. This was a secondary analysis of a larger study of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with HIV. RESULTS In 44 subjects (75% African American), the baseline mean ± SD serum 25D was 48.3 ± 18.6 nmol/L. 50% of subjects had baseline serum 25D 5.0 μg/dL at baseline or during subsequent visits. Whole blood lead and 25D were not correlated at baseline, and were negatively correlated after 12 weeks of supplementation (p= 0.014). Whole blood lead did not differ between those receiving 4000 IU versus 7000 IU of vitamin D3. CONCLUSION High dose vitamin D3 supplementation and the concomitant increased serum 25D did not result in increased whole blood lead concentration in this sample of children and young adults living in a northeastern urban city. PMID:23059649

  7. Serum canine pancreatic-specific lipase concentrations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia rossi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S. Köster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L – 475.5 µg/L on admission (n = 87 and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L – 434.0 µg/L on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40. Twenty-four dogs (28% had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L at admission with 13 dogs (32.5% presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L – 571.5 µg/L; n = 53, which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L – 131.8 µg/L; n = 32 (P = 0.018. This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.

  8. Computer log evaluation in tertiary coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, S.; Krestan, J.

    1984-01-01

    The technology of working a lignite quarry in north Czechoslovakia includes use of AR, GK, GGKP, NNK and a cavernometer with digital processing of the material on an analog-digital transformer of the CSSR in the field and subsequent computer processing an an Eclipse C300. Hungarian equipment was used with recording scale: 1:100, quantization spacing was 0.1 m. The NNK probe was L = 50 cm, the NNK and GGKP calibrations were made on a rock block with known parameters. The task of logging is to determine the base of the productive interval, as well as the ash content (ASH) and calorific value (QD) of the coal in the shaft. The processing graph includes editing (translation of the conventional units into physical quantities) and construction of statistical distributions of parameters. The clay content K /sub cl/ is defined as the minimum quantity for double differential parameter GK and for NNK. The Cross plot of NNK (NPOR)-GGKP (DEN) determines the effective porosity EPOR, as well as the maximum points for porosity (48-53%) and density (1.28-1.75 g/cm/sup 3/) that characterize the coals. In order to determine QD and ASH, regression is used (linear, exponential, logarithmic, parabolic and hyperbolic). The clay type is determined by cross plot GK-GGKP. Examples are given of computer constructions, as well as the summary interpretation document which characterizes the initial and definite parameters in the bed mode (DEN, NPOR, GR, RESN, DS, VSH, EPOR, QD, ASH). The interpretation system is called SG.

  9. 棉针织物纳米银/壳聚糖抗菌整理%Antibacterial finishing of knitted cotton fabric with nano-silver/chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏宏彬; 金灿; 任建华

    2011-01-01

    采用纳米银/壳聚糖复合抗菌整理对棉针织物进行抗菌加工.结果表明,优化的抗菌整理工艺为:先进行纳米银抗菌整理,纳米银60μg/L,黏合剂PDA 10g/L,分散剂LA 20g/L,渗透剂T 6g/L,50℃浸渍处理20min;随后进行壳聚糖整理,其用量为20g/L.采用纳米银和壳聚糖复合抗菌整理,降低了纳米银的流失,抑制了织物色变,提高了耐洗性,抗菌整理织物经50次水洗后仍能保持较好的抗菌效果.%Nano-silver/chitosan compound anti-bacterial finish is carried out on cotton knits. The results show that the optimum anti-bacterial finish is determined as follows: anti-bacterial finish with nano-silver firstly by dipping at 50℃ for 20 minutes with nano-silver 60 μg/L, binder PDA 10 g/L, dispersant LA 20 g/L and penetrating agent T 6 g/L, and followed by anti-bacterial finish with 20 g/L chitosan. Nano-silver/chitosan compound anti-bacterial finish can reduce loss of nano-silver, control color change and improve durability to washing. The treated fabric features good anti-bacterial effect after 50 times laundering.

  10. Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases and atmospheric oxygen at the Namib Desert Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E. J.; Lavrič, J. V.; Seifert, T.; Chicoine, T.; Day, A.; Gomez, J.; Logan, R.; Sack, J.; Shuuya, T.; Uushona, E. G.; Vincent, K.; Schultz, U.; Brunke, E.-G.; Labuschagne, C.; Thompson, R. L.; Schmidt, S.; Manning, A. C.; Heimann, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new coastal background site has been established for observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the central Namib Desert at Gobabeb, Namibia. The location of the site was chosen to provide observations for a data-poor region in the global sampling network for GHGs. Semi-automated continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, atmospheric oxygen, and basic meteorology are made at a height of 21 m a.g.l., 50 km from the coast at the northern border of the Namib Sand Sea. Atmospheric oxygen is measured with a differential fuel cell analyzer (DFCA). Carbon dioxide and methane are measured with an early-model cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS); nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide are measured with an off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS). Instrument-specific water corrections are employed for both the CRDS and OA-ICOS instruments in lieu of drying. The performance and measurement uncertainties are discussed in detail. As the station is located in a remote desert environment, there are some particular challenges, namely fine dust, high diurnal temperature variability, and minimal infrastructure. The gas handling system and calibration scheme were tailored to best fit the conditions of the site. The CRDS and DFCA provide data of acceptable quality when base requirements for operation are met, specifically adequate temperature control in the laboratory and regular supply of electricity. In the case of the OA-ICOS instrument, performance is significantly improved through the implementation of a drift correction through frequent measurements of a reference cylinder.

  11. The functional role of PI3K in maintenance of blood pressure and baroreflex suppression in (mRen2)27 and mRen2.Lewis rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Exazevia M; Aileru, Azeez A; Shaltout, Hossam A; Averill, David B; Diz, Debra I

    2011-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathway in brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats, but not Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, contributes to elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP). The role of PI3K in the regulation of blood pressure or autonomic function in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is yet to be established in other Ang II-dependent models of hypertension. Thus, we microinjected PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin or LY294002, into the NTS, and measured MAP, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for heart rate (HR) control, and HR variability (HRV) in mRen2.Lewis congenic and (mRen2)27 transgenic rats. Bilateral NTS microinjections of wortmannin (100 nmol/L; 50 nL) reduced MAP in (mRen2)27 and mRen2.Lewis rats (33 ± 5 mm Hg, n = 7, and 32 ± 6 mm Hg, n = 9, respectively) for approximately 90 minutes. Spectral and sequence analysis showed improvements in spontaneous BRS and HRV (50%-100%) after treatment in both hypertensive strains. Injections of wortmannin into NTS of Hannover Sprague-Dawley or Lewis control rats failed to alter MAP, BRS, or HRV. In mRen2.Lewis, but not in control Lewis rats, LY294002 (50 μmole/L) reduced MAP and increased BRS and HRV similar to wortmannin. Thus, the pharmacologic blockade of the PI3K signaling pathway in NTS reveals an important contribution to resting MAP and BRS in rats with overexpression of the Ren2 gene.

  12. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of {approximately}3.07 m (120.7 {+-} 2 in. from sidewall bottom or {approximately}132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19{degrees}C (66{degrees}F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992.

  13. Genotypic assessment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Baghdad and other Iraqi provinces using low-cost and low-density DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaye, Dalal Saleh; Henihan, Grace; Al-Abasly, Ameraa K Abas; Seagar, Amie-Louise; Al-Attraqchi, Azhar Ab F; Schulze, Holger; Hashim, Dhafer Salman; Kamil, Jinan Khalid; Laurenson, Ian F; Bachmann, Till T

    2016-02-01

    We report on a molecular investigation carried out to ascertain the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the specific gene mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) in Iraq. In total, 110 clinical isolates from category II TB cases from Baghdad (58%) and several Iraqi provinces (42%) were analysed using colorimetric, low-cost and low-density (LCD) microarrays (MYCO-Direct and MYCO-Resist LCD array kits) to identify the point mutations responsible for resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. We found 76 patients (69.1%) had resistant strains, of which 40 (36%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. Where mono-resistance was identified, it was found to be predominantly to RIF (83%). The most common mutations were rpoB S531L (50%), inhA C15T (25%) and katG S315T (15%). The most common MDR-TB genotypes were rpoB S531L with inhA C15T (60%) and rpoB S531L with katG S315T (20%). Where phenotypic analysis of clinical isolates was also performed, genotypic data were found to show excellent correlation with phenotypic results. Correlation was found between the MYCO-Resist LCD array and GenoType MTBDRplus for detection of resistance to RIF. Our study shows MDR-TB in 36% of category II TB cases in Baghdad and surrounding Iraqi provinces, which reflects the World Health Organization findings based on phenotypic studies. Diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB using culture-based tests is a significant impediment to global TB control. The LCD arrays investigated herein are easy to use, sensitive and specific molecular tools for TB resistance profiling in resource-limited laboratory settings.

  14. Short communication: The influence of solids concentration and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, M G; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of bleaching conditions and bleaching agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at bleaching significantly affected bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different bleaching agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and bleaching agent on the flavor and bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no bleaching, 50 °C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50 °C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy bleaching units/mL, 50 °C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different bleaching agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other bleaching agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that

  15. Effect of insulin on hyperkalemia during anhepatic stage of liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Li; Mai-Tao Zhou; Yu Wang; Yi-He Liu; Li-Qun Yang; Ming Zhu; Wei-Feng Yu; Guang-Shun Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of insulin on decreasing serum potassium concentration during anhepatic stage of orthotopic liver transplantation.METHODS: Sixteen patients with serum potassium concentrations greater than 4.0 mmol/L at the onset of anhepatic stage were randomized into two groups. The patients in control group (n = 8) received no treatment,while those in treatment group (n = 8) received an intravenous bolus injection of regular insulin (20 U) 10 min into the anhepatic stage, followed by a glucose infusion (500 mL 50 g/L dextrose) over 15 min.RESULTS: In control group, potassium concentration underwent no changes whereas in treatment group, it decreased from 4.8±0.48 mmol/L to 4.19±0.55 mmol/L (mean±SD) within 15 min and to 3.62±0.45 mmol/L 60 min after the therapy. The potassium concentration was lower in treatment group than in control group within 30 min of treatment (3.94±0.57 vs 4.47±0.42 mmol/L,respectively; P<0.05), and increased similarly 30 s after graft reperfusion in both groups of patients, but remained lower in treatment group (5.81±L.78 vs 7.44±1.75 mmol/L,respectively; P<0.05). The potassium concentration returned to pre-reperfusion levels within 5 min after graft reperfusion.CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation, the administration of insulin rapidly decreases serum potassium concentration even in the absence of the liver, suggesting an important contribution by extrahepatic tissues in insulin-stimulated uptake of potassium.

  16. Anti-obesity effect of extract from fermented Curcuma longa L. through regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis pathway in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though Curcuma longa L. possesses various biological activities, it has strong flavor and taste, which decrease consumer palatability and limit industrial applications in food. Objective: The present study investigates the effects of C. longa L. fermented with Aspergillus oryzae supplementation in 60% high-fat diet-induced obese rats measured by the activation of adipogenesis and lipolysis. Design: Rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group after 1 week of acclimatization: a normal diet group comprised rats fed the AIN76A rodent diet; a high-fat diet-induced obese group with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet; a Garcinia cambogia treated group (positive control with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with G. cambogia 500 g/kg body weight (b.w./day; and an fermented C. longa L. 50% ethanolic extract treated group (FCE50 with rats fed a 60% high-fat diet with FCE50 500 g/kg b.w./day. Each group received the appropriate vehicle or sample daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. Results: We found that FCE50 administration suppressed b.w. gain and reduced white adipose tissue weight, serum triglyceride (TG, and cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. These results can be associated with the suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis with a decrease in the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, adipocyte protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase induced by FCE50 administration. In addition, FCE50 increased lipolysis and β-oxidation by up-regulating the expression of lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adiponectin, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Conclusions: These results suggest that FCE50 can be a candidate for the prevention of obesity via suppressing adipogenesis and promoting lipolysis.

  17. 代谢型谷氨酸受体5在大鼠颞下颌关节疼痛中的作用%Function of Metabtrophic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5 for Temporomandibular Joint Pain in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 卢利; 谭学新; 刘纯义; 易新; 刘焱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the function of metabtrophic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in formalin-induced temporo?mandibular joint pain. Methods A total of 36 adult SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n =6), including normal control group (no-treated),negative control group (Nacl 0.9% injection),formalin group (5% formalin injection),MPEP-1 group (5% formalin +1 mmoIVL of MPEP injection),MPEP-2 group (5% formalin +2.5 mmoL/L MPEP injection),MPEP-3 group (5% formalin +5 mmoL/L MPEP injection). The noeiceptive behavioral responses characterized by rubbing the orofacial region and flinching the head quickly were quantified for 60 min. Plasma extravasation of Evan' s blue dye bound to the plasma protein were measured. Results The behaviors characterized by flinching the head and rubbing the orofacial region in formalin group were significantly increased compared with control (P < 0.05). The noeiceptive behavior in MPEP-3 group was reduced than tbat in formalin group (P < 0.05). Compared with control group, plasma extravasation of Evan's blue dye bound to the plasma protein of MPEP groups and the formalin group increased significantly (P< 0.05) ; There were statistically significant difference between formalin group and MPEP-3 group(P< 0.05). Conclusion Melabtrophic glutamate receptor subtype 5 was involved in formalin-induced temporomandibular joint pain. Metabtrophic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonist (MPEP) could alleviated formalin-induced temporomandibular joint pain.%目的 探讨代谢型谷氨酸受体5在甲醛诱导大鼠颞下颌关节疼痛中的作用.方法 SD大鼠36只,随机均分为6组:正常对照组(不做任何处理)、生理盐水组(右侧颞下颌关节内注射50 μL生理盐水)、甲醛组(右侧颞下颌关节内注射50 μL5%甲醛)、MPEP-1组[25 μL MPEP(1 mmoL/L)+50 μL 5%甲醛]、MPEP-2组[25 μL MPEP(2.5 mmoL/L) +50 μL 5%甲醛]、MPEP-3组[25 μL MPEP(5 mmoL/L) +50 μL 5%甲醛].将5%甲醛注入右侧颞

  18. Reproductive biology of yellow goosefish Lophius litulon%黄(鮟)(鱇)繁殖生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学健; 程家骅; 沈伟; 刘尊雷; 袁兴伟

    2011-01-01

    以2008年9月至2009年7月在黄海南部捕获的644尾黄(鮟)(鱇)(Lophius litulon)为对象,对该种鱼的繁殖生物学进行了研究.结果表明,所采样本性比接近于1:1(x~2=2.61,P>0.05);但全长在251~400 mm范围时,雄性个体数量远超过雌性(P<0.01);全长在450~550 mm范围时,雌性个体数量多于雄性(P<0.01);全长大于550 mm范围时,个体均为雌性;冬季,雄性个体数量占绝对优势(P<0.01).利用逻辑斯蒂拟合方程估算的黄(鮟)(鱇)50%个体初次性成熟全长L50,雄性为332 mm,雌性为483 mm.通过对性腺指数的月变化和不同卵巢发育阶段雌性个体所占比例的分析,初步推测黄(鮟)(鱇)产卵时期为2-6月份,繁殖盛期为3-4月份;其绝对繁殖力为(614 820±253 800)粒,相对繁殖力为(244±43)9lg.黄(鮟)(鱇)不同性腺发育阶段的肝脏指数存在显著变化,雌性,F=9.97,P<0.01;雄性,F=4.48,P<0.01,肝脏在该鱼种卵巢发育过程中可能起到了能量供给作用.(鮟)(鱇)类资源对捕捞的承受压力极其脆弱,50%个体初次性成熟全长可作为其资源管理的基础生物学指标.本研究旨在为黄(鮟)(鱇)的种群数量变动研究和渔业管理提供基础资料.%Yellow goosefish (Lophius litulon) is distributed in western Pacific, including East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, Japan and Korean waters. In recent years, as traditional fishery resources recession being serious,yellow goosefish is playing a more and more important role in Chinese fisheries. Presently, it is mainly captured by movable stow net, with an average yearly catch of 1.2 × 104t in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. However, there were few studies on this species, especially on its reproduction biology.The reproduction of yellow goosefish was studied from the data collected between September 2008 and July 2009 in Southern Yellow Sea. A total of 644 specimens were studied. The overall sex ratio was close to one (x2=2.61, P>0.05), but male outnumbered

  19. 石榴皮鞣质对糖尿病大鼠血脂的影响及对肝脏的保护作用%Effects of Tannin in Punica granatum L.on Blood Lipids and Its Protecting Liver Ability in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭红军; 杨林; 罗春华; 张玉红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Tannin in Punica granatum L. on blood lipids and its protecting liver ability in diabeticrats. Methods Diabetic rat models were induced by i. p. injection of streptozotocin (75mg/kg). The diabetic rats were randomly divided into four groups;model group, tannin in punica granatum L. 50, 75, lOOmg/kg treatment Group. The blank control group was composed by normal rats. Serum alanine transaminase( ALT) activity of rats in each group, and glucose (GLU) , triglyceride ( TG) ,total cholesterol TC) ,high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( HDL -C) , low density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( LDL C) levels were studied 21 days after medication administration. Results Compared with model Group, Tannin in punica granatum L. can lower GLU , TG,TC , LDL -C concentration and ALT activity significantly (P <0. 05 ,P <0. 01) , increase HDL - C levels (P < 0.05 ,P <0. 01). Conclusion Tannin in punica granatum L. has the function of good protection in liver of diabetic rats, It can lower blood glucose and regulate blood lipids.%目的 初步观察石榴皮鞣质对糖尿病大鼠血脂的影响及肝脏的保护作用.方法 采用腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(75mg/kg)的方法建立糖尿病大鼠模型,将成模大鼠随机分为4组:模型组、石榴皮鞣质低、中、高剂量组,另取正常大鼠作为空白对照组.连续给药21天后,观察石榴皮鞣质对血糖血脂和肝功能的影响.结果 与模型组比较,石榴皮鞣质可显著降低GLU、TG、TC、LDL-C浓度、ALT活性(P <0.05,P<0.01),提高HDL-C浓度(P <0.05,P<0.01).结论 石榴皮鞣质对糖尿病大鼠的肝脏具有保护作用,可降低血糖调节血脂.

  20. 水飞蓟素对内皮祖细胞增殖、迁移功能的影响研究%Impact of silymarin on proliferation and migration function of endothelial progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 乔昆; 任雨笙; 梁春; 冷冰; 吴宗贵

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过体外培养、鉴定内皮祖细胞(EPCs),进一步研究水飞蓟素对 EPCs活性和功能的影响,为进一步优化EPCs治疗缺血性疾病提供重要的理论依据。方法通过密度梯度离心法分离、培养、鉴定得到EPCs;在EPCs中加入不同浓度(0、25、50、100μg/m L )水飞蓟素干预24 h后,检测细胞增殖、迁移和凋亡水平。结果与对照组比较,水飞蓟素干预24 h后,50~100μg/mL的水飞蓟素可明显增加EPCs的增殖和迁移能力(n=6,P<0.05),25~100μg/mL的水飞蓟素可明显抑制EPCs的凋亡(n=6,P<0.05),并呈浓度依赖性。结论水飞蓟素可呈浓度依赖性增强EPCs的活性和功能。%Objective Through culturing and identifying endothetial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro ,to study the impact of sily-marin on EPCs proliferation ,migration and apoptosis to proride the important theoretical basis for further optimizing the therapeutic effect of EPCs in treating ischemic diseases .Methods Peripheral blood was collected from human volunteer .Mononuclear cells (MNCs)were separated by density centrifugation and were induced to differentiate into EPCs in vitro .After the silymarin interven-tion with different concentrations(0 ,25 ,50 ,100 μg/mL)(50-100 μg/mL) for 24 h and the proliferation ,migration and apoptosis levels of EPCs were detected .Results Compared with the control group ,silymarin on EPCs could significantly enhance the prolifer-ation and migration ability of EPCs(n=6 ,P<0 .05) ,silymarin with the concentration of 25-100 μg/mL could significantly inhibit the apoptosis of EPCs in a concentration dependent manner (n=6 ,P<0 .05) .Conclusion Silymarin can enhance the activily and function EPCs in a concentration dependent manner .

  1. Preparation and evaluation of the cytotoxic nature of TiO2 nanoparticles by direct contact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellappa M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available M Chellappa,1 U Anjaneyulu,1 Geetha Manivasagam,2 U Vijayalakshmi1 1School of Advanced Sciences, Materials Chemistry Division, 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The purpose of this study is to prepare and evaluate the effect of synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles for their biocompatibility on physiological body fluids and the effect of cell toxicity to produce osteointegration when used as implantable materials. For the past few decades, the number of researches done to understand the importance of the biocompatibility of bioceramics, metals, and polymers and their effect on clinical settings of biomedical devices has increased. Hence, the total concept of biocompatibility encourages researchers to actively engage in the investigation of the most compatible materials in living systems by analyzing them using suitable physical, chemical, and biological (bioassay methods. The ceramic material nano TiO2 was prepared by sol-gel method and analyzed for its functional group and phase formation by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the particle size, shape, surface topography, and morphological behavior were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and transmission electron microscopy analysis. In addition to this, the cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility were determined on MG63 cell lines with varying doses of concentrations such as 1 µg/mL, 10 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, and 100 µg/mL with different time periods such as 24 hours and 48 hours. The results have not shown any toxicity, whereas, it improved the cell viability/proliferation at various concentrations. Hence, these findings indicate that the nano TiO2 material acts as a good implantable material when used in the biomedical field as a

  2. Health care provider experience with canagliflozin in real-world clinical practice: favorability, treatment patterns, and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolge SC

    2017-06-01

    quality of life (QoL; 50%–53% with canagliflozin treatment. No differences were observed across provider type for confidence, good candidate characteristics, or patient outcomes.Conclusion: Health care providers reported favorable experiences with canagliflozin and witnessed improvements in patients’ clinical outcomes and QoL. Keywords: diabetes, SGLT2-inhibitors, management goals, real-world evidence, prescribing experience

  3. Impacto de técnicas innovadoras aplicadas a la cadena agroalimentaria espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. para optimizar el posicionamiento en diferentes mercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Zubiría

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. es un producto delicado cuyo destino son segmentos de mercados muy exigentes en la presentación y cada vez más proclives a la adquisición de productos IV Gama, presentados en bandeja y listos para consumir. Actualmente, existen técnicas innovadoras de manejo productivo (empleo de plantines y manejo poscosecha (empleo de bandejas. Con el objetivo de estudiar el impacto sobre el rendimiento de densidades (D1: 35.714; D2: 23.810 y D3: 17.857 pl/ha, tamaños de plantines PG:celda grande (70 cm E3, PM:celda mediana (50 cm E3 y PP:celda pequeña (20 cm E3 y la pérdida de peso fresco durante la poscosecha de turiones de distintos calibres (Large L, Medium M y Small S acondicionados en bandejas con (CF y sin film (SF, se realizó un ensayo, en la Facultad de Agronomía, UNCPBA, en donde se evaluaron las variables: productividad neta comercial (PNCH (kg/ha; por cosecha (PNCC (kg/cosecha; Nº de turiones (NT y peso promedio por turión (PPT. PNCH fue 1º año: 8012,6 kg/ha; 2º año: 4468,86 kg/ha (p < 0,05, mientras que PG:5.757, PM:6.213 y PP:6.688 kg/ha. El PPT de PG:10,46; PM:9,86 y PP:10,77 g/turión. D1 produjo 1069,14 kg/ha más y la mayor cantidad de turiones/ha (648,033. El peso fresco de los turiones acondicionados CF resultó estadísticamente superior (p < 0,05, obteniéndose en promedio 13,0 y para SF 10,45 g/turión. Respecto de los calibres los mayores perdieron menos peso (CF-L:5; CF-M:5; CF-S:9,1 %; SF-L:26; SF-M:35; SF-S: 36,36 %. Solo se conservaron características organolépticas en CF; L:50, M:28,57 y S:14,28 %. Por lo expuesto convendría utilizar D1 y el empleo de bandejas para su acondicionamiento.

  4. Factors driving mortality and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92 000 conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Ignacio; Dawes, Melissa A; Rixen, Christian; Senn, Josef; Bebi, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between environmental factors contributing to treeline formation and how these factors influence different life stages remains a major research challenge. We used an afforestation experiment including 92 000 trees to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of tree mortality and growth at treeline in the Swiss Alps. Seedlings of three high-elevation conifer species (Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra) were systematically planted along an altitudinal gradient at and above the current treeline (2075 to 2230 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) in 1975 and closely monitored during the following 30 years. We used decision-tree models and generalized additive models to identify patterns in mortality and growth along gradients in elevation, snow duration, wind speed, and solar radiation, and to quantify interactions between the different variables. For all three species, snowmelt date was always the most important environmental factor influencing mortality, and elevation was always the most important factor for growth over the entire period studied. Individuals of all species survived at the highest point of the afforestation for more than 30 years, although mortality was greater above 2160 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the current treeline. Optimal conditions for height growth differed from those for survival in all three species: early snowmelt (ca. day of year 125-140 [where day 1 is 1 January]) yielded lowest mortality rates, but relatively later snowmelt (ca. day 145-150) yielded highest growth rates. Although snowmelt and elevation were important throughout all life stages of the trees, the importance of radiation decreased over time and that of wind speed increased. Our findings provide experimental evidence that tree survival and height growth require different environmental conditions and that even small changes in the duration of snow cover, in addition to changes in temperature, can strongly impact tree survival and

  5. A study of the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum using micronuclei in Vicia faba root-tip test technique%用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术研究发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋梅兰

    2001-01-01

    To explore the genetic toxicological action in germinated Solanum tuberosum, an experiment on the micronucleus frequence of maceration extract of germinated Solanum tuberosum had been carried out with the micronucleus test technique of Vicia faba root-tip cell. The results showed that when the concentrations of maceration extract are 25 g/L, 50 g/L, 100 g/L and 200 g/L, the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell was 17.21‰, 23.53‰, 29.55‰, 39.40‰ separately. There existed significant differences when compared with negative control, but didn′t cause significant differences as for the non-germinated Solanum tuberosum′s maceration extract with the corresponding concentration to the formation of the micronucleus frequence of Vicia faba root-tip cell when compared with the negative control. Thus,the experiment showed that the formation of micronucleus might be induced greatly by the maceration extract in germination Solanum tuberosum. This technique can be used to test the genetic toxicological action of germinated Solanum tuberosum.%为探讨发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用,用蚕豆根尖细胞微核监测技术对发芽马铃薯浸渍液的微核率进行了测定,结果表明:发芽马铃薯浸渍液的质量浓度为25 g/L、50 g/L、100 g/L、200 g/L时,蚕豆根尖细胞微核率分别为17.21‰、23.53‰、29.55‰、39.40‰,与阴性对照组相比存在显著性差异;相应浓度的未发芽马铃薯浸渍液对蚕豆根尖细胞微核率的形成与阴性对照组相比无显著性差异.实验结果提示发芽马铃薯浸渍液能显著诱发蚕豆根尖细胞微核的形成,利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术可以监测发芽马铃薯的遗传毒理作用.

  6. 环介导恒温扩增法检测肺炎链球菌的研究%Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章白苓; 桂炳东; 徐轶; 宁长秀; 胡龙华; 贾坤茹; 胡晓彦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish loop-mediated isothemal amplification for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae.Methods Amplification of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains was performed using LAMP technologies.Traditional culture,PCR method,and the LAMP method were used to detect 50 cases of clinical specimens.The detection rates by the 3 methods were compared; the specificity and sensitivity were measured.Results Amplification products were obtained from all the cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae; no cross reaction with non-Streptococcus was found.The sensitivity of LAMP detection was 102 CFU/mL.Among 50 clinical specimens,LAMP method checked out 9 positive cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.0%),and 4 positive cases were detected out by culture method (8.0%).Conclusion Compared with traditional culture method,LAMP is of strong specificity,high sensitivity,and is convenient,fast,as well as suitable for Streptococcus pneumoniae detection.%目的 建立环介导恒温扩增(LAMP)检测肺炎链球菌的方法.方法 用LAMP技术扩增肺炎链球菌菌株,并应用50例临床标本采用传统培养法、PCR法、LAMP法进行检测,比较3种方法的检出率,同时检测方法特异性和灵敏度.结果 所测肺炎链球菌均获扩增产物,对其他非肺炎链球菌无交叉反应.LAMP检测灵敏度可达102 CFU/mL.50例临床标本使用LAMP法检出9例肺炎链球菌阳性(18.0%),使用传统培养法检出阳性4例(8.0%).结论 LAMP法较传统培养检测方法特异性强、灵敏度高、操作方便、快速,适合临床标本的肺炎链球菌检测.

  7. Determination of the Content of 1-Bromopropane in Textiles via Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometric Method%气质联用法测定纺织品中1-溴丙烷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宁婷; 连秋燕; 邱丽君; 杨瑜榕

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was established for the determination of 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) in textiles. 1-Bp in textiles was extracted by ultrasound with Acetone, the ultimate solution was analyzed by GC-MS under full-scan and selected-ion monitoring mode and quantiifed by external standard method. The results showed that, in the range of 0.5 mg/L~50.0 mg/L, the calibration curve was linear well with good correlation coefifcients (R>0.999);the detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg and the limit of quantitation was 1.0mg/kg;the average recovery was 82.0%~95.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 3.1%~6.2%at three spiked concentration levels of 1.0, 2.0, 10mg/kg.%本文建立了纺织品中1-溴丙烷的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)检测方法。本方法中样品经丙酮超声提取后,采用气相色谱-质谱联用全扫描和选择离子扫描方式对提取液进行定性定量分析,外标法定量。结果表明:在0.5~50.0 mg/L范围内,方法的线性关系良好,相关系数达0.999以上;方法检测低限为0.5 mg/kg,定量限为1.0 mg/kg;在1.0、2.0和10.0 mg/kg 3个加标水平下,回收率为82.0%~95.0%,相对标准偏差3.1%~6.2%。

  8. Antagonistic effect of curcumin on inorganic arsenic-induced acute liver injuries in mice%姜黄素干预对无机砷暴露小鼠急性肝脏损伤的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 董丹丹; 邢晓越; 李炜; 李冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective Survey the antagonistic effect of curcumin on inorganic arsenic-induced acute liver injuries. Methods Sixty Kunming female mice were divided into 10 groups, 9 groups were exposed different doses of arsenic (10 mg/L, 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L NaAsO2) contained water by drinking freely for 6 weeks, one group only given water. Different dosages of curcumin (200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) were given by gastric perfusion twice a week, then determine the activities of serum ALT and AST, MDA content of liver, GSH content in whole blood and liver, and liver GSH-Px activity. Results Compared with arsenic exposure groups, the risen serum ALT and AST activities of curcumin groups showed significantly decreased (P < 0. 01) , the liver content of MDA was significantly reduced ( P < 0. 01 ) , while the whole blood GSH and liver GSH contents were significantly elevated ( P <0. 01).. Conclusion The results suggested that curcumin has a certain some antagonistic effect on oxidative damage of liver induced by arsenic in mice.%目的 观察姜黄素干预对无机砷暴露所致急性肝脏损伤的拮抗作用.方法 实验小鼠自由饮用不同浓度(10 mg/L、50 mg/L和100 mg/L)亚砷酸钠(NaAsO2)6周,再分别给予姜黄素灌胃干预(200 mg/kg和600 mg/kg,每周2次),分别测定小鼠血清ALT和AST活力,全血和肝脏GSH含量以及肝脏MDA含量.结果 与单纯染毒组小鼠相比,姜黄素干预组血清ALT和AST活力显著下降,全血和肝脏GSH含量显著升高,且肝脏MDA含量显著降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.0l).结论 姜黄素干预对无机砷暴露小鼠的急性肝脏毒性和氧化损伤具有一定的拮抗作用.

  9. Effects of Nerve Growth Factor on Proliferation and DNA Synthesis of Cultured Human Fetal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wensheng Li; Jun Wen; Deyong Jiang; Jianguang Ding

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor(NGF)on proliferation and DNAthesis of cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)cells in vitro.Methods: Primary culture and subculture of human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cellswere established in vitro first. Cultured RPE cells were treated with NGF by variousconcentrations 0μg/L, 50μg/L, 100μg/L, 200μg/L and 300μg/L(final concentration)for 48 hs.After 48 hs, cells proliferation was measured with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)assay method and the amount of DNA was determined by the absorbance at 280nm of nucleic acid & protein analysis.Results: The A values of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300 μg/L NGF was(0. 213 7 ± 0. 23 3),(0. 218 8 ±0. 018 1), (0. 232 2 ±0. 016 4) as compared with(0. 189 7 ±0. 015 2) of Avalue of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, q value was 3.63,4.40, 6. 42 and P value was0. 015, 0. 000, 0. 000(q-test). The DNA concentrations of 100 μg/L, 200 μg/L, 300μg/L and 400 μg/L NGF was (981. 220 4 ± 123.535 7), (1 375. 848 4 ±244. 471 8),(1 658.707 1 ± 176. 938 1), (2 353.086 3 ±609. 906 4) μg/ml as compared with(666. 818 8 ± 141. 330 2) μg/ml of DNA concentration of 0 μg/L NGF respectively, qvalue was 3.63,8.20,11.47,19.46, P value was 0. 024,0. 000,0. 000,0. 000 (q-test).Conclusion: The data suggested that NGF could stimulate the proliferation and DNAsynthesis of cultured of hRPE cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

  10. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions and Application of Pectinase DP100 and DP200 in Apple Juice%果胶酶DP100、DP200的酶解工艺条件及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田子卿; 马玉娟; 邓红; 韩瑞; 郭玉蓉

    2012-01-01

    探讨了advanceenzyme果胶酶DP100、DP200的酶解工艺,并在苹果汁中进行了应用试验,分析了酶解前后苹果汁各项指标的变化。通过正交试验得出果胶酶DP100、DP200的最佳酶解工艺条件分别为酶用量25mL/1000L、酶解时间30min、酶解温度50℃和酶用量35mL/1000L、酶解时间75min、酶解温度50℃;在最佳条件下,酶解处理果汁的透光率分别达到87.9%和93.7%。苹果汁的应用试验表明:经DP100及DP200酶解后的果汁均不合果胶,酶解后果汁透光率提高很大,且DP200处理效果优于DP100。所以,果胶酶DPl00及DP200均对苹果汁加工很有效,是实际可用品质好的酶产品。%The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of the pectinase DP100 and DP200 were studied through LI6(45) orthogonal experiment. Under the optimum conditions, the two enzymes were applied in apple juice. The orthogonal experiment results showed that the optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of pectinase DP100 and DP200 were amount of DP100 25 mL/1 000 L, temperature 50 ℃, time 30 min and amount of DP200 35 mL/1 000 L, 50 ℃ for 75 min, respectively .The transmittance of the apple juice after enzymolysis could get to 87.9% and 93.7%, respectively. The results of application in apple juice indicated that the juice treated with the two pectinases at the optimum conditions separately both had no pectin and the transmittance was improved greatly, DP200 was better than DP100. Therefore, pectinase DP100 and DP200 were very effective for apple juice processing, it could be used in practical production of apple iuice.

  11. 正交实验优化甲氨蝶呤囊泡的制备%Optimizing the preparation of methotrexate niosomes using the orthogonal test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    目的:制备甲氨蝶呤囊泡并通过正交实验优化甲氨蝶呤囊泡的制备工艺,探索最适宜的药物包封条件。方法采用L9(34)正交法优化甲氨蝶呤囊泡对药物包封率的影响因素,以囊泡包封率为考察指标,确定最佳制备工艺条件。结果司盘40(Span40)与胆固醇形成的囊泡(VSpan40∶VCHOL =4∶2),在50℃超声40 min 的条件下,对0.60 g/L 的甲氨蝶呤包封率最高,可达60%以上。结论通过正交实验优化制得的甲氨蝶呤囊泡可获得较高的包封率。%Objective The preparation process of the methotrexate niosomes were optimized by means of orthog-onal experiment to explore the most suitable drug coating conditions.Methods The methotrexate encapsulation rate affecting factors was optimized by an L9 (3 4 )orthogonal test.The niosomes encapsulation rate as evaluation index was used to determine the best preparation program.Results The results showed that the entrapment efficiency of the niosomes prepared under the condition which were as follows:Span40 and cholesterol (VSpan40∶VCHOL)was 2∶1,the dosage of methotrexate,Ultrasonic temperature and time were 0.60g/L,50℃ and 40min,and the entrap-ment rate could reach more than 60%.Conclusion The methotrexate niosomes optimized by orthogonal test had a higher entrapment rate.

  12. Diet and serum lipids: changes over socio-economic transition period in Lithuanian rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriaucioniene Vilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since regaining of independence in 1990, Lithuania has been undergoing substantial political, economic, and social changes that affected the nutrition habits of population. Dietary changes might have impact on the trends of dietary related risk factors of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to compare trends in diet and lipid profile of Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64 during two decades of transition period (1987-2007. Methods Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted within the framework of the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme in five regions of Lithuania in 1987, 1993, 1999, and 2007. For each survey, a stratified independent random sample was drawn from the lists of the inhabitants aged 25-64 years registered at the primary health care centres. Altogether 3127 men and 3857 women participated in the surveys. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Predicted changes of serum cholesterol were calculated by Keys equation. Results The percentage of energy from saturated fatty acids has decreased from 18.0 to 15.1 among men and from 17.6 to 14.8 among women over the period of 20 years. The average share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake increased from 5.3% to 7.1% among men and from 4.9% to 7.3% among women. The mean intake of cholesterol declined among women. Favourable trends in fatty acids composition were caused by increased use of vegetable oil for cooking and replacement of butter spread with margarine. Since 1987, the mean value of total cholesterol has decreased by 0.6 mmol/l. Total dietary effect accounts for a 0.26 mmol/l (43.3% decline in serum cholesterol among men and 0.31 mmol/l (50.8% decline among women. Conclusions Improvement in the quality of fat intake was observed in Lithuanian rural population over two decades of transition period. Positive changes in diet, mainly

  13. Activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in long-term potentiation induced by nicotine in hippocampal CA1 region in rats%在烟碱诱导的大鼠海马CA1区长时程增强形成中p42/44促细胞分裂剂活化的蛋白激酶通路被激活

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷; 陈远宾; 朱小南; 陈汝筑

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究p42/44 MAPK通路在烟碱诱导大鼠海马CA1区长时程增强(LTP)形成中的作用.方法:细 胞外场电位记录离体海马脑片CA1区锥体细胞层群体峰电位;蛋白质印迹检测p42/44 MAPK磷酸化程度及其总蛋白表达.结果:PD98059 25 μmol/L和50 μmol/L呈剂量依赖性抑制烟碱(10 μmol/L)诱导大鼠海马CA1区LTP的形成;在烟碱诱导LTP形成的海马CA1区组织内p42和p44 MAPK磷酸化均明显增强并有p42和p44 MAPK总蛋白表达量的增加.结论:p42/44 MAPK通路参与烟碱诱导大鼠海马CA1区LTP形成的信号转导过程.%AIM: To investigate the relationship between activation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase .(MAPK)pathway and hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP)induced by nicotine in area CA1. METHODS: Extracellular recording of population spike (PS) was performed within the pyramidal cell layer of hippocampal area CAl in vitro; Western blot analysis was employed to detect the active phosphorylated state and the total protein expression of p42/44 MAPK. RESULTS: PD98059concentration-dependently (25 μmol/L, 50 μmol/L) attenuated the induction of LTP induced by nicotine 10 μmol/L; both p42 and p44 MAPK were activated with their total protein expression increasing in CA1 subregion in response to LTP induced by nicotine. CONCLUSION: Activation of p42/44 MAPK pathway is required for hippocampal LTP induced by nicotine.

  14. Genome shuffling combined traditional mutagenesis for improving Streptomyces spectabilis%基因组重排与传统育种相结合选育大观霉素高产菌株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏云重; 裘娟萍; 张正波; 辛波波; 方声

    2011-01-01

    The genome shuffling combined the traditional mutagenesis was applied to improve Streptomyces spectabilis for producing spectinomydn. Firstly the UV-irradiation was adopted to mutate the protoplasm of Streptomyces spectabilis,and then the mutant strains with high specinomycin production were carried to protoplast fusion by twice. The fusant strain BR2-1 was screened out and sent to NTG-induced mutation. The neomycin-resistant strains X40-2, X40-5 and streptomycin-resistant stains L30-1, L50-1 were selected to send to the second genome shuffling from the NTG-treated filial strains. Lastly a fusant strain LXR1H-8 producing spectinomycin as high as 4 405 U/mL was obtained, resistant to both neomycin and streptomycin. The yield of spectinomycin was increased by 486.3% comparing with that of the original strain XZ-4.%以壮观链霉菌(Streptomyces spectabilis)为研究对象,采用基因组重排技术与传统诱变育种相结合的方法选育大观霉素的高产菌株.通过原生质体紫外诱变获得壮观链霉菌突变体群体,高产突变菌株间进行两轮的基因组重排,筛选的高产菌株用NTG诱变得新霉素和链霉素的抗性突变菌株,抗性突变菌株间进行两轮基因组重排,从双抗突变菌株中筛选到一株大观霉素产量为4 405 U/mL的突变菌株LXR1H-8,其产素水平较原始出发菌株提高了486.3%.

  15. In vitro embryo production through modification of time and gonadotropin hormone during oocytes maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Triwulaninngsih

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted at the laboratory of in vitro fertilization of the University of Wisconsin, USA. These embryos can be used for improving genetic value of Indonesian cattle. There is transportation constraint in importing oocytes from USA. It takes more than 24 hours to bring it to Indonesia. In fact, oocytes maturation and ready to be fertilized normally requires only 24 hours in 5% CO2 incubator at 38.5°C. Therefore, this research is needed to study the effect of gonadotropin hormone and time for oocyte maturity and ready to be fertilized at a period more than 24 hours. If this problem could be solved then the importation of oocytes could be cheaper and easier than importation of life animals or embryos. Ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse in Wisconsin. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium in 5% CO2 incubator and at 30°C enriched with FSH 10 μl/ml, oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml and 10 % FCS as control of gonadotropin hormone treatment (A; with FSH 10 μl/ml (B; with oestradiol 17 β 1μl/ml (C and without gonadotropin hormone (D for 24 hours, 30 hours and 36 hours as time of maturation treatment I, II and III respectively. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with motile sperm selection by Percoll gradient and incubation between sperm and oocytes in fertilization media (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in modification of KSOM medium up to blastocyst and were fed serum 5 μl/50 μl medium on day 6. Data were analyzed by SAS program. Percentage of cleavage between time of maturation were significant (p0.05. Percentage of blastocyst between time of maturation were not significant (p>0.05, but between gonadotropin hormone treatment A vs B and A vs C and B vs D and C vs D were significant (p0.05. Percentage of cleavage, morula, blastocyst, expanded blastocyst and unertilized ova on this study are 66.73%, 22.43%, 40.33%, 0.81% and 32.51 for 24 hours incubation (I; 61.55%, 25.69%, 32.69%, 0.54% and 27.61% for 30

  16. 扁柏醇与托酚酮抑菌活性的初步研究%Antibacterial Activity of Hionkitiol and Tropolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周浓林; 于泉林; 武宝悦; 张敏; 赵永强

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of hionkitiol and tropolone against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtlit were determined using filter paper diffusion method. The results showed that all the tested strains were inhibited by hionkitiol and tropolone compounds. The MIC of hionkitiol on E. Coli and B. Subtilis were 300 (μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC of hionkitiol on E. Coli and B. Subtilis were 300 μg/mL. The MIC of tropolone on E. Coli and B. Subtilis were 100 (μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC of tropolone on E. Coli and B. Subtilis were 300 (μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, respectively. According to the antibacterial activety of hionkition and tropolone at different concentration compared, the inhibitory effect of tropolone was better than hionkitiol' s. And the hydroxrl and ketotone group were conjectured as active groups of the two compounds.%采用滤纸片扩散法测定了扁柏醇和托酚酮对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)的抑菌圈直径、最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC).结果表明,扁柏醇和托酚酮均对供试菌种有抑制作用,扁柏醇对大肠杆菌和枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC分别为300和100 μg/mL,MBC均为300μg/mL;托酚酮对大肠杆菌和枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC分别为100和50 μg/mL,MBC分别为300和100μg/mL.通过不同浓度的扁柏醇和托酚酮对供试菌的抑制作用比较,推测其活性基团为羟基和酮基.

  17. Accumulation of antibiotics and heavy metals in meat duck deep litter and their role in persistence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in different flocks on one duck farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Zhao, W; Shi, Z D; Gu, H R; Zhang, X T; Ji, X; Zou, X T; Gong, J S; Yao, W

    2016-10-14

    Meat duck deep litter is considered to be an ideal environment for the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance if it is under poor management. The aim of this study was to characterize the accumulation of antibiotics and heavy metals in the deep litter and their role in the persistence of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli, and evaluate the service life of the deep litter. Samples were collected from initial, middle, and final stages of deep litter within 3 barns (zero, 4, and 8 rounds of meat duck fattening, d 34) and 9 flocks, with known consumption of antibiotics in the controlled trail. The feed and litter levels of consumed antibiotics and heavy metals were measured. E. coli (n = 147) was isolated and typed by Eric-PCR and the phylogenetic grouping technique, while minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and heavy metals were measured. This study confirmed the continuous accumulation of doxycycline and many heavy metals in the deep litter. The population of resistant certain bacteria to doxycycline (16 mg/L, 100 mg/L) or ofloxacin (8 g/mL, 50 g/mL) increased in the used deep litter (rounds 4 and 8). E. coli isolated from the 3 stages of sampling were highly resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, florfenicol, and doxycycline. Increased resistance to ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, and gentamicin were seen in the isolates from the final stage of deep litter. In addition, the percentage of isolates tolerant to zinc, copper, and cadmium and the numbers of Group-B2 isolates all increased in the used deep litter, and the isolates of each stage belonged predominantly to commensal groups. The antibiotic resistance of isolates with identical Eric-PCR patterns had improved from round 4 to 8, and differences still existed in the resistance profiles of isolates with identical Eric-PCR patterns from different barns of the same round. This study concluded that deep litter could be suitable for the evolution of bacterial antibiotic

  18. Constraining Black Carbon Aerosol over Asia using OMI Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth and the Adjoint of GEOS-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Henze, David K.; Grell, Georg A.; Carmichael. Gregory R.; Bousserez, Nicolas; Zhang, Qiang; Torres, Omar; Ahn, Changwoo; Lu, Zifeng; Cao, Junji; Mao, Yuhao

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the emissions and distribution of black carbon (BC) in the region referred to here as Southeastern Asia (70degE-l50degE, 11degS-55degN) are critical to studies of the atmospheric environment and climate change. Analysis of modeled BC concentrations compared to in situ observations indicates levels are underestimated over most of Southeast Asia when using any of four different emission inventories. We thus attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Overwhelming enhancements, up to 500%, in anthropogenic BC emissions are shown after optimization over broad areas of Southeast Asia in April. In October, the optimization of anthropogenic emissions yields a slight reduction (1-5%) over India and parts of southern China, while emissions increase by 10-50% over eastern China. Observational data from in situ measurements and AERONET observations are used to evaluate the BC inversions and assess the bias between OMI and AERONET AAOD. Low biases in BC concentrations are improved or corrected in most eastern and central sites over China after optimization, while the constrained model still underestimates concentrations in Indian sites in both April and October, possibly as a. consequence of low prior emissions. Model resolution errors may contribute up to a factor of 2.5 to the underestimate of surface BC concentrations over northern India. We also compare the optimized results using different anthropogenic emission inventories and discuss the sensitivity of top-down constraints on anthropogenic emissions with respect to biomass burning emissions. In addition, the impacts of brown carbon, the formulation of the observation operator, and different a priori constraints on the optimization are

  19. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia amongst a group of women attending "August" meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C U Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease while obesity is a leading determinant for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia amongst a group of women attending "August" meeting. Methods: A total of 186 women attending the 2006 "August" meeting at Naze, Owerri North Local Government Area, Imo State, were recruited into the study but only 183 had complete data. The Blood Pressure (BP was measured using a Standard Mercury Sphygmomanometer with appropriate cuff size. BMI was calculated as weight (in kilograms divided by height (in meters squared. Based on the WHO classification overweight was defined as BMI between 25 and 29.9kg/m 2 , and obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30kg/m 2 . Total serum cholesterol was determined by the method of Trinder 1969, triglycerides by the method of Jacobs and van Demark 1960 while LDL-C and HDL-C were determined by the method of Assmann, Jabs Kohnert et al 1984. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as total cholesterol 6.20mmol/L (240mg/dl, reduced HDL less than 1.29mmol/L (50mg/ dl, Hypertriglyceridemia as triglycerides greater than 1.7mmol/ L (150mg/dl. Result:The mean age is 54.84yrs ± 10.76, the mean BMI 26.47 ± 4.50, mean SBP 132.38mmHg ± 21.94, mean DBP 77.07mmHg ± 12.25, mean TC 5.29 mmol/L ± 1.76, mean HDL 1.14mmol/L ± 0.83, mean LDL 1.39mmol/L ± 0.63, mean TG 1.49mmol/L ± 0.63. The prevalence of overweight was 38.5%, obesity 20.7%, hypertriglyceridemia 34.1%, hypercholesterolemia 31.4%, low HDL 37.6%, hypertension 44.3% and dyslipidemia 60.5%. BMI correlated with DBP r =.290, P < .000; TC r = .246, P < .001; LDL r = .172, P = .024 but did not correlate with age SBP, TG and HDL. Age correlated with SBP r =.321, P < .000 and LDL r =.163, P =.031. TC correlated with SBP r =.370, P < .000, DBP r = .274, P < .000, TG r = .441, P < .000 LDL r = .757, P < .000 but did not

  20. Effects of Chitosan on Clarification of Grape Fruit Juice%壳聚糖对葡萄汁的澄清作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崑; 高婷婷; 杨柳

    2011-01-01

    旨在研究壳聚糖对葡萄汁澄清的效果.通过单因素实验可知,壳聚糖添加量0.6~0.8g/L,澄清温度为50~70℃,pH值为3.49,澄清时间为40~60 min时,对葡萄汁澄清效果较好,正交实验对壳聚糖澄清葡萄汁适宜工艺:壳聚糖添加量0.8g/L,葡萄汁澄清温度为60℃,澄清时间为50 min,pH选择葡萄汁的自然pH值3.49,其透光率可达92.3%.与原相比葡萄汁可溶性固形物含量、pH值基本不变,果胶和蛋白质大量清除,提高了葡萄果汁的稳定性.%The clarification of grape juice by means of chitosan was studied. The results from the test of single factor showed that the optimum chitosan amount, temperature, pH and clarification time was 0.6 ~ 0.8 g/L,50 ~ 70℃,3.49 and 40 ~ 60min respectively for clarification of grape juice. The results from the orthogonal test showed that the optimum technological condition for clarification of grape juice was adding 0.8 g/L chitosan at 60℃ for 50min and its transmittance of the clarified grape juice was up to 92.3% o Comparing with the original grape juice,the contents of soluble solids, pH were almost the same after clarification. Removing both the pectin and some proteins improved the stability of grape juice.

  1. 气相色谱-质谱法检测减肥食品中芬氟拉明和西布曲明%Quantification of Sibutramine and Fenfluramine in Slimming Foods by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志鑫; 吴惠勤; 黄晓兰; 林晓珊; 黄芳

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the determinination of sibutramine and fenfluramine in slimming foods by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitor (GC-MS/SM) was established in this paper. The sample was extracted by ethanol, then the chromatographic separation was performed on a HP-5 MS capillary column. The conditions of GC-MS were optimized, and the selected ions were m/z 72, 114 and 159. Qualitative assessment was conducted using both retention time and mass spectrum which the complex matrix disturbance in slimming foods sample could avoided.Quantitative assertion was achieved using base peak m/z 114 and 72, respectively. Good linear was acquired within the range of 0.1 mg/L~50 mg/L, while and recovery rate at three spike levers (low, medium and high) were between 93.8% and 97.6%. The limit of detection was 1.0 mg/kg.The method was proved to be simple and accurate, and could be applied to the determination of sibutramine and fenfluramine in slimming foods flavor with satisfactory results.%采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析技术,选择离子检测法(SIM),建立了减肥食品中芬氟拉明和西布曲明的测定方法.样品经乙醇超声提取,用HP-5 MS石英毛细管柱分离,选择m/z 72、114和159用于SIM检测,并根据提取离子色谱图的峰面积比进行目标物确证,实现了色谱保留时间、质谱特征离子同时定性,消除了减肥食品中复杂基体的干扰,避免了假阳性结果的出现.西布曲明和芬氟拉明在0.1 mg/L~50 mg/L浓度范围内与峰面积之间线性关系良好,在低、中、高3个添加水平范围内的平均回收率为93.8%~97.6%,检测限可以达到1.0mg/kg,可用于减肥食品中非法添加芬氟拉明和西布曲明的检测.

  2. Determination of lead in tea leaf by Microwave digestion HG -AFS%微波消解-氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法测茶叶中铅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine lead level in tea leaf by microwave digestion - Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Methods: The test samples were treated with microwave digestion. Then under hydro-chloric acid medium, hydride was generated by reaction of digested samples and potassium borohydride to get atomic lead. Results: The samples were digested completely. The recovery of the method was 88% ~ 107% , the detection limits of the instrument and the method were 0. 29 μg/L and 0. 15 μg/L respectively, the linear range was 0 μg/L -50 μg/L (r >0. 999) , and the RSD was 0. 97% ~3.6% . Conclusion: The method had the advantages of sim-pleness, stability, harmlessness, high sensitivity and low detection limit, without tall order for instruments and staff, only a single - channel or dual - channel atomic fluorescence spectrometer was available.%目的:建立茶叶中铅含量的微波消解-氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法.方法:试样采用微波消解技术消解,研究了在盐酸介质下与硼氢化钾生成氢化物在电热原子化器中产生荧光光谱的行为,并对各种分析条件进行优化和探讨.结果:样品消解完全彻底,加铅标准10μg/L,回收率88%~107%,仪器检出限为0.29 μg/L,方法检出限为0.15μg/g,线性范围为0μg/L~ 50 μg/L,r>0.999,RSD为0.97%~3.6%.结论:本法简便、稳定、危害小、灵敏度高、检出限低,对仪器、人员均无过高要求,只需一台单道或双道原子荧光光度计即可.

  3. 植物生长调节剂对土人参种子发芽的影响%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Seed Germination of Talinm paniculatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊彦; 丁妮妮; 杜曼霞; 黄俊华; 杨素娜; 杨秋婷

    2012-01-01

    探讨了6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)、吲哚乙酸(IAA)、萘乙酸(NAA)、吲哚丁酸(IBA)等植物生长调节剂对土人参种子萌发及幼苗早期生长的影响.结果表明:不同植物生长调节剂对土人参种子发芽和幼苗生长的影响不同,同一植物生长调节剂的浓度不同其影响也不同.与ck对比,6-BA促进土人参种子发芽与幼苗生长的最佳浓度为2 mg/L; IAA、NAA和IBA的最佳浓度分别为50、100、50 mg/L.其中,2 mg/L的6-BA对土人参种子发芽的促进效果最好;50 mg/L的IAA促进土人参幼苗生长的效果最明显.%Effects of plant growth regulator on both Talinm paniculatum seed germination and its seedling growth at the early phase were examined. Talinm paniculatum were treated with different concentration of 6-g amino purine (6-BA) ,naphthyl acetic acid (IAA) ,indoles acetic acid (NAA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA) in a series of experiments. The results showed that different plant growth regulator and even different concentration of the same kind have different influences on Talinm paniculatum seed germination and its seedling growth. Compared with ck,the optimal concentration for 6-BA,IAA,NAA and IBA to promote the seed germination of Talinm paniculatum and its seedling growth are respectively 2 mg/L,50,100 mg/L and 50 mg/L. Above all,6-BA of 2 mg/L has best effect for promotion of the germination of Talinm paniculatum while IAA of 50 mg/L facilitates its seedling growth most evidently.

  4. Effects of extracts of "seven-white ointment" on human melanocytes activity in vitro%七白膏方剂中药提取物对离体人黑素细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮莹; 宾向玲; 蔡绍先; 佘白蓉; 徐丹丹; 刘少辉; 何江; 蔡尔慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of extracts of components of "seven - white ointment" on metabolism of human melanocytes. Method: The human epidermal melanocytes were isolated, purified to establish human epidermal melanocyte model in vitro. The ingredients of seven kinds of herbs were extracted by alcohol respectively. Arbutin was used as positive control. The effects of the extracts of "seven - white ointment" on proliferation and tyrpsinase activity as well as melanogenesis of human melanocyte were tested at concentration of 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL for each of the seven herbs, respectively. Results: Proliferation of melanocyte and the activity of tyrosinase were inhibited by low concentration (25 μg/mL) of Dahurian Angelica ( Ps < 0.05), but were induced at high concentration (100 μg/mL). The rest herb extracts inhibited proliferation of melanocyte and activity of tyrosinase. Melanin synthesis was inhibited by different concentration of the herbs. Conclusion: Different extracts of the herbs may influence the metabolism of melanocytes by regulating proliferation of melanocyte, inhibiting activity of tyrosinase and reducing melanogenesis in vitro.%目的:评价七白膏方剂中的药物对离体培养人黑素细胞的作用.方法:建立体外人表皮黑素细胞模型.醇提法提取各种中药活性成分.以熊果苷为实验对照,检测各种中药提取液对于离体培养人黑素细胞增殖、酪氨酸酶活性及黑素合成的干预作用.结果:低浓度白芷对黑素细胞增殖呈抑制作用(P<0.05),但高浓度时略呈激活作用.其它中药对黑素细胞增殖和酪氨酸酶活性有抑制作用.不同中药提取液对于黑素合成抑制作用不同.结论:各种中药提取液可影响黑素细胞增殖、酪氨酸酶活性和黑素合成,从而干预体外人黑素细胞的代谢.

  5. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  6. Pathological changes of mouse periodontal tissues following photodynamic therapy%光动力学照射小鼠牙周组织的病理变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜波; 蒋琳; 刘明方; 李苹苹; 林居红

    2011-01-01

    背景:光化学疗法对口腔组织可能具有伤害,在临床应用甲苯胺蓝O介导的光动力学疗法预防龋病前,需进行生物安全性评估.目的:观察甲苯胺蓝介导的光动力学疗法产生的光敏作用对小鼠牙周组织健康的影响.方法:将54只小鼠随机分为9组,分别用0,50,100 mg/L 甲苯胺蓝O联合二极管光照0,15,25 min.作用后72 h,切取牙周组织切片观察.结果与结论:经光照治疗后小鼠的牙龈、牙槽骨和牙齿没有发现有坏死、溃疡、增生等异常改变.提示甲苯胺蓝介导的光动力学疗法一个安全的预防龋病的方法,对牙齿临近的牙周组织无破坏性影响.%BACKGROUND:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may have bad effects on oral cavity tissue, so the biological safety evaluation is necessary before Toluidine blue O (TBO)-mediated PDT of dentine caries in clinic.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effects of photosensitization of the TBO-mediated PDT to periodontal tissues in mice.METHODS:Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into nine groups, and were respectively treated with 0 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L TBO with 0, 15, 25min LED illumination. Periodontal tissue slices were taken to observation after treatment of 72 hours.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There were no abnormal changes like necrosis, ulcer or hyperplasia happens in the mice gingival,alveolar bone or teeth after light treatment. This indicated that TBO-mediated PDT was safe to the prevention of dental caries,without damaging effect to periodontal tissues adjacent to the teeth.

  7. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO, TOXICOLÓGICO E MICROBIOLÓGICO DAS FOLHAS DE Costus spicatus Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paulo Ribeiro Bitencourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Costus spicatus Jacq. (cana-do-brejo, espécie pertencente à família Zingiberaceae, é utilizada na medicina popular, principalmente na região amazônica como depurativa e diurética, aliviando infecções urinárias e auxiliando na eliminação de pedras renais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar o estudo fitoquímico em busca das principais classes de metabólitos secundários, atividade microbiológica e citotóxica frente a Artemia salina do extrato bruto etanóico das folhas de Costus spicatus. O teste fitoquímico foi realizado por métodos químicos, visando determinar os seguintes metabólitos: alcalóides, fenóis e taninos, flavonóides, antraquinonas, saponinas, triterpenos, açucares redutores, polissacarídeos, ácidos orgânicos e esteróides. Quanto ao bioensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado o teste com Artemia salina, onde se considerou a morte ou vida dos metanáuplios. O teste microbiológico foi utilizado a prática de difusão em disco com linhagens bacterianas padronizadas em concentrações de 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL e 100μg/mL do extrato bruto etanólico. Nessa perspectiva, foi possível observar a presença de alcaloides, e também, fenóis e taninos. O extrato bruto apresentou alto grau de toxicidade nas concentrações A. salina. Para avaliar a presença da atividade antimicrobiana foram medidos os halos de inibição do extrato, verificando que após 24h de incubação não houve formação significativa dos halos, onde foi possível determinar que não há efeito inibidor do extrato frente às linhagens bacterianas e nas concentrações utilizadas. Palavras-chave: Costus spicatus, screening fitoquímico, bioensaio de toxicidade, Artemia salina, ensaio microbiológico. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p75-79

  8. Treatment and control of bovine sarcoptic and psoroptic mange infestation with ivermectin long-acting injectable (IVOMEC(®) GOLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Joachim, Anja; Löwenstein, Michael; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Yoon, Stephen; Cramer, Luiz; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI, IVOMEC® GOLD, Merial; 3.15 % ivermectin w/v) formulation was evaluated in cattle with induced Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis or Psoroptes ovis infestations. A total of 64 cattle were included in this series of four studies, with 16 animals per study. Approximately, 8 weeks following initial induced mite infestation, cattle were allocated to treatment groups based on decreasing pre-treatment bodyweights. Treatments (saline (control) or IVM LAI (630 mcg ivermectin/kg bodyweight) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight) were administered by a single subcutaneous injection in front of the right shoulder on Day 0. Skin scrapings were collected prior to treatment and at approximately weekly intervals for 8 weeks thereafter to establish live mite counts. Character and extent of skin lesions were evaluated at each sampling. Animals were weighed before treatment and at the end of the studies. Mite counts of the IVM LAI-treated animals were significantly (p studies at all occasions post-treatment. In the two Sarcoptes studies, IVM LAI-treated cattle were free of mites at 14 days after treatment and in the Psoroptes studies at 13 or 28 days post-treatment. All IVM LAI-treated cattle remained free of mites to the end of the studies while all control animals remained infested. Mange lesions of the IVM LAI-treated animals improved significantly (p studies) and from Days 28 or 34 (Psoroptes studies). In all studies, mean weight gain over the 8 week post-treatment period was significantly (p studies, 64.1 and 68.6 kg vs. 46.9 and 48.6 kg, respectively; Psoroptes studies, 43.0 and 43.4 kg vs. 20.8 and 34.9 kg, respectively. All animals accepted the treatment well, and no treatment-related health problems and adverse events were observed throughout the studies. These studies demonstrated the high efficacy of IVOMEC® GOLD against sarcoptic and psoroptic mange in cattle.

  9. 热者寒之细胞中药学初探%Exploring cytological effect of Chinese material medica by treating hot syndrome with cold drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王征; 张宁; 王翠玲; 刘竹兰; 刘建利

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether the traditional therapeutic rule“to treat hot syndrome with cold drugs”can ap-ply to the hot syndrome cell model which was established with hot drugs. Methods Five hot herbal drugs white Peper (50 μg / mL),Piper longum L.(50 μg / mL),Alpinia officinarum Hance(100 μg / mL),Evodia rutaecarpa(Juss. ) Benth(10 μg / mL)and Cinnamomum cassia presl.(20 μg / mL)were used to treat the cell to induce hot model. Then three cold herbal drugs Coptis Chinensis Franch,Povygonum cuspidatum sieb,et. Zucc and Cynanchum atratum Bge. 5- 800 μg / mL were used to reverse models. Result Three cold herbal drugs could completely cure the hot syndrome and the results were in accordance with that obtained on animal model. Conclusion The traditional therapeutic rule“to treat hot symptom with cold drug”can apply on cell model.%目的:用热药造热证细胞模型,研究“热者寒之”的基本治则对于细胞来说是否适用。方法分别用白胡椒50μg / mL、荜菝50μg / mL、高良姜100μg / mL、吴茱萸10μg / mL、肉桂20μg / mL 进行造模,再以黄连、虎杖、白薇3味寒药分5~800μg / mL 8个浓度梯度分别进行逆转。结果黄连、虎杖和白薇对5种热药所造模型可以完全逆转,这与动物实验结果一致。结论“热者寒之”这一中医基本治则在细胞水平上是适用的,并将丰富细胞中药学的内容。

  10. DSPE- HPLC- MS法测定水产品中的三聚氰胺%Determination of melamine in aquatic products by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with dispersive solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉秀; 黄和; 廖建萌; 黄国方; 谢丽玲; 罗林

    2012-01-01

    A method for determination of melamine in aquatic products was established by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC ?MS). Samples were extracted with Methanol, in pH 4. 5 by buffer solution of ammonium, and then cleaned with dispersive solid phase extraction. After extracted and separated on a Thermo Fisher Hypersil Gold C18 (150 mm X 2.1 mm, 5祄), the analytes were detected by HPLC桵S with the selected reaction monitoringt SRM) mode. The calibration curves of melamine were linear in the range of 5 ng/mL~50 ng/mL form, the linear e-quation was Y = 8 958.7 X ? 327.8, the correlation coefficient was 0. 999 6, the limit of quantization was 0. 01 mg/kg, and the average recovery was in the range of 82.8% ~ 100.4%. RSCX5. 0%.%建立分散固相萃取-高效液相色谱质谱联用法测定水产品中三聚氰胺的方法.样品用甲醇、pH4.5的乙酸铵缓冲溶液提取,分散固相萃取净化.经Thermo Fisher Hypersil Gold C18柱(150 mm×2.1 mm,5 μm)分离,选择反应监测(SRM)正离子模式测定.结果表明,三聚氰胺含量为5~50 ng/mL时线性关系良好,其线性方程为y=8 958.7X-3 327.8,相关系数R2=0.999 6,检出限为0.01 mg/kg,平均回收率在82.8%~100.4%,RSD均小于5.0%.

  11. Nuke-sparing regimens as a main simplification strategy and high level of toxicity resolution after antiretroviral switch: the SWITCHART Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carrero-Gras

    2014-11-01

    Eighty patients switched to a simpler regimen (median age 48 [40–53], mean CD4 count 608±265 cells/cl, 89% <50 copies/ml, mean number of previous regimens 6±5, mean time on previous ART 3±2 years. In this case, previous ART mostly included 2NRTI+1PI/r (54% (Figure 1. The simplification strategy mainly contained nuke-sparing regimens (60% based on PI (DRV/r 48%: monotherapy 46%, dual therapy 13% (PI/r+maraviroc 9%, PI/r+NNRTI 4% and triple therapy 1% (PI/r+maraviroc+raltegravir. The second preferred simplification option was 2NRTI+1NNRTI (24%. Seventy-seven patients switched due to toxicities (median age 47 [43–53], mean CD4 count 606±350 cells/μl, <50 copies/ml 82%, mean number of previous regimens 4±3, mean time on previous ART 3±3 years. Renal (25% and CNS (18% toxicities were the main reasons for ART switch, followed by diarrhoea (16%, liver enzyme elevation (ALT 10%; AST 9%; bilirubin 7%, lipid elevation (cholesterol 5%; triglycerides 8%, nausea (7% and other (=5% (Figure 2. All patients with renal toxicity were under TDF and in most cases this drug was removed from the new regimen (with 3TC/ABC or nuke-sparing. Among patients with CNS toxicity, 79% were taking EFV; the main new treatment was a second-generation NNRTI (ETR+2NRTI. Toxicities were completely resolved in 66% of patients, partially resolved in 22% and not resolved in only 12%; the median time from ART switch to toxicity resolution was 4 (2–8 months. Conclusions: The main reasons for ART switch in daily practice are simplification and toxicities, renal and CNS toxicities being the most prevalent. The preferred simplification strategies are nuke-sparing regimens, mainly DRV/r-based monotherapy and dual therapy. ART switch leads to a complete resolution of toxicities in most cases in the short term.

  12. A Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin-producing Fungus Using an Optimized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, Anong; Treebonmuang, Supitchaya; Srisakwattana, Kitiya; Nuanchun, Wisut; Patthanachai, Koranis; Usawang, Sungworn

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced by Aspergillus flavus growing in feedstuffs. Early detection of maize contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi is advantageous since aflatoxins exert adverse health effects. In this study, we report the development of an optimized conventional PCR for AFB1 detection and a rapid, sensitive and simple screening Real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green and two pairs of primers targeting the aflR genes which involved aflatoxin biosynthesis. AFB1 contaminated maize samples were divided into three groups by the toxin concentration. Genomic DNA was extracted from those samples. The target genes for A. flavus were tested by conventional PCR and the PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis. A conventional PCR was carried out as nested PCR to verify the gene amplicon sizes. PCR-RFLP patterns, obtained with Hinc II and Pvu II enzyme analysis showed the differences to distinguish aflatoxin-producing fungi. However, they are not quantitative and need a separation of the products on gel and their visualization under UV light. On the other hand, qPCR facilitates the monitoring of the reaction as it progresses. It does not require post-PCR handling, which reduces the risk of cross-contamination and handling errors. It results in a much faster throughout. We found that the optimal primer annealing temperature was 65°C. The optimized template and primer concentration were 1.5 μL (50 ng/μL) and 3 μL (10 μM/μL) respectively. SYBR Green qPCR of four genes demonstrated amplification curves and melting peaks for tub1, afIM, afIR, and afID genes are at 88.0°C, 87.5°C, 83.5°C, and 89.5°C respectively. Consequently, it was found that the four primers had elevated annealing temperatures, nevertheless it is desirable since it enhances the DNA binding specificity of the dye. New qPCR protocol could be employed for the determination of aflatoxin content in feedstuff samples.

  13. 高压电场对钠钙硅酸盐玻璃风化性能的影响%Influences of the Imposed High Voltage Electric Field on the Weathering Properties of Soda-lime Silicate Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪成; 刘启明

    2009-01-01

    The soda-lime silicate float gIass is imposed to high voltage electrostatic field at the annealing temperature range of the ghss.The in fluences of the leakage current intensity,processing temperature and time on the ehnical stabilityofgLassan.der high-voltage electrostatic field are researched.The use of chemical titration analysis tested alkali of glass surface to research the hydrolytic resistance of glass.The glass samples accelerated weathering tests are carried out using constant temperature and humidity chamber,and the glass microscope morphology after weathering is observed by metallographic microscope XJZ-6.The experimental results show that when leakage current strength is lower than l50μA/cm~2,with increase of the high voltage elec trostatic field,the chemical stability(hydrolytic resistance)of the glass surface near the cahode surface(air side)increases,and litde change is found in that of the side(tin permeability surface).%在玻璃退火温度范围内,对钠钙硅酸盐平板玻璃施加高压电场.研究了高压电场下处理温度、时间、电场强度及泄露电流对玻璃化学稳定性的影响.利用化学滴定法测试了玻璃表面析碱量,研究了玻璃的耐水性.利用恒温恒湿箱进行了加速风化实验,采用XJZ-6型金相显微镜观察玻璃样品风化后的形貌.实验表明,泄露电流强度不大于150 μA/cm~2,高压电场提高正极附近玻璃表面(空气面)的化学稳定性,同时负极附近玻璃表面(渗锡面)的化学稳定性变化不大.

  14. Biología reproductiva del pargo Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en el Pacífico central mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lucano-Ramírez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a los escasos antecedentes del efecto de las pesquerías y manejo del pargo Lutjanus inermis, es importante conocer la época reproductiva para el establecimiento de temporadas de veda, ya que la biomasa de los peces en fase de reproducción, es usada como punto de referencia para evaluar la condición del stock explotado y para establecer futuros niveles de captura. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar algunos aspectos reproductivos como proporción sexual, época reproductiva, talla de madurez de L. inermis en las costas de Jalisco, México. Durante 1999-2008, se llevaron a cabo muestreos mensuales de los ejemplares capturados por la pesca artesanal en las bahías de Navidad, Tenacatita y Chamela (Jalisco, México. Se recolectaron 311 (53.1% hembras y 275 (46.9% machos y, la proporción de sexos (1:0.88 no presentó diferencia significativa. El intervalo de longitud total fue 14.4 a 37.0cm y el peso total de 48 a 575g. L. inermis presentó los máximos valores del IGS en dos periodos, febrero-abril y septiembre-noviembre, también en estos periodos se presentaron los mayores porcentajes de organismos en estadio de maduración. El ovario presentó el tipo de desarrollo asincrónico y se reconocieron siete fases del desarrollo de los ovocitos. En los testículos se observó el tipo de desarrollo lobular, se observaron espermatozoides en el centro de los cistos y en el conducto recolector. La talla de madurez (L50 fue de 23.9cm LT para hembras y 23.6cm LT para machos. Considerando el periodo de muestreo de este estudio, los antecedentes descritos podrían ser de utilidad en la formulación de planes o estrategias de manejo de esta especie.

  15. ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE IN DOWNTOWN AREA OF TEHRAN

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    N. Mansouri, M. Pourmahabadian, M. Ghasemkhani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. The present study was conducted to determine the noise levels of road traffic at central area of Tehran. It focused on one of the busy and crowded square along with its 7 connecting streets, which had a heavy traffic and located in the downtown of the city. Total of 115 measuring points were selected along the roads, pavements and in the shopping areas to adequately represent the different acoustically commercial situations. The measuring points were divided in to 4 site-groups namely; Street, Pavement, Shop and Barrier each with 60, 40, 10, and 5 measuring points respectively. The measurements were carried out during a full week days started on Saturday morning and end on Friday evening. The A-weighted continuous equivalent sound level values, LAeq; LA max; LA min ; and the statistical levels: L1, L10, L50, L90 and L99 as well as the octave band center frequencies sound pressure levels were manually measured at each point separately. The mean values of LAeq for Street, Pavement, Shop and Barrier site groups were 78.5, 73.3, 68.7 and 70.8 dBA respectively and the overall mean of LAeq was 74.7 dBA. The statistical test (p<0.01 showed that the mean values for LAeq in all site groups as well as the overall mean value were higher than 65 dBA, which is the daytime governmentally prescribed noise limit for commercial areas. Comparing the individual measurements has also shown the 86.6% exceeded values from 65 dBA. The highest mean noise level in center frequencies upper than 1000 Hz was 71.5 dBA which was observed in the Street site group and the lowest one was 43.2 dBA in the Shop site group at 8000Hz center frequency. The corresponding values for the center frequencies lower than 1000 Hz were 78.2 and 66.1dBA at 63 and 500 Hz which were also observed in the Street and Shop site groups respectively. It can be concluded that the downtown of the city is environmentally noise

  16. Uranium in surface soils: an easy-and-quick assay combining X-ray diffraction and fluorescence qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Batista, M. J.; Leote, J.; Ferreira, M. L.; Limpo, V.

    2009-04-01

    Portugal has been a uranium-producer since the beginning of the last century. The uranium-rich area of Alto Alentejo, East-central Portugal, was identified more than fifty years ago [1]. Almost all the uranium-bearing mineralization occurs in schistose rocks of the contact metamorphic aureole produced by intrusion of the Hercynian monzonitic granite of Alto Alentejo into the pre-Ordovitian schist-greywacke complex forming deposits of vein and dissemination type. The Nisa uranium-reservoir, situated at the sharp border of a large and arch shaped granite pluton, was identified in 1957 [2] but its exploitation was considered economically impracticable until recently. However, its existence and the accumulated detritus of these prospect efforts are a concern for local populations [3]. A study of the near-surface soils close to the Nisa reservoir was therefore undertaken to assess the uranium retention by adsorption on clay components under the form of uranyl ions, [UO2]2+ [4-6] and its eventual release into the aquifer groundwater. As an attempt to very quickly appraise the presence of uranium in as-collected near-surface sediment samples a combination of laboratory X-ray techniques was designed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the mineral phases and roughly estimate its relative proportion plus X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in wavelength dispersive mode (XRF-WDS) to ascertain the presence of uranium and tentatively evaluate its content by comparison with selected chemical components of the soil. A description of the experimental methodology adopted for the implemented easy-and-quick uranium assay is presented. Obtained results compare quite well to the data of certified time-consuming analytical tests of uranium in those soil samples. [1] L. Pilar (1966) Conditions of formation of Nisa uranium deposit (in Portuguese). Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo L, 50-85. [2] C. Gonçalves & J.V. Teixeira Lopes (1971) Uranium deposit of Nisa: geological aspects of its

  17. Predication of increased plasma homocysteine level on the prognosis of Chinese patients with first-onset ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangtao YAN; Zhengliang YUE; Jiaomei SHAO; Rutai HUI; Daowen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level was an independ-ent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between they level and prognosis of first-onset stroke in Chinese people. One hundred ninety six patients with first-onset ischemic stroke and ninety-five patients with first-onset hemorrha-gic stroke were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of tHey level (<18 umol/L and≥18 umol/L). The plasma tHcy level was detected by a high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection. All the patients underwent a 5-year follow-up. Survival analysis shows that the probability of death or new vascular events in the ischemic stroke patients with high tHcy level (≥18 umol/L) was significantly higher than that in the counter-parts with lower tHcy level (<18 umol/L) (50.9% and 28.7%, respectively, P=0.004). The relative risk of death or new vascular events was 2.363 (95% CI, 1.209 to 4.617, P=0.012) in ischemic stroke patients with high tHcylevels(≥18 umol/L) compared to those with a lower thcy level (< 18 umol/L). The increased tHey level was significantly associated with the risk of death or new vascular events (OR, 2.492, 95% CI, 1.148 to 5.407, P= 0.021) in patients with ischemic stroke in the exclusion of the influence of other risk factors such as gender, age, body mass index, plasma cholesterol level, the history of hypertension, diabetes or smoking. However, in the patients with hemorrhagic stroke, there was no significant difference in the probability of death or new vascular events between patients with a high tHcy level and those with a lower tHcy level (33.3% and 28.2%, respectively, P=0.546). Increased tHcy level was an independent risk factor for a worse outcome in patients with first-onset ischemic stroke, but not in hemorrhagic stroke patients.

  18. Recovery of motor spontaneous activity after intranasal delivery of human recombinant erythropoietin in a focal brain hypoxia model induced by CoCl2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelli, Amalia; Caltana, Laura; Girimonti, Patricia; Ramos, Alberto Javier; Lazarowski, Alberto; Brusco, Alicia

    2011-08-01

    Stroke is a major human health problem inducing long-term disability without any efficient therapeutic option being currently available. Under hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activates several genes as erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) related with O(2) supply, and the multidrug-resistance gene (MDR-1) related with drug-refractory phenotype. Brain cortical injection of CoCl(2) produces focal hypoxia-like lesion with neuronal and glial alterations, as well as HIF-1α stabilization and MDR-1 overexpression. Intranasal (IN) drug delivery can by-pass blood-brain barrier (BBB) where MDR-1 is normally expressed. We evaluated the effects of IN-rHu-Epo administration on spontaneous motor activity (SMA) and the brain pattern expression of HIF-1α, MDR-1, and Epo-R in our cobalt-induced hypoxia model. Adult male Wistar rats were injected by stereotaxic surgery in frontoparietal cortex, with CoCl(2) (2 μl-50 mM; n = 20) or saline (controls; n = 20). Ten rats of each group were treated with IN-rHu-Epo 24 U or IN-saline. In addition, erythropoietic stimulation was evaluated by reticulocytes (Ret) account during three consecutive days, after intraperitoneal (i.p.)-recombinant-human Epo (rHu-Epo) (950 U; n = 6) or IN-rHu-Epo (24 U; n = 6) administration. SMA was evaluated by open field and rotarod tests, before and after surgical procedures during five consecutive days. Histological and immunostaining studies of HIF-1α, MDR-1, and Epo-R were performed on brain slides. A significant difference in SMA was observed in the hypoxic rats of IN-rHu-Epo-administered group as compared with Co-Saline-treated subjects and controls (p < 0.001). HIF-1α, EPO-R, and MDR-1 were overexpressed in the hypoxic cortex areas, while in contralateral hemisphere or controls, they were negatives. Reticulocytes were only increased in intraperitoneal (i.p.)-rHu-Epo-administered group. In spite of MDR-1 overexpression being detected in neurons, the coexpression of Epo-R could

  19. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  20. Growth Inhibiting and Apoptosis-inducing Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Albizia julibrissin Durazz Flower on Rat Glioma Cells C6%合欢花水提物对大鼠脑胶质瘤C6细胞株的增殖抑制与凋亡诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚伟; 张立伟; 陈廷贵

    2012-01-01

    采用MTT法检测合欢花水提物对C6细胞增殖活力的影响,流式细胞术检测该水提物对C6细胞的诱导凋亡作用.结果表明:合欢花水提物能抑制C6细胞的增殖,且具有剂量和时间依赖性,其在24 h、48 h、72 h时对C6细胞的半数抑制率(LD50)分别为:305 μg/mL、50 μg/mL、15 μg/mL.流式细胞术结果显示:200 tμg/mL、300μg/mL合欢花水提物均可诱导C6细胞发生早期凋亡,与对照组细胞相比,早期凋亡率分别由对照组的0.7%增加到了4.3%、14.3%.提示合欢花水提物抑制C6细胞增殖机理与诱导细胞凋亡途径有关.%The growth inhibiting and apotosis-inducing effects of aqueous extract of Albizia julibrissin Durazz flower(AJDF) on the rat glioma cells C6 in vitro were studied by MTT assays and flow cytometry methods. The results showed that the water extract of AJDF had obvious suppression on the proliferation of C6 cell lines,which had significant dose-and time-dependent relationships.the LD50 was respectively 305 μg/mL.50 μg/mL,15 μg/mL for 24 h,48 h.72 h. The flow cytometric analysis displayed that 200 μg/mL,300 μg/mL water extract of AJDF can both induce C6 cell lines early phase apotosis.apotosis rate was respectively 4. 3% .14. 3% ,but the blank control group was only 0. 7%. The mechanisim of inhibiting proliferation might be related to cell apoptosis.