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Sample records for lead cadmium fluoroborate

  1. Synthesis and Structural Studies of Er3+ Containing Lead Cadmium Fluoroborate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maurício A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitreous domain was established in the PbF2-CdF2-B2O 3 system from melting and quenching experiments. Er3+ containing glasses were prepared and glass ceramics were obtained by selected heat-treatments. Lead fluoride was identified (beta-PbF2 as the crystalline phase. Structural studies were performed in some glassy and partially crystallized samples by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS measurements. The role of Cd2+ and Pb2+ atoms on the glass network formation and also on the crystallization behavior was put forward by these techniques. After crystallization Er3+ atoms segregated in the crystal phase.

  2. Spectroscopic and visible luminescence properties of rare earth ions in lead fluoroborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjaiah, G. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Nayab Rasool, SK. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Kistaiah, P., E-mail: pkistaiah@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India)

    2015-03-15

    The lanthanide doped lead lithium calcium zinc fluoroborate glasses (LLCZFB:Ln) of composition 20PbF{sub 2}+10Li{sub 2}O+5Cao+5ZnO+59B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+1Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where Ln=Sm, Eu and Dy in mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of these glasses was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) were studied by DSC analysis. The glass structure and spectroscopic properties were investigated using optical absorption, vibrational and fluorescence spectra. The FT-IR spectra and Raman spectra reveal the presence of BO{sub 3}, BO{sub 4} and non-bridging oxygen's. The Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ω{sub λ} (λ=2, 4, 6) were determined from the spectral intensities of absorption bands. These parameters were used to calculate the radiative parameters such as radiative transition probability (A{sub R}), radiative life time (τ{sub R}) and branching ratio (β{sub r}) for various excited luminescent states of rare earth ions. The visible emission spectra for different rare earth ions were recorded by exciting the samples at different wavelengths and the decay rates for the different rare earth ions were measured. Using the emission spectra, full width half maxima (FWFM), stimulated emission cross section (σ{sup E}{sub p}) were evaluated. The nature of decay profiles of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} and {sup 5}D{sub 0} states of Dy, Sm and Eu ions respectively are analyzed. Comparison of luminescence features of these glasses and also with those reported for different glass hosts indicates that the LLCZFB:Dy glass has strong luminescence in the visible region. - Highlights: • LLCZFB:Ln glasses are prepared with Ln: Sm, Eu and Dy. • Glasses are characterized by XRD, FTIR, Raman, absorption and emission spectra. • J–O theory is used to calculate different radiative properties. • Green, yellow and red emissions are observed. • Glasses are useful for the development

  3. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  5. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  6. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  7. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... The lead and cadmium adsorption kinetic behavior could not be described using the Langmuir ... by chemical or by physical adsorption (Dean and Dixon,. 1992 ... phate fertilizer burning fuels, cement production, mining.

  8. Assessment of Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Organical Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Ariel

    2000-08-01

    In this report the electrochemical method of differential pulse anode voltametry redisolution voltametry is used to quantitative assessment of copper, cadmium and lead in solution. The methodology is described in the preparation of samples for measurement

  9. Lead and cadmium content of some canned fruit and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B; Roughan, J A; Watters, E D

    1973-01-01

    The levels of lead and cadmium have been determined in samples of canned tomatoes, blackcurrants, grapefruit, pineapples, apricots, oranges, peaches, rhubarb, apples, prunes, damsons, plums, spinach and baked beans. The lead content of the 76 samples was in the range 0.10 to 3.90 parts/million, the mean being 0.56 parts/million; the range and mean of the cadmium content were 0.01 to 0.18 and 0.02 parts/million, respectively.

  10. Potentiometric stripping analysis of Cadmium and Lead in superficial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Juan Miguel; Marciales Castiblanco, Clara

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains the implementation and validation of an analytical method for determining cadmium and lead in surface waters. This is a valuable tool for the description of actual conditions and qualitative and quantitative control of dangerous heavy metals discharge in water bodies. Test were run for selecting stripping potentiometry conditions that as indicated by results were: sample oxidant concentration 36.4 μg/L Hg 2+ stirring frequency 2400 rpm, electrolysis time 80 s., electrolysis potential -950 mV and pH of 2.0. Interference of Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ showed that copper concentrations larger than 150 μg/L and 500 μg/L negatively influence the analytical response for Cadmium and lead respectively; [Fe 3+ ] larger than 60 μg/L and 400 μg/L cause variations in cadmium and lead read content respectively. Linear concentration range for cadmium lies between 5 and 250 μg/L; for lead range goes from 10 to 250 μg/L. Precision expressed as repeatability for both system and method, exhibit good reproducibility with variation coefficients below 6%. Accuracy, assessed from recuperation, is strongly influenced by concentration level therefore standard addition is recommended for lead and cadmium quantification. Analysis performed on surface waters from Colombian Magdalena and Cauca rivers pointed lead and cadmium contents below detection limits

  11. Electrochemical studies in molten sodium fluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Wagner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of sodium fluoroborate are recalled and first results obtained during experimental study of molten NaBF 4 are exposed. The system Cu/CuF is used as an indicator of fluoride ion activity and dissociation constant of the solvent is determined by adding NaF to NaBF 4 saturated with BF 3 at a pressure of 1 atm and found equal to 2.7x10 -3 [fr

  12. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM 2.5 , both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  13. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  14. Study on damage of DNA in mice induced by mercury cadmium and/or lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaopan; Zhou Jianhua; Shi Xijing; Yan Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the joint injury actions of mercury, cadmium and/or lead on DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from mice at the 2 day after the peritoneal injections. DNA damages were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and 3 H-TdR incorporation. Results: Acquired by SCGE technique, tail movement of DNA in mercury-cadmium-lead group was significantly greater than that in the single exposure group, the difference was significant too between mercury-cadmium group and cadmium group, cadmium-lead group and cadmium group. The results of 3 H-TdR incorporation showed: the values of DPM in mercury-cadmium group and cadmium-lead group were lower than that in the single exposure group and the value of DPM lowered more significantly after exposure to mercury-cadmium-lead. Conclusion: The combined effects of mercury, cadmium, lead on DNA damage are more significant. (author)

  15. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  16. Phytoextraction trials of cadmium and lead contaminated soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) artificially contaminated soil using 3 weed species (Ageratum conyzoides, Syndrella nodiflora and Cleome rutidosperma) was carried out at the Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt. A Randomized Complete Block Design consisting of 2 sets of ...

  17. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  18. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, G; Pochintesta, L; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  19. The biosorption of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption potentiality of Musa paradisiaca stalk at removing cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The biosorption experiment was carried out as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial metal ion concentration and biosorbent dose. Adsorption equilibria were obtained from batch ...

  20. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  1. Determination of lead and cadmium in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Backhaus, F.; Dahl, R.; Hagedorn-Goetz, H.; Hilpert, K.; Klahre, P.; Rutzel, H.; Valenta, P.; Nuernberg, H.W.; Dumont, M.

    1975-01-01

    Sampling techniques and experience, and decomposition methods are presented. The processes used in flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (including the method using automatic insertion of samples), pulse polarography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are described. Finally, the results of lead and cadmium measurements in bovine liver, blood, urine and hair samples are reported and discussed with a comparison of methods in some cases

  2. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy.

  3. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Sewalem; Soad Elfeky; Fatma El- Shintinawy

    2014-01-01

    Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid pero...

  5. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  6. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  7. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  8. Removal of cadmium and lead from water by activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Shafy, H.I.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; El-Gamal, I.M.; Abo-El-Wafa, O.

    1989-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium and lead from water by carbon was studied using powdered or granular carbon. The studied water artificially contaminated by cadmium and lead amounting to 1 mg/dm 3 each. Batch as well as continuous system were carried out. The batch system was used to determine the time to maintain equilibrium followed by adsorption isotherm. Results obtained by using the powered carbon were found to match with Freundlich's equation where 1/n was 2.12 and 2.096 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Corresponding constants (K) were 4.2·10 -2 and 76.0·10 -2 . The amount of powdered activated carbon required to reduce residual Cd and Pb concentration to 0.01 mg/dm 3 for each are 26.98 and 2.86 mg, respectively. Similar batch system study was carried out for the granular carbon. When granular carbon was used in a continuous system, two different contact times, namely 10 to 20 min were examined. The results obtained showed that increasing the contact time from 10 to 20 min increases the metal to carbon removal efficiency. The overall results indicated that the breakthrough point for either Cd or Pb is the reverse of their adsorption as indicated by K value. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels

  10. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  11. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  12. Enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muginova, S.V.; Veselova, I.A.; Parova, L.M.; Shekhovtseva, T.N.

    2008-01-01

    Prospects are outlined for using the following enzymes (native and immobilized on polyurethane foam) in the rapid and highly sensitive determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead ions in plant materials (wild grass, fresh pea, and grape): horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatases isolated from chicken intestine and Greenland seal small intestine. The analytical ranges of the above metals are 1x10 -3 -25; 7x10 -3 -250, and 3x10 -2 -67 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. The enzymatic determination procedures developed are based on the inhibiting effect of metal ions on the catalytic activity of peroxidase in the oxidation of o-dianisidine with hydrogen peroxide and alkaline phosphatases in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The rates of enzymatic reactions were monitored spectrophotometrically or visually. In the analysis of plant extracts, their high acidity was diminished by choosing optimum dilution factors and pH values for test samples and the nature and concentration of a buffer solution. The interference of iron(III) was removed by introducing a 0.1 M tartaric acid solution into the indicator reaction. The accuracy of the results of the enzymatic determination of cadmium, zinc, and lead in plant materials was supported by atomic absorption spectrometry and anodic stripping voltammetry [ru

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  14. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A. C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J. Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  15. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire M.; Mestrot, Adrien; Feldmann, Joerg; Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  16. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program......Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest...

  17. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  18. Interaction of copper, magnesium, zinc, cadmium and lead formiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunner, Eh.A.; Mel'nichenko, L.M.; Yakhkind, N.D.; Vel'mozhnyj, I.S.; Katseva, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the residual concentrations of the interacting ions and refraction index of liquid phases were useful in determining the precipitate composition in the system MA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O(A - -HCOO - ; M 2+ -Cu 2+ , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ ). It is shown that in the system CdA 2 -NaOH-H 2 O containing as high as 40 mole% of NaOH the precipitate composition is approximately constant and corresponds to hydroxoformiate Cd(OH)A which is formed by the equation Cd 2+ +OH - +A - =Cd(OH)A. Further increase in the NaOH content leads to the formation of varying-composition precipitates and, at a NaOH content >=66.6 mole%, - to cadmium hydroxide

  19. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  20. Certification of lead and cadmium in three lyophilized blood materials. CRM No. 194, 195, 196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoman, W B; Colinet, E; Griepink, B

    1985-01-01

    The report describes the work for certification of lead and cadmium in three lyophilized samples of bovine blood materials. Homogeneity and stability tests were carried out and are presented in the report. The concentrations of lead and cadmium in each sample of the reconstituted blood are certified. A variety of well established methods were used for certification of the materials.

  1. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  2. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  3. A Survey on Lead and Cadmium Content in Bread Produced in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to such complications of absorbing lead and cadmium heavy metals as kidney and liver dysfunction, vascular and heart diseases, anemia, digestive complications, nervous and skeletal problems and due to importance of bread as one of the most important food diets in Iran, especially in Yazd, the amount of lead and cadmium was evaluated in a variety of breads in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013. Out of 69 bakeries, random probability proportionate sampling was applied in order to measure the heavy metals (lead and cadmium content in samples by ash and atomic absorption equipped with grafiti furnace(ETAAS with correction of background time. The study data were analyzed using SPSS (v.17 considering p-value of less than 0.05 as significant. Results: The average amounts of lead and cadmium were 99.05 and 7.49 mg/kg respectively. The amount of lead in Sangak bread was higher than that of other types of breads, whereas lead amounts of fantasy bread was reported less than those of other breads. Cadmium content demonstrated no significant differences among breads. Lead amount was higher in direct heat breads. Whereas, cadmium amount showed no significant differences between direct and indirect heat breads. It is worth mentioning that lead and cadmium content were reported lower than allowable levels in all samples. Conclusions: As the study results revealed and considering per capita consumption of bread in Iran (about 160 kg, it seems that weekly intake of lead and cadmium in Yazd is at an acceptable level, though possible risk of heavy metals(lead and cadmium need to decrease in order to prevent the probable risks of lead and cadmium heavy metals.

  4. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  5. Potentiometric stripping analysis of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN M. NIKOLIC

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric stipping analysis (PSA was applied for the determination of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth. The soluble lead content in finished dental implants was found to be much lower than that of the individual components used for their preparation. Cadmium was not detected in dental implants and materials under the defined conditions. The soluble lead and cadmium content of teeth was slightly lower than the lead and cadmium content in whole teeth (w/w reported by other researchers, except in the case of a tooth with removed amalgam filling. The results of this work suggest that PSA may be a good method for lead and cadmium leaching studies for investigation of the biocompatibility of dental prosthetic materials.

  6. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  7. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  8. Poplar response to cadmium and lead soil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Hanousek, Karla; Sedak, Marija; Bilandžić, Nina; Jakovljević, Tamara

    2017-10-01

    An outdoor pot experiment was designed to study the potential of poplar (Populus nigra 'Italica') in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Poplar was treated with a combination of different concentrations of Cd (w = 10, 25, 50mgkg -1 soil) and Pb (400, 800, 1200mgkg -1 soil) and several physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored including the accumulation and distribution of metals in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root). Simultaneously, the changes in the antioxidant system in roots and leaves were monitored to be able to follow synergistic effects of both heavy metals. Moreover, a statistical analysis based on the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) was performed in order to determine the most important predictors affecting growth and antioxidative machinery activities of poplar under heavy metal stress. The study demonstrated that tested poplar could be a good candidate for phytoextraction processes of Cd in moderately contaminated soils, while in heavily contaminated soil it could be only considered as a phytostabilisator. For Pb remediation only phytostabilisation process could be considered. By using RFA we pointed out that it is important to conduct the experiments in an outdoor space and include environmental conditions in order to study more realistic changes of growth parameters and accumulation and distribution of heavy metals. Also, to be able to better understand the interactions among previously mentioned parameters, it is important to conduct the experiments during prolonged time exposure., This is especially important for the long life cycle woody species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sewalem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage with less affected photosynthesis in the leaves of the treated sunflower seedlings compared to the effects of Pb. The results presented here showed that a high amount of the total absorbed Cd (88.84% was accumulated in roots, while a high amount of the total absorbed Pb (71.39 was tranlocated to shoots of sunflower seedlings. Similar trends of Cd and Pb allocation between roots and shoots at the yield stage were recorded. We suggest here that sunflower plants may remediate Cd contaminated soils through phytostabilization, while may remediate Pb contaminated soils through phytoextraction. Finaly, the trace amounts of Cd and Pb that were accumulated in seeds recommends sunflower plants to be used safely and economically for cleaning up soils contaminated with Cd and/or Pb.

  10. Electrochemical study in molten sodium fluoroborate at 4200C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    By analysing the behavior of the electrochemical system Cu (I)/Cu it was possible to study the acid-base properties of molten sodium fluoroborate. The anion of the solvent BF 4 - is shown to undergo a strong dissociation according to the equilibrium BF 4 - BF 3 (g) + F - , the Ki constant at 420 0 C being evaluated at 1.58 x 10 -2 mol kg -1 atm. The acidity variations of sodium fluoroborate at this temperature are limited to about two pF units (pKi=1.8). A potentiometric study of the copper, silver and nickel systems showed that the corresponding metallic cations are little complexed by fluoride ions in spite of the strong dissociation of the solvent [fr

  11. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Vegetative growth, biomass, chemical content and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and ... Vegetative growth and chemical properties of M. azedarach are ..... MSc thesis. ... In: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology.

  12. Reversible surface binding of cadmium and lead by lactic acid and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teemu, Halttunen; Seppo, Salminen; Jussi, Meriluoto; Raija, Tahvonen; Kalle, Lertola

    2008-07-15

    Extensive cadmium and lead contamination of water has been reported to occur locally as a result of human activities. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to remove cadmium and lead from water. The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanisms of cadmium and lead removal from water. In addition, the effect of other metals, reversibility of binding and recyclability of the biomass was assessed. Based on our earlier data, the two most promising lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum ME3 and Bifidobacterium longum 46, were selected for these experiments. The results showed that the presence of other cationic metals and blocking of carboxyl and phosphoryl groups reduced cadmium and lead removal. These results suggest involvement of electrostatic interactions in cadmium and lead removal, and support our earlier findings. Transmission electron micrographs showed large deposits of lead on the bacterial surface suggesting formation of metallic lead precipitates. Both cadmium and lead removal were reversible processes established by full recovery of removed metal after desorption with dilute solutions of EDTA and HNO(3). Resorption capacity of both biomasses tested was reduced after regeneration with 10 mM EDTA and 15 mM HNO(3). Taken together, the results suggest involvement of several reversible mechanisms such as ion exchange and precipitation in cadmium and lead binding by lactic acid bacteria. The results show that specific lactic acid bacteria have the potential for removal of cadmium and lead from water although reduction in resorption capacity after regeneration of the biomass may form a problem. Since the studies so far have mainly focused on removal of single metals from pure water, metal removal in conditions of natural waters should be assessed in further experiments.

  13. The use of vegetables in the biomonitoring of cadmium and lead pollution in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Lead and cadmium emitted from various anthropogenic sources have the ability to accumulate in tissues of living organisms. The phenomenon of accumulation of metals in the body is harmful and undesirable. The ability of plants to accumulate heavy metals from the individual elements of the environment has been used in biomonitoring of pollution. Leaves and roots of vegetables have particular predisposition for accumulating toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and therefore can be used for biomonitoring of the environment, mainly as a tool for assessing the extent of soil contamination. The article discusses information in the literature on entry paths of lead and cadmium into the body, toxic effects of lead and cadmium on the human organism, and the use of vegetables as a tool in the biomonitoring of heavy metals in different elements of the environment.

  14. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and selenium levels in patients with type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cadmium, lead, arsenic ... Increasing rates of type 2 diabetes in the developed and developing countries ... Measurement of height was taken in standing position using a stadiometer. The height ...

  15. Phytoextraction potential of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. with specific reference to lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Pratas, João; Paul, M S

    2011-07-01

    Root and shoot samples of Prosopis juliflora were assessed for their heavy metal content to evaluate the species as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with lead and cadmium. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth, delayed and shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of lead and cadmium in leaves to lead and cadmium in soil were in the range of 0.62-1.46 and 0.55-1.71, respectively. Strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of lead and cadmium in plant samples identifies P. juliflora as an effective heavy metal remediator coupled with environmental stress.

  16. Determination of lead and cadmium in urine by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, L.A.; Grinshtejn, I.L.; Gucher, Sh.; Izgi, B.

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of a DETATA sorbent to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium followed by the determination of these elements in urine using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization was demonstrated. After preconcentration by a factor of 10, the limits of detection were 0.01 and 0.2 μg/l for cadmium and lead, respectively. The accuracy of the results was supported by the analysis of Seronorm TM Trace Elements Urine Batch no.101021 [ru

  17. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicological evaluations of cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc were carried out against albino mice model, Mus musculus. On the basis of 96 hrLC50 value, cadmium (0.47 mM) was found to be the most toxic followed by zinc (2.40 mM), lead (2.42 mM), iron (4.25 mM) and manganese (5.70 mM) was least toxic.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Cadmium and Lead Resistant Bacteria and their Bacterial Removal from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal and industrial effluents continually release into the environment heavy metals of a variety of physical and chemical forms and at various concentrations. Biological treatment processes have attracted a growing attention for the removal of heavy metals from these effluents. For the purposes of the present study, bacteria that are relatively resistant to heavy metals, such as cadmium and lead, were isolated from municipal waste and purified. They were then subjected to biochemical tests for identification and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. Bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations were initially measured in flasks containing 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300, 500, and 700 ppm of lead and cadmium before superior bacteria at populations of 108 CFU/ml were evaluated in terms of their ability to remove lead and cadmium at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, and 300 ppm from enriched municipal wastewater. Base on the results, Bacillus laterosporous and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were identified as the resistant bacteria and the minimum lead and cadmium inhibitory concentrations for these bacteria were determined to be 300 and 500 ppm, respectively. Moreover, Bacillus laterosporous and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis recorded maximum removal efficiencies of around 50.6% and 45.7%, respectively, with wastewater containing 100 mg/l of lead and 36.18% and 21.41% in the case of cadmium from wastewater enriched with 100 mg/l of lead and 150 mg/l of cadmium.

  19. Effects of cadmium on chick embryogenesis and some comparisons with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D W; Chen, D C.C.; Hsu, J L

    1978-07-01

    During the last ten years because of the severity of the problem of pollution and the part that heavy metals play in it we have been doing research on the effects of some heavy metals on chick embryogenesis in order to get a comparative study and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Experiments were performed using 431 fertilized white Leghorn eggs to study the effect of cadmium on chick embryogenesis. Cadmium acetate at 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, 0.060, 0.12 or 0.24 mg/egg and lead acetate at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.075 mg/egg was injected in ovo on the fourth day of incubation. The embryos were taken out on the 19th day and examined for gross defects. Electrocardiograms were recorded on some embryos. Hemoglobin determinations were done on others. The changes in plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) of the embryos due to cadmium and lead acetate were also determined. It was found that the LD50 of cadmium acetate was close to 0.045 mg. The highest incidence of abnormality, 30.9% of the surviving embryos, appeared in the 0.030 mg group although malformed embryos were also found in the 0.015, 0.045 and 0.060 mg groups. The most common malformations occurred in the liver (58%) and the cardiovascular system, with edema totalling over 90%. Lesser abnormalities were observed in the limbs. Lead acetate affected ALAD more than cadmium acetate. There was no significant difference on hemoglobin concentration or EKG between the distilled water control and either the cadmium or lead treated groups. Thus, embryolethality, embryotoxicity, congenital abnormalities and changes in ALAD were all observed in the cadmium-treated chick embryos although lead acetate seemed to inhibit the ALAD activity more effectively than cadmium acetate.

  20. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  1. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  2. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Casteel, Stan W; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A; Nichols, John R; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen L; Rattner, Barnett A; Schultz, Sandra L

    2018-01-29

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  3. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Casteel, Stan W.; Friedrichs, Kristen R.; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A.; Nichols, John W.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schultz, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  4. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  5. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-01-01

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO 3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  6. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  7. The determination of levels of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from Naivasha area, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muigai, P.G.; Kamau, G.N.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of mercury, cadmium and lead in water samples from different environments (Lake Naivasha, River Malewa boreholes and Olkaria geothermal wells) in Naivasha region and their possible origins are reported. The levels of mercury and lead in the water samples were above the maximum permissible limits of 0.005 mg/1 and 0.1 mg/1 respectively, as stipulated by the WHO. On the other hand, 83.3% of the samples had cadmium levels above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01mg/1 in drinking water by WHO. The mercury and lead levels were also higher than those previously obtained from different regions of Kenya, while those for cadmium were within the corresponding range. Possible sources of elevated values were the geology of the surrounding area, sewage treatment works, use of phosphate rock fertilizers and lead fuels.(author)

  8. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  9. Voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead in human hair as healthy indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kherbik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and Lead level were examined in hair of patients and healthy donors. Hair sample were collected and analyzed for their contents of the trace metals (Cd, Pb) by Voltammetry. It was found that the existence of Cadmium and Lead in the hair was significantly higher in the patients (19.7 μg/g - 38.2 μg/g) for lead, (0.4 μg/g - 2.1 μg/g) for cadmium. On the other hand, the healthy had lower concentration (7.8 μg/g - 8.8 μg/g) for Lead, (0.2 μg/g - 0.3 μg/g) for cadmium. In this study, hairs were analyzed to find the effect these elements on health. Correlation coefficients between the levels of the elements in hair found in this study showed that hair is a good indicator of Cadmium and Lead in the hair. The method is applicable as a tool for monitoring pollution level of groups.(author)

  10. The cadmium and lead content of the grain produced by leading Chinese rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L H; Tang, S Q; Wei, X J; Shao, G N; Jiao, G A; Sheng, Z H; Luo, J; Hu, P S

    2017-02-15

    The cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content in both white and wholemeal flour milled from 110 leading rice cultivars was assessed. The white flour Cd content ranged from <0.0025 to 0.2530mg/kg (geometric mean (GM)=0.0150mg/kg), while its Pb content ranged from <0.0250 to 0.3830mg/kg (GM=0.0210mg/kg). The indica types took up higher amounts of Cd and Pb than did the japonica types. Although the heavy metal content of wholemeal flour tended to higher than that of white flour, nevertheless 84.5% (Cd) and 95.4% (Pb) of the entries were compliant with the national maximum allowable concentration of 0.2000mg/kg of each contaminant. An analysis of the Cd content in the white flour of three indica type cultivars grown in two consecutive years at two locations indicated that Cd content may be significantly affected by the conditions prevailing in the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the physicochemical states of cadmium and lead in sea water and sediment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Isao; Sakai, Takashi; Inoue, Yoriteru

    1976-01-01

    The existence states of cadmium and lead in sea water taken from Wakasa Bay in Japan were experimentally studied and their transfer to bottom sand layer was tested. Sample water was filtered through a glass wool filter and a 0.45 μ-m membrane filter. Cadmium chloride and lead chloride were fed so that the concentrations of the metals became the environmental standard values (0.01 ppm for cadmium and 0.1 ppm for lead). Cd-115m and lead-210 were added to the sample as tracers. The existence states were measured by dialysis, the filtration with a membrane filter and the adsorption on an ion-exchange resin. As a result, the ionic state of cadmium decreased to 85% and the deposition factor on the membrane filter increased to about 30% when pH is 9.6. The distribution factor of the cation exchange resin was 2 - 5, whereas that of the anion exchange resin was 1000 or more at pH 8,4 or less, but was reduced to 541 at pH 9.6. The ion existence ratio of lead was 80% - 90% at pH 8 or less, and was 10% or less at pH 8.8. The deposition factor of lead was higher than that of cadmium. The distribution factor of lead showed similar tendency to that of cadmium. As a result of measuring the radioactivity adsorbed by the bottom sand in the experimental tank, it was found that the transfer of very small amount of heavy metals to the bottom material depended upon the physicochemical existence states of the metals in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Perinatal exposure to lead and cadmium affects anxiety-like behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leret, M.Luisa; Millan, Jose Antonio San; Antonio, M.Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of early simultaneous exposure to low level of lead and cadmium on anxiety-like behaviour in the rat, and on monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus at weaning and adult animals. Rats were intoxicated with cadmium acetate (10 mg/l) and lead acetate (300 mg/l) in drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy until weaning. Maternal co-exposure to lead and cadmium produced mainly alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems of hippocampus in both age studied, while noradrenaline content in hypothalamus and hippocampus remained unchanged at 75 days of age. The intoxicated rats showed an increased on indices of anxiety on the elevated plus-maze. These long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviour can be related to dopaminergic and serotoninergic alterations detected in hippocampus

  13. Assessment of the pollution and ecological risk of lead and cadmium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jerzy; Baran, Agnieszka; Urbański, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Ryszard; Klimowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-03-27

    The aim of the study was to assess the content, distribution, soil binding capacity, and ecological risk of cadmium and lead in the soils of Malopolska (South Poland). The investigation of 320 soil samples from differently used land (grassland, arable land, forest, wasteland) revealed a very high variation in the metal content in the soils. The pollution of soils with cadmium and lead is moderate. Generally, a point source of lead and cadmium pollution was noted in the study area. The highest content of cadmium and lead was found in the northwestern part of the area-the industrial zones (mining and metallurgical activity). These findings are confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. Among the different types of land use, forest soils had by far the highest mean content of bioavailable forms of both metals. The results showed a higher soil binding capacity for lead than for cadmium. However, for both metals, extremely high (class 5) accumulation capacities were dominant. Based on the results, the investigated soils had a low (Pb) and moderate (Cd) ecological risk on living components. Soil properties, such as organic C, pH, sand, silt, and clay content, correlated with the content of total and bioavailable forms of metals in the soils. The correlations, despite being statistically significant, were characterized by very low values of correlation coefficient (r = 0.12-0.20, at p ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the obtained data do not allow to define any conclusions as to the relationships between these soil properties. However, it must be highlighted that there was a very strong positive correlation between the total content of cadmium and lead and their bioavailable forms in the soils.

  14. EFFECTS OF LEAD AND CADMIUM UPON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION OF THE A TEMPORE NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jonović

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the subjection of the embryo and the newborn to lead and cadmium as well as the effects of these metals upon the kidney function in the children newly born on time. The hypothetical framework of the paper was that lead and cadmium that are trans placental transmitted to the embryo organism lead to the change of the kidney function in the sence of damages done to the tubular system and to the interstitium along with changes in the urine sediment and in the levels of urea and creatinine in the serum; thus induced effects can be detected in the first week of life of the newborn babies.The examination was done in 1995 at Gynecological and Obstetric Clinic in Niš. The examined and the control group consisted of 30 newborns on time. The clinic examination was done on all the newborns. Regarding the kidney function examination, on the forth day of life all the newborn children were subjected to the determination of the value of urea and creatinine in the vein blood, the urine examination, the physical and physical-chemical features of the urine (outlook, specific weight, color, pH, the chemical status of the urine, the microscopic examination of the urine sediment, the ultrasonic examination of the kidneys. On the basis of the carried out examination and obtained results we came to the following conclusions:The lead concentration in the air at the localities related to the examined group is above G VI while for the control one below GVI. The cadmium concentration in the air from the examined localities in both the groups are above GVI. The lead and cadmium concentrations in the sediment materials at the localities related to the examined and control group are below GVI.The lead concentration in the umbilical cord blood is higher in the control group with respect to the examined one though without statistic significance. The lead concentration in the human milk is higher in the control group than in the examined one

  15. A study of copper, lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, G E; Gardner, D

    1978-07-01

    The significance of the measured changes in heavy metal distribution for different sampled environments was ascertained. The potential of a heavy metal speciation scheme to reflect differences in marine metal distributions was evaluated in a study of soluble copper, lead, and cadmium speciation in water samples from Port Hacking Estuary and one coastal Pacific station in Australia. In all samples, the percentages of metals associated with colloidal matter were high40-60% of total copper, 45-75% of total lead, and 15-35% of total cadmium. (1 map, 26 references, 4 tables)

  16. [Comparative characteristics of lead and cadmium intoxication in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchina, T Ia; Korchin, V I

    2011-01-01

    The Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District (KMAD) occupies a prominent place in the economy of Russia in oil and gas production and energy generation. The development of hydrocarbon raw material extraction in the district does great damage to the environment and nature. This results in the accumulation of toxic chemical elements in man. The levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, and zinc were measured in the hair of indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the district. High lead and cadmium and low calcium and zinc concentration were found in indigenous adults and children in the KMAD.

  17. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  18. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  19. Isotherms and kinetics of lead and cadmium uptake from the waste leachate by natural and modified clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Faraji

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The modified zeolite with surfactant can be used as an appropriate adsorbent for the separation of heavy metals from waste Leachate. Lead and cadmium were absorbed in a single layer on the surface of the modified zeolite with surfactant, comparing different isoterm models, indicated that the capacity of the modified zeolite for lead adsorption was more than cadmium adsorption, but cadmium was absorbed with higher energy.

  20. Uptake of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Camenzuli, L; van der Lee, M K; Oonincx, D G A B

    2016-01-01

    Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species.

  1. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  2. Deposition of heavy metal in the environment. Balances of the consumption and fate of lead and cadmium 1984-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer, D.

    1991-10-01

    The data on the consumption and fate of lead and cadmium as well as their compounds was compiled in a balance for the Federal Republic of Germany for the period between 1984 and 1989. To obtain a general overview of the known mass flows, additional flow sheets for lead and cadmium were drawn up. (orig./BBR) [de

  3. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  4. Updated assessment of critical loads of lead and cadmium for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    At its 20th session the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECECLRTAP), noted the need to further develop and test the methodology for mapping critical loads for cadmium and lead. To this

  5. Trace analysis of lead and cadmium in seafoods by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumera, F.C.; Verceluz, F.P.; Kapauan, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in seafoods is described. The sample is dry ashed in a muffle furnace elevating the temperature gradually up to 500 0 C. The ashed sample is treated with concentrated nitric acid, dried on a heating plate and returned to the muffle furnace for further heating. The treated ash is then dissolved in 1 N HCL acetate buffer and citric acid are added and the pH adjusted to 3.6-4. The resulting solution is analyzed for lead and cadmium by differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) using a wax-impregnated graphite thin film electrode. The average recoveries of 0.4 of cadmium and lead added to 5 fish samples were 97% and 99% respectively. The standard deviations, on a homogenized shark sample for lead and cadmium analysis were 6.7 ppb and 12.3 ppb, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 21.0% and 15.5% respectively. Studies on instrumental parameters involved in the DPASV step of analysis and methods of measuring peak current signals were also made. (author)

  6. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  7. Preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination in environmental samples using polyurethane foam/Me-BTANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira Gama, Ednilton; Silva Lima, Adriana da; Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo

    2006-01-01

    In this work, polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with 2-(6'-methyl-2'-benzothiazolylazo)chromotropic acid (Me-BTANC) was packed in a minicolumn and it was used in an on-line preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination. Optimum hydrodynamic and chemical conditions for metal sorption were investigated. The effects of several foreign substances on the adsorption of cadmium and lead were also reported. The enrichment factor obtained was 37 (Cd and Pb) for 180 s preconcentration time. The proposed procedures allowed the determination of metals with detection limits (3σ) of 0.80 and 3.75 μg L -1 (0.10 and 0.47 μg g -1 of solid sample) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The precision of the procedures was also calculated: 3.1 (Cd 10 μg L -1 ) and 4.4% (Pb 100 μg L -1 ). The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analysis of the certified reference materials Spinach Leaves and Fish Tissue. Cadmium and lead contents in environmental samples (black tea, spinach leaves, natural and tap water) were determined by applying the proposed procedure

  8. Simultaneous Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Cadmium and Lead Determination in Wastewater: A Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Paulo R. M.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead by multi-element atomic absorption spectrometry with electrochemical atomization is proposed by employing a problem-based approach. The reports indicate that the students assimilated the principles of the simultaneous atomic absorption spectrometry (SIMAAS), the role of the chemical modifier, the…

  9. Mushroom contamination by mercury, cadmium and lead; Contaminazione di funghi commestibili con mercurio, cadmio e piombo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi Di Delupis, G.; Dojmi Di Delupis, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1996-12-01

    Occurrence and bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium and lead were found in mushrooms by various researchers. Such mushrooms were often found in polluted areas. Pollution was mainly caused by industrial or mining plants, by some agricultural treatments and by road traffic. Considerations and recommendations concerning food consumption are made.

  10. Method of analysis for the determination of lead and cadmium in fresh meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report comprises the result of the RIKILT of an intercomparison on the determination of lead and cadmium in bovine liver and bovine kidney. The aim of this round robbin was to check a wet ashing procedure followed by a flame AAS determination as described too in EEC doc. 2266/VI/77. Special

  11. Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those

  12. Lead, cadmium and chromium in raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Tarasco, Renata; Amorena, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Lead, cadmium and chromium levels were determined in different raw and boiled portions of Norway lobster caught in the central Adriatic Sea (Italy). In raw specimens, the lowest concentrations were always detected in the white meat. Lead and cadmium content in the edible portion never exceeded the maximum levels set by European legislation. The highest cadmium and chromium values (0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) were detected in the brown meat, while the highest lead concentrations were found in the exoskeleton (0.21 ± 0.01 mg/kg wet weight). Also, the boiled samples showed the lowest metal levels in the white meat, even if a significant increase (p < 0.01) was found for lead and cadmium compared to the corresponding raw portions. Among metals, chromium showed the highest concentrations in both raw and boiled portions, but up to now, the European legislation did not envisage any limits in seafood.

  13. Screening Technique for Lead and Cadmium in Toys and Other Materials Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Henry

    2005-01-01

    A simple procedure to quickly screen different consumer products for the presence of lead, cadmium, and other metals is described. This screening technique avoids expending a lot of preparation time on samples known to contain low levels of hazardous metals where only samples testing positive for the desired elements need to be analyzed…

  14. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  15. Investigation of Released Cadmium and Lead from Different Colors of Over Glaze Designs to Food Stuff in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, leaching of lead and cadmium was investigated from porcelain over glaze designs between different colors.  Also the effect of microwave heating was considered on leaching of lead and cadmium.  Dishes were selected with a decor with the dominant color of gray, red, yellow, blue, and dark blue. Amounts of cadmium and lead which leached from the container by acetic acid and orange juice were measured according to the standard ASTM C738.  The results showed that especially in the red and dark blue colors cadmium and lead could be released easily by either acetic acid or orange juice, and these amounts were much higher than the permissible standard amount. Also microwave heating could enhance releasing of lead and cadmium from decorated dinnerware. 

  16. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  17. Biochemical mechanism of phytoremediation process of lead and cadmium pollution with Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Xinxin; Yang, Huanhuan; Cui, Zhaojie

    2018-08-15

    This study focused on the bioremediation mechanisms of lead (0, 100, 500, 1000 mg kg -1 ) and cadmium (0,10,50,100 mg kg -1 ) contaminated soil using two indigenous fungi selected from mine tailings as the phytostimulation of Arabidopsis thaliana. The two fungal strains were characterized as Mucor circinelloides (MC) and Trichoderma asperellum (TA) by internal transcribed spacer sequencing at the genetic levels. Our research revealed that Cadmium was more toxic to plant growth than lead and meanwhile, MC and TA can strengthen A. thaliana tolerance to cadmium and lead with 40.19-117.50% higher root length and 58.31-154.14% shoot fresh weight of plant compared to non-inoculation. In this study, TA exhibited a higher potential to the inactivation of cadmium; however, MC was more effective in lead passivation. There was a direct correlation between the type of fungi, heavy metal content, heavy metal type and oxidative damage in plant. Both lead and cadmium induced oxidative damage as indicated by increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, while the antioxidant levels were significantly higher in fungal inoculated plants compared with those non-inoculated. The analysis of soil enzyme activity and taxonomic richness uncovered that the dominant structures of soil microbial community were altered by exogenous microbial agents. MC enhanced higher microbial diversity and soil enzyme activity than TA. The two indigenous fungi lessened several limiting factors with respect to phytoremediation technology, such as soil chemistry, contamination level and transformation, and metal solubility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils. PMID:26087302

  19. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  20. Concentrations of heavy metals (lead, manganese, cadmium) in blood and urine of former uranium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolova, D.; Pavlova, S.; Paskalev, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium ores contain heavy metals and other stable chemical elements as oxides, hydro-carbonates, sulphates, etc. During chemical processing of ore they could be transformed into compounds soluble in biologic liquids. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined intoxication of uranium miners and millers by heavy metals and radiation. Heavy metal (lead, manganese and cadmium) concentrations in blood and urine od 149 former uranium miners and millers were determined by AAS method. Data of significantly increased lead and manganese concentration in blood (p<0.05) of two groups were established in comparison with a control group. There is no statistical significant differences in the cadmium concentrations. The lead and manganese blood levels at the uranium millers were significant higher than those of the uranium miner group (p<0.05). Tendency towards increased blood lead concentrations of uranium millers depending on the length of service was established

  1. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Di Fonzo, Carla; Wider, Eva A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival

  2. Histopathological changes in kidneys of free ranging animals in relation to lead and cadmium residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiglboeck, C.

    2000-05-01

    Kidney samples of 234 roe deer and 45 wild boars were collected in Lower Austria and Vienna, and were analyzed for lead and cadmium contents. Samples of the organs were examined histologically, considering 12 different morphological parameters. Influences of age, sex and origin of the animals on heavy metal burdens were assessed, and the possible correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested. Lead concentrations were low with medians (mg/kg wet tissue) being 0,062 in roe deer and 0,044 in wild boars. Neither age nor sex nor origin influenced the lead contents of the kidneys. Cadmium burden was fairly high, both in roe deer (median: 0,954) and wild boars (median: 3,009). It increased with age in both species, while female roe deer showed higher contents as well. No influence of the animals' origin was found. The correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested in 208 roe deer and 44 wild boars which showed no signs of kidney related diseases. In roe deer, the frequency of vacuolic degeneration, pycnotic nuclei, caryolysis and necrosis was related with increased cadmium concentrations. Increasing age correlated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and swelling of glomeruli. Pigment deposits and thickening of the Bowman's capsule could be related to both cadmium and age. Furthermore, roe deer from Vienna more frequently showed alterations as observed in animals from Lower Austria. No correlation existed between morphological changes and lead concentrations or sex. In wild boars, there was no obvious relationship between all parameters tested and the frequency of histopathologic changes, except changes in pigmentation. Possible nephrotoxic agents in free ranging animals and the demonstrated influence of cadmium on severe kidney damage are discussed. (author)

  3. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odili, Augustine N. [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of Abuja (Nigeria); Thijs, Lutgarde [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Hasselt (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A., E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); R& D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985–2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 µmol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. - Highlights: • Prevalence and incidence rates of nephrolithiasis are increasing worldwide. • Lead and cadmium interfere with calcium homeostasis and might cause nephrolithiasis. • Environmental exposure to lead, not cadmium, predicts nephrolithiasis in the population. • Safety standards for environmental lead exposure need to account for nephrolithiasis. • Reducing environmental

  4. Cadmium and lead availability for rapeseed grown on an artificial ISO soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryla, A.; Sahut, C.

    2000-01-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in soils have become a major concern for food crop production. Of these metals, cadmium and lead are recognized as the most widespread elements, that are non-essential for plant growth. While the toxicity of these metals is often investigated on plants grown in nutrient solution, soil is a complex medium. Metals may be dissolved in the soil solution or chelated to carbonates, to oxides of iron or manganese, or to organic matter. This chemical state of the metal is important because it determines the availability of the metal for the crop. Yet its study is complicated by numerous factors (soil pH, temperature, humidity..) which modify this chemical equilibrium. To standardize the experiments, an artificially reconstituted soil was prepared from clay, sand and peat according to standards ISO 11268-1 (May 1994). Metals (lead and cadmium) were added as nitrate salts. Plants used were rapeseeds. Seeds were sown on 20 cm diameter pots and placed in a controlled growth chamber. At harvest, roots, leaves and stems were separated, dried, and mineralized with concentrated nitric acid. Sequential analysis of the soil was carried out to assess the chemical behavior of the cadmium. The chemical speciation of cadmium is shown. The metal is essentially soluble in the soil and poorly complexed to the organic matter. This indicates that contamination is recent and derives from metal salts; cadmium complexation to organic matter appears only after years of soil evolution. The metal is then essentially available for plants but equilibrium is established between the different forms. Plant growth is shown. Cadmium has a strong effect on biomass production at 50 μg / g in the soil. No toxic effect of lead was observed from 0 to 2000 μg / g in the soil, probably because lead is strongly complexed to the soil and less toxic for plants. Metal concentrations in plants after two months of growth are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Plant cadmium content reached 150

  5. UHF-plasma torch emission spectrometry for cadmium, lead and zinc by vaporization introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    As the introduction technique of aerosol into the plasma torch, vaporization introduction of metals was studied. An aliquot of metal nitrates was pipetted in a graphite crucible and dried with a vacuum pump. The dried sample was heated in a high-frequency induction furnace under inert gas carrier such as argon or nitrogen (reduction introduction). Chlorination introduction with hydrogen chloride was also studied. High-purity grade of argon, nitrogen and hydrogen chloride was used as carrier. Intensities were based on the peak area of intensity-time curves at 228.8 nm (cadmium), 405.8 nm (lead), and 213.9 nm (zinc). In the reduction introduction, the minimum temperatures to attain a constant peak area, which means a complete vaporization were 700 0 C (cadmium), 1500 0 C (lead), and 1100 0 C (zinc), respectively. In the chlorination, this temperature was 500 0 C (cadmium), 700 0 C (lead), and 300 0 C (zinc) respectively. For two introduction techniques, the latter was more sensitive than the former for cadmium and zinc, while the former was more sensitive for lead. The optimum temperature, detection limits, and the coefficients of variance calculated from the measurements of 1.0 μg of metals were as follows: Cadmium: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 10%. Lead: reduction at 1600 0 C, D.L. 10ng, C.V. 15%. Zinc: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 9%. Linear calibration lines having 45 0 slope at log-log plots, were obtained over the range from 0.05 to 6 μg for cadmium and zinc, 0.06 to 6 μg for lead on the conditions above. These techniques were also applied for analyses of biological materials for three metals without prior separations. Although the sensitivity of the chlorination introduction technique for lead was rather poor compared with that of reduction technique, the chlorination technique was applied to minimize the introduction of coexisting materials such as alkali and alkaline earth metals. The analytical results agreed reasonably with the

  6. Comparative Hepatotoxicity Test of Cadmium and Lead in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adverse environmental impacts include contamination of water, soil, and phytotoxicity from excessive heavy metals dispersed from mines and smelter sites leading to potential risk to human health. This study investigated the comparative hepatotoxicity test of mining pond waters used for domestic purposes in ...

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in lead and cadmium in the Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M; Hacker, C S

    1982-11-01

    Lead and cadmium concentrations were measured in eggs and in bone, kidney, liver and stomach contents of downy young, prefledgling, and adult Laughing Gulls collected from Matagorda Bay and Galveston Bay, Texas. Matagorda Bay drains a rural, moderately industrialized region while the Galveston Bay area is heavily urbanized and industrialized. Lead levels were lower in birds from Matagorda Bay and decreased in birds from Galveston Bay between 1977 and 1980. Cadmium levels were also lower in birds from Matagorda Bay but increased over the three-year period in those from Galveston Bay. The temporal decrease in lead may be associated with such environmental control efforts as reduced point source emissions and substitution of unleaded gasoline.

  8. Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvestad, K.; Karlog, O.; Clausen, B.

    1982-03-01

    During the severe winter of 1978-79, large numbers of mute swans died in coastal areas of Denmark. Of these, 2111 were collected for examination. The analyses confirm previous findings of relatively high copper levels in mute swans (mean for 178 livers was 2680 mg/kg dry weight (Dw) and for 110 kidneys 34 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 1). The copper content was not related to sex or age (Table II). The highest liver levels of copper were found in swans from Western Jutland. Cadmium was found at the same relatively low levels as recorded for waterfowl elsewhere (mean for 178 livers was 12 mg/kg Dw, for 110 kidneys 24 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 2). The cadmium content was not sex-related, but it increased with age (Table II). The mean mercury content (liver) was 1.4 mg/kg Dw in the 10 birds analysed (Table I). The mean lead content was 15 mg/kg Dw in the 178 livers analysed and 31 mg/kg Dw in 110 sternum (Table I and Fig. 3). The lead content was not sex-related. In sternum, but not in livers, it was related to age (Table II). One third of the swans were found lead-contaminated probably after ingestion of lead pellets. None of the swans carried high levels of both copper, cadmium, and lead (Table III).

  9. Cadmium, lead, mercury and 137cesium in fruticose lichens of northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crete, M.; Zikovsky, L.

    1992-01-01

    Cadmium, lead and mercury concentration averaged 0.171, 4.09 and 0.09 μg·g -1 (dry wt.) in terrestrial lichens over a 640000-km 2 study area of northern Quebec; average cesium level reached 378 Bq·kg -1 (dry wt.). Cadmium and lead were the most closely related pollutants in lichens, while there was little relationship between 137 Cs and the 3 trace metals. Distribution of elements over the territory was not uniform and the altitude influenced 3 of them. The cesium concentration increased along with this variable, while lead levels were higher in the middle altitude class (200-400 m) than in the 2 other classes. There was a significant interaction between altitude and biome for mercury concentration, this element being almost twice more abundant in tundra below 400m than in forest tundra and boreal forest. Mercury level was related to percent ground cover by Alectoria ochroleuca, Cornicularia divergens and Cetraria nivalis, 3 lichen species typical of a wind-exposed habitat. Lead concentration was related only to Cornicularia divergens ground cover. In general concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was higher in the northwest quarter of the study area than elsewhere, while cesium contamination was highest in the southeast quarter. It seems preferable that caribou should be harvested at low elevation when they are taken in winter in order to minimize the risk associated with cesium consumption by humans. (author). 37 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  11. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Amirmoradi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available **Introduction Industrialization has been the cause of environmental pollution and one of significant pollutant is that of heavy metals. These hazardous elements can cause to water and soil pollution. These metals can accumulate in the food chain and create damages for human and livestock. Researchers revealed that increasing Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations caused to decreasing of shoot fresh weight and essential oil yield. Scavroni et al (2005 indicated that peppermint was able to accumulate the heavy metals in shoot tissues but did not enter into essential oil. Therefore study the effect of heavy metals on morphological and quantitative traits of medicinal plants is essential. Material and Method The experiment was done in the research greenhouse of the Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011.The treatments were arranged basis on a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were included T1:0, T2:10 ppm cd , T3:20 ppm cd,T4:40 ppm cd,T5:60 ppm cd,T6:80 ppm cd cd,T7:100 ppm cd,T8:100ppm pb, T9:300 ppm pb, T10: 600 ppm pb, T11: 900 ppm pb, T12: 1200 ppm pb and T13: 1500 ppm pb. Peppermint was cultivated with uniform weight rhizomes harvested from the research farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Every rhizome had two buds and six rhizomes were planted in pots of dimensions 30×50×35 cm. Treatments were irrigated with cdcl2 and pbcl2 with the administered doses and control was irrigated with distilled water. Plants were harvested two times at the first stages of flowering. The essential oil percentage was measured with 30 grams of dried leaves by Clevenger device. Result and Discussion Increasing cadmium and lead concentrations caused a decline of fresh and dry weight, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number per plant, number of nodes per plant and essential oil percentage compared to the control. At the first harvest, increasing doses of Cd caused a decrease of fresh weight. This

  12. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  13. [The occurance lead and cadmium in hip joint in aspect of exposure on tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunia, Mariusz; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Ahnert, Bozena; Kowol, Jolanta; Nogaj, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was qualification of content cadmium and lead in selected elements of the hip joint in aspect of tobacco smoking. The material for the research were 5 elements of hip joint (articular cartilage, trabecular bone and cortical bone femur head, fragment articular capsule and fragment trabecular bone from region intertrochanteric femoral bone), obtained intraoperatively during endoprothesoplastic surgeries. The samples come from habitants of Upper Silesian Region. Determination of trace elements contents were performed by ASA method (Pye Unicam SP-9) in acetylene-oxygen flame. Higher contents of lead were observed for smoking people, however in case of cadmium the differences of this element were not statistical essential between smokers and non-smokers.

  14. Monitoring of the content of lead and cadmium in the waters of the river Tuis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Urbina, Maria Elena; Molina Salazar, Ofelia; Hidalgo Paniagua, David

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead and cadmium was monitored in the waters of the river Tuis for 11 months. The method of digestion most suitable was determined for this type of matrix. The chemical analyses were realized by means of the technique of anodic stripping voltammetry by differential pulse, for which some parameters of measurement were optimized and there decided the limits of detection and quantification. The veracity of the method was evaluated by means of the percentage of recovery for each of the analytes. The limit of detection of the lead is of 0,46 μgL-1 and limit of quantification is 1, 5 μgL-1, the cadmium has a limit of detection of 0,40 μgL-1 and 1,3 μgL-1 of quantification. (author) [es

  15. In vivo detection of the toxic heavy elements, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.; Davey, J.F.; Baddeley, H.; Summers, V.; Craswell, P.

    1986-01-01

    Portable systems for the in vivo measurement of the toxic heavy elements, cadmium and lead are described. The cadmium concentration in either the liver or left kidney is determined using a technique of thermal neutron capture gamma-ray analysis. X-ray fluorescence analysis is used to measure lead within the bone of the second phalanx of the index finger. Each of the measurements is used as an index of long term exposure to the element and applied to screening of exposed industrial workers. The results of these industrial health applications are presented. Clinical application of the measurements to the study of the involvement of these elements in renal disease is described in brief. (author)

  16. Effects of iron deficiency on the absorption and distribution of lead and cadmium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of iron deficiency on the absorption of pollutant metals, an iron-deficient diet was fed to young rats until their tissue-iron stores were depleted. Prior to the development of anemia, the iron-deficient rats and littermate controls were administered an intragastric gavage of lead-210 or cadmium-109 and were killed 48 hr later. The body burden of lead was approximately 6 times greater, and that of cadmium approximately 7 times greater, in iron-deficient rats than in the controls. No consistent effects were observed on concentrations of serum total lipids or serum proteins nor on protein electrophoretic patterns in rats with a deficit in iron stores

  17. Elements in rice from the Swedish market: 1. Cadmium, lead and arsenic (total and inorganic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Astrand, C; Sundström, B; Baxter, M; Stokes, P; Lewis, J; Grawé, K Petersson

    2008-03-01

    A survey of the levels of cadmium, lead and arsenic in different types of rice available on the Swedish retail market was carried out in 2001--03. The types of rice included long and short grain, brown, white, and parboiled white rice. The mean levels found were as follows: total As: 0.20 mg kg(-1), inorganic As: 0.11 mg kg(-1); Cd: 0.024 mg kg(-1); and Pb: 0.004 mg kg(-1). ICP-MS was used for the determination of As (total and inorganic) after acid digestion. Lead and cadmium were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after dry ashing. In countries where rice is a staple food, it may represent a significant contribution in relation to the provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd and inorganic As.

  18. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  19. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis

  20. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  1. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brender, Jean D.; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62μg/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation

  2. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; Arauz, Luciana Juncioni de; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and rep...

  3. Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution. Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated. Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in

  4. Deposition of lead and cadmium released by cigarette smoke in dental structures and resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Cristina Yoshie Garcia; Corrêa-Afonso, Alessandra Marques; Pedrazzi, Hamilton; Dinelli, Welingtom; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2011-03-01

    Cigarette smoke is a significant source of cadmium, lead, and toxic elements, which are absorbed into the human organism. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the presence of toxic elements, cadmium, and lead deriving from cigarette smoke in the resin composite, dentine, and dental enamel. Eight cylindrical specimens were fabricated from resin composite, bovine enamel, and root dentin fragments that were wet ground and polished with abrasive paper to obtain sections with 6-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness. All specimens were exposed to the smoke of 10 cigarettes/day during 8 days. After the simulation of the cigarette smoke, the specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the photomicrographic analysis in SEM, no morphological alterations were found; however, the microanalysis identified the presence of cadmium, arsenic, and lead in the different specimens. These findings suggest that the deposition of these elements derived from cigarette smoke could be favored by dental structures and resin composite. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Zbigniew; Koch, Wojciech; Marzec, Agnieszka; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in the city of Lublin in south-east Poland to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants, compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one–MIBK, in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70% of PTWI/TDI values, and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years, whereas the exposures to nickel remains on a stable level.

  6. Investigation of heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead in Chironomidae and Gammarus pulex Namrood River – Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei M. Kamali A. and Shapoori M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystem pollution is one of the important problems of today environment. In this study the existence of heavy metal in the Namrood River, situated in Firoozkooh in Tehran province, Iran has been investigated. The Namrood River is located near Firoozkooh route, and is affected by pollutant from tourist centers, entertainment, gas stations, nearby villages’ sewage systems, farming effluent, and hatchery farms. In some areas, its water is heavily polluted possibly by heavy metals. After selecting two stations in upstream and downstream of the river, they were sampled three times in both cold and hot seasons of year (mid-March, and June for Chironomidae, and Gammarus plux sediments. The measured heavy metals were cadmium and lead. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium in measured samples varied from 0.010-0.2033 ppm. The concentration of lead in samples varied from 0.11-2.16 ppm. The results also indicated that sediments of samples taken from the upper station in the cold season had a higher proportion of cadmium and a higher concentration of lead  than  sediments in the lower station during the hot season.

  7. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  8. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  9. Effects of lead and cadmium exposure from electronic waste on child physical growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huo, Xia; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Zheng, Qiujian; Zheng, Minghao; Xu, Xijin

    2013-07-01

    Many studies indicate that lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure may alter bone development through both direct and indirect mechanisms, increasing the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Pb and Cd exposure, physical growth, and bone and calcium metabolism in children of an electronic waste (e-waste) processing area. We recruited 246 children (3-8 years) in a kindergarten located in Guiyu, China. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) of recruited children were measured as biomarkers for exposure. Serum calcium, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline were used as biomarkers for bone and calcium metabolism. Physical indexes such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference were also measured. The mean values of BLLs and BCLs obtained were 7.30 μg/dL and 0.69 μg/L, respectively. The average of BCLs increased with age. In multiple linear regression analysis, BLLs were negatively correlated with both height and weight, and positively correlated with bone resorption biomarkers. Neither bone nor calcium metabolic biomarkers showed significant correlation with cadmium. Childhood lead exposure affected both physical development and increased bone resorption of children in Guiyu. Primitive e-waste recycling may threaten the health of children with elevated BLL which may eventually cause adult osteoporosis.

  10. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Motoi; Fotoohi, Babak; Amamo, Yoshimasa; Mercier, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  11. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Motoi; Fotoohi, Babak; Amamo, Yoshimasa; Mercier, Louis

    2012-07-01

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  12. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  13. Study of Sage (Salvia officinalis L. Cultivation in Condition of Using Irrigated Water Polluted By Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Amirmoradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accumulation of heavy metals in agronomic soils continuously by contaminated waste waters not only causes to contamination of soils but also it affects food quality and security. Cadmium and lead are one of the most important heavy metals due to long permanence and persistence in soil can cause problems to human and animal health. Some medicinal plants are able to accumulate of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Heavy metals are not able to enter in the essential oil of some aromatic plants. Study of these plants helps human to select them for cultivating the resistant medicinal plants in contaminated soils. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out in the research greenhouse of agriculture faculty of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2011. Seeds were cultivated in planting aprons into peat moss medium. Then the uniform plantlets were transferred into soil in the plastic boxes (30×50×35 cm at two leaf stage. In each box 6 plantlets were sown with distance of 15 cm on the planting rows and 20 cm between rows. Experiment was set up as factorial on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was cadmium concentrations consisted of 0,10,20,40 mg per kilogram and the second factor was lead concentrations consisted of 0,100,300 and 600 mg/kg. Plants were irrigated during of15 weeks with cadmium and lead nitrogen nitrate solutions and then irrigated with distilled water. The differences of nitrogen amounts in treatments were compensated with ammonium nitrate on the basis of differences between level of the highest treatment and the treatment which obtained lower amount of nitrogen. Plants were harvested after 180 days at the beginning of flowering. All shoots and roots were weighted separately as fresh weight and then were dried under shading and then were weighted. The essential oil sage was determined by using of 30 grams of dried sage leaves with distillation method with

  14. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2013-04-08

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  15. Toxicity of cadmium and lead on tropical midge larvae, Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebau, Warrin; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Din, Zubir; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acute toxicity of cadmium and lead on larvae of two tropical Chironomid species, Chironomus kiiensis (C. kiiensis) Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus (C. javanus) Kieffer. Methods Different larval instars (first-fourth) were exposed using a static non-replacement testing procedures to various concentrations of cadmium and lead. Results In general, younger larvae (first and second instars) of both species were more sensitive to both metals than older larvae (third and forth instars). The toxic effects of the metals on C. kiiensis and C. javanus were influenced by the age of the larvae (first to fourth instars), types of metals (cadmium or lead) and duration of larval exposure (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) to the metals. Conclusions Cadmium was more toxic to the chironomids than lead and C. javanus was significantly more sensitive to both metals than C. kiiensis (P<0.05). PMID:23569984

  16. Effects of blood lead and cadmium levels on the functioning of children with behaviour disorders in the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkup-Jabłońska, Małgorzata; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta; Jurczak, Anna; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna; Rotter, Iwona; Prokopowicz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The developing brain of a child is extremely prone to damage resulting from exposure to harmful environmental factors, e.g. heavy metals. Intoxication of children's organisms with lead and cadmium affects their intellectual development. Even a relatively small amount of this metal in children's blood can lead to developmental dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between blood lead and cadmium levels in children with behaviour disorders and their functioning in the home. This survey-based study was conducted among 78 families with children diagnosed as having behaviour disorders. It was performed using the ADHD-Rating Scale-IV. To determine lead and cadmium levels the laboratory procedure was based on Stoppler and Brandt's method. The mean blood lead level was 19.71 µg/l and the mean blood cadmium level was 0.215 µg/l. Higher blood lead levels in children correlates positively with incidences of hyperactive and impulsive behaviour in the home, as assessed by parents (p=0.048). Statistically significant effects of cadmium on children's behaviour were not noticed. The effect of lead on the developing organism of a child has such behavioural consequences as attention disorders, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour which, in turn, may interfere with children's functioning in the home. A negative effect of cadmium on the functioning of children with behaviour disorders in the home was not proved.

  17. Uptake of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury from polluted waters by the water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigbo, F.E.; Smith, R.W.; Shore, F.L.

    1982-01-01

    The water hyacinth Eichornia crassipes was studied as a pollution monitor for the simultaneous accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mecury. After cultivation of the plants for 2 days in tanks containing 10 ppm of each of the metals in aqueous solution, the plants were harvested and rinsed with tap water. The leaves and stems were separated and analysed for each of the metals. The ratio of the concentration of arsenic and mercury in the leaves to the concentrations in the stems was found to be 2:1. Cadmium and lead showed a concentration ratio in leaves to stems of about 1:1. The leaf concentration of arsenic was the lowest of the metals of 0.3428 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material whilst the leaf concentration of cadmium was highest at 0.5740 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material. Control plants were grown in unpolluted water. Plants grown in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi sewage lagoon were also analysed. The mercury concentrations of the leaves of plants grown in the sewage lagoon were significantly different from the control sample which had a concentration of 0.0700 mg g/sup -1/ of dried plant material.

  18. Cadmium, lead and mercury levels in feeding yeast produced in Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, J; Turecki, T; Miholová, D; Mader, P; Száková, J; Brabec, M

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-six samples of the feeding yeast known as VITEX were analyzed for Cd, Pb and Hg content during 1987-1989. Cadmium content ranged from 0.30 to 5.12 mg/kg(-1), lead content from 0.21 to 3.01 mg/kg(-1) and mercury content from 0.008 to 0.187 mg/kg(-1). Our findings meet the current government standards (max. allowed Pb = 5.00, Cd = 0.50 and Hg = 0.100 mg/kg(-1)) only for lead, and with five exceptions, for mercury. With two exceptions, all cadmium levels found in the samples exceeded the limit. One raw material - the wood chips - was shown to be the main source of cadmium in the technological process. Relatively high Hg contents were measured in the wood chips (up to 0.155 mg/kg(-1)); the highest Hg level (1.105 mg/kg(-1)) however was found in a sample of KOH.

  19. QUANTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IN POULTRY AND BIRD GAME MEAT BY SQUARE WAVE ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetric method for the analysis of lead and cadmium in chicken muscle and liver was developed and validated, and the results of a monitoring study relative to chicken and pigeon meat are reported. The voltammetric method allows the analysis of lead and cadmium at the same time in samples after acid digestion. The use of perchloric acid for digestion and of acetate buffer in the supporting electrolyte have been found suitable to reduce ma...

  20. Determination of Lead and Cadmium in cow’s Milk and Elimination by Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Moallem Bandani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Heavy metals such as cadmium and lead are the most important toxins spreading through various ways like water, soil, and air in nature and easily enter human food chain. It is essential to determine the cumulative and harmful effects of these metals in nutrients, especially in cow milk because it is a unique source of food for all ages and it contains both essential and nonessential trace elements. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples were directly collected from healthy cows in Zabol located on east of Iran. The samples were tested to determine lead and cadmium residues. The rates of the heavy metals were determined using a Rayleigh atomic absorption spectrum equipped with hollow cathode lamps (HCL at 283.3 nm for lead (Pb and at 228.8 nm for cadmium (Cd. By using the photo-catalytic titanium dioxide nanoparticles, these toxic metals were removed. Results: The mean ± SD of the concentration of lead and cadmium in raw milk were 9.175± 2.5 and 4.557 ± 1.081 ppb, respectively. Also, the P-values of Kalmogorov– Smiranov test for lead and cadmium were respectively 0.057 ppb (P>0.05 and 0.435 ppb (P>0.05. TiO2 nanoparticles were used to eliminate and remove lead and cadmium in milk samples. The results showed that there was a significant difference between lead and cadmium contents before and after adding TiO2 nanoparticles (P<0.05. Conclusions: According to results of this study, there was a very low amount of toxic metals. So, it seems that it is not necessary to use TiO2 in milk samples but these days it used frequently as an additive to some samples like milk to remove these pollutants. Keywords: lead, cadmium, milk, atomic absorption spectroscopy, TiO2 nanoparticles

  1. Exposure to lead and cadmium released from ceramics and glassware intended to come into contact with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Mania, Monika; Szynal, Tomasz; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Starska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The dietary intake of harmful elements, particularly lead and cadmium constitutes a health threat and essential measures should be undertaken to reduce consumer exposure. The latest risk assessments by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have indicated that the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for lead and cadmium do not ensure health safety and their review had to be undertaken. Migration from ceramics and glassware intended for food contact is an important source of lead and cadmium intake. To study the release of lead and cadmium from ceramics and glassware (including decorated products) intended for food contact that are available on the Polish market and to assess the resulting health risk to the consumer. Ceramics and glassware (mainly decorated) were sampled from the Polish market during 2010- 2012 throughout the country by staff of the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in accordance with monitoring procedures and guidelines designed by the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene. Migration of lead and cadmium was measured by incubating the samples with 4% acetic acid for 24 hours at a temperature of 22±2ºC in the dark. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was used to measure these elements in food simulant according to a validated and accredited method (PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025). 1273 samples of ceramics and glass wares were analysed in 2010-2012. Lead and cadmium release were usually found to be below analytical detection limits. Permissible migration limits (as prescribed by the legislation) of these metals were rarely exceeded and were reported mainly in articles imported from outside the EU. Two imported and decorated ceramic flat plates released lead at 0.9 and 11.9 mg/dm2 (limit 0.8 mg/dm2) and 5 imported deep plates gave migration values of 4.7 mg/L, 4.9 mg/L, 5.6 mg/L, 6.1 mg/L, 8.6 mg/L (limit 4.0 mg/L). Lead migrations from ceramic ware rims

  2. Human exposure to pollutants - part: 1 blood lead and cadmium in a sample of population of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousufzai, A.H.K.; Khalid, Q.; Sultana, L.

    1994-01-01

    A study was carried out to see the blood lead and cadmium levels in fifty employees working at PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi. These employees belonged to various socio-economic groups and had their residences in different areas of Karachi. Sixty two percent staff had blood lead level between 100-200 micro g/L. The highest blood lead level(>400 micro g/L) was found in volunteers working as garage staff. No significant difference was found between the blood lead levels of volunteers belonging to different socio-economic and age groups, only 8% of the staff had blood lead levels below 100 micro g/L. Lead in the dust collected from the residences of the volunteers was also estimated for lead and correlated with blood lead levels. Blood cadmium levels were also estimated. These were found to be higher in smokers and tobacco chewers. A definite correlation was observed between blood cadmium levels and smoking habits. (author)

  3. Determination of mercury, lead and cadmium in water by the CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry with solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Y.B.; Won, M.S.; Kim, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The method of CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometer with solvent extraction for the determination of mercury, lead and cadmium in water was studied. The optimum extracting conditions for CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry were the following: the complexes of mercury, lead and cadmium with dithizone were separated from the aqueous solution and concentrated into the 10 ml chloroform solution. Back extraction was performed; the concentrated mercury, lead and cadmium was extracted from the chloroform solution into the 10 ml 6-normal aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. In this case, recovery ratios were the following: mercury was 94.7%, lead 97.7% and cadmium 103.6%. The optimum operating conditions for the determination of mercury, lead and cadmium by the CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry also were investigated to test the dry step, ash step and atomization step for each metal. The experimental results of standard addition method were the following: the determination limit of each metal within 6% relative deviation was that lead was 0.04 ppb, and cadmium 0.01 ppb. Especially, mercury has been known impossible to determine by CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometry until now. But in this study, mercury can be determined with CRA-atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Its determination limit was 4 ppb within 8% relative deviation. (author)

  4. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  5. Contamination by cadmium and lead of some fruits and vegetables exposed to polluted air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohra, R.

    2004-01-01

    Author.Global air pollution and particularly in the urban cities derives from vehicle transportation (cars, buses, trucks) and electric generators. In Lebanon, many people use fuel diesel and leaded gasoline in the engines of their vehicles. Indeed, the fuel used in our country, contains thirteen times more pollutants than that used legally in the developed countries (Magazine de l'environnement, 2002). This contributes to the pollution of the air that we breathe as well as the fruits and vegetables exposed to air. 762 samples of four kinds of different fruits (peaches, apples, strawberries and grapes) and two kinds of vegetables (parsleys and cucumbers) were taken twice and during different periods from eight different places in laps of time of seven days. The samples were analyzed in the laboratories of IRAL at Fanar and Tal-Amara, using the Spectroscopy Atomic Absorption method. The analysis included two groups of samples: the first one comprises 192 samples of fruits and vegetables without peeling and the second one comprises 570 samples of fruit and vegetables with peeling. The average values of the non washed samples were between 0.13 ±0.012 and 0.6 ppm ± 0.02 for lead and 0.06 ± 0.015 and 0.18 ppm ± 0.02 for cadmium. Those of the non washed peelings were between 0.08 ± 0.015 and 0.38 ppm ±0.025 for lead and 0.03 ±0.006 and 0.11 ppm ± for cadmium. On the other hand, those of the non-washed peeled samples were between 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.27 ppm ± 0.016 for lead and 0.03 ± 0.016 and lead and 0.03 ± 0.06 and 0.07 ppm ± 0.015 for cadmium. Once these samples were washed , the average values were marked between 0.03 ± 0.006 and 0.15 ppm ± 0.02 for the lead and 0.02 ± 0.006 and 0.06 ppm ± 0.015 for the cadmium. Then, after drying them, concentrations revealed to be comprised between 0.02 ± 0.005 and 0.1 ppm ± 0.02 for the lead and 0.01 and 0.04 ppm ± 0.006 for the cadmium and that of the washing water was concentrated between 0.09 ± 0.016 and 0

  6. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  7. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  8. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  9. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U.; Nzegwu, C.N.; Adigba, E.O.; Aloke, R.U.; Ezomike, C.N.; Okocha, C.E.; Obi, E.; Orisakwe, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 μg) and 0.177 mg (177 μg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products

  10. Cadmium and lead in tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) using the Illinois River (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tissue lead and cadmium concentrations were examined in two common, widely distributed species of duck, utilizing a major river system. - Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of Mallards and Wood Ducks collected from two waterfowl management areas along the Illinois River, USA, during the autumn and late winter of 1997-1998. Lead concentrations in livers of Mallards were lower than previously reported, and, along with those in a small sample of Wood Duck livers, were within background levels (<2.0 μg/g wet weight). Mean concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks utilizing the Illinois River were four times greater than in after-hatch-year Mallards, and 14 times greater than in hatch-year Mallards. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks were comparable with those of specimens dosed with cadmium or inhabiting contaminated areas in previous studies. Wood Ducks utilizing wetlands associated with the Illinois River, and presumably other portions of the lower Great Lakes region, may be chronically exposed to cadmium

  11. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  12. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  13. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  14. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  15. Flow injection determination of lead and cadmium in hair samples from workers exposed to welding fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespon-Romero, R.M.; Yebra-Biurrun, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A flow injection procedure involving continuous acid leaching for lead and cadmium determination in hair samples of persons in permanent contact with a polluted workplace environment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Variables such as sonication time, nature and concentration of the acid solution used as leaching solution, leaching temperature, flow-rate of the continuous manifold, leaching solution volume and hair particle size were simultaneously studied by applying a Plackett-Burman design approach. Results showed that nitric acid concentration (leaching solution), leaching temperature and sonication time were statistically significant variables (confidence interval of 95%). These last two variables were finally optimised by using a central composite design. The proposed procedure allowed the determination of cadmium and lead with limits of detection 0.1 and 1.0 μg g -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM 397, human hair, from the BCR). The proposed method was applied with satisfactory results to the determination of Cd and Pb in human hair samples of workers exposed to welding fumes

  16. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  17. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II and Lead(II Ions in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krystofova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab, a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II and lead(II ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM. Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract with artificially added cadmium(II and lead(II. Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic.

  18. Lead and Cadmium: Priorities for action from UNEP’s perspective for addressing risks posed by these two heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP has been focusing on actions with regard to lead and cadmium since 2001 when the work of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV was initiated. The development and finalization of the reviews of scientific information on lead and cadmium facilitated discussions among Governments in relation to the need for global action with regard to these heavy metals. UNEP continues to address priority areas for focusing to reduce risks posed by lead and cadmium. The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (GAELP is a clear example for addressing those risks; however more work is expected to be done in relation to these key issues.

  19. Health Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic in Citrus Marketed in Tehran, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Today, the environment pollution with heavy metals has increased. It is important to study various types of pollutions specially those regarding fruits. The effect of pollutions on food safety for human consumption is a global concern.  This study was conducted for health assessment of heavy metals pollution (cadmium, lead, and arsenic in citrus marketed in Tehran, Iran in 2015. Materials & Methods: After collecting and preparing 2 samples from each citrus species (tangerine, grapefruit, sweet lime, sour orange, orange with acid digestion method, the citrus pulp and peel were surveyed. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to determine the concentrations of heavy metals with three replications. Moreover, SPSS version 19 was employed to perform statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that the concentration average of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic in citrus samples of the pulp parts were 19.73, 42.95 and 2.30 mg/kg and in peel parts were 20.09, 42.71 and 2.12 mg/kg, respectively. The average concentrations of heavy metals were higher than WHO maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Based on these results, consumption of citrus species has no adverse effect on the consumers’ health (except Sweet lime, Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit in lead is risky for adults and Sweet lime and Orange that Health Index in Lead and Arsenic and Sour Orange, Tangerine and Grapefruit that Health Index in Lead is more than 1 and is risky for children. Thus, individuals living in Tehran should be cautious about using these citrus fruits and researchers should try to obtain national standards in the field of entering these metals to food in environmental conditions that are in Iran.

  20. Food chain transfer of cadmium and lead to cattle in a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qiu; Long Meili; Zhu Ming; Zhou Qingzhen; Zhang Ling; Liu Jie

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) are environmental pollutants. Environmental samples and bovine tissues were collected from the areas around a lead-zinc smelter in Guizhou, China for Cd, Pb, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) analysis. Cd in soil (10 mg/kg) and feed (6.6 mg/kg) from the polluted areas was 10 times higher than the Chinese Standards, resulting in higher Cd in bovine kidney (38 mg/kg) and liver (2.5 mg/kg). Pb in feed (132 mg/kg) from the polluted area was much higher than unpolluted areas, causing higher Pb levels in bovine tissues. Environmental Zn was elevated, but bovine tissue Zn was normal. Cu in bovine liver decreased with increased Cd and Pb. Metals in drinking water and in bovine muscle were within the Standard range. Thus, in the areas of this lead-zinc smelter, the environment has been contaminated with Cd and Pb, which has been transferred to cattle through the food chain. - Cd and Pb from lead-zinc smelters contaminate the environment and accumulate in bovine tissues.

  1. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, Janneke; Plusquin, Michelle; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim; Cuypers, Ann; Van Hecke, Etienne; Roels, Harry A.; Carleer, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24μmol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm 2 /92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks

  2. Effects of reaction conditions on the emission behaviors of arsenic, cadmium and lead during sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hengda; Hu, Song; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A; Xiao, Yiming; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Long; Su, Sheng; Xiang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Removal of Cadmium, Zinc, Lead and Copper by Sorption on Leaching Residue from Nickel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Václavíková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A leaching resudue from the nickel production (LRNi, was used to study the removal of selected bivalent cations (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn from model aqueous solutions. Batch-type experiments have been performed in solutions with initial concentrations of heavy metals in the range of 20-400 mg.L-1 and the adsorbent dosage 2 g.L-1. All adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (22+1°C in orbital shaker. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The relatively high uptake indicated that LRNi can adsorb considerable amounts of cadmium and zinc (maximum uptake capacity for cadmium: 25 mg/g at pH 7.2 and ca. 40 mg/g for zinc at pH 7. A significant uptake was also observed for copper and lead at pH 5.8 and 6 respectively, which was attributed to the precipitation of the respective insoluble hydroxides.

  5. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  6. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barregard, Lars; Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth; Lundh, Thomas; Moelne, Johan; Wallin, Maria; Olausson, Michael; Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 μg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 μg/g for mercury, and 0.08 μg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 μg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 μg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 μg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  7. Study on complexed lead and cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions by means of ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudzinska, M.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions and organic chelates from waste water has been studied. The experimental work has been preceded by extensive theoretical considerations and calculations of physico-chemical parameters of the process for model and real waste water systems. The negative influence of the presence of sulfate anions on cadmium and lead complexes removal in ion exchange process has been experimentally proved. In the systems free of sulfate anions or when their concentrations were low, the purification process conducted on Amberlite IRA-68 was very effective for cadmium and lead complexes removal. 112 refs, 78 figs, 15 tabs

  8. Determination of serum cadmium and lead in patients of ischemic hear disease associated with or without hypertension and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagra, S.A.; Zikrya, B.; Maqbool, T.

    1999-01-01

    Human health and trace minerals are closely associated with each other. The vital role of trace elements has become clear in the recent years. The relation of trace elements in serum varies with the state of human health, ecology and under different pathological conditions. Determination of cadmium, and lead in the blood serum of normal, hypertensive patients, Ischemic heart patients, diabetic patients, hypertensive patients having diabetes, ischemic heart patients with diabetes, and hypertensive patients having ischemic heart disease, was carried out by using atomic absorption spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated that the concentration of cadmium and lead was elevated as compared with the normal and discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  10. Application of extraction-chromatographic concentration to atomic absorption determination of lead and cadmium in drinking and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Agapkina, G.I.; Ershova, N.I.; Narankho, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    To increase the detection limits for lead and cadmium atomic-absorption determination in natural waters methods of extraction-chromatographic concentration of these metals using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is developed. Chromatograpy was carried out from 1.5-2.0 M HBr solutions. For cadmium and lead elution acetic acid was used. It is shown that extraction-chromatographic concentration permits to decrease limits of metal atomic-absorption detection by 10 3 with the 500 ml volume sample analysis

  11. Development of quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys by using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Kurusu, Kazuhiko; Kudou, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    A highly reliable quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys was developed. Standard samples were made by doping cadmium, lead and chromium into several aluminum alloys, and the composition of standard samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and gravimetric method. The calibration curves for these standard samples by using WD-XRF and ED-XRF exhibited linear correlation. Slope of calibration curves for Al-Cu alloy and Al-Zn-Mg alloy were smaller than other alloy's one, because of the effect by coexistent elements. Then, all calibration curves agreed with each other by performing correction with α-coefficient method. (author)

  12. Assessment of cadmium, copper and lead in marine species of the atlantic and pacific oceans of Guatemala by voltametry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Evelyn

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis results of measurements of cooper, lead, and cadmium were made using voltametry. Three points in the pacific ocean and one in the atlantic were selected to obtain samples of fish and shrimp as species that are contaminated with toxic metals. The samples were treated by physical and chemical methods to turn soluble the metals and the chemical determination could be done using voltametry or differential polarography of pulse. The results shown that copper, lead and cadmium are present in the samples in traces level. The precision of measurements was verified measuring certified by the National Institute of Standard and Technology NIST of the Commerce Departmento of the United States

  13. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  14. Long-Term Survey of Cadmium and Lead Contamination in Japanese Black Bears Captured in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidney samples of 242 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) captured from 1999 to 2014 from two local populations in Japan. The median concentration of cadmium was 0.54 (mean: 0.80) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and 7.7 (mean: 11.8) mg/kg-w.w. in kidney. The median concentration of lead was 0.24 (mean: 0.40) and 0.21 (mean: 0.32) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and kidney, respectively. Bears in the Kita-ou local population had higher concentrations of cadmium and lead than those in the Kitakami Highlands local population. No chronological change was observed in cadmium levels in tissues, but the percentage of bears whose lead levels exceeded 0.5 mg/kg-w.w. has been decreasing in recent years. Countermeasures against lead poisoning in wildlife, which were instituted in 2002, may have contributed to the decrease in lead contamination of the Japanese black bear.

  15. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  16. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  17. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-06-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from cocoa, with correlations varying by product type and geographic origin. Geographic variation was observed for Cd, with higher Cd concentrations found in products reported as originating from Latin America than from Africa. The influence of percent cocoa solids and cocoa origin on Cd levels are relevant to international standards for Cd in chocolate products.

  18. Modelling atmospheric dispersion of mercury, lead and cadmium at european scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roustan, Yelva

    2005-01-01

    Lead, mercury and cadmium are identified as the most worrying heavy metals within the framework of the long range air pollution. Understanding and modeling their transport and fate allow for making effective decisions in order to reduce their impact on people and their environment. The first two parts of this thesis relate to the modeling of these trace pollutants for the impact study at the European scale. While mercury is mainly present under gaseous form and likely to chemically react, the other heavy metals are primarily carried by the fine particles and considered as inert. The third part of this thesis presents a methodological development based on an adjoint approach. It has been used to perform a sensitivity analysis of the model and to carry out inverse modeling to improve boundary conditions which are crucial with a restricted area model. (author) [fr

  19. CADMIUM AND LEAD STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS GROWN ON ACID SOIL OF EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kovačević

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty corn (Zea mays L. hybrids were grown under field conditions in the west part of Brodsko-posavska county in Eastern Croatia during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The field trial was conducted in four replicates. The ear-leaf at beginning of silking stage (the second decade of July was taken for chemical analysis from each plot. Mean soil sample was taken by auger to 30 cm of depth. The total amounts of Cd and Pb in corn leaves were measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soil was extracted by ammonium acetate-EDTA solution. The experimental field is acid hydromorphic soil (locality Malino with moderate levels of mobile fractions of calcium, magnesium and aluminum. Also, mobile fraction of cadmium and lead are tolerable for growing of health food. Weather conditions during the study differed from the long-term mean. Low rainfall quantities during 5-months period and the higher air-temperatures characterized the 2000 growing season. Excess of rainfall in June and September, their shortage in July and August, as well as high temperatures in August, are main characteristics of weather during the corn growing seasons in 2001. Mean concentrations of cadmium and lead in corn leaves in our investigations were 0.14 ppm Cd and 0.420 ppm Pb. These amounts are low and not dangerous for plants, because critical concentrations of Cd and Pb in plants ranged from 5 to 10 ppm Cd and 10-20 ppm Pb. Considerable differences of cadmium and lead status in the ear-leaf were found among tested corn hybrids. For example, genetically induced differences from 0.07 to 0.21 ppm Cd were found, while these values for Pb were from 0.241 to 0.569 ppm Pb. Especially low Cd concentrations were found in six corn hybrids (OsSK373, E9917/99, Bc278, OsSK2-191, OsSK382 and Clarica: mean 0.092 ppm Cd, while in three hybrids it was considerably higher, but acceptable from the aspect of plant

  20. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Y.N.; Blazquez, M.L.; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd ∼ Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups

  1. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  2. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  3. Oxidative damage in liver after perinatal intoxication with lead and/or cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massó, Elvira Luján; Corredor, Laura; Antonio, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Lead acetate (300 mg Pb/L) and/or cadmium acetate (10mg Cd/L) in blood and liver were administrated as drinking water to pregnant Wistar rats from day 1 of pregnancy to parturition (day 0) or until weaning (day 21), to investigate the toxic effects in blood and in the liver. Both metals produced mycrocitic anaemia in the pups as well as oxidative damage in the liver, as suggested by the significant increase in TBARS production and the high catalase activity. Moreover, intense alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, used as biomarkers of liver adaptation to damaging factors, was observed. In addition, the toxikinetics are different for Pb and Cd: while Cd is a hepatotoxic from day 0, Pb is not until day 21. Finally, simultaneous perinatal administration of both metals seems to protect, at least, in the liver TBARS production against the toxicity produced by Cd or Pb separately.

  4. Pyrolysis of Plants After Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil with Lead, Cadmium and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Aysun; Günkaya, Zerrin; Banar, Müfide

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to remediate lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soil and stabilize to pyrolysis solid product. To accomplish this, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn by different plants (sunflower, corn and rape) was performed with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). According to phytoremediation results, rape was the most effective plant with 72 %, 76 % and 77 % removal efficiency for Pb, Cd and Zn, respectively. Also, EDTA addition had no significant effect on translocation of the metals from roots to stems. According to pyrolysis results, Pb, Cd and Zn in the contaminated plants were stabilized in the ash/char fraction. In addition, the solid product can be safely landfilled as inert waste since its toxicity leaching value is lower than the limit values given in the Turkish Regulation on Landfilling of Wastes.

  5. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  6. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and cadmium by cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Khayamian, T.; Benvidi, A.; Mirmomtaz, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, simultaneous determination of two groups of elements consisting of Pb(II)-Cd(II) and Cu(II)-Pb(II)-Cd(II) using adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry are described. The method is based on accumulation of these metal ions on mercury electrode using xylenol orange as a suitable complexing agent. The potential was scanned to the negative direction and the differential pulse stripping voltammograms were recorded. The instrumental and chemical factors were optimized using artificial neural network. The optimized conditions were obtained in pH of 5.5, xylenol orange concentration of 4.0 μM, accumulation potential of -0.50 V, accumulation time of 30 s, scan rate of 10 mV/s and pulse height of 70 mV. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 5.0-150.0 ng ml -1 for cadmium and 5.0-150.0 ng ml -1 for lead. The limits of detection were 0.98 and 1.18 ng ml -1 for lead and cadmium ions, respectively. In simultaneous determination of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) there are inter-metallic interactions, which result a non-linear relationship between the peak current and the ionic concentration for each of the element. Therefore, an artificial neural network was used as the multivariate calibration method. The ANN was constructed with three neurons as the output layer for the simultaneous determination of the three elements. The constructed model was able to predict the concentration of the elements in the ranges of 1.0-50.0, 5.0-200.0 and 10.0-200.0 ng ml -1 , for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively

  7. Blood Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliomrani, Mehdi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Since industrial revolution heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have been extensively dispersed in environment which, unknown biological effects and prolong biological half-life make them as a major hazard to human health. In addition, the sharp increase in Multiple sclerosis incidence rateshas been recorded in Iran. The propose of this study was to measuring blood lead and cadmium concentration and their correlation with smoking habit in a group of 69 RRMS patients and 74 age/gender-matched healthy individuals resident in Tehran as most polluted city in Iran. All subjects were interviewed regarding age, medical history, possible chemical exposure, acute or chronic diseases, smoking and dietary habits. Blood Pb and Cd levels were measured by double beam GBC plus 932 atomic absorption spectrometer. Our result indicated a significant difference in Cd level (p = 0.006) in which, MS patients had higher blood concentration (1.82 ± 0.13 μg/L) in comparison with healthy individuals (1.47 ± 0.11 μg/L). A comparable blood Cd level to similar recent study (1.78 µg/L vs.1.82 µg/L) was observed. With respect to Pb there was no significant difference between cases and controls, however the geometric means of blood Pb concentration were considerably higher in males than in females in MS patients (57.1 ± 33.7 μg/L vs . 36.7 ± 21.9 μg/L. P = 0.02). Taking into consideration tobacco smoking, an elevated contents of each metal were observed in smoker subjects (p<0.0001). A significant correlation between cigarette smoking and risk of multiple sclerosis was shown before. Thus, high level of Cd in smokers might affect the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and could increase the risk of disease development.

  8. Enhancement of emulsifier production by Curvularia lunata in cadmium, zinc and lead presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Frycie, Aleksandra; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    The influence of cadmium, zinc and lead on fungal emulsifier synthesis and on the growth of filamentous fungus Curvularia lunata has been studied. Tolerance to heavy metals established for C. lunata was additionally compared with the sensitivity exhibited by strains of Curvularia tuberculata and Paecilomyces marquandii-fungi which do not secrete compounds of emulsifying activity. Although C. lunata, as the only one out of all studied fungi, exhibited the lowest tolerance to heavy metals when grown on a solid medium (in conditions preventing emulsifier synthesis), it manifested the highest tolerance in liquid culture - in conditions allowing exopolymer production. Cadmium, zinc and lead presented in liquid medium up to a concentration of 15 mM had no negative effect on C. lunata growth and stimulated emulsifier synthesis. In the presence of 15 mM of heavy metals, both the emulsifier and 24-h-old growing mycelium exhibited maximum sorption capacities, which were determined as 18.2 +/- 2.67, 156.1 +/- 10.32 mg g(-1) for Cd2+, 22.2 +/- 3.40, 95.2 +/- 14.21 mg g(-1) for Zn2+ and 51.1 +/- 1.85, 230.0 +/- 28.47 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ respectively. The results obtained by us in this work indicate that the emulsifier acts as a protective compound increasing the ability of C. lunata to survive in heavy metal polluted environment. Enhancement of exopolymer synthesis in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ may also suggest, at least to some extent, a metal-specific nature of emulsifier production in C. lunata. Due to accumulation capability and tolerance to heavy metals, C. lunata mycelium surrounded by the emulsifier could be applied for toxic metal removal.

  9. The effects of changes in cadmium and lead air pollution on cancer incidence in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absalon, Damian; Slesak, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the effects of air pollution on cancer incidence in children in the region of Silesia (Poland), which has undergone one of the most profound anthropogenic transformations in Europe. The main objective of the research was to specify the impact of changes in cadmium and lead pollution in the years 1990-2005 on the incidence of cancers reported in children. Lead concentration ranged from 0 to 1490 . 10 -9 G m -2 /year, and cadmium concentration ranged from 0 to 33.7 . 10 -9 G m -2 /year. There was no strong significant correlation (max 0.3) between air pollution and incidence rate (IR) in the general population of children in any particular year. Alongside the cartographic presentation of dependences, correlation coefficients between the variables in question were calculated. This made it possible to determine the relationship between the pollution levels and incidence rates in the area. There was a significant reduction in the level of pollution during the investigated period. The study of the relationship between the number of cancers reported and the condition of the natural environment revealed increased sensitivity to toxins in boys (correlation coefficient 0.3). In addition, the spatial distribution of the number of cases reported in boys suggests a correlation with the spatial distribution of the coefficients for the entire group of children included in the study. The yearly average IR of childhood cancer in specific districts ranged from 0 to 61.48/100,000 children under 18 years of age during the 1995-2004 period.

  10. The effects of changes in cadmium and lead air pollution on cancer incidence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Damian; Slesak, Barbara

    2010-09-15

    This article presents the results of research on the effects of air pollution on cancer incidence in children in the region of Silesia (Poland), which has undergone one of the most profound anthropogenic transformations in Europe. The main objective of the research was to specify the impact of changes in cadmium and lead pollution in the years 1990-2005 on the incidence of cancers reported in children. Lead concentration ranged from 0 to 1490 x 10(-9) G m(-2)/year, and cadmium concentration ranged from 0 to 33.7 x 10(-9) G m(-2)/year. There was no strong significant correlation (max 0.3) between air pollution and incidence rate (IR) in the general population of children in any particular year. Alongside the cartographic presentation of dependences, correlation coefficients between the variables in question were calculated. This made it possible to determine the relationship between the pollution levels and incidence rates in the area. There was a significant reduction in the level of pollution during the investigated period. The study of the relationship between the number of cancers reported and the condition of the natural environment revealed increased sensitivity to toxins in boys (correlation coefficient 0.3). In addition, the spatial distribution of the number of cases reported in boys suggests a correlation with the spatial distribution of the coefficients for the entire group of children included in the study. The yearly average IR of childhood cancer in specific districts ranged from 0 to 61.48/100,000 children under 18 years of age during the 1995-2004 period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetic investigation of myeloperoxidase upon interaction with copper, cadmium, and lead ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, M.; Ani, M.; Movahedian, A.; Samsam Shariat, Z. A.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase, which is abundantly expressed in neutrophils, catalyzes the formation of a number of reactive oxidant species. However, evidence has emerged that Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage and initiation and propagation of inflammatory diseases, particularly, cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, studying the regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme activity is of great importance. For clarifying some possible mechanism of the enzyme activity, kinetic investigations of Myeloperoxidase in the presence of Copper, Cadmium, and Lead ions were carried out in vitro. Methods: Myeloperoxidase was partially purified from human white blood cells using ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography techniques. Its activity was measured spectrophotometrically by using tetramethyl benzidine as substrate. Results: Purified enzyme had a specific activity of 21.7 U/mg protein with a purity index of about 0.71. Copper inhibited Myeloperoxidase activity progressively up to a concentration of 60 m M at which about 80% of inhibition achieved. The inhibition was non-competitive with respect to tetramethyl benzidine. An inhibitory constant (Ki) of about 19 m M was calculated from the slope of repot. Cadmium and Lead did not show any significant inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study may indicate that there are some places on the enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex for Copper ions. Binding of Copper ions to these places result in conformational changes of the enzyme and thus, enzyme inhibition. This inhibitory effect of Copper on the enzyme activity might be considered as a regulatory mechanism on Myeloperoxidase activity.

  12. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  13. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL, 4.4 (2.4 μg/L, 10.9 (9.2 μg/L, and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L, respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01. After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car, the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01. Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.

  14. Essential elements, cadmium, and lead in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Collins, W.F.; Williams, H.L.

    1985-08-01

    Fifteen essential elements plus cadmium and lead were determined in raw and pasteurized cow and goat milks by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. When results were compared on a wet weight basis, there were no significant differences between the raw and pasteurized milks except for cobalt, iron, and lead in goat milk. When copper in goat milk was expressed on a dry weight basis, there was a significant difference between raw and pasteurized milk. There were significantly higher amounts of cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, and phosphorus, wet weight basis, in pasteurized goat milk than in pasteurized cow milk. Significantly more nickel and sodium were in pasteurized cow milk. No difference in the content of chloride, calcium, potassium, and zinc was significant between the two milks. When dry weights of the two milks were compared, statistical differences were the same, except there was significantly more calcium and potassium in pasteurized cow milk than in pasteurized goat milk and there were no significant differences in the content of lead and phosphorus between the two milks. Percentages of the established and estimated recommended daily allowances show both cow and goat milk to be excellent sources of calcium, phosphorus, and potassium and fair sources of iron, magnesium, and sodium.

  15. Discovery of aryl-tri-fluoroborates as potent sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The structure-based design of sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors identified new active compounds. The organo-tri-fluoroborate shown was found to inhibit iodide uptake with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM on rat-derived thyroid cells. The biological activity is rationalized by the presence of the BF3 - ion as a minimal binding motif for substrate recognition at the iodide binding site. (authors)

  16. Discovery of aryl-tri-fluoroborates as potent sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecat-Guillet, N.; Ambroise, Y. [CEA, DSV, Dept Bioorgan Chem and Isotop Labelling, Inst Biol and Technol, iBiTecS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The structure-based design of sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) inhibitors identified new active compounds. The organo-tri-fluoroborate shown was found to inhibit iodide uptake with an IC50 value of 0.4 {mu}M on rat-derived thyroid cells. The biological activity is rationalized by the presence of the BF3{sup -} ion as a minimal binding motif for substrate recognition at the iodide binding site. (authors)

  17. The learning machine in quantitative chemical analysis : Part I. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Cadmium, Lead and Thallium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Jasink, G.

    1978-01-01

    The linear learning machine method was applied to the determination of cadmium, lead and thallium down to 10-8 M by anodic stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode. With a total of three trained multicategory classifiers, concentrations of Cd, Pb and Tl could be predicted with an

  18. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Michelle S.M.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A.; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  19. Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb by calcium alginate beads (CAB from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate (K2 for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7.

  20. Assessment of the Potential of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Kraker, de J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) could be used as a reliable alternative to the standard mechanical devices for monitoring of air quality, in particular with respect to the concentration of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). We

  1. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials – trend analysis of monitoring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, Paulien; Fels, van der Ine; Jong, de Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007–13

  2. Determining the arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillets from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Luciano; Vitali, Luciano; Ploêncio, Leandro As; Santos, Jacson N; Daguer, Heitor

    2016-07-01

    Pangasius is a fish produced on a large scale in Vietnam and exported to many countries. Since river contamination from human activities can affect the safety of this food, fish consumption can cause exposure to potentially toxic elements for humans. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and chromium contents by atomic absorption spectrometry in Pangasius fillet produced in the provinces of Dong Thap and Can Tho (Vietnam) and exported to Brazil. The limits of detection were: arsenic 0.5443 µg kg(-1) , cadmium 0.0040 mg kg(-1) , chromium 0.0004 mg kg(-1) , copper 0.0037 mg kg(-1) and lead 0.0284 mg kg(-1) . Analysis of 20 samples showed results below the limit of detection for arsenic, chromium and lead, while copper average concentration was 0.0234 mg kg(-1) . Cadmium average concentration was 0.0547 mg kg(-1) , with no significant difference between the two regions studied. The samples of Pangasius had no detectable concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper and lead, and do not represent a hazard to public health. However, cadmium analysis revealed non-compliant samples, demonstrating the importance of monitoring the quality of imported Pangasius fish. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Chemical sensors in natural water: peculiarities of behaviour of chalcogenide glass electrodes for determination of copper, lead and cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seleznev, B.L.; Legin, A.V.; Vlasov, Yu.G.

    1996-01-01

    Specific features of chemical sensors (chalcogenide glass and crystal ion-selective electrodes) behaviour have been studied to determine copper (2), lead, cadmium and fluorine in the course of in situ measurements, including long-term uninterrupted testing, for solving the problem of inspection over natural water contamination. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  5. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  6. Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, and the laughing gull, Larus atricilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, M; Mahoney, J S; Schroder, G D; Hacker, C S; Pier, S M

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets and laughing gulls gathered from the Galveston Bay region of Texas were compared to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. Lead, cadmium, and manganese levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. Lead levels in bones were comparable, but gulls had more lead in brain, liver, and kidney tissues than egrets had, which suggested a higher rate of accumulation or exposure. Because of their high abundance and comparable positions in the estuarine and terrestrial food webs, cattle egrets and laughing gulls may serve as convenient biological indicators to monitor potentially toxic substances in these ecosystems. (29 references, 7 tables)

  7. Lead and cadmium in public health in Nigeria: physicians neglect and pitfall in patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2014-02-01

    Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language) such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management.

  8. Lead and cadmium in mangrove root crab (Goniopsis cruentata), in natura and at food processing stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Renata G; Bah, Homegnon A F; Bandeira, Matheus J; Oliveira, Sérgio S P; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in mangrove root crab (Goniopsis cruentata) tissues (in natura) and in two culinary preparations by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mangrove root crab samples from three sampling sites along the Jaguaripe River, Bahia, Brazil, where lead-glazed ceramics are produced, and from two commercial preparations were collected or purchased in March and April 2016. Cd levels in raw and processed samples were below the methods' limits of detection (0.016 mg kg -1 ), while Pb levels in the raw tissues were determined only in the gills (0.67 mg kg -1 ) and in the hepatopancreas (0.14 mg kg -1 ). However, Pb levels increased from 0.05 to 2.84 mg kg -1 in boiled/sorted muscle and in the traditional stew (with a 57-fold increase), respectively. Pb levels augmented significantly in the processed food due to migration of Pb used in the glazing of cooking ceramic utensils, surpassing the Brazilian and international safety limits.

  9. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovský, E.; Kapička, A.; Jordanova, N.; Borůvka, L.

    2001-09-01

    Several proxy methods have been used recently to outline increased levels of pollution. One of them is based on measurements of the concentration of (ferri)magnetic minerals of anthropogenic origin. This method has been used recently in the mapping of both polluted and unpolluted areas. In order to validate this method, a more detailed study of links between magnetic parameters characterising the physical shape of magnetic minerals and concentrations of heavy metals is needed. In this study, we analysed the magnetic characteristics of alluvial soils, formed as a result of several breakdowns of wet deposit sink of ashes from a lead ore smelter. The soils were previously analysed for concentration of lead, zinc and cadmium. Our results show that in this case of a shared source of heavy metals and magnetic minerals, simple measurements of magnetic susceptibility discriminate well between polluted and clean areas. In addition, the concentration pattern agrees with the concentrations of the heavy metals studied in deeper soil layers that were not affected by post-depositional changes due to climate and remediation efforts.

  10. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium and lead availability for rapeseed grown on an artificial ISO soil; Transferts de metaux dans les vegetaux et phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baryla, A.; Sahut, C. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in soils have become a major concern for food crop production. Of these metals, cadmium and lead are recognized as the most widespread elements, that are non-essential for plant growth. While the toxicity of these metals is often investigated on plants grown in nutrient solution, soil is a complex medium. Metals may be dissolved in the soil solution or chelated to carbonates, to oxides of iron or manganese, or to organic matter. This chemical state of the metal is important because it determines the availability of the metal for the crop. Yet its study is complicated by numerous factors (soil pH, temperature, humidity..) which modify this chemical equilibrium. To standardize the experiments, an artificially reconstituted soil was prepared from clay, sand and peat according to standards ISO 11268-1 (May 1994). Metals (lead and cadmium) were added as nitrate salts. Plants used were rapeseeds. Seeds were sown on 20 cm diameter pots and placed in a controlled growth chamber. At harvest, roots, leaves and stems were separated, dried, and mineralized with concentrated nitric acid. Sequential analysis of the soil was carried out to assess the chemical behavior of the cadmium. The chemical speciation of cadmium is shown. The metal is essentially soluble in the soil and poorly complexed to the organic matter. This indicates that contamination is recent and derives from metal salts; cadmium complexation to organic matter appears only after years of soil evolution. The metal is then essentially available for plants but equilibrium is established between the different forms. Plant growth is shown. Cadmium has a strong effect on biomass production at 50 {mu}g / g in the soil. No toxic effect of lead was observed from 0 to 2000 {mu}g / g in the soil, probably because lead is strongly complexed to the soil and less toxic for plants. Metal concentrations in plants after two months of growth are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Plant cadmium content reached

  12. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure

  13. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  14. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  15. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5-8, 9-12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07-5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Junenette L.; Patricia Fabian, M.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  17. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  18. Joint effects of cadmium and lead on seedlings of four Chinese cabbage cultivars in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiqiang; ZHOU Qixing; LIU Weitao

    2009-01-01

    In northeastern China,large area of vegetable land has been simultaneously polluted by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb).Joint effects of Cd and Pb on Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) were investigated using the seed germination and sand culture method.Four Chinese cabbage cultivars including Kangbingjinchun (KB),Dongyangchunxia (DY),Qinglvwang (QL) and Qiangshi (QS) from Shenyang in northeastern China were adopted in this study.The results showed that there were positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rate of biomass,root and shoot elongation and the concentrations of Cd and Pb.In particular,root elongation was more sensitive to joint stress of Cd and Pb.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble protein (SP) and proline (PRO) changed significantly with increasing exposure concentration of Cd and Pb.The decrement in the activity of antioxidative enzymes,the content of SP and accumulation of MDA were relatively low in KB and QS.PRO played an important role in resisting Cd and Pb stress.

  19. Immobilization of lead and cadmium from aqueous solution and contaminated sediment using nano-hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zizhong; Li Mengyan; Chen Wei; Zhu Shuzhen; Liu Nannan; Zhu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite particles (nHAp) in immobilizing Pb and Cd from aqueous solutions and contaminated sediment were investigated. The maximum sorption amount (Q max ) of Pb and Cd in aqueous solution was 1.17 and 0.57 mmol/g. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface and depth analysis indicated that dissolution-precipitation is the primary immobilization mechanism for Pb, while surface complexation and intraparticle diffusion account for Cd sequestration. Different amounts of nHAp (0-10% nHAp/dry weight) were added to the contaminated sediment. Sequential extraction showed that nHAp could effectively reduce the exchangeable fraction of Pb and Cd in the sediment and significantly reduce the concentration in porewater. The results in this study showed that nHAp can immobilize Pb and Cd in sediment effectively. - Nano-hydroxyapatite shows potential and advantages to immobilize lead and cadmium in aqueous solution and sediment.

  20. Lead, cadmium and zinc in mineral structure of deposits of the gallbladder in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The former studies have shown the presence of As and Sb in deposits of the gallbladder. The aim of studies: The aim of the studies was to define the level of accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn in deposits of the gallbladder as supplementary biological test for exposure assessment in a long run. Materials and methods: Pb, Cd and Zn content was investigated with inductive coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry were deposits of the gallbladder in men and women living in the Silesia Region. Results: The change of these elements content was analyzed in connection with behavioral factors ( diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity and tobacco addiction of the gender. Attention was drawn to the probability of interaction of Pb, Cd, Zn with other elements during their accumulation in deposits of the gallbladder. It appeared that deposits of the gall bladder can be used as an additional biological test in individual exposure assessment to Pb, Cd and Zn. It was noted that the level of content of Pb, Zn and Cd in deposits of the gallbladder is impacted by behavioral factors (diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity tobacco addiction. A characteristic impact of the tobacco addiction on the rise in the content of lead, cadmium and zinc was demonstrated as well as significant role of the presence of these elements in the total environmental pollution in relevant living areas.

  1. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Smeester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  2. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Nikolaou, Aris; Pentari, Despina; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  3. Remediation of lead, cadmium and uranium contaminated water and soil by apatite amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Kaludjerovic, T.

    2002-01-01

    During the past years as a consequence of war and some accidents in neighboring countries large areas in Serbia were contaminated by toxic heavy metals, including lead, cadmium and uranium. For example, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr have been doubled above the allowed maximum value in the Romanian part of the Danube while sediments near the border in Bulgaria have higher concentrations of Pb 3 times, Cu 1400 times and Cd 30 times more than the average long-standing levels. Furthermore, an estimated 10 tons of depleted uranium (DU) was spread mainly throughout the territory of Kosovo. This contamination is a potential source of different chronic diseases including malignant diseases and represents a long-term threat for the population living in the affected areas. For this reason, remediation of contaminated sites represents an urgent need and priority. The standard remediation procedure which includes soil removal, treatment (washing, chelating), conditioning etc. is costly, disruptive and not sustainable. This study was carried out to evaluate apatite from the Lisina deposit as soil amendment for in situ stabilization of toxic heavy metals. Preliminary theoretical and experimentally results presented here point out this natural apatite as an ecological, nontoxic material which can be used for efficient and cost-effective remediation of large areas contaminated with Pb, Cd and U. (author)

  4. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Nikolaou, Aris [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Laboratory of Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrography, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  5. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  6. Performance and mechanism for cadmium and lead adsorption from water and soil by corn straw biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Chi; Jiane Zuo; Fenglin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water and soil could be adsorbed by biochar produced fiom corn straw.Biochar pyrolyzed under 400℃ for 2 h could reach the ideal removal efficiencies (99.24% and 98.62% for Cd and Pb,respectively) from water with the biochar dosage of 20 g· L-1 and imtial concentration of 20 mg·L-1.The pH value of 4-7 was the optimal range for adsorption reaction.The adsorption mechanism was discussed on the basis of a range of characterizations,including X-ray diffraction (XRD),X-my photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman analysis;it was concluded as surface complexation with active sorption sites (-OH-COO-) coordination with π electrons (C =C,C =O) and precipitation with morganic anions (OH-,CO32-,SO42-) for both Cd and Pb.The sorption isotherms fit Langmuir model better than Freundlich model,and the saturated sorption capacities for Cd and Pb were 38.91 mg.g-1 and 28.99 mg· g-1,respectively.When mixed with soil,biochar could effectively increase alkalinity and reduce bioavailability of heavy metals.Thus,biochar derived from corn straw would be a green material for both removal of heavy metals and amelioration of soil.

  7. Proficiency testing program for the determination of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in seawater shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mei-Fung; Chan, Serena; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The proficiency testing (PT) program for 97 worldwide laboratories for determining total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in seawater shrimp under the auspices of the Asia-Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC) is discussed. The program is one of the APLAC PT series whose primary purposes are to establish mutual agreement on the equivalence of the operation of APLAC member laboratories and to take corrective actions if testing deficiencies are identified. Pooled data for Cd and Pb were normally distributed with interlaboratory variations of 21.9 and 34.8%, respectively. The corresponding consensus mean values estimated by robust statistics were in good agreement with those obtained in the homogeneity tests. However, a bimodal distribution was observed from the determination of total As, in which 14 out of 74 participants reported much smaller values (0.482-6.4 mg/kg) as compared with the mean values of 60.9 mg/kg in the homogeneity test. The use of consensus mean is known to have significant deviation from the true value in bi- or multimodal distribution. Therefore, the mode value, a better estimate of central tendency, was chosen to assess participants' performance for total As. Estimates of the overall uncertainty from participants varied in this program, and some were recommended to acquire more comprehensive exposure toward important criteria as stipulated in ISO/IEC 17025.

  8. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  9. Bioaccumulation and chemical forms of cadmium, copper and lead in aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JinZhao Hu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium(Cd, copper(Cu and lead(Pb accumulation, as well as their relative content of different chemical forms in Sagittaria sagittifolia L. and Potamogeton crispus L. were determined. The results showed that both the plants had the ability to accumulate large amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb, and they absorbed metals in dose-dependent manners. The roots of S. sagittifolia appeared more sensitive to Cd and Pb than the leaves of P. crispus. The potential of Cu uptake by these two plant tissues was similar. Under the same concentration, the uptake of Cu for both the plants was higher than Pb and Cd, while that of Pb was lowest. The Cd, Cu and Pb existed with various forms in the plants. Cd and Pb were mainly in the NaCl extractable form in S. sagittifolia and P. crispus. The HAc and ethanol extractable Cu were the main forms in the root, whereas the ethanol extractable form was the dominant chemical form in the caulis and bulb of the S. sagittifolia L.

  10. Structural and IR-spectroscopic characterization of cadmium and lead(II) acesulfamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria, Gustavo A.; Piro, Oscar E. [Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica y Inst. IFLP (CONICET- CCT-La Plata); Parajon-Costa, Beatriz S.; Baran, Enrique J. [Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Quimica Inorganica (CEQUINOR/CONICET- CCT-La Plata)

    2017-07-01

    Cadmium and lead(II) acesulfamate, Cd(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}NO{sub 4}S){sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O and Pb(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}NO{sub 4}S){sub 2}, were prepared by the reaction of acesulfamic acid and the respective metal carbonates in aqueous solution, and characterized by elemental analysis. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The Cd(II) compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with Z=4 and the corresponding Pb(II) salt in the triclinic space group P anti 1 with Z=2. In both salts, acesulfamate acts both as a bi-dentate ligand through its nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atoms and also as a mono-dentate ligand through this same oxygen atom, giving rise to polymeric structures; in the Pb(II) salt the ligand also binds the cation through its sulfoxido oxygen atoms. The FTIR spectra of the compounds were recorded and are briefly discussed. Some comparisons with other related acesulfamate and saccharinate complexes are made.

  11. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E.; Nye, Monica D.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology. PMID:24921406

  12. Imprinted genes and the environment: links to the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeester, Lisa; Yosim, Andrew E; Nye, Monica D; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-06-11

    Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  13. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash- water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Pb by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH- 6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Pb occurred as anionic Pb hydroxide. Anionic Pb was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Pb would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Pb when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study.

  14. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg(-1)) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg(-1)) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg(-1)), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg(-1) (SD 0.02 mg kg(-1)). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg(-1)) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg(-1)), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O.; Haris, Parvez I.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg -1 ) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg -1 ) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg -1 ), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg -1 (SD 0.02 mg kg -1 ). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg -1 ) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg -1 ), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  16. Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Ching; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2018-04-05

    There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men's arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig) levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03) ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16) ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22) ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman's correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.

  17. Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Immunologic Function in Workers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ching Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing concern over the impact of environmental exposure to heavy metals and other trace elements on immunologic functions. This study investigated men’s arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb contents in hair samples and their associations with immunological indicators, including white blood cell (WBC, lymphocyte and monocyte counts, and the immunoglobulin (Ig levels including IgA, IgG and IgE. We recruited 133 men from one antimony trioxide manufacturing plant, two glass manufacturing plants and two plastics manufacturing plants. The mean concentration of Cd [0.16 (SD = 0.03 ug/g] was lower than means of As [0.86 (SD = 0.16 ug/g] and Pb [0.91 (SD = 0.22 ug/g] in hair samples, exerting no relationship with immunologic functions for Cd. The Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between monocyte counts and hair Pb levels, but negative relations between As and IgG and between As and IgE. In conclusion, findings from these industry workers suggest that As levels in hair may have a stronger relation with immunologic function than Cd and PB have. Further research is needed to confirm the negative relationship.

  18. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure.

  19. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-xin, Niu; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Li, Yu-shuang; Wang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  20. Genotypic differences in arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    The contents of arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice were determined. Among 216 genotypes, the As, Hg, Pb and Cd contents were ranged from 5.06 to 296.45, 2.46 to 65.85, 4.16 to 744.95 and 5.91 to 553.40 ng/g, respectively. Six genotypes with lower contents of toxic metal elements were selected. The averages of As and Pb contents for indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice, while the averages of Hg and Cd contents were in contrast. Compared with white brown rice, the milled rice from black and red brown rice contained lower contents of four elements. Significant negative correlation was found between As content and alkaline spread value. Significant correlations were observed between As and aspartic acid (Asp) content, Hg and Asp or leucine contents, Pb and cysteine or methionine contents. Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with protein and 14 amino acid contents.

  1. Anodic stripping voltammetry of mercury, zinc, cadmium, and lead in a rice farm ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mundo, F.R.; Vicente-Beckett, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry were developed and applied to the analysis of some trace metals in a rice farm ecosystem. A gold wire served as working electrode for the analysis of mercury in 0.1M HNO 3 ; a hanging mercury drop electrode was used for the simultaneous analyses of zinc, cadmium, and lead in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5). Mercury was pre-concentrated for five minutes at + 0.20 V vs SCE. The area of the anodic stripping peaks varied linearly over the concentration range 3x10 -10 -2x10 -8 M Hg(II); the limit of detection was 0.06 ppb or 3x10 -10 M Hg(II). The simultaneous analytical method involved pre-electrolysis at -1.2 V vs SCE for ten minutes. The heights of the individual anodic stripping peaks varied linearly with concentration in a mixture of the ions over the concentration range 0.020-0.10 ppm for each ion; the limits of detection were 0.004 ppm, 0.01 ppm, and 0.01 ppm for Cd, Pb, Zn, respectively. The developed procedures were used to determine the baseline levels of these metals in soil, water, and rice plant samples from a one-hectare traditional rice farm in San Pedro, Laguna. (auth.). 26 refs.; 4 tabs.; 6 figs

  2. Cadmium and lead content in several brands of rice grains (Oryza sativa) in central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, A; Rahimi, E; Ahmadi, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content of several commercially available brands of rice grains (Oryza sativa) in central Iran. A total of 67 samples of the most widely consumed brands of rice grains were purchased from local bazaar markets in Shahrekord, Iran. The first step, grains of raw rice were digested by acid digestion method and then were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that Cd concentration in rice grains ranged from 0.0378 to 0.1225 ppm dry weight and its average concentration was 0.062 ± 0.019 ppm and Pb content ranged from 0.0405 to 0.1281 ppm dry weight and its average concentration was 0.068 ± 0.0185 ppm. Cd and Pb concentrations in the sampled rice grains were lower in comparison with their upper limits (0.2 and 0.2 ppm for Cd and Pb, respectively) approved by food sanitary standard. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is no health problems due to the consumption of brands of rice grains, for these two elements. The results indicated that weekly intake of Cd and Pb from rice grains was below the provisional tolerable weekly intakes recommended by WHO/FAO.

  3. assessment of cadmium and lead in soil and tomatoes grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAHMUD IMAM

    control site were there is less human activities. The Concentrations ... development of the grey matter of the brain, thereby resulting in poor intelligence quotient. (IQ). 3 . Cadmium ... Most often the levels of heavy metal in soil reflect the level of.

  4. Development of a thermodynamic model for zinc, lead and cadmium in saline solutions; Entwicklung eines thermodynamischen Modells fuer Zink, Blei und Cadmium in salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Sven

    2012-07-15

    Waters on aboveground and underground landfills often contain high concentrations of pollutants like zinc, lead and cadmium. Interactions between wastes and aqueous solutions could lead to a mobilisation of these elements. If their maximum solubilities are to be predicted by geochemical modelling a thermodynamic data base is needed. Due to the lack of experimental data such a data base could not be developed yet. In order to fill the gaps isopiestic as well as solubility measurements were made at 25 C. Furthermore the complex formation of zinc and cadmium was investigated and quantified by means of Raman spectrometry and evolving factor analysis. It could be proven that only complexes with two and four chlorine atoms achieve significant concentrations. On basis of these results and a critical evaluation of literature data a consistent thermodynamic data base for was developed for the calculation of activity coefficients and solubilities in the system Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Cl, SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O at 298,15 K.

  5. Residual Cadmium and Lead Pollution at a Former Soviet Military Airfield in Tartu, Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mander, Ulo; Kull, Ain; Frey, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data on the levels and dynamics of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentration in the plants, soil, and groundwater of the landing corridor and airfield of a former Soviet military air base in Estonia, immediately at the end of its 40-year service in 1992 and over the following 8 yr. In 1991-92 we found high Cd concentrations in the meadow plants Trifolium pratense and Dactylis glomerata (up to 56 mg kg -1 ). In 1993, the Cd concentration had dropped to 0.12-0.19 mg kg -1 , and stabilized in 1997-2000 at 0.04 mg kg -1 . Cd concentration in plants decreased significantly with increasing distance from the landing strip. Elevated Cd concentration (0.012 mg L -1 ) was found in the fuel of the TU-22M (Backfire) strategic bombers. In 1991 and 1993, leaded fuel influenced the mean Pb concentration in plants (1.8-4.2 mg kg -1 ). Average Pb concentration in both topsoil and the 30-40 cm soil horizon decreased between 1991 and 2000 from 28 to 6.5 and from 13.5 to 4.3 mg kg -1 , respectively. Cd concentration in the topsoil of the landing corridor showed a significant increase between 1991 and 1993 (0.07-0.3 and 0.3-1.2 mg kg -1 , respectively), but stabilized later on the level of 0.04 mg kg -1 . The concentrations of both Pb and Cd in the soil were higher closer to the fuel bunkers. Current assessment of the movement of these metals from the vegetation to the soil and to groundwater is linked to potential leaching to the surrounding environment

  6. Roles of biomarkers in evaluating interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gensheng; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals is most correctly characterized as exposure to mixtures of these agents. The metals/metalloids, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), are among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. Exposure to these elements, particularly at chronic low dose levels, is still a major public health concern. Concurrent exposure to Pb, Cd, or As may produce additive or synergistic interactions or even new effects that are not seen in single component exposures. Evaluating these interactions on a mechanistic basis is essential for risk assessment and management of metal/metalloid mixtures. This paper will review a number of individual studies that addressed interactions of these metals/metalloids in both experimental and human exposure studies with particular emphasis on biomarkers. In general, co-exposure to metal/metalloid mixtures produced more severe effects at both relatively high dose and low dose levels in a biomarker-specific manner. These effects were found to be mediated by dose, duration of exposure and genetic factors. While traditional endpoints, such as morphological changes and biochemical parameters for target organ toxicity, were effective measures for evaluating the toxicity of high dose metal/metalloid mixtures, biomarkers for oxidative stress, altered heme biosynthesis parameters, and stress proteins showed clear responses in evaluating toxicity of low dose metal/metalloid mixtures. Metallothionein, heat shock proteins, and glutathione are involved in regulating interactive effects of metal/metalloid mixtures at low dose levels. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these metal/metalloid mixtures utilizing biomarker endpoints are highly warranted

  7. Microdetermination of lead, cadmium, zinc and tin in biological and related materials by atomic absorption spectrometry after mineralisation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, H.L.; Metayer, C.

    1978-01-01

    Two technics permitting to determine either lead, cadmium and zinc, or tin in any biological material (blood, urines, organs, alimentary products of animal or vegetable origin) are described. Every operation (mineralisation and extraction) is made in the same tube and technics, conceived in a way to simplify the manipulations and to reduce the more possible the contamination risks are suitable for determination in series. By working on trial samples near 250 mg, the lower determination limits are around 2 ppb for cadmium, 40 ppb for lead and tin and 2 ppm for zinc. The repeatability studies of different technical stages show that mineralisation and extraction only have a weak incidence on the acccuracy of the results [fr

  8. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  9. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  10. Quantification of lead and cadmium in poultry and bird game meat by square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, M; Cecchini, M; Taffetani, L; Vercellotti, L; Rosmini, R

    2011-02-01

    A square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric method for the analysis of lead and cadmium in chicken muscle and liver was developed and validated, and the results of a monitoring study relative to chicken and pigeon meat are reported. The voltammetric method allows the analysis of lead and cadmium at the same time in samples after acid digestion. The use of perchloric acid for digestion and of acetate buffer in the supporting electrolyte are suitable to reduce matrix interferences and obtain limits of quantification which were below 10 ng g⁻¹ for meat and liver samples. The regression between the analytical signal and the concentration of the target analytes in spiked samples and Certified Reference Materials proved to be linear within the 10-100 ng g⁻¹ range for meat and within the 50-500 ng g⁻¹ range for liver. The analytical method was verified using available Certified Reference Materials BCR-184 (cattle meat) and BCR-185R (cattle liver) as well as with spiked chicken samples. Precision (i.e. repeatability and intermediate precision) and accuracy (percentage recovery and bias) were of the order of 0.3-4.5% for both lead and cadmium The level of lead in muscle was in the range between 6.4 and 59.8 ng g⁻¹ in chickens and between 7.9 and 63.6 ng g⁻¹ in farmed pigeons, whereas it was between 8.0 and 84.4 ng g⁻¹ in chicken liver. The cadmium concentration was 0.4-10.4 ng g⁻¹ in chicken muscle, 10.4-90.6 ng g⁻¹ in chicken liver and 2.2-8.0 ng g⁻¹ in farmed pigeons.

  11. ARSENIC, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, MERCURY, AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD OF FOUR SPECIES OF TURTLES FROM THE AMAZON IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Po...

  12. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  13. Blood lead and cadmium levels in preschool children and associated risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Silva, Júlia Prestes da Rocha; Silva, Agnes Soares da; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    2018-05-18

    In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) and potential risk factors. The geometric mean for BLLs was 2.16 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.10-2.22 μg/dL), and the 97.5th percentile was 13.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 10.0-17.3 μg/dL). For cadmium exposure, the geometric mean for BCLs was 0.48 μg/L (95% CI: 0.47-0.50 μg/L), and the 95th percentile was 2.57 μg/L (95% CI: 2.26-2.75 μg/L). The DCCs' geographic region was associated with high BLLs and BCLs, indicating hot spots for lead and cadmium exposures. In addition, it was found that the higher the vehicles flow, the higher were the BLLs in children. Red lead in household gates was also an important risk factor for lead exposure. Comparing these results with the findings of the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals by CDC-2013, it was found that in Brazilian preschool children the BLLs are almost three times higher (97.5th percentile) and the BCLs are almost twelve times higher (95th percentile) than those in U.S. children. This information is essential to formulate public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of lead and cadmium nitrate on biomass and substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Akmal; Xu, Jianming; Li, Zhaojun; Wang, Haizhen; Yao, Huaiying

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) applied as their nitrates on soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)) and nitrogen (N(mic)), and substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities. The C(mic) and N(mic) contents were determined at 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after heavy metal application (DAA). The results showed a significant decline in the C(mic) for all Pb and Cd amended soils from the start to 28 DAA. From 28 to 56 DAA, C(mic) contents changed non-significantly for all other treatments except for 600 mgkg(-1) Pb and 100 mgkg(-1) Cd in which it declined significantly from 42 to 56 DAA. The N(mic) contents also decreased significantly from start to 28 DAA for all other Pb and Cd treatments except for 200 mgkg(-1) Pb which did not show significant difference from the control. Control and 200 mgkg(-1) Pb had significantly lower soil microbial biomass C:N ratio as compared with other Pb treatments from 14 to 42 DAA, however at 56 DAA, only 1000 mgkg(-1) Pb showed significantly higher C:N ratio compared with other treatments. No significant difference in C:N ratio for all Cd treated soils was seen from start to 28 DAA, however from 42 to 56 DAA, 100 mgkg(-1) Pb showed significantly higher C:N ratio compared with other treatments. On 56 DAA, substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities was determined by inoculating Biolog ECO plates. The results indicated that Pb and Cd addition inhibited the functional activity of soil microbial communities as indicated by the intensity of average well color development (AWCD) during 168 h of incubation. Multivariate analysis of sole carbon source utilization pattern demonstrated that higher levels of heavy metal application had significantly affected soil microbial community structure.

  15. High levels of migratable lead and cadmium on decorated drinking glassware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Externally decorated glassware used for the consumption of beverages, purchased new or sourced second-hand, and including tumblers, beer glasses, shot glasses, wine glasses and jars, has been analysed for Pb and Cd by portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Out of 197 analyses performed on distinctly different colours and regions of enamelling on 72 products, Pb was detected in 139 cases and among all colours tested, with concentrations ranging from about 40 to 400,000μgg -1 (median=63,000μgg -1 ); Cd was detected in 134 cases and among all colours apart from gold leaf, with concentrations ranging from about 300 to 70,000μgg -1 (median=8460μgg -1 ). The frequent occurrence of these metals is attributed to their use in both the oxidic fluxes and coloured pigments of decorative enamels employed by the glass industry. A standard test involving extraction of the external surface to within 20mm of the rim (lip area) by 4% acetic acid and subsequent analysis by ICP was applied to selected positive samples (n=14). Lead concentrations normalised to internal volume exceeded limit values of 0.5mgL -1 in all but one case, with concentrations over 100mgL -1 returned by three products. Cadmium concentrations exceeded limit values of 4mgL -1 in five cases, with a maximum concentration of about 40mgL -1 . Repeating the experiment on five positive samples using a carbonated drink (Coca Cola Classic) resulted in lower extractable concentrations but non-compliance for Pb in all cases. The presence of high concentrations of total and extractable Pb and Cd in the decorated lip areas of a wide range of products manufactured in both China and Europe is cause for concern from a health and safety perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Total arsenic, lead, and cadmium levels in vegetables cultivated at the Andean villages of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, F; Stegen, S; Restovic, M; Paz, M; Ostapczuk, P; Schwuger, M J; Muñoz, L

    2000-06-08

    Various vegetables (broad beans, corn, potato, alfalfa and onion) were sampled in northern Chile, Antofagasta Region. They are the basis of human nutrition in this region and of great relevance to human health. This region is characterized by volcanic events (eruptions, thermal springs, etc.). Most of the vegetables cultivated in this area enter the local markets for a population of approximately 4000 people, whose ancestors were mainly atacameños and quechuas (local indigenous people). The cadmium and lead in these foods was determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Results indicate that the highest concentration of Pb and Cd are in the potato skin, while the edible part of the potatoes contained a lower concentration of these metals. The INAA analyses of As in the vegetables from Socaire and Talabre, two towns located close to active volcanoes (e.g. Lascar), show a very high As content: 1850 microg/kg in corn (Socaire) and 860 microg/kg in potatoes (+ skin) (Talabre). These values exceed the National Standard for arsenic (500 microg/kg) by approximately 400% and 180%, respectively. In general, the data show a concentration of Pb greater than Cd with the potential for some vegetables to accumulate heavy metals, The values, expressed in fresh weight, vary from 0.2 to 40 microg/g for Cd and from 0.6 to 94 microg/g for Pb. These concentration intervals, except that of arsenic, are within the recommended standards in the Food Sanitary Regulation (Decree 977), which, expressed as fresh weight, must be equal to or smaller than 500 microg/kg for Pb. There is no legal standard for Cd.

  17. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Germán, E-mail: santosg@unican.es; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  18. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in canned sardines commercially available in eastern Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiber, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Total As, Cd, Pb and Hg in canned sardines within ranges of other studies. → As highest in samples from Norway (1.87 μg/g) and Thailand (1.63 μg/g). → Cd highest in Moroccan (0.07 μg/g), Pb in Canadian (0.27 μg/g); Hg not detected. → Lack of established limits for As and Cd in fish restricts interpretation of results. → Rise of small pelagics in human diet warrants more scrutiny on their metal content. - Abstract: Seventeen samples of canned sardines, originating from six countries and sold in eastern Kentucky, USA, were analyzed in composites of 3-4 fish each for total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and for mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition amalgamation and AAS. Results in μg/g wet: As 0.49-1.87 (mean: 1.06), Cd < 0.01-0.07 (0.03), Pb < 0.06-0.27 (0.11), Hg ND < 0.09. Values fall generally within readings reported by others, but no internationally agreed upon guidelines have yet been set for As or Cd in canned or fresh fish. The incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with As ingestion is extraordinarily high here. With the role of food-borne As in human illness presently under scrutiny and its maximum allowable limits in fish being reviewed, more studies of this nature are recommended, especially considering the potential importance of small pelagic fishes as future seafood of choice.

  19. Electrochemical determination of cadmium and lead on pristine single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Li, Cheng Ai; Han, Kwi Nam; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Seong, Gi Hun

    2012-01-01

    A flexible, transparent, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrode was prepared by vacuum filtering methods, followed by photolithographic patterning of a photoresist polymer on the SWCNT surface. The morphology of the SWCNT film electrode surface was characterized using a field-emission scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer. The electrodes were successfully used as a mercury-free electrochemical sensor for individual and simultaneous detection of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and lead (Pb(2+)) in 0.02 M HCl by square-wave stripping voltammetry. Some important operational parameters, including deposition time, deposition potential, square-wave amplitude, and square wave-frequency were optimized for the detection of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). The newly developed sensor showed good linear behavior in the examined concentration. For individual Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ion detection, the linear range was found from 0.033 to 0.228 ppm with detection limits of 0.7 ppb (R(2) = 0.985) for Cd(2+) and 0.8 ppb (R(2) = 0.999) for Pb(2+). For simultaneous detection, the linear range was found from 0.033 to 0.280 ppm with a limit of detection of 2.2 ppb (R(2) = 0.976) and 0.6 ppb (R(2) = 0.996) for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively. SWCNT film electrodes offered favorable reproducibility of ± 5.4% and 4.3% for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively. The experiments demonstrated the applicability of carbon nanotubes, specifically in the preparation of SWCNT films. The results suggest that the proposed flexible SWCNT film electrodes can be applied as simple, efficient, cost-effective, and/or disposable electrodes for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions.

  20. Application of eggshell waste for the immobilization of cadmium and lead in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Lee, Sang Soo; Jeon, Weon-Tai; Oh, Sang-Eun; Usman, Adel R A; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Liming materials have been used to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, no studies have evaluated the use of eggshell waste as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) to immobilize both cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of eggshell waste on the immobilization of Cd and Pb and to determine the metal availability following various single extraction techniques. Incubation experiments were conducted by mixing 0-5% powdered eggshell waste and curing the soil (1,246 mg Pb kg⁻¹ soil and 17 mg Cd kg⁻¹ soil) for 30 days. Five extractants, 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl₂), 1 M CaCl₂, 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), 0.43 M acetic acid (CH₃COOH), and 0.05 M ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were used to determine the extractability of Cd and Pb following treatments with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste. Generally, the extractability of Cd and Pb in the soils decreased in response to treatments with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste, regardless of extractant. Using CaCl₂ extraction, the lowest Cd concentration was achieved upon both CaCO₃ and eggshell waste treatments, while the lowest Pb concentration was observed using HCl extraction. The highest amount of immobilized Cd and Pb was extracted by CH₃COOH or EDTA in soils treated with CaCO₃ and eggshell waste, indicating that remobilization of Cd and Pb may occur under acidic conditions. Based on the findings obtained, eggshell waste can be used as an alternative to CaCO₃ for the immobilization of heavy metals in soils.

  1. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  2. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  3. Hearing loss in children with e-waste lead and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Wei, Xiaoqin; Wu, Wengli; Wu, Xianguang; Xu, Xijin

    2018-05-15

    Environmental chemical exposure can cause neurotoxicity and has been recently linked to hearing loss in general population, but data are limited in early life exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) especially for children. We aimed to evaluate the association of their exposure with pediatric hearing ability. Blood Pb and urinary Cd were collected form 234 preschool children in 3-7years of age from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and a reference area matched in Shantou of southern China. Pure-tone air conduction (PTA) was used to test child hearing thresholds at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8kHz. A PTA≥25dB was defined as hearing loss. A higher median blood Pb level was found in the exposed group (4.94±0.20 vs 3.85±1.81μg/dL, phearing loss (28.8% vs 13.6%, phearing thresholds at average low and high frequency, and single frequency of 0.5, 1 and 2kHz were all increased in the exposed group. Positive correlations of child age and nail biting habit with Pb, and negative correlations of parent education level and child washing hands before dinner with Pb and Cd exposure were observed. Logistic regression analyses showed the adjusted OR of hearing loss for Pb exposure was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.029, 1.486). Our data suggest that early childhood exposure to Pb may be an important risk factor for hearing loss, and the developmental auditory system might be affected in e-waste polluted areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc, lead, and cadmium levels in serum and milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Akintunde, Kikelomo; Adelaja, Yewande Adeola; Nwozo, Sarah O; Charles-Davies, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed by standard methods while serum and breast milk concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cd were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data analyzed statistically by Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and a multiple regression model were significant at p < 0.05. Zn deficiency was observed in 12 (17.1%) of lactating women. Breast milk levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd were significantly higher than their levels in serum, whereas the ratios Zn:Pb and Zn:Cd in milk were significantly less than serum ratios. Significant negative correlation was observed between milk Pb and serum Zn:Pb while milk Cd correlated positively with milk Zn. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum Zn and serum Zn:Pb, serum Zn and serum Zn:Cd, as well as serum Zn:Cd and serum Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn were significantly negatively related. Significant negative correlations between serum Pb and serum Zn:Pb as well as milk Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn:Pb as well as serum Zn:Cd correlated negatively. Milk Cd and Zn/Cd positively related with milk Pb while milk Zn was a negatively related with milk Pb in a multiple regression model ( R 2 = 0.333; p = 0.023). Breast milk may be contaminated by toxic metals. However, Zn supplementation in deficient mothers may protect maternal and infant health.

  5. Simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in Metro Manila air particulates by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.

    1999-02-01

    Air particulate samples were collected from two monitoring stations in Metro Manila using a 'Gent' type dichotomous sampler for pollutant source apportionment studies. Samples were collected in two fractions: a fine fraction with aerodynamic diameter, d p p 3 : HCL: HF, 4: 1: 1) for at least 20 minutes with subsequent heating at lower power settings for a total of 20 minutes more, effectively decomposed the sample with complete recovery of the elements. The digests were evaporated to near dryness to eliminate the troublesome effect of HF and HNO 3 and to decrease acidity of the electrolytic solution to pH ≥ 2. At pH 2, the addition of at least 0.01 M KCl was needed to improve sensitivity. The formation of Zn-Cu intermetallic compounds which interfered in the accurate quantitation of zinc was eliminated by addition of gallium as a 'third' element. The amount of gallium needed varied from sample to sample and was affected by the pH of the solution. The DPASV parameters found to be optimum for the analysis of the air particulate samples are as follows: pulse amplitude, 50 mV; scan rate, 10 mV/sec; E dep , - 1.30 V; t dep , 2 min; and RDE rotation rate, 1500 rpm. Detection limits of 0.2 ppb for zinc, 0.6 ppb for lead, and 0.05 ppb for cadmium in the sample matrix were obtained. The standard addition method was found to be reliable for the quantitative determination of the analytes in the sample. All R 2 values obtained were > 0.9900 at 95% confidence level. Validation of the established analytical methodology by analyzing certified reference standards and performing parallel analysis by GF-AAS and flame AAS showed acceptable accuracy of the DPASV measurements. (Author)

  6. Time trends in burdens of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the population of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennberg, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Hallmans, Goeran; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Custodio, Hipolito M.; Skerfving, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    The time trends of exposure to heavy metals are not adequately known. This is a worldwide problem with regard to the basis for preventive actions and evaluation of their effects. This study addresses time trends for the three toxic elements cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). Concentrations in erythrocytes (Ery) were determined in a subsample of the population-based MONICA surveys from 1990, 1994, and 1999 in a total of 600 men and women aged 25-74 years. The study took place in the two northernmost counties in Sweden. To assess the effect of changes in the environment, adjustments were made for life-style factors that are determinants of exposure. Annual decreases of 5-6% were seen for Ery-Pb levels (adjusted for age and changes in alcohol intake) and Ery-Hg levels (adjusted for age and changes in fish intake). Ery-Cd levels (adjusted for age) showed a similar significant decrease in smoking men. It is concluded that for Pb and maybe also Hg the actions against pollution during recent decades have caused a rapid decrease of exposure; for Hg the decreased use of dental amalgam may also have had an influence. For Cd, the decline in Ery-Cd was seen only in smokers, indicating that Cd exposure from tobacco has decreased, while other environmental sources of Cd have not changed significantly. To further improve the health status in Sweden, it is important to decrease the pollution of Cd, and actions against smoking in the community are important

  7. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram AMIRMORADI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 30�50�35 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

  8. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram AMIRMORADI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 305035 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

  9. Placental transfer and concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium in mothers, newborns, and young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Myers, Robert; Wei, Taiyin; Bind, Eric; Kassim, Prince; Wang, Guoying; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Caruso, Deanna; Bartell, Tami; Gong, Yiwei; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Wang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal–fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal–fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation. PMID:24756102

  10. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoohiyan Sakine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES. The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P 

  11. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul N; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Huang, Qing; Lu, Ying; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-02-01

    Paddy rice has been likened to nictiana sp in its ability to scavenge cadmium (Cd) from soil, whereas arsenic (As) accumulation is commonly an order of magnitude higher than in other cereal crops. In areas such as those found in parts of Hunan province in south central China, base-metal mining activities and rice farming coexist. Therefore there is a considerable likelihood that lead (Pb), in addition to Cd and As, will accumulate in rice grown in parts of this region above levels suitable for human consumption. To test this hypothesis, a widespread provincial survey of rice from mine spoilt paddies (n = 100), in addition to a follow-up market grain survey (n = 122) conducted in mine impacted areas was undertaken to determine the safety of local rice supply networks. Furthermore, a specific Cd, As, and Pb biogeochemical survey of paddy soil and rice was conducted within southern China, targeting sites impacted by mining of varying intensities to calibrate rice metal(loid) transfer models and transfer factors that can be used to predict tissue loading. Results revealed a number of highly significant correlations between shoot, husk, bran, and endosperm rice tissue fractions and that rice from mining areas was enriched in Cd, As, and Pb. Sixty-five, 50, and 34% of all the mine-impacted field rice was predicted to fail national food standards for Cd, As, and Pb, respectively. Although, not as elevated as the grains from the mine-impacted field survey, it was demonstrated that metal(loid) tainted rice was entering food supply chains intended for direct human consumption.

  12. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli de Sá, Júlia S; Fernandes, Isabela C; Moreira, Daniele C F; Milani, Raquel F; Morgano, Marcelo A; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2014-01-01

    The levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC) according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient's exposition risk. The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC served were analyzed. 163 patients participated, with mean weights and ages of 62.7 kg and 56.5 years, respectively, the majority being men (59.5%). The mean Cd content consumed was greater for men fed the regular and blend diets and similar amongst the sexes for the soft diet. The consumption of Cd (max. 21.02 μg/day) was below the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The mean Pb ingested (max. 199.49 μg/day) was similar amongst the sexes. The soft diet showed the highest Pb content in September/2010, whereas the other showed no variation according to season. In September/2010 and January/2011, the soft and regular diets associated with the OFC offered 207.50 and 210.50 μg/day of Pb, respectively. The combination of the diet with the OFC increased the risk of an excessive ingestion of Pb, and the vulnerability of the patients to an excessive exposition to Pb could be greater due to water and medications. It was concluded that whereas the calculated ingestion of Cd conformed to the PTMI, the Pb level and ingestion represented a risk to the health of the patients.

  13. The determination of cadmium, lead and vanadium by high resolution ICP-MS in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, F. [Joh. Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Trincherini, P. [European Union Joint Research Centre, Ispra, VA (Italy). Inst. of Environment

    2000-02-01

    Double focusing ICP-MS was successfully used in this research for the direct determination of the cadmium, lead and vanadium content of a set of Antarctic samples collected during the 11. Italian Expedition to Antarctica. For cadmium and lead measurements the low resolution mode was chosen since it ensured the highest ion sensitivity and it allowed the highest detection limits to be attained; in the case of vanadium the high resolution mode was used to solve the isobaric interference. As far as vanadium and cadmium are concerned by GFAAS coupled with different preconcentration procedures. The vanadium, cadmium and lead content measured in a riverine water reference material (SRLS-3) was found in agreement with the certified values. [Italian] Si e' utilizzato uno spettrometro ICP-MS a doppia focalizzazione per la determinazione diretta di cadmio, piombo e vanadio in una serie di campioni di neve antartica superficiale raccolta durante l'undicesima spedizione italiana in Antartide. Per le determinazioni di cadmio e piombo si e' scelta la procedura a bassa risoluzione, che ha garantito la piu' elevata sensibilita' ed ha permesso di ottenere limiti di determinazione migliori; nel caso del vanadio si e' utilizzata la procedura ad alta risoluzione che ha permesso di risolvere problemi di interferenza isobarica. Per quanto riguarda cadmio e vanadio, i risultati delle determinazioni mediante ICP-MS sono risultati in buon accordo con quelli ottenuti mediante GFAAS accoppiata a diverse procedure di preconcentrazione. Il contenuto di cadmio, piombo e vanadio misurato con le procedure sviluppate in un campione certificato di acqua di fiume (SRLS-3) e' risultato in accordo con i valori certificati.

  14. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  15. Determination of lead and cadmium in hen eggs by graphite france electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and estimation of the daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.; Nizami, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 hen eggs were procured from nine poultry farms of Sindh, Pakistan in different batches to determine lead and cadmium toxicity. The quantitative analysis of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in egg samples were performed on electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS), with Zeeman effects background correction. Lead concentrations in hen egg samples ranged from 0.027 to 1.056 micro g/g with a mean value of 0.283 micro g/g +- 0.86, whereas cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.001 to 0.012 micro g/g with a mean value of 0.003 micro g/g +-0.002. Lead concentrations exceeded the normal levels of 0.020 but cadmium was found lower than the normal levels of 0.005 micro g/g. (author)

  16. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  17. Molecular evidence and physiological characterization of iron absorption in isolated enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Implications for dietary cadmium and lead absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M.; Andres, Jose A.; Niyogi, Som

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the probable involvement of an apical iron (Fe 2+ ) transporter, the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), in the uptake of several divalent metals in fish. The present study examined the gastrointestinal expression of the DMT1 gene, and investigated the kinetics of Fe 2+ uptake and its interactions with cadmium and lead in isolated enterocytes of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The expressions of two DMT1 isoforms (Nramp-β and -γ) were recorded along the entire gastrointestinal tract of fish as well as in the enterocytes. Fe 2+ uptake in isolated enterocytes was saturable and sensitive to the proton gradient and membrane potential, suggesting DMT1-mediated transport. Both cadmium and lead inhibited Fe 2+ uptake in isolated enterocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and lead appeared to be a stronger inhibitor than cadmium. The kinetic characterization of Fe 2+ uptake revealed that the apparent affinity of uptake was significantly decreased (increased K m ) in the presence of either cadmium or lead, whereas the maximum uptake rate (J max ) remained unchanged-indicating that the interaction between Fe 2+ and cadmium or lead is competitive in nature. Overall, our study suggests that the uptake of dietary cadmium and lead may occur via the iron-transporting pathway in fish.

  18. Molecular evidence and physiological characterization of iron absorption in isolated enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Implications for dietary cadmium and lead absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Raymond W.M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK., S7N 5B3 (Canada); Andres, Jose A. [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK., S7N 5E2 (Canada); Niyogi, Som, E-mail: som.niyogi@usask.ca [Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK., S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies suggested the probable involvement of an apical iron (Fe{sup 2+}) transporter, the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), in the uptake of several divalent metals in fish. The present study examined the gastrointestinal expression of the DMT1 gene, and investigated the kinetics of Fe{sup 2+} uptake and its interactions with cadmium and lead in isolated enterocytes of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The expressions of two DMT1 isoforms (Nramp-{beta} and -{gamma}) were recorded along the entire gastrointestinal tract of fish as well as in the enterocytes. Fe{sup 2+} uptake in isolated enterocytes was saturable and sensitive to the proton gradient and membrane potential, suggesting DMT1-mediated transport. Both cadmium and lead inhibited Fe{sup 2+} uptake in isolated enterocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and lead appeared to be a stronger inhibitor than cadmium. The kinetic characterization of Fe{sup 2+} uptake revealed that the apparent affinity of uptake was significantly decreased (increased K{sub m}) in the presence of either cadmium or lead, whereas the maximum uptake rate (J{sub max}) remained unchanged-indicating that the interaction between Fe{sup 2+} and cadmium or lead is competitive in nature. Overall, our study suggests that the uptake of dietary cadmium and lead may occur via the iron-transporting pathway in fish.

  19. Preliminary modelling and mapping of critical loads for cadmium and lead in Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh JP; Slootweg J; Posch M; Ilyin I; MNV-CCE/WGE-IPC M&M Coordination Center for Effects; EMEP-Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-East

    2004-01-01

    De "Working Group on Effects" (WGE) van de "Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution" onder de "United Nations Economic Commission or Europe" (UNECE-CLRTAP) heeft tijdens haar 20e bijeenkomst besloten dat de methode om kritische depositiewaarden (critical loads) voor cadmium en lood in

  20. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  1. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  2. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  3. Investigation of the lead-, mercury- and cadmium concentration found in red deer, deer and chamois in an tyrolian preserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, E.

    1984-05-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals, lead, mercury and cadmium were tested in liver, kidney and rib samples taken from 43 red deer, 24 deer and 42 chamois between June 1982 and June 1983. Since the free living animals aquire the damaging substances through food, water and air intake, the determined sediments found in the bodies give information on the environmental pollution. The lead content in liver and kidney showed minimal values averraging between 0.001 and 0.014 ppm in all three animal types. Ribs, as well as all bones, due to the effect of time, served as reservoirs for lead with average values of 0.2-0.4ppm. In two chamois livers the maximal values of 3.007 and 1.006 ppm were detected and can be accounted for in a secondary contaminated originating from the lethal projectile. In reference to age and sex, no differences could be seen. A seasonal dependency was determined such that the concentration increased in spring and summer in examined livers and kidneys. The rumen content and grazing habit analysis showed minimal residue amounts as in the indicator organs. This lies in connection with the locality of the hunting grounds compared to the road. The mercury content in liver and kidney was of the maximal value 0.449 ppm. Deer showed the greatest contamination in the kidneys, which were surprisingly high in the fall. After rumen content and grazing analysis, the high value can be accounted for the deer's preference to eat mushrooms in the fall which contained an average 1.029 ppm Hg. Changes in concentrations could not be determined to be sex and age dependet. The cadmium concentration was highest in the kidney cortex in all three animal types. A highly significant dependency should be observed in the cadmium concentration. Deer showed the greatest amounts in each age class, which can be referred back to the grazing habits, to the preferred herbs and mushrooms which have high cadmium contents. Due to the strong influence of the age factor in cadmium storage

  4. Quantitative in vivo elemental analysis using X-ray fluorescence and scattering techniques. Applications to cadmium, lead and bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ulf.

    1994-05-01

    The X-ray fluorescence technique for in vivo determination of cadmium concentration in the human body has been considerably improved so that the minimum concentration now is 10 μg/g for a skin-organ distance of 50 mm and a measurement time of 30 minutes. The technique has been used for measurements of cadmium in the kidney cortex of 60 non-occupationally exposed persons, showing twice the concentration (26±9 μg/g) in a sub-group of frequent tobacco smokers compared with a group of non-smokers (10±11 μg/g). Concentrations of lead in the skeleton of 112 persons have been measured at three bone sites (finger bone, tibia, heel bone) using in vivo XRF techniques either based on Co-57 or Cd-109 sources. There was a good correlation between lead levels at the three bone sites as well as to cumulative exposure index. However, the association between the amount of chelatable lead and measured bone lead levels was poor. The retention of lead in the skeleton of 14 retired workers, now studied for up to 18 years after retirement, shows a half-time of 16 years. 43 refs

  5. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruen, Emel; Yalcin, S. Songuel; Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc; Yurdakoek, Kadriye; Uzun, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 μg/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 μg/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 μg/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 μg/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 μg/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 μg/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: → Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. → The mothers having history

  6. Determination of cadmium, lead and zinc in a candidate reference materials using isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Quejido, Alberto; Fernandez, Marta

    2001-01-01

    The growing demands placed on analytical laboratories to ensure the reliability of their results, due to the introduction of systems of quality and to the increasing use of metrology in chemical measurements has led most laboratories to validate their methodologies and to control them statistically. One of the techniques used most often for these purposes is based on the use of reference materials. The proper use of these materials means that laboratory results may be traced to the International System of Units, analytical methodologies can be validated, instruments calibrated and chemical measurements harmonized. One of the biggest challenges in developing reference materials is that of certifying their properties, a process that has been defined as assigning a concentration value that is as close as possible to the true value together with its uncertainty. Organizations that produce reference materials use several options for their certification process, and among these is the use of a primary method. Among the primary methods recognized by the International Office of Weights and Measures is the Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry technique. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, through its Reference Materials Program, has prepared a reference material of clam tissue, which has been chemically defined by different analytical methodologies applied in different national and international laboratories. This work describes the methodology developed with the CIEMAT for determining the elements lead, cadmium and zinc in the clam tissue reference material using the primary technique of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry. The calculation is described for obtaining the spike amounts to be added to the sample and the procedure is explained for carrying out the isotopic exchange. The isotopic relationships 204 Pb/ 205 Pb, 111 Cd/ 114 Cd and 66 Zn/ 67 Zn were determined in an atomic emission spectrometer with a plasma source with the following characteristics: plasma

  7. Connecting gastrointestinal cancer risk to cadmium and lead exposure in the Chaoshan population of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueqiong; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Chen, Yanrong; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2018-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pose a serious threat to human health because of its carcinogenicity. China ranks first according to the Global Cancer Report for 2014 in newly diagnosed gastrointestinal cancers and cancer deaths. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Cd and Pb burden with the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a hospital-based case-control study from southern regions of China, Chaoshan area. A total of 279 hospitalized patients were recruited in this study, of which 167 were gastrointestinal cancer cases (70 esophageal cancer, 51 gastric cancer, and 46 colorectal cancer), and 112 controls were recruited from two hospitals in the Chaoshan area of southeast China. Basic clinical data and information on gender, age, and other demographic characteristics were collected from medical records. Blood Cd and Pb levels were detected by graphite furnace atomizer absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). Blood Cd/Pb levels and over-limit ratios between cases and controls were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as measures of relative risk and explored the relationships between blood Cd/Pb levels and gastrointestinal cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Median levels of blood Cd and Pb in cases (2.12 and 60.03 μg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (1.47 and 53.84 μg/L, respectively). The over-limit ratios for Cd (≥ 5 μg/L) and Pb (≥ 100 μg/L) in the cases were both higher than that of controls. Blood Cd levels had a tendency to accumulate in the human body with gender, age, and tobacco smoking, while blood Pb levels only were associated with tobacco smoking. The logistic regression model illustrated that gastrointestinal cancers were significantly associated with blood Cd levels and blood Pb levels. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in patients with T3 + T4 stage were markedly higher than in patients

  8. Cadmium and lead determination by ICPMS: Method optimization and application in carabao milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza A. Magbitang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS as the element-selective detector with microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion as the sample pre-treatment technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in milk samples. The estimated detection limits were 0.09ìg kg-1 and 0.33ìg kg-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range 0.01 to 500ìg kg-1with correlation coefficients of 0.999 for both analytes.The method was validated using certified reference material BCR 150 and the determined values for Cd and Pb were 18.24 ± 0.18 ìg kg-1 and 807.57 ± 7.07ìg kg-1, respectively. Further validation using another certified reference material, NIST 1643e, resulted in determined concentrations of 6.48 ± 0.10 ìg L-1 for Cd and 21.96 ± 0.87 ìg L-1 for Pb. These determined values agree well with the certified values in the reference materials.The method was applied to processed and raw carabao milk samples collected in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.The Cd levels determined in the samples were in the range 0.11 ± 0.07 to 5.17 ± 0.13 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.11 ± 0.07 to 0.45 ± 0.09 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples. The concentrations of Pb were in the range 0.49 ± 0.21 to 5.82 ± 0.17 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.72 ± 0.18 to 6.79 ± 0.20 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples.

  9. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  10. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  11. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  12. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Srianujata, S.; Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C.; Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N.; Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M.

    1999-01-01

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 μg/l for Pb-B, 0.41 μg/l for Cd-B, 2.06 μg/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 μg/day for Pb-F and 7.1 μg/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. A Novel GH-92 Nano-Adsorbent Using the Sponge from the Persian Gulf for Lead and Cadmium Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghafourian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Removing pollutants from aquatic ecosystems, especially from drinking water, has always been a major concern for scientists. Recent decades have witnessed the widespread application of natural compounds used as adsorbents to remove various pollutants. On the other hand, studies have proved nanotechnology to be an effective way of removing pollutants. A new type of sponge belonging to the family Demospongiae that has nano holes and is native to the Persian Gulf was investigated for the first time in the present study for use as an adsorbent to remove calcium, magnesium, cobalt, cadmium, and lead ions from water. For this purpose, adbsorption in sponges of different aggregate sizes, contact time, particle size, and ambient pH were measured. The results showed that the proposed sponge is capable of adsorbing the above-mentioned metal ions to various degrees. While small amounts of calcium, magnesium, and cobalt were adsorbed by this sponge, cadmium recorded a higher adsorption of 2.37 mg/g at pH=5. The highest adsorption level of 79.19 mg per gram of adsorbent was recorded for lead at a pH range of 4.5-5 with a mesh size of 230. This is the highest adsorption ever recorded for lead in the literature on selective separation of lead from the other ions.

  14. Multi-metals column adsorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and manganese(II) onto natural bentonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jock Asanja; Surajudeen, Abdulsalam; Aliyu, El-Nafaty Usman; Omeiza, Aroke Umar; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The present work was aimed at evaluating the multi-metals column adsorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and manganese(II) ions onto natural bentonite. The bentonite clay adsorbent was characterized for physical and chemical properties using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and cation exchange capacity. The column performance was evaluated using adsorbent bed height of 5.0 cm, with varying influent concentrations (10 mg/L and 50 mg/L) and flow rates (1.4 mL/min and 2.4 mL/min). The result shows that the breakthrough time for all metal ions ranged from 50 to 480 minutes. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained at initial concentration of 10 mg/L and flow rate of 1.4 mL/min, with 2.22 mg/g of lead(II), 1.71 mg/g of cadmium(II) and 0.37 mg/g of manganese(II). The order of metal ions removal by natural bentonite is lead(II) > cadmium(II) > manganese(II). The sorption performance and the dynamic behaviour of the column were predicted using Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. The linear regression analysis demonstrated that the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models fitted well with the column adsorption data for all metal ions. The natural bentonite was effective for the treatment of wastewater laden with multi-metals, and the process parameters obtained from this work can be used at the industrial scale.

  15. Assessment of cadmium and lead mobility in the rhizosphere using voltammetry and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2011), s. 347-355 ISSN 1109-9577 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) * oxalic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry http://www.library.sk/i2/i2.entry.cls?ictx=cav&language=2&op=esearch

  16. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel -Latif, A.; EL- Bedewi, A.F.; Gad, A.; Mortada, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  17. Paired emitter-detector light emitting diodes for the measurement of lead(II) and cadmium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, K.-T. [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)]. E-mail: kim.lau@dcu.ie; McHugh, Eimear [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Baldwin, Susan [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Diamond, Dermot [Adaptive Sensors Group, National Centre for Sensor Research, School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)]. E-mail: Dermot.diamond@dcu.ie

    2006-05-31

    A transmittance mode optical device based on using a reverse biased light emitting diode (LED) as light detector has been developed for colorimetric analysis. This new optical device was validated with bromocresol green dye for absorbance measurements before being employed for detecting cadmium(II) and lead(II) in water. Results show that the performance of this LED-based device is comparable to much more expensive bench top UV-vis instruments, but with the advantages of being low cost, low power and simple to operate.

  18. Paired emitter-detector light emitting diodes for the measurement of lead(II) and cadmium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.-T.; McHugh, Eimear; Baldwin, Susan; Diamond, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    A transmittance mode optical device based on using a reverse biased light emitting diode (LED) as light detector has been developed for colorimetric analysis. This new optical device was validated with bromocresol green dye for absorbance measurements before being employed for detecting cadmium(II) and lead(II) in water. Results show that the performance of this LED-based device is comparable to much more expensive bench top UV-vis instruments, but with the advantages of being low cost, low power and simple to operate

  19. Levels of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus Violaceous), Housefly (Musca Domestica) and dragon fly (Libellula luctosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, A.A.; Okedeyi, O.O.; Idowu, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical analyses of cadmium, chromium and lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus violaceous), housefly (Musca domestica) and in indigenous dragonfly (Libellula luctosa) were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry to estimate the degree of metal pollution in two Lagos dumpsites located at Iba Housing Estate (dumpsite A) and Soluos along LASU - Isheri road (dumpsite B). Soil pH and moisture content were also determined. Chromium was not detected (ND) in most of the samples except in the soil samples whose mean and standard deviation (SD) were 0.43 Plus minus 0.37 micro g/g and 0.23 plus minus 0.37 micro g/g, respectively for dumpsites A and B, and the earthworm samples harvested from dumpsite B (1.00 plus minus 1.41 micro g/g the cadmium levels were 4.00 plus minus 3.16 micro g/g and 7.50 plus minus 6.37 micro g/g for earthwarm; 2.86 plus minus 1.43 micro g/g and 4.29 plus minus 3.74 micro g/g for housefly, 0.75 plus minus 1.26 micro g/g and 1.25 plus minus 0.95 micro g/g for dragonfly, respectively for dumpsites A and B. However, the concentration of lead in the invertebrates were, 130.00 plus minus 112.58 micro g/g and 105.75 plus minus 94.44 micro g/g for earthworm; 145.71 plus minus 101.87 micro g/g and 225.71 plus minus 79.31 micro g/g for housefly; 165.00 plus minus 69.78 micro g/g and 85.00 plus minus 69.73 micro g/g for dragonfly respectively for dumpsites A and B. Cadmium and lead levels were found to be higher in the invertebrates harvested from the dumpsites than those collected from the non-dumpsites. The non-dumpsite values for cadmium were 1.24 plus minus 0,94 micro g/g, 0.45 plus minus 0.56 micro g/g and 0.38 plus minus 0.4 micro g/g for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly, respectively. Similarly, the non-dumpsite lead levels for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly were 23.12 plus minus 10.11 micro g/g, 20.75 plus minus 11.85 micro g/g and 33.62 plus minus 14.95 micro g/g, respectively.(author)

  20. Lead, cadmium and arsenic in human milk and their socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Maya; Daou, Farah; Hassan, Hussein; Yamani, Osama; Kharma, Joelle Abi; Attieh, Zouheir; Elaridi, Jomana

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of newborns to toxic metals is of special interest due to their reported contamination in breast milk and potential harm. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with lead, cadmium and arsenic contamination in breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. A total of 74 breast milk samples were collected from primaparas according to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. A survey was administered to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The milk samples were analyzed for the presence of arsenic, cadmium and lead using microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic contamination was found in 63.51% of breast milk samples (mean 2.36 ± 1.95 μg/L) whereas cadmium and lead were detected in 40.54% and 67.61% of samples respectively (means 0.87 ± 1.18 μg/L and 18.18 ± 13.31 μg/L). Regression analysis indicated that arsenic contamination was associated with cereal and fish intake (p = 0.013 and p = 0.042 respectively). Residence near cultivation activities (p = 0.008), smoking status before pregnancy (p = 0.046), potato consumption (p = 0.046) and education level (p = 0.041) were associated with lead contamination. Cadmium contamination was significantly associated with random smoke exposure (p = 0.002). Our study is the first in Lebanon to report toxic metal contamination in breast milk. Although estimated weekly infant intake of these metals from breast milk was found to be lower than the limit set by international guidelines, our results highlight the need for developing strategies to protect infants from exposure to these hazardous substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    FANG Ya-yu; ZOU Hui-ling; YIN Xiao-hui; CHEN Nan; YANG Deng; WEI Xiang-dong

    2016-01-01

    Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatm...

  2. Association of Blood and Seminal Plasma Cadmium and Lead Levels With Semen Quality in Non-Occupationally Exposed Infertile Men in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola C Famurewa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate association of blood and seminal plasma lead and cadmium with sperm quality of non-occupationally exposed male partners of couples with infertility.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 men aged 20-45 years (mean = 37.1 ± 7.0 yrs. with infertility recruited from the Fertility Clinic of a hospital in Abakaliki. Sperm count done in accordance with the WHO guidelines was used to classify the participants as normospamia, oligospermia and azospermia. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine lead and cadmium levels in plasma from blood and semen.Results: There were 15 azospermics, 22 oligospermics and 36 normospermics. Seminal and blood plasma cadmium as well as blood plasma lead were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in azospermic and oligospermic men compared to normospermic men. However, while seminal plasma lead was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in oligospermic and normospernic men than in azospermic men, the seminal plasma lead was comparable between oligospermic and normospermic men. Significant inverse associations (p < 0.01 were found between blood and seminal cadmium levels and sperm count, motility and morphology; blood lead was inversely correlated with sperm count only.Conclusion: The study suggests that environmental exposure to cadmium and lead may contribute to development of poor sperm quality and infertility in men of reproductive age in Nigeria.

  3. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-ESIMSn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baralkiewicz, D.; Magorzata, K.; Piechalak, A.; Tomaszewska, B.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Trace elements play an important role in the functioning of life on our planet. Some of them can be highly toxic, whereas others can be essential. These effects are very often related to particular form in which the element is present. Often these different chemical forms of a particular element or its compounds are referred to as 'species'. Cadmium and lead are widespread heavy metal pollutants released into the environment by human activities. The presence of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ in the environment leads to a numerous disturbances in many metabolic processes in plants. Inhibition of growth is a major symptom. Hyphenated techniques, such as HPLC-ICPMS and HPLC-ESIMSn seem to be the best analytical instruments to study metal speciation in plants. In our study, we used hyphenated techniques to identify compounds engaged in Cd and Pb metabolism and to perform analysis of metal complexes induced in Pisum sativum exposed to cadmium and lead. These identified compounds might be valuable source of information to study metal accumulation mechanism for bioremediation processes. (author)

  5. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Standard test method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium extracted from ceramic foodware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) to quantitatively determine lead and cadmium extracted by acetic acid at room temperature from the food-contact surface of foodware. The method is applicable to food-contact surfaces composed of silicate-based materials (earthenware, glazed ceramicware, decorated ceramicware, decorated glass, and lead crystal glass) and is capable of determining lead concentrations greater than 0.005 to 0.020 g/mL and cadmium concentrations greater than 0.0005 to 0.002 g/mL, depending on instrument design. 1.2 This test method also describes quality control procedures to check for contamination and matrix interference during GFAAS analyses and a specific sequence of analytical measurements that demonstrates proper instrument operation during the time period in which sample solutions are analyzed. 1.3 Cleaning and other contamination control procedures are described in this test method. Users may modify contamination cont...

  7. Copper, Cadmium and Lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon Dearborni, in two Lagoons of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.; Lemus, M.; Chung, K. S

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprenodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos Lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant waste water from Cumana city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in Frebruary 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26± 210.68 μg/g for Cu, 44.71±45.58 μg/g for Cd, and 9.31±23.34 μg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88±16.30, 19.48± 5.81 and 22.85±20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for cooper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. (Author) [es

  8. A binderless, covalently bulk modified electrochemical sensor: Application to simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium at trace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunigollahalli Kempegowda, Raghu [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India); Malingappa, Pandurangappa, E-mail: mprangachem@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed sensor is a new type of binderless covalent bulk modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface can be easily renewed by simple mechanical polishing using emery sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free from modifier leaching during electrochemical measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides long term storage stability with good reproducibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanomolar level detection limit achieved with selectivity. - Abstract: A new type of covalent binderless bulk modified electrode has been fabricated and used in the simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium ions at nanomolar level. The modification of graphitic carbon with 4-amino salicylic acid was carried out under microwave irradiation through the amide bond formation. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated electrode has been carried out to decipher the interacting ability of the functional moieties present on the modifier molecules toward the simultaneous determination of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The possible mode of interaction of functional groups with metal ions is proposed based on the pKa values of the modifier functionalities present on the surface of graphitic carbon particles. The analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been validated by measuring the lead and cadmium content from pretreated waste water samples of lead acid batteries.

  9. Synthesis and evaluations of pentahydroxylhexyl-L-cysteine and its dimer as chelating agents for cadmium or lead decorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Zhao Ming; Yang Jian; Li Xingwei; Peng Shiqi

    2004-01-01

    N-(2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxylhexyl)-L-cysteine (4) and N,N'-di(2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxylhexyl)-L-cystine (5) were synthesized. As antagonists of cadmium or lead intoxication, they were found to be effective by oral administration on repeated exposure. The bioassay in vivo indicated that their cadmium-mobilizing potencies are significantly superior to those of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and their lead-mobilizing properties are equivalent to those of DL-penicillamine (DL-PA). The stability constants of the Cd-4 and Cd-5 complexes or Pb-4 and Pb-5 complexes were determined by use of pH titration. The membrane permeability of compounds 4 and 5 was evaluated by transporting across the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The effect of compounds 4 and 5 on the concentrations of essential metal ions in the renal cortex is negligible in comparison with that of the group treated with lead only. The acute toxicity of compounds 4 was tested by oral gavage and the resulting LD 50 value for both mice and rats is larger than 10 g kg -1 bw. The cytogenetic effects of compound 4 were evaluated in the Ames assay, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, and sperms shape abnormality assay, and all of them show the negative reactions

  10. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  11. Comparison between Removal Efficiency of Slag, zeolite, and Conventional media in slow sand Filter for Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals owing to their health hazards and high toxicity in low concentration for human and environment have very concern and attention. Slow sand filter is one of the simple and cost-effective for removal of these pollutants. In this method, media play an important role for removal of pollutant. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigation of different media like slag, zeolite, and conventional media in slow sand filter for removal of lead and cadmium. Methods: In this research there are three beds filter include typical filter bed, slag and zeolite that used in pilot plant for investigation of lead and cadmium removal at three concentration of 0.1T 1 and 10 ppm. Each of filters has an internal diameter of 8 cm and a height of 120 cm with Plexiglas, which have a continuous flow operation. Results: The removal efficiency of turbidity by three typical filter bed, slag, and zeolite with initial turbidity of 13 NTU was 46%, 77%, and 89% respectively. Removal efficiency of lead without turbidity was 70.3%, 79%, and 59.8% respectively for 0.1 ppm lead. For 1 ppm, concentration of lead removal efficiency was 51.8%, 52.7% and 52.6% respectively and for 10 ppm it was 53.4%, 57.8%, and 59.8% respectively. Cadmium removal for these media was 23.4%, 37.5%, and 59.4% respectively at 0.1 ppm cadmium. At 1 ppm of cadmium concentration, it was 37.9%, 45% and 41.3% respectively and at 10 ppm concentration of cadmium it was 68.3%, 68.6% and 67% respectively. Conclusion: Slag and zeolite beds are more efficiently than the conventional sand beds in the slow sand filter, so it can be used instead of the usual sand for removing lead and cadmium from resources water.

  12. Geochemical Fractionations and Mobility of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Sediments of the Kanto Plain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sushmita; Oguchi, Chiaki T.; Hachinohe, Shoichi; Ishiyama, Takashi; Hamamoto, Hideki

    2014-05-01

    Lowland alluvial and floodplain sediment play a major role in transferring heavy metals and other elements to groundwater through sediment water interaction in changing environmental conditions. However identification of geochemical forms of toxic elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) requires risk assessment of sediment and subsequent groundwater pollution. A four steps sequential extraction procedure was applied to characterize the geochemical fractionations of As, Pb and Cd for 44 sediment samples including one peat sample from middle basin area of the Nakagawa river in the central Kanto plain. The studied sediment profile extended from the bottom of the river to 44 m depth; sediment samples were collected at 1m intervals from a bored core. The existing sedimentary facies in vertical profile are continental, transitional and marine. There are two aquifers in vertical profile; the upper aquifer (15-20m) contains fine to medium sand whereas medium to coarse sand and gravelly sand contain in lower aquifer (37-44m). The total As and Pb contents were measured by the X-Ray Fluorescence analysis which ranged from 4 to 23 mg/kg of As and 10 to 27 mg/kg of Pb in sediment profile. The three trace elements and major heavy metals were determined by ICP/MS and ICP/AES, and major ions were measured by an ion chromatograph. The marine sediment is mainly Ca-SO4 type. The Geochemical analysis showed the order of mobility trends to be As > Pb > Cd for all the steps. The geochemical fractionations order was determined to be Fe-Mn oxide bound > carbonate bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble for As and Pb whereas the order for Cd is carbonate bound > Fe-Mn oxide bound > ion exchangeable > water soluble. The mobility tendency of Pb and Cd showed high in fine silty sediment of marine environment than for those from continental and transitional environments. In the case of As, the potential mobility is very high (>60%) in the riverbed sediments and clayey silt

  13. Cadmium, lead, tin, total mercury, and methylmercury in canned tuna commercialised in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Esther Lima; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Milani, Raquel Fernanda

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine levels of inorganic contaminants in 30 samples of five commercial brands of canned tuna, acquired on the local market in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2015. Total mercury and methylmercury (MeHg+) were determined by atomic absorption with thermal decomposition and amalgamation; and cadmium, lead, and tin were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated that 20% of the tuna samples surpassed limits determined by the Brazilian and European Commission legislation for cadmium; for lead, the maximum value found was 59 µg kg -1 and tin was not detected in any samples. The maximum values found for total Hg and MeHg+ were 261 and 258 µg kg -1 , respectively. As from the results obtained, it was estimated that the consumption of four cans per week (540 g) of tuna canned in water could surpass the provisional tolerable monthly intake for MeHg + by 100%.

  14. A rugged and transferable method for determining blood cadmium, mercury, and lead with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McShane, William J.; Pappas, R. Steven; Wilson-McElprang, Veronica; Paschal, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A simple, high-throughput method for determining total cadmium, mercury, and lead in blood in cases of suspected exposure, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), has been developed and validated. One part matrix-matched standards, blanks, or aliquots of blood specimens were diluted with 49 parts of a solution containing 0.25% (w/w) tetramethylammonium hydroxide; 0.05% v/v Triton X-100 (blood cell membranes and protein solubilization); 0.01% (w/v) ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (mercury memory effect prevention and oxidation state stabilization, solubilization by complexation of all three metals); 1% v/v isopropanol (signal enhancement); and 10 μg/L iridium (internal standard). Thus the final dilution factor is 1 + 49. The method provides the basis for the determination of total cadmium, mercury, and lead for assessment of environmental, occupational, accidental ingestion or elevated exposures from other means. Approximately 80 specimens, including blanks, calibration standards, and quality control materials can be processed in an 8-h day. The method has been evaluated by examining reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as by participation in six rounds of proficiency testing intercomparisons led by the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health. This method was developed for the purpose of increasing U.S. emergency response laboratory capacity. To this end, 33 U.S. state, and 1 district health department laboratories have validated this method in their own laboratories

  15. Pretreatment with low-dose gamma irradiation enhances tolerance to the stress of cadmium and lead in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wencai; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hangbo; Jin, Qingsheng; Jiao, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with negative impact on plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of heavy metal stress mitigated by low-dose gamma irradiation, the dry seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to a Cobalt-60 gamma source at doses ranging from 25 to 150Gy before being subjected to 75µM CdCl2 or 500µM Pb(NO3)2. Then, the growth parameters, and physiological and molecular changes were determined in response to gamma irradiation. Our results showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation gave maximal beneficial effects on the germination index and root length in response to cadmium/lead stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in seedlings irradiated with 50-Gy gamma rays under stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The antioxidant enzyme activities and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were significantly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, a transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of heavy metal detoxification were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under cadmium/lead stress. Our results suggest that low-dose gamma irradiation alleviates heavy metal stress, probably by modulating the physiological responses and gene expression levels related to heavy metal resistance in Arabidopsis seedlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50μM and 100μM of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The contents and distributions of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Usnea antarctica lichens from Solorina Valley, James Ross Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvěřina, Ondřej; Coufalík, Pavel; Barták, Miloš; Petrov, Michal; Komárek, Josef

    2017-12-11

    Lichens are efficient and cost-effective biomonitors of the environment. Their geographic distribution together with their slow growth rate enable investigation of the deposition patterns of various elements and substances. In this research, levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in Usnea antarctica lichens in the area of James Ross Island, Antarctica, were investigated. The lichens were microwave-digested, and the metals were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace and a direct mercury analyzer. Median total contents of Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.04, 0.47, and 1.6 mg/kg in whole lichens, respectively. The bottom-up distributions of these metals in the fruticose lichen thalli were investigated, and it was revealed that the accumulation patterns for mercury and lead were opposite to that for cadmium. The probable reason for this phenomenon may lie in the inner structure of thalli. The total contents of metals were comparable with those published for other unpolluted areas of maritime Antarctica. However, this finding was not expected for mercury, since the sampling locality was close to an area with some of the highest mercury contents published for Antarctic lichens. In short, lichens proved their usability as biological monitors, even in harsh conditions. However, the findings emphasize the need to take into account the distributions of elements both in the environment and in the lichen itself.

  18. A rugged and transferable method for determining blood cadmium, mercury, and lead with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McShane, William J. [Battelle-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-44, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)], E-mail: WMcShane@cdc.gov; Pappas, R. Steven [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-44, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)], E-mail: RPappas@cdc.gov; Wilson-McElprang, Veronica [Battelle-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-44, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)], E-mail: VWilsonMcelprang@cdc.gov; Paschal, Dan [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants, 4770 Buford Highway, MS F-44, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)], E-mail: DPaschal@cdc.gov

    2008-06-15

    A simple, high-throughput method for determining total cadmium, mercury, and lead in blood in cases of suspected exposure, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), has been developed and validated. One part matrix-matched standards, blanks, or aliquots of blood specimens were diluted with 49 parts of a solution containing 0.25% (w/w) tetramethylammonium hydroxide; 0.05% v/v Triton X-100 (blood cell membranes and protein solubilization); 0.01% (w/v) ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (mercury memory effect prevention and oxidation state stabilization, solubilization by complexation of all three metals); 1% v/v isopropanol (signal enhancement); and 10 {mu}g/L iridium (internal standard). Thus the final dilution factor is 1 + 49. The method provides the basis for the determination of total cadmium, mercury, and lead for assessment of environmental, occupational, accidental ingestion or elevated exposures from other means. Approximately 80 specimens, including blanks, calibration standards, and quality control materials can be processed in an 8-h day. The method has been evaluated by examining reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as by participation in six rounds of proficiency testing intercomparisons led by the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health. This method was developed for the purpose of increasing U.S. emergency response laboratory capacity. To this end, 33 U.S. state, and 1 district health department laboratories have validated this method in their own laboratories.

  19. Electrochemical stripping determination of traces of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulik, K.; Beran, P.; Dolezal, J.; Opekar, F.

    1978-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for the determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide, at concentrations of 1ppm or less. Zirconium metal was dissolved in sulphuric acid, and zirconium dioxide decomposed under pressure with hydrofluoric acid. Sample solutions were prepared in dilute sulphuric acid. For the stripping determination, the sample solution was either mixed with a complexing tartrate base electrolyte or the pre-electrolysis was carried out in acid solution, with the acid solution being exchanged for a pure base electrolyte (e.g. an acetate buffer) for the stripping step. The stripping step was monitored by d.c., differential pulse and Kalousek commutator voltammetry and the three methods were compared. A stationary mercury-drop electrode can generally be used for all the methods, whereas a mercury-film electrode is suitable only for the d.c. voltammetric determination of copper, lead and cadmium, as pulse measurements with films are poorly reproducible and the electrodes are easily damaged. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 20%. Some samples contained relatively large amounts of copper, which is best separated by electrodeposition on a platinum electrode. (author)

  20. Cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixo, Poliana Carolina; Junior, Dario Santos; Tomazelli, Andrea Cristina; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Berndt, Harald; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2004-01-01

    A simple method for cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (BIFF-AAS) was proposed. Food slurries were prepared by transferring an exact amount of cryogenic-ground homogenized material (50-100 mg) to centrifuge tubes, followed by addition of 5 ml (up to 2.8 mol l -1 ) nitric acid solution and sonication in an ultrasonic bath during 5-10 min. Thereafter, slurries were diluted with water to 10 ml, centrifuged during 5 min at 5400 rpm and 400 μl aliquot of the supernatant was analyzed by BIFF-AAS. The detection limits based on peak height measurements were 0.03 μg g -1 Cd and 1.6 μg g -1 Pb for 2% (m/v) slurry (200 mg/10 ml). For method validation, the certified reference materials Pig Kidney (BCR 186) and Rice Flour (NIES 10) were used. Quantitative cadmium and lead recoveries were obtained and no statistical differences were found at 95% level by applying the t-test

  1. Coupling continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction, preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection for the determination of cadmium and lead in mussel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra-Biurrun, M.C.; Cancela-Perez, S.; Moreno-Cid-Barinaga, A.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction has been coupled with preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of cadmium and lead in mussel samples. Experimental designs were used for the optimisation of the leaching and preconcentration steps. The use of diluted nitric acid as extractant in the continuous mode at a flow rate of 3.5 ml min -1 and room temperature was sufficient for quantitative extraction of these trace metals. A minicolumn containing a chelating resin (Chelite P, with aminomethylphosphoric acid groups) was proved as an excellent material for the quantitative preconcentration of cadmium and lead prior to their flame atomic absorption detection. A flow injection manifold was used as interface for coupling the three analytical steps, which allowed the automation of the whole analytical process. A good precision of the whole procedure (2.0 and 2.3%), high enrichment factors (20.5 and 11.8) and a detection limit of 0.011 and 0.25 μg g -1 for cadmium and lead, respectively, were obtained for 80 mg of sample. The sample throughputs were ca. 16 and 14 samples h -1 for cadmium and lead, respectively. The accuracy of the analytical procedures was verified by using a standard reference material (BCR 278-R, mussel tissue) and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of cadmium and lead in mussel samples from the coast of Galicia (NW, Spain)

  2. Pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction combined with anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of lead and cadmium in water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Es’haghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is presented for the determination of low concentrations of lead and cadmium in water samples. Ligand assisted pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction using sol–gel sorbent reinforced with carbon nanotubes was combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in tap water, and Darongar river water samples. In the present work, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE was used in order to determine the ultra trace level of lead and cadmium ions in real samples. This method is based on accumulation of lead and cadmium ions on the electrode using different ligands; Quinolin-8-ol, 5,7-diiodo quinoline-8-ol, 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2(3H-one and 2-{[2-(2-Hydroxy-ethylamino-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenol as the complexing agent. The optimized conditions were obtained. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 0.05–500 ng mL−1 for Cd (II and Pb (II. The limits of detection for lead and cadmium were 0.015 ng mL−1 and 0.012 ng mL−1, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the pre-concentration factors are 2440 and 3710 for Cd (II and Pb (II in 5 mL of water sample, respectively.

  3. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  4. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  5. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m 2 ) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m 2 ) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m 2 ) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 207 Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust

  6. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum for their protective effect against cadmium and lead toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, O; Banwo, K; Sanni, A I

    2017-05-01

    Thirty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from fermenting cassava mash and wara (African soft cheese) and screened for their resistance to cadmium and lead toxicities at 550-1050 mg l -1 and probiotic potentials. Four LAB strains that tolerated the heavy metals at 1050 mg l -1 were selected for antioxidative capacities, tolerance to acid, bile salts and simulated gastric and intestinal tract and safety status. The results revealed that Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 exhibited comparatively higher antioxidative capacities, survived in simulated gastric and intestinal transit, tolerated acid and bile salt and possessed safety status. The two strains were employed for the in vivo studies, which was monitored in male albino Wistar rats using skim milk as a carrier for the cultures over a period of 28 days. The rats given the cultures of W. cibaria WD2 and L. plantarum CaD1 in addition with the administration of heavy metals had improved renal and hepatic impairment, while damage was observed in rats fed with cadmium and lead only. Weissella cibaria WD2 and L. plantarum CaD1 demonstrated probiotic potentials and safety status. These strains can be used to effectively amend hepatic and renal histopathological alterations in rats caused by ingestion of cadmium and lead. This present study highlights the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional fermented foods that were cadmium and lead resistant and possessed probiotic potentials. Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 selected for the in vivo studies ameliorated the build-up of cadmium and lead in the organs of the animals. This indicated that good cadmium and lead binding and probiotic lactic acid bacteria can be used to prevent exposure to these heavy metals. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Coriolis force and nuclear deformation: cadmium and lead isotopes results with the EUROBALL gamma multidetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buforn, Nadege

    2001-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the nuclear matter at high rotational frequency. Thanks to the new generation of γ-ray multidetector array, as EUROGAM then EUROBALL, we propose to identify two sorts of nuclei belonging to two different mass region. Their identification is based on the detection of their γ-rays of des-excitation. We will follow the evolution of the influence of the Coriolis force at the microscopic scale. The cadmium nuclei 113-116 Cd have been populated using heavy-ion induced fission reaction ( 28 Si+ 176 Yb at 145 MeV). Decoupled bands have been identified in odd-nuclei, produced for the first time at high spin. As they were considered as the best example of vibrational nuclei during their studies by radioactivity, they exhibit a small prolate deformation, confirmed by our microscopic calculations performed for even-even nuclei. The odd superdeformed nucleus 197 Pb have been studied via a fusion-evaporation reaction ( 18 O+ 186 W at 117 MeV). We have established the cross-talk transitions between the two signature partners. The experimental measurement of the branching ratio B(M1)/B(E2) allows us to extract the magnetic properties of the superdeformed matter, conforming the lack of quenching for the neutrons. The Coriolis force depends on the nuclei deformation and on the individual configuration. In cadmium nuclei, the single neutron νh 11/2 , Ω=1/2 is decoupled from the motion of the core, whereas in superdeformed nuclei, the Coriolis effect is much weaker on the νj 15/2 , Ω = 5/2 neutron. (author)

  9. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  10. Monitoring the content of fluorine, lead and cadmium in water for human consumption in a sector of Santa Barbara of Heredia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Sanchez, Federico; Alvarado, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of drinking water from natural sources and distribution tanks in a specific area of Santa Barbara of Heredia were analyzed. The content of fluorine, lead and cadmium was determined applying the Spans method and Anodic Stripping Voltamperometry respectively, over a period of nine months. During July 1994 to February 1995, levels of lead, cadmium and fluoride in the samples, remained under the permissible limits according to the Norma Nacional para la Calidad del Agua Potable, and therefore do not represent a toxicological danger to the population of Santa Barbara of Heredia. (author) [es

  11. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Józefowska; Anna Miechówka; Michał Gąsiorek; Paweł Zadrożny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1). The conte...

  12. Reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails among residents in Mansoura city, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortada, Waelin I.; Sobh, Mohamed A.; El-Defrawy, Mohamed M.; Farahat, Sami E.

    2002-01-01

    A random sample of 68 males and 25 females who reside in Mansoura city, Egypt, was examined for concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails. The effect of gender and smoking on such levels was studied. The influence of dental amalgam on the levels of mercury in these biological samples were also examined. The results obtained show that only blood lead, which increased among males, was affected by gender. Blood levels of cadmium and lead as well as hair lead appeared to increase with smoking habit. Mercury levels in blood and urine were related to the presence of dental amalgam fillings. International comparisons between our results and the corresponding levels in other localities in the world showed that there ere environmentally related variations in terms of cadmium levels in hair, lead levels in blood, urine, hair, and nails, and mercury levels in blood, air, and nails. In conclusion, reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the biological samples are environmentally related parameters. Some factors, such as gender, smoking habit, and the presence of dental amalgam fillings, may affect such levels and therefore should be considered

  13. Positive matrix factorization as source apportionment of soil lead and cadmium around a battery plant (Changxing County, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian-long; Zhi, Yu-you; Yang, Li-ping; Shi, Jia-chun; Zeng, Ling-zao; Wu, Lao-sheng

    2014-06-01

    Chemical compositions of soil samples are multivariate in nature and provide datasets suitable for the application of multivariate factor analytical techniques. One of the analytical techniques, the positive matrix factorization (PMF), uses a weighted least square by fitting the data matrix to determine the weights of the sources based on the error estimates of each data point. In this research, PMF was employed to apportion the sources of heavy metals in 104 soil samples taken within a 1-km radius of a lead battery plant contaminated site in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. The site is heavily contaminated with high concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). PMF successfully partitioned the variances into sources related to soil background, agronomic practices, and the lead battery plants combined with a geostatistical approach. It was estimated that the lead battery plants and the agronomic practices contributed 55.37 and 29.28%, respectively, for soil Pb of the total source. Soil Cd mainly came from the lead battery plants (65.92%), followed by the agronomic practices (21.65%), and soil parent materials (12.43%). This research indicates that PMF combined with geostatistics is a useful tool for source identification and apportionment.

  14. Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Julie; Dewailly, Éric; Benedetti, Jean-Louis; Pereg, Daria; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge

    2008-01-01

    Background Arctic populations are exposed to mercury, lead and cadmium through their traditional diet. Studies have however shown that cadmium exposure is most often attributable to tobacco smoking. The aim of this study is to examine the trends in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure between 1992 and 2004 in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Québec, Canada) using the data obtained from two broad scale health surveys, and to identify sources of exposure in 2004. Methods In 2004, 917 adults aged between 18 and 74 were recruited in the 14 communities of Nunavik to participate to a broad scale health survey. Blood samples were collected and analysed for metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and dietary and life-style characteristics were documented by questionnaires. Results were compared with data obtained in 1992, where 492 people were recruited for a similar survey in the same population. Results Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Mercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20; p < 0.0001), and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption (partial r2 = 0.04; p < 0.0001). In 2004, mean blood concentration of lead was 0.19 μmol/L and showed a 55% decrease since 1992. No strong associations were observed with any dietary source, and lead concentrations were mainly explained by age (partial r2 = 0.20.; p < 0.001). Blood cadmium concentrations showed a 22% decrease (p < 0.001) between 1992 and 2004. Once stratified according to tobacco use, means varied between 5.3 nmol/L in never-smokers and 40.4 nmol/L in smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations were mainly associated with tobacco smoking (partial r2 = 0.56; p < 0.0001), while consumption of caribou liver and kidney remain a minor source of cadmium exposure among never-smokers. Conclusion Important decreases in mercury, lead and cadmium exposure

  15. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  16. Effect of thermal processing and canning on cadmium and lead levels in California market squid: the role of metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, A; Georgantelis, D; Kontominas, M G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two common seafood preparation practices (roasting and industrial canning) on the heavy metal content--cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)--of various tissues of California market squid were studied. Emphasis was placed on the role of metallothioneins (MT) in Cd and Pb behaviour during processing. Cd and Pb analysis was conducted by a Zeeman GTA-AAS atomic absorption spectrometry system; MT analysis was performed by a mercury saturation assay. Results showed that Cd levels in the mantle and whole squid were considerably affected by both processing practices, reaching a 240% increase in mantle and a 40% increase in whole squid. Interestingly, Cd behaviour was associated with MT changes during squid processing. On the other hand, Pb content was not affected from either processing or associated with MT content in the raw or processed squid. Therefore, processing operations may affect Cd and Pb content differently due to the specific metal bioaccumulation and chemical features of each heavy metal type.

  17. Separation of cadmium and lead from wastewater using supported liquid membrane integrated with in-situ electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2017-01-01

    A novel process for separation of heavy metals from liquid wastes and/or industrial effluents has been developed as described in this paper wherein the technique of supported liquid membrane based extraction and stripping of heavy metals has been augmented with electroplating inside the stripping chamber of SLM. Wastewater, infested with cadmium and lead, has been subject of research in this work. The said process is employed in transporting the heavy metals from the polluted source phase (wastewater) to the sink (or strip) phase while simultaneously depositing the heavy metals in-situ on the electrode placed inside the strip phase, and thereby the strip phase is remained ever-unsaturated. This arrangement yields high gradient of chemical potential across the liquid membrane and thereby facilitates enhanced and faster recovery of said heavy metals and also yields value added component, viz. electroplated items, for suitable end use.

  18. Application of bifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove lead(II) and cadmium(II) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunsong; Liu Weiguo; Zhang Li; Wang Meng; Zhao Maojun

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic adsorbent, EDTAD-functionalized Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been synthesized to behave as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions by adjusting the pH value of the aqueous solution to make carboxyl and amino groups protonic or non-protonic. The bifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EMS) were used to remove lead(II) and cadmium(II) in solution in a batch system. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the EMS for the heavy metal ions increased with increasing solution pH, and the maximum adsorption capacity (88.16 mg/g for Pb 2+ , 40.72 mg/g for Cd 2+ ) at 10 deg. C was found to occur at pH 5.5 and 6.0, respectively. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model. The regeneration experiments revealed that the EMS could be successfully reused.

  19. Application of bifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove lead(II) and cadmium(II) in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yunsong [Department of Chemistry, College of Life and Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Liu Weiguo [Agronomy College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130 (China); Zhang Li; Wang Meng [Department of Chemistry, College of Life and Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhao Maojun, E-mail: yaanyunsong@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Life and Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A magnetic adsorbent, EDTAD-functionalized Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been synthesized to behave as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions by adjusting the pH value of the aqueous solution to make carboxyl and amino groups protonic or non-protonic. The bifunctional Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EMS) were used to remove lead(II) and cadmium(II) in solution in a batch system. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the EMS for the heavy metal ions increased with increasing solution pH, and the maximum adsorption capacity (88.16 mg/g for Pb{sup 2+}, 40.72 mg/g for Cd{sup 2+}) at 10 deg. C was found to occur at pH 5.5 and 6.0, respectively. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model. The regeneration experiments revealed that the EMS could be successfully reused.

  20. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (price samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in Yerba mate commercialized in Southern Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisia Maria Gobbo dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: “Mate” or “Yerba Mate” (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South American plant, commonly consumed in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil. Recent research has detected the presence of many vitamins and metals in this plant. Theses metals are also part of yerba mate’s mineral composition, due to soil and water contamination by pesticides and fertilizers, coal and oil combustion, vehicle emissions, mining, smelting, refining and the incineration of urban and industrial waste. Regardless of their origin, some inorganic elements, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, are considered toxic, since they accumulate in all plant tissues and are, thus, introduced into the food chain. In this context, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare arsenic, cadmium, lead concentrations in 104 samples of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis marketed, and consumed in three southern Brazilian States, namely Paraná (PR, Santa Catarina (SC and Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Each element was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, on a Nexion 300D equipment (Perkin Elmer. As, Cd and Pb concentrations in yerba mate leaves ranged from 0.015 to 0.15mg kg-1, 0.18 to 1.25mg kg-1 and 0.1 to 1.20mg kg-1, respectively. Regarding Cd, 84% of the samples from RS, 63% from PR and 75% from SC showed higher concentrations than the maximum permissible limit of 0.4mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, while 7% of the samples from RS and 5% from PR were unsatisfactory for Pb. Concentrations were below the established ANVISA limit of 0.6mg kg-1 for all samples.

  2. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Maçka Vocational School, Trabzon (Turkey); Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Rize (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  3. Electrochemical determination of the levels of cadmium, copper and lead in polluted soil and plant samples from mining areas in Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe Mabel Ogunlesi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in soil and plant samples collected from Abare and Dareta villages in Anka local government area of Zamfara State, Nigeria have been electrochemically determined. The study was carried out because of the high mortality of women and children under five, reported for these areas in June 2010. The cause was ascribed to the lead poisoning which has been related to the mining and processing of gold-containing ores. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry technique was used with the glassy carbon working, Ag/AgCl reference and platinum auxiliary electrodes. Voltammetric peaks for lead, copper and cadmium that were observed at -495 mV, -19.4 mV and -675 mV, respectively, have formed a basis for construction of the corresponding calibration plots. The concentrations (in mg/kg of lead, copper and cadmium in the soil samples were found in the ranges of 18.99−26087.70, 2.96−584.60 and 0.00−1354.25, respectively. The concentration values for lead were far above already established USEPA (2002 and WHO (1996 maximum permissible limits for residential areas. The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in the food samples ranged between 5.70−79.91, 11.17−41.21 and 0.00−5.74 mg/kg. Several of these values are found well above the FAO/WHO limits of 0.1, 2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that in addition to the lead poisoning, copper and cadmium poisoning may also be responsible for sudden and high mortality in this population.

  4. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  5. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  6. Selective ionic liquid ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for simultaneous preconcentration/separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a selective ionic liquid ferrofluid has been used in dispersive solid phase extraction (IL-FF-D-SPE) for simultaneous preconcentration and separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. To improve the selectivity of the ionic liquid ferrofluid, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with a magnetic core as sorbent was modified by loading 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol. Due to the rapid injection of an appropriate amount of ionic liquid ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. In addition, based on the attraction of the ionic liquid ferrofluid to a magnet, no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. The experimental parameters of IL-FF-D-SPE were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations of 2.2% and 2.4% were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively (n=7). The limit of detections were 1.21 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.21 µg L(-1) for Cd(II). The preconcentration factors were 250 for lead and 200 for cadmium and the maximum adsorption capacities of the sorbent were 11.18 and 9.34 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous simulations of uptake in plants and leaching to groundwater of cadmium and lead for arable land amended with compost or farmyard manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Rein, Arno; Serre, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The water budget of soil, the uptake in plants and the leaching to groundwater of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were simulated simultaneously using a physiological plant uptake model and a tipping buckets water and solute transport model for soil. Simulations were compared to results from a ten-year...

  8. Health risk assessment of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in withdrawed parsley vegetable from some farms in Hamedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2014-11-01

    Results: Average concentration of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in parsley vegetable is in the order of 1/14, 2/56, 16/65 and 25/23 mg/kg and average concentration of this metals in soil is in the order of 0/23, 23/51, 20/85 and 57/5 mg/kg. Results of this study showed that average concentration of Cadmium and Leadin parsley is above WHO/FAO whereas average concentration of Nickel and Zink in parsleywas assessed less than WHO/FAO. Also the average concentration of every four metals in soil of farms was less than WHO/FAO levels.On the other hand the amount of risk and health index (HRI in parsley for lead metal was above 1 and for cadmium, nickel and zinc metals was less than 1. Conclusion: According to the studing results, cultivated parsley in this area was polluted to the heavy metalsCadmium and Lead, and the results indicates the very easy transferring of this metals from soil to parsley that was not healthy for human daily consumption and risk and health index (HRI that was above 1 for lead metal shows the hygienic potential risk of this metal in relation to the polluted parsley consumption in human daily alimentary diet.

  9. Organ distribution and food safety aspects of cadmium and lead in great scallops, Pecten maximus L., and Horse Mussels, Modiolus modiolus L., from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Frantzen, Sylvia; Torkildsen, Lise; Maage, Amund

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the levels and organ distribution of the potentially harmful inorganic elements cadmium and lead in great scallops and horse mussels from unpolluted Norwegian waters. The scallops far exceeded the EU-limit for cadmium in bivalves when all soft tissues were analysed. When only muscle and gonad were included, however, the level of cadmium was acceptable, because cadmium accumulated in the digestive gland with a mean of 52 mg/kg ww (wet weight). In horse mussel, lead was the most problematic element and the concentration varied from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/kg ww with a mean of 3.7 mg/kg ww, exceeding the EU limit of 1.5 mg Pb/kg. The highest concentration of lead was found in the kidney with an average of 120 mg/kg ww and with a maximum value of 240 mg/kg ww. The kidney tissue accounted for approximately 94% of the lead burden in the horse mussel. In order to consume these bivalves, only muscle and gonad of great scallops should be used for consumption and the kidney of horse mussel should be removed prior to consumption.

  10. Remediation of lead and cadmium from simulated groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using permeable reactive barrier filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunhui; Gao, Yalin; Zhang, Yingchao; Dong, Wanqing; Lai, Miao

    2018-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is potentially effective for groundwater remediation, especially using environmentally friendly mixed fillers in representative areas, such as semi-arid loess region in northwestern China. The mixed materials, including corn straw (agricultural wastes), fly ash (industrial wastes), zeolite synthesized from fly ash (reutilized products), and iron-manganese nodule derived from loess (materials with regional characteristics) in northwestern China, were chosen as PRB media to reduce the contents of lead and cadmium in simulated groundwater. A series of lab-scale column experiments were investigated, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the working process; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to further reveal the reaction mechanism. It shows that the purification efficiencies are more acceptable when the concentrations of lead and cadmium are approximately 7 and 0.7 mg/L, respectively, at 25 °C in weakly acidic solution, and functional groups of -OH and C=C play an important role for contaminants removal. The mixed adsorbents used are effective to remove lead and cadmium in groundwater. This is the first report on the removal of lead and cadmium from groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using PRB filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

  11. [Determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic rice by crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan microcolumn preconcentration combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-qing; Li, Sheng-qing; Qu, Yang; Chen, Hao

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice based on separation and preconcentration with a micro column packed with crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CCMKGM) prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Variables affecting the separation and preconcentration of lead and cadmium, such as the acidity of the aqueous solution, sample flow rate and volume, and eluent concentration and volume, were optimized. Under optimized condition, detection limits of the method for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice were 0.11 and 0.002 microg x L(-1), respectively. The obtained results of lead and cadmium in the certified reference material (GBW10010, GBS1-1) were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries were in the range of 90%-103% and 93%-105% for detection of Pb and Cd in transgenic brown rice and the wild-type brown rice samples respectively. This study could provide technical support for determination of trace Pb and Cd in transgenic rice.

  12. Release of cadmium, copper and lead from urban soils of Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lijun; Holm, Peter E.; Marcussen, Helle; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    We studied the bonding and release kinetics of Cd, Cu and Pb from different soils in the older metropolitan area of Copenhagen. Total Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were elevated 5–27 times in the urban soils compared to an agricultural reference soil, with Cd and Pb in mainly mobilisable pools and Cu in strongly bound pools. The soils were subjected to accelerated leaching studies in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or HNO 3 solutions resulting in release up to 78, 18 and 15% of total Cd, Cu and Pb soil concentrations over a period of 15 weeks. The relative initial Cd and Pb release rates increased 10 fold when pH decreased 2 and 3 units, respectively, while increases in Cu release rates were only seen at pH below 4. The total leachable Cu and Pb pools were higher in urban soils compared the agricultural reference soil but not for Cd. - Highlights: • Total Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were elevated 5–27 times in the urban soils. • Cd and Pb are potentially available from acid leachable and reducible soil fractions. • Up to 78, 18 and 15% of total soil Cd, Cu and Pb could be acid leached. • Initial Cd and Pb release rates increase 10 fold with pH decrease of 2 and 3 units. • The mobility of Cu and Pb were higher in urban compared to agricultural soils. - Cadmium, Cu and Pb were studied in Copenhagen urban soils. These soils show similar initial relative release rates but higher total mobility of Cu and Pb compared to a reference soil

  13. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  14. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  15. Study of lead and cadmium content of surface enamel of school children from an industrial area in Belgium; Etude du contenu en plomb et en cadmium de l'email dentaire chez des enfants d'age scolaire vivant dans une zone industrielle belge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleymaet, R.; Bottenberg, P.; Slop, D.; Clara, R.; Coomans, D.

    1999-06-01

    A school children study of lead and cadmium content of surface enamel is summarized. The children concerned were living in Belgium near a non-ferrous metal factory. It seems that the lead and cadmium content of the surface enamel, may be a relevant indicator for a long date exposure.

  16. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  17. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: p.berny@vetagro-sup.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile (France); Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Buffrenil, Vivian de [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 48, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, Departement Histoire de la Terre, UMR 7207 CR2P (France)

    2011-10-15

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g{sup -1}. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g{sup -1} in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g{sup -1} in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g{sup -1}, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g{sup -1} are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  18. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Berny, Philippe; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Buffrenil, Vivian de

    2011-01-01

    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g -1 . Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g -1 in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g -1 in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g -1 , respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g -1 are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  19. Chemical assessment of lead, cadmium, nitrate, and nitrite intakes with daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages in Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Kopeć, Aneta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study has been to measure the level of lead, cadmium, nitrates, and nitrites in the daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages located in Krakow (Poland). Diets were collected over four seasons of 2009. The content of cadmium and lead was measured with flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Nitrates and nitrites in diets were measured using the Griess colorimetric method. In all orphanages, the average intake of lead with daily diets, regardless of the season, ranged from 1.11 ± 0.15 to 22.59 ± 0.07 μg/kg bw/week. The average cadmium intake by children and adolescents ranged between 3.09 ± 0.21 and 20.36 ± 2.21 μg/kg bw/week and, for all orphanages, exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) level. Daily intake of nitrates and nitrites ranged respectively from 27 to 289 % and from 9 to 99 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The youngest children, with lower body mass, were particularly sensitive to the excessive intakes of cadmium and nitrates.

  20. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Hurdebise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed.

  1. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in organs of Rhizophora mangle in Sevilla River mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Sanchez, Yury A; Troncoso, Olivo Walberto

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in leaves, stalks, and root of Rhizophora mangle, samples from three parcels located in the river Sevilla mouth - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, were taken in October 2003. Measures of metals concentrations were made through the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry technique (ICP-AES). The results indicated that lead concentration in R. mangle organs was below method detection limit ≤38 g/g) except the absorbent root (16.3 g/g); and significant differences exist in the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead into R. mangle organs, following this concentration order: absorbent roots ≥ stalk ≥ young leaves ≥adult leaves ≥ aerial roots

  3. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry for ultratrace determination of cadmium and lead in Antarctic snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarponi, G.; Barbante, C.; Cescon, P.

    1994-01-01

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry has sufficient sensitivity to be used for direct determination of heavy metals in Antarctic snow, thus avoiding long and contamination-prone enrichment procedures. A result of particular concern to global change studies can be drawn from these preliminary data: lead concentration in Antarctic snow decreased rapidly during the 1980s from about 10-15 pg/g to 2-4 pg/g in 1991. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. A study of lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.

    ., Campbell, M., Weir, E., 2002, Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure. CMAJ 166, 1287–1292. Stohs, S.J., Bagchi, D., 1995, Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 18... the kinetic speciation of Pb and Cd in the coastal and estuarine sediments of Bay of Bengal. Consider sediments samples of n different components, in which each component, M-Sediment i , exists in equilibrium with its dissociation products: the free metal...

  5. Supported liquid membrane based removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from mixed feed: Conversion to solid waste by precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar, E-mail: p.saha@iitg.ac.in

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals lead and cadmium. • Conversion of liquid waste to solid precipitation. • Precipitation facilitates the metals transportation through LM. • Solidification of liquid waste minimizes the final removal of waste. - Abstract: Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals, lead(II) and cadmium(II), from mixed feed using supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique is investigated in this work. The carrier-solvent combination of “sodium salt of Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (4% w/w) in environmentally benign coconut oil” was immobilized into the pores of solid polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) support. Sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) was used as the stripping agent. Carbonate salts of lead(II) and cadmium(II) were formed in the stripping side interface and they were insoluble in water leading to precipitation inside the stripping solution. The transportation of solute is positively affected due to the precipitation. Lead(II) removal was found to be preferential due to its favorable electronic configuration. The conversion of the liquid waste to the solid one was added advantage for the final removal of hazardous heavy metals.

  6. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic) in commonly imported rice grains (Oryza sativa) sold in Saudi Arabia and their potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Abduljabbar, Mai

    2017-10-01

    The levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury and arsenic) were determined in 37 brands of imported rice commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia after soaking and rinsing with water, and their potential health risks to residents were estimated by three indices: hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The mean levels of lead, cadmium, methylmercury and total arsenic in soaked (rinsed) rice grains were 0.034 (0.057), 0.015 (0.027), 0.004 (0.007) and 0.202 (0.183) μg/g dry weight, respectively. Soaking or rinsing rice grains with water decreased lead and cadmium levels in all brands to safe levels. All brands had total arsenic above the acceptable regulatory limits, irrespective of soaking or rinsing, and eight soaked and 12 rinsed brands contained methylmercury. The levels of all heavy metals except cadmium were above the acceptable regulatory limits when the rice was neither rinsed nor soaked. Weekly intakes of lead, cadmium, methylmercury and total arsenic from soaked (rinsed) grains were 0.638 (1.068), 0.279 (0.503), 0.271 (0.309) and 3.769 (3.407) μg/kg body weight (bw). The weekly intakes of lead and methylmercury from the consumption of one rinsed and two soaked rice brands respectively, exceeded the Provisional Tolerance Weekly Intake set by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. The weekly intake of total arsenic for all brands was above the lowest benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL 01 ) level of 0.3μg/kg bw/d for an increased cancer risk set by European Food Safety Authority. Either soaking or rinsing grains before consumption can minimize the non-carcinogenic health risks to residents from cadmium and lead (HQrice contaminated mainly with arsenic (HQ>1 all brands) and to a lesser extent with methylmercury (HQ>1 in 4 brands), even when soaked or rinsed with water before consumption. The combined non-carcinogenic effect of all metals expressed as HI was >1, including soaked or rinsed

  7. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 possessing high heavy-metal resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.-B.; Shi, J.-J.; Wang, C.-H.; Chang, J.-S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate biosorption kinetics and equilibria of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions using the biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 isolated from a local industry wastewater treatment plant. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass to regenerate the biosorbent was also determined. The results show that Enterobacter sp. J1 was able to uptake over 50 mg of Pb per gram of dry cell, while having equilibrium adsorption capacities of 32.5 and 46.2 mg/g dry cell for Cu and Cd, respectively. In general, Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe biosorption isotherm fairly well, except that prediction of Pb adsorption was relatively poor with Langmuir model, suggesting a different mechanism for Pb biosorption. Adjusting the pH value to 3.0 led to nearly complete desorption of Cd from metal-loaded biomass, while over 90% recovery of Pb and Cu ions was obtained at pH ≤ 2. After four repeated adsorption/desorption cycles, biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 retained 75, 79 and 90% of original capacity for adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd, respectively, suggesting good reusability of the biosorbent. A combinative model was proposed to describe the kinetics of heavy-metal adsorption by Enterobacter sp. J1 and the model appeared to have an excellent prediction of the experimental data. The model simulation results also seemed to suggest that intracellular accumulation may occur during the uptake of Pb

  8. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by an indigenous isolate Enterobacter sp. J1 possessing high heavy-metal resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W.-B. [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shi, J.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-H. [Department of Biological Engineering, Yung Ta Institute of Technology and Commerce, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-06-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate biosorption kinetics and equilibria of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) ions using the biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 isolated from a local industry wastewater treatment plant. Efficiency of metal ion recovery from metal-loaded biomass to regenerate the biosorbent was also determined. The results show that Enterobacter sp. J1 was able to uptake over 50 mg of Pb per gram of dry cell, while having equilibrium adsorption capacities of 32.5 and 46.2 mg/g dry cell for Cu and Cd, respectively. In general, Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe biosorption isotherm fairly well, except that prediction of Pb adsorption was relatively poor with Langmuir model, suggesting a different mechanism for Pb biosorption. Adjusting the pH value to 3.0 led to nearly complete desorption of Cd from metal-loaded biomass, while over 90% recovery of Pb and Cu ions was obtained at pH {<=} 2. After four repeated adsorption/desorption cycles, biomass of Enterobacter sp. J1 retained 75, 79 and 90% of original capacity for adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd, respectively, suggesting good reusability of the biosorbent. A combinative model was proposed to describe the kinetics of heavy-metal adsorption by Enterobacter sp. J1 and the model appeared to have an excellent prediction of the experimental data. The model simulation results also seemed to suggest that intracellular accumulation may occur during the uptake of Pb.

  9. Kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies of lead, chromium, and cadmium bio-adsorption from aqueous solution onto Picea smithiana sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Yasin, Muhammad; Yousra, Munazza; Ahmad, Rizwan; Sarwar, Sair

    2018-05-01

    Lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) removal capacity of sawdust (Picea smithiana) from aqueous solution was investigated by conducting batch experiments. Thermodynamic parameters, like change in standard free energy (ΔG Θ ), enthalpy (ΔH Θ ) and entropy (ΔS Θ ) during bio-adsorption process were estimated using the Van't Hoff equation. The maximum metals adsorption was observed at pH 8, 20 g L -1 bio-adsorbent and at 60 min of contact time. The metal adsorption kinetics was examined by fitting the pseudo-first-order as well as four forms of pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Type 1 pseudo-second-order equation described adsorption kinetics better than others. Langmuir model and Freundlich equations were used for calculation of sorption parameters. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of Pb, Cr, and Cd was 6.35, 3.37, and 2.87 mg g -1 at room temperature, respectively. The values of the separation factor (RL) were in between 0 and 1, indicating that bio-adsorption was favorable. Thermodynamics study revealed that the Pb, Cr, and Cd uptake reactions were endothermic and spontaneous. Results of the study asserted that the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution is viable and the sawdust could be used in the treatment of effluents from industries, thereby reducing the level of water pollution.

  10. Differential pulse polarography of cadmium-and lead-urate and adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, M A; Ensaf-Aboul-Kasim; Amrallah, A H; Farghaly, O A

    1994-03-01

    The complex formation between uric acid and zinc, cadmium and lead ions has been investigated using differential pulse polarography in 0.01M NaNO(3). It is found that the complexes formed by Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions with uric acid have the stoichiometry of 1:2 and the logarithmic values of the apparent stability constant are 9.47 and 11.7, respectively. On the other hand, zinc(II) ions do not give any indication of complexation with uric acid. A sensitive voltammetric method is developed for the quantitative determination of uric acid. This method is based on controlled adsorptive preconcentration of uric acid on the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), followed by tracing the voltammogram in the cathodic going potential scan. The modes used are direct current stripping voltammetry (DCSV) and differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV). The detection limits found were 8 x 10(-9)M (quiescent period 15 sec) by DPSV and 1.6 x 10(-8)M by DCSV.

  11. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, Timothy M.; Ahner, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  12. Relative tolerance of a range of Australian native plant species and lettuce to copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Dane T; Ming, Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2010-10-01

    The tolerance of wild flora to heavy-metal exposure has received very little research. In this study, the tolerance of four native tree species, four native grass species, and lettuce to copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) was investigated in a root-elongation study using Petri dishes. The results of these studies show a diverse range of responses to Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb amongst the tested plant species. Toxicity among metals decreased in the following order: Cd ~ Cu > Pb > Zn. Metal concentrations resulting in a 50% reduction in growth (EC(50)) varied considerably, ranging from (microM) 30 (Dichanthium sericeum) to >2000 (Acacia spp.) for Cu; from 260 (Lactuca sativa) to 2000 (Acacia spp.) for Zn; from 27 (L. sativa) to 940 (Acacia holosericea) for Cd; and from 180 (L. sativa) to >1000 (Acacia spp.) for Pb. Sensitive native plant species identified included D. sericeum, Casuarina cunninghamiana, and Austrodanthonia caespitosa. However, L. sativa (lettuce) was also among the most sensitive to all four metals. Acacia species showed a high tolerance to metal exposure, suggesting that the Acacia genus shows potential for use in contaminated-site revegetation.

  13. Comparative analysis on the effect of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in reducing cadmium, mercury and lead accumulation in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Aneto, Imaria; Obi, Joshua; Udekweleze, Damian C; Olatunde, Bukola; Owu, Daniel U; Iwuala, Moses O

    2012-06-01

    L. esculentum (tomato) contain compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, able to synthesize metal chelating proteins. We examined the ability of fruit extract to protect against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Rats were fed on tomato mixed with rat chow (10% w/w), while Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. Tomato was administered together with the metals (group 2), a week after exposure (group 3) or a week before metal exposure (group 4) for a period of six weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. There was a significant (Ptomato to Cd and Hg accumulation but not to Pb (PTomato reduces uptake while enhancing the elimination of these metals in a time dependent manner. The highest hepatoprotective effect was to Cd followed by Hg and least to Pb. Its administration is beneficial in reducing heavy metal accumulation in the liver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jiao; Hu, Peng-jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44% of Cd and 23% of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32% by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

  15. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  16. Environmental materials for remediation of soils contaminated with lead and cadmium using maize (Zea mays L.) growth as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Zhanbin; Liu, Xiujie; Imran, Suheryani; Peng, Licheng; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a severe environmental problem. Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using environmental materials that are low cost and environmentally friendly. We evaluated the individual and combination effects of humic acid (HA), super absorbent polymer (SAP), zeolite (ZE), and fly ash composites (FC) on immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in contaminated soils. We also investigated long-term practical approaches for remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil. The biochemical and morphological properties of maize (Zea mays L.) were selected as biomarkers to assess the effects of environmental materials on heavy metal immobilization. The results showed that addition of test materials to soil effectively reduced heavy metal accumulation in maize foliage, improving chlorophyll levels, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The test materials reduced heavy metal injury to maize throughout the growth period. A synergistic effect from combinations of different materials on immobilization of Pb and Cd was determined based on the reduction of morphological and biochemical injuries to maize. The combination of zeolite and humic acid was especially effective. Treatment with a combination of HA + SAP + ZE + FC was superior for remediation of soils contaminated with high levels of Pb and Cd.

  17. Determining soil enzyme activities for the assessment of fungi and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction under cadmium and lead contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Tang, Dong; Feng, Haiwei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Lurong; Wang, Lumei

    2015-12-01

    Microorganism or chelate-assisted phytoextraction is an effective remediation tool for heavy metal polluted soil, but investigations into its impact on soil microbial activity are rarely reported. Consequently, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-resistant fungi and citric acid (CA) were introduced to enhance phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. under varied Cd and Pb pollution levels in a greenhouse pot experiment. We then determined accumulation of Cd and Pb in S. nigrum and the soil enzyme activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, sucrase, and amylase. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to assess the interactions between remediation strategies and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated that the addition of fungi, CA, or their combination enhanced the root biomass of S. nigrum, especially at the high-pollution level. The combined treatment of CA and fungi enhanced accumulation of Cd about 22-47 % and of Pb about 13-105 % in S. nigrum compared with the phytoextraction alone. However, S. nigrum was not shown to be a hyperaccumulator for Pb. Most enzyme activities were enhanced after remediation. The DCCA ordination graph showed increasing enzyme activity improvement by remediation in the order of phosphatase, amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and urease. Responses of soil enzyme activities were similar for both the addition of fungi and that of CA. In summary, results suggest that fungi and CA-assisted phytoextraction is a promising approach to restoring heavy metal polluted soil.

  18. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (ruralsoil environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed

  20. Biosorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) by protonated Sargassum glaucescens biomass in a continuous packed bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Vaezi, Forough; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Ghasri, Azar; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2007-01-01

    Biosorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by protonated Sargassum glaucescens biomass was studied in a continuous packed bed column. The selective uptake of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ was investigated in a binary system with initial concentration of 1 mM for each metal ion. The selective uptake capacities of Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ at complete exhaustion point were obtained 1.18 and 0.22 mmol/g, respectively; therefore, the biosorbent showed much higher relative affinity for Pb 2+ than for Cd 2+ . The optimum range of empty bed contact time (EBCT) was identified as 5-10 min in the packed bed column. The efficiency of biosorbent regeneration by 0.1 M HCl was achieved about 60%, so that the maximum uptake capacity of Pb 2+ by the regenerated biomass was determined to be 0.75 mmol/g while the same value for the original biomass was 1.24 mmol/g. The Thomas model was found in a suitable fitness with the experimental data (R 2 > 0.90 and ε% + with the uptake of heavy metals; hence, ion exchange was confirmed to be one of the main biosorption mechanisms

  1. Optical analysis of RE(3+) (RE = Pr(3) (+) , Er(3) (+) and Nd(3) (+) ):cadmium lead boro tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Bhushana Reddy, M; Neelima, G; Ramanaiah, R; Nagamuni Reddy, K; Sahadeva Reddy, V; Sudhakar Reddy, B

    2016-09-01

    This article reports on the optical characterization of Pr(3) (+) -, Er(3) (+) - and Nd(3) (+) -doped cadmium lead boro tellurite (CLBT) glasses prepared using the melt quenching method. The visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) absorption spectra of these glasses were analyzed systematically. On measuring the NIR emission spectra of Er(3) (+) :CLBT glasses, a broad emission band centered at 1536 nm ((4) I13 /2  → (4) I15 /2 ) was observed, as were three NIR emission bands at 900 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I9 /2 ), 1069 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I11 /2 ) and 1338 nm ((4) F3 /2  → (4) I13 /2 ) from Nd(3) (+) :CLBT glasses and an NIR emission band at 1334 nm ((1) G4  → (3) H5 ) from Pr(3) (+) :CLBT glasses at an excitation wavelength (λex ) of 514.5 nm (Ar(+) laser). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb , and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50 μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. - Highlights: • Anti-oxidative feedback of Zostera japonica to the heavy metals Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined. • The endangered intertidal seagrass Z. japonica had a high metal accumulation potential. • Z. japonica might be a potential indicator in monitoring programs using SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.

  3. New phosphorus biofertilizers from renewable raw materials in the aspect of cadmium and lead contents in soil and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Magdalena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recycling phosphorus from waste for fertilization purposes appears to be an alternative for non-renewable sources and a solution for managing harmful products of civilisation. Fertilizers from secondary raw materials are considered to be safe to the environment. This study presents an assessment of the effects of five new biofertilizers made from sewage sludge ash and/or animal bones on the content of cadmium and lead in the soil, in wheat grains and straw (test plant, in the mass of the the accompanying weeds and in the post-harvest residues. Biofertilizers were produced in the form of suspension or granules and activated using Bacillus megaterium or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. They were tested in four field experiments. The Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plant material were determined using the ICP-MS technique. Similar to superphosphate, new biofertilizers showed no change in the Cd and Pb contents of the soil and plants biomass when applied at amounts up to 80 kg; P2O5 ha−1. Both Cd and Pb in the soil and plants occurred naturally, and the amounts were within the acceptable standards. Biofertilizers from renewable raw materials, with low toxic element contents, are not thought to pose a hazard to the soil and plants when applied in reasonable amounts. They can be a substitute for conventional phosphorus fertilizers.

  4. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs

  5. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  6. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using 109 Cd and 57 Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm 2 for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV Κ α1 X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm 2 . For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of ≤4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm 2 ) in 39 of 47 fired open-quotes food-safeclose quotes glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm 2 ). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Insight into the oxidative stress induced by lead and/or cadmium in blood, liver and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matović, Vesna; Buha, Aleksandra; Ðukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Bulat, Zorica

    2015-04-01

    Besides being important occupational hazards, lead and cadmium are nowadays metals of great environmental concern. Both metals, without any physiological functions, can induce serious adverse health effects in various organs and tissues. Although Pb and Cd are non-redox metals, one of the important mechanisms underlying their toxicity is oxidative stress induction as a result of the generation of reactive species and/or depletion of the antioxidant defense system. Considering that the co-exposure to both metals is a much more realistic scenario, the effects of these metals on oxidative status when simultaneously present in the organism have become one of the contemporary issues in toxicology. This paper reviews short and long term studies conducted on Pb or Cd-induced oxidative stress in blood, liver and kidneys as the most prominent target organs of the toxicity of these metals and proposes the possible molecular mechanisms of the observed effects. The review is also focused on the results obtained for the effects of the combined treatment with Pb and Cd on oxidative status in target organs and on the mechanisms of their possible interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Some considerations concerning the theory of combined toxicity: a case study of subchronic experimental intoxication with cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaksin, Anatoly N; Katsnelson, Boris A; Panov, Vladimir G; Privalova, Larisa I; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Valamina, Irene E; Beresneva, Olga Yu

    2014-02-01

    Rats were exposed intraperitoneally (3 times a week up to 20 injections) to either Cadmium and Lead salts in doses equivalent to their 0.05 LD50 separately or combined in the same or halved doses. Toxic effects were assessed by more than 40 functional, biochemical and morphometric indices. We analysed the results obtained aiming at determination of the type of combined toxicity using either common sense considerations based on descriptive statistics or two mathematical models based (a) on ANOVA and (b) on Mathematical Theory of Experimental Design, which correspond, respectively, to the widely recognised paradigms of effect additivity and dose additivity. Nevertheless, these approaches have led us unanimously to the following conclusions: (1) The above paradigms are virtually interchangeable and should be regarded as different methods of modelling the combined toxicity rather than as reflecting fundamentally differing processes. (2) Within both models there exist not merely three traditionally used types of combined toxicity (additivity, subadditivity and superadditivity) but at least 10 variants of it depending on exactly which effect is considered and on its level, as well as on the dose levels and their ratio. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lead and cadmium in leaves of deciduous trees in Beijing, China: Development of a metal accumulation index (MAI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanju; Zhu Yongguan; Ding Hui

    2007-01-01

    Lead and cadmium uptake was investigated for common deciduous street trees in Beijing in this study. Species having Cd accumulation included Populus tomentosa, Sophora japonica and Catalpa speciosa. P. tomentosa had the highest ratios between leaf and soil Cd (0.848), followed by S. japonica (0.536), C. speciosa (0.493), Paulownia tomentosa (0.453) and Juglans regia (0.415). Pb levels were high in leaves of C. speciosa, J. regia and Pa. tomentosa. S. japonica had the highest ratio between leaf Pb and soil Pb (0.146), followed by Pa. tomentosa (0.143), Ginko biloba (0.103) and C. speciosa (0.095). A predictive foliar metal accumulation index (MAI) was developed and C. speciosa was calculated to have the highest MAI value (53.8). This suggests that C. speciosa would be a good choice for planting in areas of Beijing where soil contamination with Cd and Pb may be a problem. - Catalpa speciosa had the highest MAI value

  10. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and selenium levels in blood of four species of turtles from the Amazon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Schneider, Larissa; Vogt, Richard; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using blood as a method of assessing metal levels in turtles may be useful for populations that are threatened or endangered or are decreasing. In this study the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in blood of four species of turtles from the tributaries of the Rio Negro in the Amazon of Brazil were examined. The turtles included the six-tubercled Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), red-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Podocnemis erythrocephala), big-headed Amazon (river) turtle (Peltocephalus dumerilianus), and matamata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus). Blood samples were taken from the vein in the left hind leg of each turtle. There were significant interspecific differences in the sizes of the turtles from the Rio Negro, and in concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Se; the smallest species (red-headed turtles) had the highest levels of Pb in their blood, while Se levels were highest in big-headed turtles and lowest in red-headed turtles. Hg in blood was highest in matamata, intermediate in big-headed, and lowest in the other two turtles. Even though females were significantly larger than males, there were no significant differences in metal levels as a function of gender, and the only relationship of metals to size was for Cd. Variations in metal levels among species suggest that blood may be a useful bioindicator. Metal levels were not high enough to pose a health risk to the turtles or to consumers, such as humans.

  11. Flotation-Separation of the Pollutant Species of Chromium, Cadmium and Lead from aqueous Solutions and Natural Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazy, S.E.; Kabil, M.A.; Shallaby, A.M.; Ammar, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    This work aims to present simple, rapid and accurate procedures to recover the pollutant species of chromium, cadmium and lead from different types of water using the flotation technique. To achieve this goal, precipitate flotation was the method of choice for this investigation using oleic acid (HOL) as a surfactant. Cr(III) as its hydroxide and Cr(VI) as Ag 2 CrO 4 or Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 are removed in 6.5±0.2 and 6-75 ph range, respectively. 2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTA), in the presence of KI, is a good collector for quantitative separation of trace amounts of Cd(II) in the ph range 6-7.5. Chloranilic acid (CAA) is found to be the most effective complexing agent for the flotation of trace amounts of Pb(II) over the ph range 4-7. The effects of surfactant and analyte concentrations, foreign ions and temperature have been examined. The application of this procedure to recover these analytes added to natural samples has been investigated. Also, a procedure for sective separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) either in aqueous solutions or in saline water is proposed. Moreover, a mechanism of flotation is suggested

  12. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed.

  13. De novo characterization of the Iris lactea var. chinensis transcriptome and an analysis of genes under cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  16. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, Timothy M., E-mail: tvadas@umbc.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ahner, Beth A., E-mail: baa7@cornell.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  17. Structural, optical and electrical properties of cadmium-doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shamshad A.; Khan, Zishan H.; El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Marzouki, F.M.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    (PbSe) 100-x Cd x thin films of thickness 3000 A with variable concentrations of Cd (x=5, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature at a base pressure of 10 -6 Torr. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to determine the crystal structure of the films. Films were of polycrystalline texture over the whole range of study. Optical constants of all films were determined by absorbance and reflection measurements in a wavelength range 400-1200 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data showed that the rule of direct transitions predominates. The values of the absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k) and imaginary part of the dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing Cd content in lead chalcogenides while the refractive index (n) and real part of dielectric constant were increased with increasing Cd concentration up to 15% and then they decreased with 20% of Cd content in PbSe. These results were interpreted in terms of the change in concentration of localized states due to the shift in Fermi level. The dc conductivities and activation energies of the films were measured in the temperature range 298-398 K. It was observed that the dc conductivity increases at all temperatures with the increase of Cd content in lead chalcogenide system. The experimental data suggests that the conduction is due to the thermally assisted tunneling of the carriers in the localized states near the band edges. The activation energy and optical band gap were found to decrease with increasing Cd concentration in lead chalcogenide.

  18. Optical properties of Nd3+ doped barium lithium fluoroborate glasses for near-infrared (NIR) emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, K.; Arun Kumar, R.; Suresh, K.

    2018-04-01

    The neodymium doped barium lithium fluoroborate (Nd3+: BLFB) glasses with the chemical composition (70-x) H3BO3 - 10 Li2CO3 - 10 BaCO3- 5 CaF2-5 ZnO - x Nd2O3 (where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 in wt %) have been prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique and characterised through optical absorption, near infrared emission and decay-time measurements. The x-ray diffraction studies confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. The optical absorption spectra and emission spectra were recorded in the wavelength ranges of 190-1100 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined from the systematic analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium ions in the prepared glasses. The emission spectra exhibited three prominent peaks at 874, 1057, 1331 nm corresponding to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 11/2, 13/2 transitions levels respectively in the near infrared region. The emission intensity of the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition increases with the increase in neodymium concentration up to 0.5 wt% and the concentration quenching mechanism was observed for 1 wt% and 2 wt% concentrations. The lifetime of the 4F3/2 level was found to decrease with increasing Nd3+ ion concentration. The nature of energy transfer process was a single exponential curve which was studied for all the glasses and analysed.

  19. The decline in kidney function with chromium exposure is exacerbated with co-exposure to lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chung, Yu-Teh; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Wu, Trong-Neng; Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-09-01

    Environmental factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. However, these factors, and particularly the toxic effects of heavy metals, have not been completely evaluated. Chromium is a widespread industrial contaminant that has been linked to nephrotoxicity in animal and occupational population studies. Nevertheless, its role in population renal health and its potential interactions with other nephrotoxic metals, such as lead and cadmium, remain unknown. We assessed the association between exposure to chromium, lead, and cadmium with renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in an analysis of 360 Taiwanese adults aged 19-84 years from the National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2005-2008). Doubling of urinary chromium or lead decreased the eGFR by -5.99 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (95% confidence interval -9.70, -2.27) and -6.61 (-9.71, -3.51), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, cigarette smoking, sodium intake, education, urinary volume, and other metals. For those in the highest tertile of cadmium exposure, the eGFR decreased by -12.68 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (95% confidence interval -20.44, -4.93) and -11.22 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (-17.01, -5.44), as urinary chromium or lead levels doubled, respectively. Thus, there is a significant and independent association between chromium exposure and decreased renal function. Furthermore, co-exposure to chromium with lead and cadmium is potentially associated with additional decline in the glomerular filtration rate in Taiwanese adults. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  1. Root growth in corn and soybeans: effects of cadmium and lead on lateral root initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, C P; Miller, R J; Koeppe, D E

    1978-02-01

    This study examines the previously reported inhibitory effects of Cd on root growth. In hydroponic experiments, 100 ..mu..g Cd/l effected a 33% inhibition of lateral root initiation of corn. The growth of corn and soybean primary roots was not reduced at Cd concentrations of 1 mg/l, and the number of lateral root initials in soybeans was not reduced at 2 mg Cd/l. The toxic effects of Cd were ameliorated by additions of Zn or by additions of Fe citrate to nutrient growth solutions. While both Zn and Fe additions did result in increased lateral root initiation, the number of initials was significantly lower than the controls. Lead had no effect on the initiation of soybean lateral roots at a concentration of 100 ..mu..g Pb/l. However, 5 mg Pb/l did effect a 21% decrease in corn lateral root initials, but this decrease could not be demonstrated with higher Pb concentrations.

  2. Removal of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from simulated industrial effluents using silica powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Awan, A.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid industrial development have led to the recognition and increasing understanding of interrelationship between pollution, public health and environment. Industrial development results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution. In Pakistan most of the industrial effluents are discharged into surrounding ecosystems without any treatment. Industrial wastes and emission contain toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health. Extensive efforts are being made around the world for the removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents. A laboratory scale study was designed for removal of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from simulated solutions at various weight of silica (0.5gm, 1gm, 2 gm, 3gm and 4 gm), Voltammeter was used to quantify the metals. Maximum removal of all metals was achieved with 4 gm of silica. Absorption of lead onto silic a was higher than other metals. (author)

  3. Regional versus local influences on lead and cadmium loading to the Great Lakes region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohn, S.; Long, D.; Fett, J.; Patino, L. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2004-07-01

    Environmental legislation has reduced the anthropogenic loadings of Pb and Cd to the Great Lakes region over the past 3 decades. However, the accumulation rates of these metals still remain above background values. Because environmental legislation was targeted at major sources (e.g., Pb in gasoline) whose influence on the environment was on a regional scale, local sources (e.g., watershed scale) for the metals may now play a more significant role. The relative importance of regional versus local scale influences on metal inputs to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, sediment chronologies of Pb and Cd were examined from 12 inland lakes that cover the broad geographic area of the State of Michigan. These chronologies were compared temporally and spatially and to watershed population densities and metal production records to gain an understanding of local and regional influences on metal inputs to the Great Lakes region. Results show that anthropogenic Pb loading during the 1930s and 1970s was dominated by regional sources. such as coal burning and use of leaded gasoline. Current loadings are now more related to local influences such as watershed population densities, rather than atmospheric deposition. Anthropogenic Cd loadings to the Great Lakes region have been dominated by both regional and local sources over time. Lead may also have shown the influence of local sources over time, if the influence of emissions from gasoline had not been present. This work shows that Pb and Cd loadings in the Great Lakes region are strongly related to watershed population densities; however, the specific sources and pathways for the metal cycling are unclear.

  4. Relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair of people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that some metals possess many adverse health effects. Recently, certain elements have been identified as essential trace elements that play an important role in the genesis and progression of several diseases. Some toxic metals have also been shown to be elevated in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. The status of trace elements in diabetes patients is also influenced by their diet, drugs administered and, to a large extent, by environmental factors. Pollutants due to the presence of toxic metals in environment not only enter the body by breading, water, and foodstuff accumulates in hair, but they could be adsorbed directly on the hair from environment. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair samples of diabetic women from Tehran (Iran. The study population consisted of 100 women between 30 to 70 years of age from Tehran. The hair samples were washed with 1% (w/v (DDTC, 0.1M HCL and deionized water. Afterwards, the hair sample dried in oven at 70° C for 5 hours and then digested the next day. Dry ashing digestion procedure was carried out. The concentration of elements was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis confirmed that mean concentrations of lead and nickel did not differ significantly from the control group. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cr and Zn were significantly decreased in scalp hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Hair Cd level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Values of Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between these elements.

  5. Multi-technique quantitative analysis and socioeconomic considerations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in children's toys and toy jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Margot M; Finch, Lauren E; Cerel, Alisha S; Dattelbaum, Jonathan D; Leopold, Michael C

    2014-08-01

    A wide spectrum and large number of children's toys and toy jewelry items were purchased from both bargain and retail vendors and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, and lead metal content using multiple analytical techniques, including flame and furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Particularly dangerous for young children, metal concentrations in toys/toy jewelry were assessed for compliance with current Consumer Safety Product Commission (CPSC) regulations (F963-11). A conservative metric involving multiple analytical techniques was used to categorize compliance: one technique confirmation of metal in excess of CPSC limits indicated a "suspect" item while confirmation on two different techniques warranted a non-compliant designation. Sample matrix-based standard addition provided additional confirmation of non-compliant and suspect products. Results suggest that origin of purchase, rather than cost, is a significant factor in the risk assessment of these materials with 57% of toys/toy jewelry items from bargain stores non-compliant or suspect compared to only 15% from retail outlets and 13% if only low cost items from the retail stores are compared. While jewelry was found to be the most problematic product (73% of non-compliant/suspect samples), lead (45%) and arsenic (76%) were the most dominant toxins found in non-compliant/suspect samples. Using the greater Richmond area as a model, the discrepancy between bargain and retail children's products, along with growing numbers of bargain stores in low-income and urban areas, exemplifies an emerging socioeconomic public health issue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in different organs of Barbus grypus and Liza abu of Karoon River in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ghorbani ranjbary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals in fish body causes the destruction of soft tissues and suppression of immune system. Moreover, consumption of contaminated fish causes several consequences in humans. This survey was conducted to determine the concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in muscle tissue, gill as well as liver of Barbus grypus and Liza abu. These two species are native fishes of Karoon River in Ahvaz area. A total number of 80 sample was obtained during the winter of 2010. After preparation and chemical digestion of fish samples, the amounts of heavy metals were determined by spectrophotometer method. According to the results, the overall lead concentration in different organs of the two species was more than mercury and cadmium concentrations. Furthermore, the accumulation of heavy elements in gills was estimated higher than the other organs. Although a significant difference (P

  7. The direct determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium, lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixture of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. No interferences were encountered from Fe(III), As(III), Sb(V), Tl(I), or In(III) at the concentrations present in the samples. Intermetallic interferences were eliminated by the use of thin mercury-film electrodes not less than 80nm thick. Limits of detection were determined by the degree to which the supporting electrolyte could be purified, and were estimated to be 10ng/g, 250ng/g, and 150ng/g for cadmium, lead, and copper respectively

  8. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Faid; Ismail, Ahmad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Hussin, Mohamed Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the Milky storkâs diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to as...

  9. Determination of Manganese, Copper, Cadmium and Lead by FAAS after Solid-Phase Extraction of Their Phenylpiperazine Dithiocarbamate Complexes on Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    CESUR, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method was developed for the pre-concentration of manganese, copper, cadmium and lead in water samples prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using phenylpiperazine dithiocarbamate as a new reagent. The optimum pre-concentration conditions have been investigated such as pH, volume of sample solution and the effects of some matrix elements. The obtained recovery was nearly 90 to 100, while the enrichment factor was 400 for metal s...

  10. Development of a predictive model for lead, cadmium and fluorine soil-water partition coefficients using sparse multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kengo; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Komai, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we applied sparse multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis to clarify the relationships between soil properties and adsorption characteristics for a range of soils across Japan and identify easily-obtained physical and chemical soil properties that could be used to predict K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine. A model was first constructed that can easily predict the K and n values from nine soil parameters (pH, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, total carbon, soil organic matter from loss on ignition and water holding capacity, the ratio of sand, silt and clay). The K and n values of cadmium, lead and fluorine of 17 soil samples were used to verify the SMLR models by the root mean square error values obtained from 512 combinations of soil parameters. The SMLR analysis indicated that fluorine adsorption to soil may be associated with organic matter, whereas cadmium or lead adsorption to soil is more likely to be influenced by soil pH, IL. We found that an accurate K value can be predicted from more than three soil parameters for most soils. Approximately 65% of the predicted values were between 33 and 300% of their measured values for the K value; 76% of the predicted values were within ±30% of their measured values for the n value. Our findings suggest that adsorption properties of lead, cadmium and fluorine to soil can be predicted from the soil physical and chemical properties using the presented models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Effect of Cadmium and Lead Ions on Escherichia coli with the Cloned Gene for Metallothionein (MT-3) Revealed by Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Vojtech; Chudobova, Dagmar; Tmejova, Katerina; Cihalova, Kristyna; Krizkova, Sona; Guran, Roman; Kominkova, Marketa; Zurek, Michal; Kremplova, Monika; Jimenez, Ana Maria Jimenez; Konecna, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the application of electrochemical methods for studying of bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli expressing human metallothionein gene (MT-3) before and after the application of cadmium and/or lead ions in four concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 150 μM). Bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli expressing human metallothionein gene (MT-3) were used like model organisms for studying of metals influence to metallothionein expression. Metallothionein was isolated using fast protein liquid chromatography and quantified by electrochemical methods. The occurrence of metallothionein in E.coli was confirmed by gel electrophoresis by the presence of the bands at 15 (MT dimer) and 22 kDa (MT trimer). The changes in electrochemical records due to the interactions of metallothioneins (MT-3 and MT-2A) with cadmium and lead ions showed decline of Cat2 signal of MT with the increasing interaction time because of metal ions binding to cysteines. Electrochemical determination also revealed that Cd(II) remains in E. coli cells in the higher amount than Pb (II). Opposite situation was found at E. coli–MT-3 strain. The antimicrobial effect of cadmium ions was determined by IC 50 and was statistically calculated as 39.2 and 95.5 μM for E. coli without cloned MT-3 and E. coli carrying MT-3 gene, respectively. High provided concentration IC 50 in strains after lead ions application (352.5 μM for E. coli without cloning and 207.0 μM for E. coli carrying cloned MT-3 gene) indicates lower toxicity of lead ions on bacterial strains compared to the cadmium ions

  12. Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senbel, Amira M.; Saad, Evan I.; Taha, Safaa S.; Mohamed, Hosny F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. Methods: Measurement of intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) changes elicited by electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve in anesthetized rats treated with Pb-acetate, Al-sulfate, or Cd-sulfate acutely, and subacutely for 7 days. Serum creatinine, testosterone, TBARs, GSH levels and metal accumulation in corpus cavernosum were measured. Results: Pb, Al and Cd significantly reduced ICP/MAP in rats after acute (2,10–2,10 and 1,3 mg/kg respectively) and sub-acute (3, 3, and 1 mg/kg/day respectively) treatments. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching 25.107 ± 2.081 μg/g wet weight for Pb, 1.029 ± 0.193 for Cd, 31.343 ± 1.991 for Al, compared to 7.084 ± 1.517, 0.296 ± 0.067, and 8.86 ± 1.115 as controls respectively. Serum creatinine levels were not altered. Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0.483 ± 0.059 and 0.419 ± 0.037 ng/ml respectively compared to 0.927 ± 0.105 ng/ml as control. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by 27.843%. The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. Lead also masked the potentiatory effect of L-arginine and diazoxide on ICP/MAP. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury. They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. Pb may inhibit NO/cGMP/K + channel pathway. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent.

  13. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J., E-mail: ljbinkowski@gmail.com [Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland); Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.sawicka-kapusta@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Strzyżewska, Emilia, E-mail: emijel@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Felsmann, Mariusz, E-mail: felsmann.mariusz@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous.

  14. Stripping chronopotentiometric measurements of lead(II) and cadmium(II) in soils extracts and wastewaters using a bismuth film screen-printed electrode assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadara, Rashid O.; Tothill, Ibtisam E. [Cranfield Biotechnology Centre, Cranfield University, MK45 4DT, Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The key to remediative processes is the ability to measure toxic contaminants on-site using simple and cheap sensing devices, which are field-portable and can facilitate more rapid decision-making. A three-electrode configuration system has been fabricated using low-cost screen-printing (thick-film) technology and this coupled with a portable electrochemical instrument has provided a a relatively inexpensive on-site detector for trace levels of toxic metals. The carbon surface of the screen-printed working electrode is used as a substrate for in situ deposition of a metallic film of bismuth, which allows the electrochemical preconcentration of metal ions. Lead and cadmium were simultaneously detected using stripping chronopotentiometry at the bismuth film electrode. Detection limits of 8 and 10 ppb were obtained for cadmium(II) and lead(II), respectively, for a deposition time of 120 s. The developed method was applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in soils extracts and wastewaters obtained from polluted sites. For comparison purposes, a mercury film electrode and ICP-MS were also used for validation. (orig.)

  15. Mercury-free simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead at a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kangbing; Hu Shengshui; Fei Junjie; Bai Wen

    2003-01-01

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described for the simultaneous determination of trace levels of cadmium and lead by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). In pH 4.5 NaAc-HAc buffer containing 0.02 mol/l KI, Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ first adsorb onto the surface of a MWNT film coated GCE and then reduce at -1.20 V. During the positive potential sweep, reduced cadmium and lead were oxidized, and two well-defined stripping peaks appeared at -0.88 and -0.62 V. Compared with a bare GCE, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly improves the sensitivity of determining cadmium and lead. Low concentration of I - significantly enhances the stripping peak currents since it induces Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ to adsorb at the electrode surface. The striping peak currents change linearly with the concentration of Cd 2+ from 2.5x10 -8 to 1x10 -5 mol/l and with that of Pb 2+ from 2x10 -8 to 1x10 -5 mol/l. The lowest detectable concentrations of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ are estimated to be 6x10 -9 and 4x10 -9 mol/l, respectively. The high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of this MWNT film coated electrode demonstrated its practical application for a simple, rapid and economical determination of trace levels of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ in water samples

  16. CONTENT OF ZINC, LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN THE AREA OF THE ŚLĄSKIE AND CIĘŻKOWICKIE FOOTHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Józefowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state of contamination with zinc, lead, and cadmium in selected soils of the Śląskie and Ciężkowickie Foothills and to determine the impact of the type of agricultural use and selected physico-chemical properties of soils on heavy metal content. The test soils were characterized by natural content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in most cases. Only one type of soil located on Śląskie Foothills developed increased levels of Cd (1.1 mg · kg-1. The content of zinc, lead, and cadmium in the surface layer (0-30 cm was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills than in soils of Ciężkowickie Foothills. The bedrocks from which the soils of these two mesoregions are formed differed significantly only in the content of zinc (it was higher in the soils of Śląskie Foothills. The content of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the surface layer of soil depends on its texture and organic carbon and total nitrogen content. There was also a positive correlation between the content of Pb and Cd and hydrolytic acidity and between the content of Zn and Ca and CEC. Different types of land uses did not influence the content of the metals.

  17. Interactions of p-Nitrobenzene Diazonium Fluoroborate and Analogs with the Active Sites of Acetylcholine-Receptor and -Esterase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Henry G.; Bartels, Eva

    1970-01-01

    p-Nitrobenzene diazonium fluoroborate (NDF) is a potent inhibitor of the carbamylcholine-induced depolarization of the electroplax and of acetylcholinesterase. It probably forms covalent bonds with the acetylcholine-receptor and -esterase at the active site of the proteins. Its inhibitory strength is at least the same as that of trimethylammonium diazonium fluoroborate (TDF). The p-acetoxy analog, with its weaker electron-withdrawing group, is about ten times weaker as an inhibitor than the trimethylammonium or p-nitro analogs, both of which have strong electron-withdrawing groups. After treatment of the electroplax preparation with dithiothreitol, NDF remains an irreversible receptor-inhibitor, while TDF becomes a potent reversible receptor-activator. TDF is self-inhibitory: applied before reduction, it no longer depolarizes. Although the first observations on TDF suggested that the compound labels both proteins by virtue of the steric complementary of its trimethylammonium group to a negative subsite in the proteins, the present study indicates that it is the positively charged diazonium group that reacts with the active sites of the proteins to form a covalent bond with an appropriate amino-acid residue. PMID:5272331

  18. Molecular binding mechanisms of aqueous cadmium and lead to siderophores, bacteria and mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bhoopesh

    Recent studies have shown that diverse groups of bacteria adsorb metals to similar extents and uptake can be modeled using a universal adsorption model. In this study, XAFS has been used to resolve whether binding sites determined for single species systems are responsible for adsorption in more complex natural bacterial assemblages. Results obtained from a series of XAFS experiments on pure Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains and consortia of bacteria as a function of pH and Cd loading suggests that every bacterial strain has a complex physiology and they are all slightly different from each other. Nevertheless from the metal adsorption chemistry point of view, the main difference between them lies in the site ratio of three fundamental sites only - carboxyl, phosphoryl and sulfide. Two completely different consortia of bacteria (obtained from natural river water, and soil system with severe organic contamination) were successfully modeled in the pH range 3.4--7.8 using the EXAFS models developed for single species systems. Results thus obtained can potentially have very high impact on the modeling of the complex bacterial systems in realistic geological settings, leading to further refinement and development of robust remediation strategies for metal contamination at macroscopic level. In another study, solution speciation of Pb and Cd with DFO-B has been examined using a combination of techniques (ICP, TOC, thermodynamic modeling and XAFS). Results indicate that Pb does not complex with DFO-B at all until about pH 3.5, but forms a totally caged structure at pH 7.5. At intermediate pH conditions, mixture of species (one and two hydroxamate groups complexed) is formed. Cd on the other hand, does not complex until pH 5, forms intermediate complexes at pH 8 and is totally chelated at pH 9. Further studies were conducted for Pb sorption to mineral surface kaolinite with and without DFO-B. In the absence of DFO-B, results suggest outer sphere and inner

  19. Predictors of mercury, lead, cadmium and antimony status in Norwegian never-pregnant women of fertile age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Herland Fløtre

    Full Text Available The toxic trace elements mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and antimony (Sb are transferred over the placenta to the fetus and secreted into the breastmilk. All four elements bioaccumulate in the body and as maternal age at delivery is increasing in industrialized countries, the burden of toxic trace elements in never-pregnant women of fertile age is of concern.Healthy, never-pregnant women aged 18 to 40 years (n = 158 were recruited between June 2012 and March 2015 in Bergen, Norway. Clinical data were collected and non-fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for whole blood Hg, Pb and Cd and serum Sb by ICP-MS and related to diet and life style factors.In a multiple linear regression model, increasing age was associated with higher levels of Hg and Sb, but diet and life style factors were more important predictors. Median whole blood Hg was increased by a factor of 70 in women who had fish for dinner ≥1/week, compared to women who rarely or never ate fish (p<0.001. Alcohol intake was the strongest predictor for whole blood Pb, while use of tobacco was the strongest predictor for whole blood Cd. Being a vegetarian was associated with lower levels of both Hg and Sb.As toxic trace elements tend to bioaccumulate in the body, increasing maternal age at delivery may represent a threat to the next generation. In a group of healthy Norwegian never-pregnant women, age contributed to Hg and Sb levels, but diet and life style factors were stronger determinants of whole blood Hg, Pb, Cd and serum Sb levels. Continuous public actions are needed to reduce modifiable and preventable sources of potentially deleterious toxins to minimize the exposure in children and fertile women.

  20. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y. [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Developmental Toxicology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  1. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  2. Differential proteomic expression of human placenta and fetal development following e-waste lead and cadmium exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Long; Ge, Jingjing; Huo, Xia; Zhang, Yuling; Lau, Andy T.Y.; Xu, Xijin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) has been associated with a series of physiological problems resulting in fetal growth restriction. We aimed to investigate the effects of Pb and Cd exposure on placental function and the potential mechanisms involved in fetal development. Placental specimens and questionnaires were collected from an e-waste area and a reference area in China. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and molecular network relationship were performed to analyze differentially expressed proteins using a compositing sample pool. Compared with the reference group, the exposed group exhibited significantly higher levels of placental Pb and Cd (p < 0.01), shorter body length and higher gestational age (p < 0.01). After bivariate adjustment in a linear regression model, decreases of 205.05 g in weight and 0.44 cm in body length were associated with a 10 ng/g wt increase in placental Cd. Pb showed a negative trend but lacked statistical significance. Proteomic analysis showed 32 differentially-expressed proteins and were predominantly involved in protein translocation, cytoskeletal structure, and energy metabolism. Fumarate hydratase was down-regulated in the exposed placenta tissues and validated by ELISA. Alterations in placental proteome suggest that imbalances in placental mitochondria respiration might be a vital pathway targeting fetal growth restriction induced by exposure to Cd. - Highlights: • The placental Pb and Cd levels were higher in the e-waste polluted area. • Proteome in placenta tissues was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. • Cd exposure in the placenta was associated with the reduced fetal development. • 32 proteins covered in translocation, energy metabolism and cytoskeletal structure. • Dysregulated mitochondrial respiration may act in the Cd-reduced fetal development.

  3. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium and lead in drinking water by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Rey P. Torres

    Full Text Available The raw water source of drinking water in most areas in the Philippines is typically river water and in some cases groundwater. These sources are prone to elevated levels of metals and metalloids that may cause exposure of the general population when the treatment of the water is inadequate. This work presents a simple method based on EPA Method 200.8 for the determination of total concentrations of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in drinking water using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS as the element-selective detector. This was applied in the determination of these elements in the water supply in Metro Manila, Philippines. The method detection limits were 0.095 μg L-1, 0.043 μg L-1, and 0.114 μg L-1 for total As, Cd and Pb, respectively.The method was validated using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 1643e certified reference material for trace elements in water and determined values were 60.4 ± 0.5 μg L-1, 6.7 ± 0.1 μg L-1, and 19.6 ± 0.5 μg L-1 for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. These determined values were in good agreement with the certified values in the reference material. Analysis of actual drinking water samples showed that most samples did not exceed the limit of the Philippine drinking water standard for the elements.

  4. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening hydroxyapatite for cadmium and lead immobilization in aqueous solution and contaminated soil: The role of surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Guo, Xisheng; Ye, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been widely used to immobilize many cationic metals in water and soils. The specific reason why an increase in the surface area of HAP enhances cadmium (Cd) uptake, but has no effect on lead (Pb) uptake, is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the factors causing the differences in sorption behavior between Cd and Pb by evaluating HAPs with different surface areas. We synthesized HAPs with two different surface areas, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy, and then evaluated them as sorbents for Cd and Pb removal by testing in single and binary systems. The sorption capacity of large surface area HAP (1.85mmol/g) for Cd in the single-metal system was higher than that of small surface area HAP (0.64mmol/g), but there were no differences between single- and binary-metal solutions containing Pb. After the Cd experiments, the HAP retained a stable structure and intact morphology, which promotes the accessibility of reactive sites for Cd. However, a newly formed precipitate covered the surface and blocked the channels in the presence of Pb, which reduced the number of potential adsorption sites on HAP for Cd and Pb. Remediation experiments using Cd- and Pb-contaminated soil produced similar results to the solution tests. These results indicate that alterations of the structure and morphology during the reaction is an important factor influencing metal sorption to HAP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically

  7. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossowska, Barbara, E-mail: barbara@immchem.am.wroc.pl [Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Bujwida 44a, 50-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Dudka, Ilona, E-mail: ilona.dudka@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.bugla-ploskonska@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna, E-mail: aszyman@mp.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: wlodzimierz.doroszkiewicz@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Gancarz, Roman, E-mail: roman.gancarz@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Andrzejak, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta, E-mail: jola@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  8. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela; Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  9. Possible protective role of elderberry fruit lyophilizate against selected effects of cadmium and lead intoxication in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Aneta; Sikora, Elżbieta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Czech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was the investigation whether the administration of the elderberry fruit lyophilizate under exposure to cadmium(Cd) and (Pb) lead may protect against some effects of their toxic action in Wistar rats. Rats were fed with diets containing Cd (Cd 0.025 mg/kg b.m.) or Pb (Pb 0.025 mg /kg b.m.) with the addition of the freeze-dried elderberry fruits (BEF) in the amount of 5 %. BEF added to the diet with Cd significantly decreased the activity of AST and ALT compared to the rats fed with the control diet with Cd (C + Cd). Activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly higher in the blood of rats fed with BEF diet compared with animals fed with BEF + Cd, BEF + Pb, and C + Pb diets. Addition of BEF to the diets with Cd or Pb significantly decreased the uric acid concentration compared to the level of this parameter in the serum of animals fed with control diets containing Cd or Pb. The level of the Cd significantly decreased in the livers of rodents fed with BEF + Cd diet as compared to the concentration of this metal in the livers of rats fed with C + Cd diet. Elderberry fruit lyophilizate did not protect against the increased concentration of Cd or Pb in kidneys and bones of experimental rats; however, it improved the function of livers and kidneys, especially of rats intoxicated with Cd.

  10. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  11. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  12. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Ya-yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd and lead (Pb in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatments, single red mud was best, followed by red mud and organic fertilizer combined, single organic fertilizer was worst. The content of Cd and Pb in different rice organs with addition of red mud and organic fertilizer decreased significantly, the contribution rate of Cd and Pb at different stages changed obviously, and influences of adding quantity and fertilizing method were also significant. Different treatments had different effects on contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice. Compared with CK, red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 was the best for Cd, combination of red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 and organic fertilizer (1 000 kg·hm-2was the best for Pb, the contents of which were 55.90% and 29.41% less than the control respectively. Although contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased significantly after red mud and organic fertilizer added, contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice were still higher than national food safety standards (GB 2762-2012 because of high polluted degree of Cd (65 times than standard and Pb(7 times than standard in soil. All results showed it was ineffective to control heavy metal pollution in brown rice only by red mud and organic fertilizer addition in high polluted degree soils.

  13. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Mi; Chung, Jin-Young; An, Hyun Sook; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Bae, Jong Woon; Han, Myoungseok; Cho, Yeon Jean; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. PMID:26516876

  14. Cadmium, lead, and chromium in large game: a local-scale exposure assessment for hunters consuming meat and liver of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, P P; Serrani, F; Primi, R; Ponzetta, M P; Ronchi, B; Amici, A

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metals are ubiquitous in soil, water, and air. Their entrance into the food chain is an important environmental issue that entails risks to humans. Several reports indicate that game meat can be an important source of heavy metals, particularly because of the increasing consumption of game meat, mainly by hunters. We performed an exposure assessment of hunters and members of their households, both adults and children, who consumed wild boar (WB) meat and offal. We estimated the amount of cadmium, lead, and chromium in the tissues of WB hunted in six areas within Viterbo Province (Italy) and gathered data on WB meat and offal consumption by conducting specific diet surveys in the same areas. The exposure to cadmium, lead, and chromium was simulated with specifically developed Monte Carlo simulation models. Cadmium and lead levels in WB liver and meat harvested in Viterbo Province (Italy) were similar to or lower than the values reported in other studies. However, some samples contained these metals at levels greater then the EU limits set for domestic animals. The chromium content of meat or liver cannot be evaluated against any regulatory limit, but our results suggest that the amounts of this metal found in WB products may reflect a moderate environmental load. Our survey of the hunter population confirmed that their consumption of WB meat and liver was greater than that of the general Italian population. This level of consumption was comparable with other European studies. Consumption of WB products contributes significantly to cadmium and lead exposure of both adults and children. More specifically, consumption of the WB liver contributed significantly to total cadmium and lead exposure of members of the households of WB hunters. As a general rule, liver consumption should be kept to a minimum, especially for children living in these hunter households. The exposure to chromium estimated for this population of hunters may be considered to be safe. However

  15. Prenatal lead, cadmium and mercury exposure and associations with motor skills at age 7 years in a UK observational birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Emond, Alan M; Lingam, Raghu; Golding, Jean

    2018-08-01

    Lead and mercury are freely transferred across the placenta, while cadmium tends to accumulate in the placenta. Each contributes to adverse neurological outcomes for the child. Although prenatal heavy metal exposure has been linked with an array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, its association with the development of motor skills in children has not been robustly studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury, measured as maternal blood concentrations during pregnancy, and motor skills, measured as subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) at age 7 years in a large sample of mother-child pairs enrolled in a UK observational birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC). Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC were analysed for lead, cadmium and mercury. In a complete case analysis (n = 1558), associations between prenatal blood concentrations and child motor skills assessed by Movement ABC subtests of manual dexterity, ball skills and balance at 7 years were examined in adjusted regression models. Associations with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were also investigated. The mean prenatal blood levels were: lead 3.66 ± 1.55 μg/dl; cadmium 0.45 ± 0.54 μg/l; mercury 2.23 ± 1.14 μg/l. There was no evidence for any adverse associations of prenatal lead, cadmium or mercury exposure with motor skills measured at age 7 years with Movement ABC subtests in adjusted regression models. Further, there were no associations with probable DCD. There was no evidence to support a role of prenatal exposure to heavy metals at these levels on motor skills in the child at age 7 years measured using the Movement ABC. Early identification of symptoms of motor skills impairment is important, however, to enable investigation, assessment and treatment. Copyright

  16. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  17. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [de

  18. Monitoring of lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel in placenta from an e-waste recycling town in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia; Li, Yan; Wu, Kusheng; Liu, Junxiao; Huang, Jingrong; Zheng, Guina; Xiao, Qiongna; Yang, Hui; Wang, Yuanping; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Xijin

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of lead and other heavy metals levels in placenta. We aimed to investigate concentrations of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in placenta from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Two hundred and twenty human placentas were collected from Guiyu (n = 101) and the control area (n = 119). The placenta concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni (PCPb, PCCd, PCCr, and PCNi) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Risk factors of high exposure and correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed using Spearman correlation analyses. PCPb from Guiyu ranged from 6.51 to 3465.16 ng/g with a median of 301.43 ng/g, whereas PCPb from the control area ranged from 4.53 to 3176.12 ng/g with a median of 165.82 ng/g (P = 0.010). We also observed that in Guiyu, 41.6% of women (42/101) had PCPb > 500 ng/g wt (wet weight), compared with 24.4% of women (29/119) in the control area (P = 0.006). No significant differences of PCCd and PCCr were found between the two groups. In contrast, PCNi was higher in samples from the control area (median 14.30, range 1.76-593.70 ng/g) than in Guiyu samples (median 7.64, range 1.19-1108.99 ng/g) (P = 0.000), and a negative correlation between PCNi and gestational age was found in this study (P = 0.017). Spearman correlation analyses showed that there was correlation between PCPb and residence in e-waste recycling area. Environmental pollution, resulted from unregulated e-waste recycling activities, may contribute to elevated PCPb in neonates born in Guiyu and threaten their health.

  19. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, Grace; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Diamond, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0±2.3 to 64.6±11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4±18.4 to 265.6±63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8±0.13 to 1.40±0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas

  20. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  1. Association of lead, cadmium and mercury with paraoxonase 1 activity and malondialdehyde in a general population in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertinde; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Souza-Nogueira, André de; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Michelin, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Peixe, Tiago Severo; Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido Sarria; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-07-01

    Metal exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress (OS), which is considered an underlying mechanism of metal-induced toxicity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a final product of lipid peroxidation, and it has been extensively used to evaluate metal-induced OS. Pro-oxidant effects produced by metals can be mitigated by paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme known to prevent cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Among other factors, the Q192R polymorphism and the exposure to heavy metals have been known to alter PON1 activity. Here, we evaluated the association of blood lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels with PON1 activity, and with MDA concentrations in a randomly selected sample of Brazilian adults aged 40 years or older, living in an urban area in Southern Brazil. A total of 889 subjects were evaluated for blood Pb and Cd levels, and 832 were tested for Hg. Geometric mean of blood Pb, Cd and Hg was 1.93μg/dL, 0.06μg/L and 1.40μg/L, respectively. PON1 activity was significantly different among various genotypes: QQ (PON1=121.4U/mL), QR (PON1=87.5U/mL), and RR (PON1=55.2U/mL), p<0.001. PON1 genotypes were associated only with Cd blood levels. Those with QR genotype had Cd concentrations higher (0.07μg/L) than those with the RR genotype (0.04μg/L) with p=0.034. However, PON1 activity was not significantly associated with metal concentrations. Cluster analysis showed that men who reported to be current smokers and drinkers with higher blood Pb and Cd levels, had significantly lower PON1 activity than non-smokers or -drinkers, and women with lower Pb and Cd levels. RR genotype carriers had lower PON1 activity than those with the QR genotype, and had higher levels of Pb and Cd compared with other genotype carriers. For blood Hg, no association with PON1 activity or genotype was noted. We found low levels of Pb, Cd and Hg in environmentally exposed Brazilian adults. Cd concentrations were increased in subjects with QR genotype. Those with

  2. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomary, A. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan)]. E-mail: ahmedalomary1000@hotmail.com; Al-Momani, I.F. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan); Massadeh, A.M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 {mu}g/g and 0.44 {mu}g/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.49 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.37 {mu}g/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.52 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.41 {mu}g/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60.

  3. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  4. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomary, A.; Al-Momani, I.F.; Massadeh, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 μg/g and 0.44 μg/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 μg/g, Cd = 0.49 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 μg/g, Cd = 0.37 μg/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 μg/g and Cd = 0.52 μg/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 μg/g and Cd = 0.41 μg/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60

  5. Cadmium and lead contamination in japonica rice grains and its variation among the different locations in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Fangmin; Zhao Ningchun; Xu Haiming; Li Yi; Zhang Wenfang; Zhu Zhiwei; Chen Mingxue

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey with 269 sampling sites and a field experiment with 12 cultivars grown at 3 ecologically different locations, Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contamination in milled rice grains and its variation among different locations were investigated in the area of southeast China. The objective of this study was mainly to assess the present situation of Cd and Pb contamination in rice grains harvested locally and find out the variation of Cd and Pb background levels in rice grains among the diverse regional locations. The results showed that: a) Cd concentrations in milled rice grains ranged from trace (below 10 ng/g) to 340 ng/g, with the means of 81.4 ng/g (AM) and 55.2 ng/g (GM) for the 269 samples, whereas Pb concentrations ranged from trace (below 10 ng/g) to 1136 ng/g, with the means of 113.5 ng/g (AM) and 51.0 ng/g (GM), respectively. High frequency was observed for both the Cd and Pb concentrations ranging from trace to 200 ng/g, with 95.9% for Cd and 84.8% for Pb, respectively. b) ANOVA for the AMs and GMs among 269 sampling sites indicated that there were significant differences among the different spatial locations in Cd or Pb concentrations. c) The Cd concentrations in milled rice grains were poorly correlated with Pb concentration among the 269 sampling sites surveyed, and no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the AMs or GMs of Cd and Pb concentration was observed among different cities within a range of the same provinces, only with an exception for 1-2 provinces. d) Variance analysis of Cd, Pb concentrations for 12 rice cultivars grown in three locations showed that the great difference in coefficients of variation (CV) was observed both among cultivars grown in the same location and among locations of cultivars planted, in which locations showed much more contribution to the variation of Cd or Pb concentration in milled rice grains as compared with cultivars

  6. Supported liquid membrane based removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from mixed feed: Conversion to solid waste by precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous removal of two heavy metals, lead(II) and cadmium(II), from mixed feed using supported liquid membrane (SLM) based technique is investigated in this work. The carrier-solvent combination of "sodium salt of Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (4% w/w) in environmentally benign coconut oil" was immobilized into the pores of solid polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) support. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was used as the stripping agent. Carbonate salts of lead(II) and cadmium(II) were formed in the stripping side interface and they were insoluble in water leading to precipitation inside the stripping solution. The transportation of solute is positively affected due to the precipitation. Lead(II) removal was found to be preferential due to its favorable electronic configuration. The conversion of the liquid waste to the solid one was added advantage for the final removal of hazardous heavy metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mousavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water. Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system. Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L. Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  8. Development of a novel kinetic model for the analysis of PAH biodegradation in the presence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deary, Michael E., E-mail: michael.deary@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Ekumankama, Chinedu C. [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Cummings, Stephen P. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • 40 week study of the biodegradation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs in a soil with high organic matter. • Effects of cadmium, lead and mercury co-contaminants studied. • Novel kinetic approach developed. • Biodegradation of lower molecular weight PAHs relatively unaffected by Cd or Pb. • Soil organic matter plays a key role in the PAH removal mechanism. - Abstract: We report on the results of a 40 week study in which the biodegradation of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was followed in microcosms containing soil of high organic carbon content (11%) in the presence and absence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants. The total spiked PAH concentration was 2166 mg/kg. Mercury amendment was also made to give an abiotic control. A novel kinetic model has been developed to explain the observed biphasic nature of PAH degradation. The model assumes that PAHs are distributed across soil phases of varying degrees of bioaccessibility. The results of the analysis suggest that overall percentage PAH loss is dependent on the respective rates at which the PAHs (a) are biodegraded by soil microorganisms in pore water and bioaccessible soil phases and (b) migrate from bioaccessible to non-bioaccessible soil phases. In addition, migration of PAHs to non-bioaccessible and non-Soxhlet-extractable soil phases associated with the humin pores gives rise to an apparent removal process. The presence of metal co-contaminants shows a concentration dependent inhibition of the biological degradation processes that results in a reduction in overall degradation. Lead appears to have a marginally greater inhibitory effect than cadmium.

  9. Mercury-free simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead at a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Kangbing; Hu Shengshui; Fei Junjie; Bai Wen

    2003-08-18

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described for the simultaneous determination of trace levels of cadmium and lead by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). In pH 4.5 NaAc-HAc buffer containing 0.02 mol/l KI, Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} first adsorb onto the surface of a MWNT film coated GCE and then reduce at -1.20 V. During the positive potential sweep, reduced cadmium and lead were oxidized, and two well-defined stripping peaks appeared at -0.88 and -0.62 V. Compared with a bare GCE, a MWNT film coated GCE greatly improves the sensitivity of determining cadmium and lead. Low concentration of I{sup -} significantly enhances the stripping peak currents since it induces Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} to adsorb at the electrode surface. The striping peak currents change linearly with the concentration of Cd{sup 2+} from 2.5x10{sup -8} to 1x10{sup -5} mol/l and with that of Pb{sup 2+} from 2x10{sup -8} to 1x10{sup -5} mol/l. The lowest detectable concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} are estimated to be 6x10{sup -9} and 4x10{sup -9} mol/l, respectively. The high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of this MWNT film coated electrode demonstrated its practical application for a simple, rapid and economical determination of trace levels of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} in water samples.

  10. Cadmium, mercury and lead in the blood of urban women in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, China, Ecuador and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pawlas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to make an international comparison of blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd, lead (BPb and mercury (B-Hg of women in seven European, and three non-European cities, and to identify determinants. Materials and Methods: About 50 women (age: 46–62 from each city were recruited (totally 480 in 2006–2009. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. Blood samples were analysed in one laboratory to avoid interlaboratory variation. Results: Between the European cities, the B-Pb and B-Cd results vary little (range of geometric means: 13.5–27.0 μg/l and 0.25–0.65 μg/l, respectively; the variation of B-Hg was larger (0.40–1.38 μg/l. Between the non-European cities the results for B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg were 19.2–68.0, 0.39–0.99 and 1.01–2.73 μg/l, respectively. Smoking was a statistically signifi cant determinant for B-Cd, while fi sh and shellfi sh intakes contributed to B-Hg and B-Pb, amalgam fi llings also contributed to B-Hg. Conclusions: The present results confi rm the previous results from children; the exposure to lead and cadmium varies only little between different European cities suggesting that other factors than the living area are more important. The study also confi rms the previous fi ndings of higher cadmium and lead levels in some non-European cities. The geographical variation for mercury is signifi cant.

  11. Associated equilibria with participatian of single and mixed silver, lead and cadmium halide complexes in mixtures of molten alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouk, Kh.S.; Gupta, R.K.; Vekma, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Associated equilibria in the systems, which contain single and mixed silver, cadmium and lead halide complexes in the KNO 3 -Ba(N0 3 ) 2 (87.6:12.4 and 89:11 mol.%) and NaNO 3 -Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (94.2-5.8 mol%) melts in the temperature range from 568.2 up to 698.2 K are investigated. Applicability of equations derivated on the base of quasi-lattice model to description of temperature coefficients of association constants is analized

  12. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  13. The influence of antioxidants 'TIOFAN' and 'FANTOX 11-1' on physiological growth of broilers in conditions of intoxication with lead and cadmium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, Yu.I.; Bokova, T.I.; Kandalintseva, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study the influence of antioxidants 'TIOFAN' and 'FANTOX 11-1' on physiological growth of broilers in conditions of intoxication with lead and cadmium salts. The growth and development of bird in conditions of intoxication with heavy metals and by using of antioxidants as detoxicant is studied. The biochemical blood values on application of antioxidants and without them in conditions of intoxication are determined. The most effective preparation raising of birds productivity and it's optimal concentration is established.

  14. Nickel, lead, and cadmium induce differential cellular responses in sea urchin embryos by activating the synthesis of different HSP70s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Fabiana; Pinsino, Annalisa; Turturici, Guiseppina; Savona, Rosalia; Giudice, Giovanni; Sconzo, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with heavy metals, such as nickel, lead or cadmium, elicits different cellular stress responses according to the metal used and the length of treatment. In Paracentrotus lividus embryos the inducible forms of HSP70 (HSP70/72) are different in molecular mass from the constitutively expressed HSP75, and they can be used as markers of cellular stress. Even a short treatment with each metal induces the synthesis of HSP70/72 which remain stable for at least 20 h and differ little in their isoelectric points. Continuous treatment from fertilization with nickel or lead produces late irregular pluteus embryos, with peak HSP70/72 synthesis at blastula followed by the arrest of synthesis by pluteus. On the contrary, the same treatment with cadmium