WorldWideScience

Sample records for lead 204 target

  1. Routine lead isotope determinations using a lead-207-lead-204 double spike: a long-term assessment of analytical precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, J.D.; McCulloch, M.T.; Volker, F.

    1995-01-01

    Lead-isotope data obtained on a multicollector mass spectrometer over a four year period using a 207 Pb- 204 Pb double spike to correct for the effects of mass discrimination, are reported. Considerable improvements in both precision and accuracy over conventional correction procedures were noted, without recourse to rigorous loading or run conditions. An external precision in 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios ± 0.003, 0.003 and 0.01 (2 x standard deviation), respectively, is routinely obtainable independent of minor variations in loading and run parameters. (author)

  2. Isotopically tailored lead target with reduced polonium and bismuth radio-waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasanov, G.L.; Ivanov, A.P.; Lunev, V.P.; Blokhin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Residual activity of a lead target after 1 year irradiation with a high power, 0.8 GeV*30 mA, proton beam is studied. It is concluded that the main radiotoxicity of irradiated lead is connected with bismuth isotope, Bi-207, which is produced in natural lead, mix of several stable isotopes, via (p,2n) reaction with Pb-208 nuclei. It is proposed to use, as a target material, lead enriched with another stable isotope, Pb-206, in order to reduce producing Bi-207 and Po-210. Estimation of charges for obtaining large quantities of lead-206 is also given. Accumulation of hazardous radionuclides, Bi-207, Bi-208, and Po-210, in natural lead to be used as a coolant in future fast reactors and accelerator driven reactors is predicted. In accelerator driven systems a large portion of Bi-207 can be produced via Pb-208(p,2n)Bi-207 reaction in a target of natural lead (Pb-208/Pb-207/Pb-206/Pb-204=52.35/22.08/24.14/1.42 %). A new isotopically tailored coolant-converter for ADS consisting of lead isotope, Pb-206, is proposed. By using this material, it is possible to reduce essentially the production of the most radio-toxic isotopes of Bi and Po and to avoid disposing the large amounts of lead. To provide the future fast reactors and accelerator driven systems with low-activation coolant - converter, the new technology of obtaining the large amounts of natural lead enriched with lead isotope, Pb-206, should be developed. (authors)

  3. Precise determination of the neutron scattering length of lead isotopes 204Pb,207Pb and 208Pb by neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A.; Ermakov, O.; Karpikhin, I.; Krupchitsky, P.; Mikula, P.; Lukas, P.; Vrana, M.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron scattering length of lead isotopes 204 Pb, 207 Pb and 208 Pb are determined by a set of neutron interferometry experiments. The obtained values b (208) =9.494(30) fm, b (207) =9.286(16) fm, b (204) =10.893(78) fm have much higher accuracy then current table data. Together with the precise value of b for natural lead, these results represent a complete set of data and allow one to calculate b (206) =9.221(69) fm, which is in the very good agreement with the present day experimental value. (orig.)

  4. Transcriptome Profiling of Neovascularized Corneas Reveals miR-204 as a Multi-target Biotherapy Deliverable by rAAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Corneal neovascularization (NV is the major sight-threatening pathology caused by angiogenic stimuli. Current drugs that directly target pro-angiogenic factors to inhibit or reverse the disease require multiple rounds of administration and have limited efficacies. Here, we identify potential anti-angiogenic corneal microRNAs (miRNAs and demonstrate a framework that employs discovered miRNAs as biotherapies deliverable by recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs. By querying differentially expressed miRNAs in neovascularized mouse corneas induced by alkali burn, we have revealed 39 miRNAs that are predicted to target more than 5,500 differentially expressed corneal mRNAs. Among these, we selected miR-204 and assessed its efficacy and therapeutic benefit for treating injured corneas. Our results show that delivery of miR-204 by rAAV normalizes multiple novel target genes and biological pathways to attenuate vascularization of injured mouse cornea. Importantly, this gene therapy treatment alternative is efficacious and safe for mitigating corneal NV. Overall, our work demonstrates the discovery of potential therapeutic miRNAs in corneal disorders and their translation into viable treatment alternatives.

  5. Spectroscopic Measurement of LEAD-204 Isotope Shift and LEAD-205 Nuclear Spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Peter

    The isotope shift of ('204)Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 x 10('7)-y ('205)Pb was determined from a high -resolution optical measurement of the 6p('2) ('3)P(,o) -6p7s('3)P(,1)('o) 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to ('208)Pb is -140.2(8) x 10('-3)cm(' -1), the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of ('205)Pb l = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or longlived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4cm diffraction grating in a 9.1m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of ('204)Pb and ('207)Pb. A controlled amount of the later was incorporated in the absorption cell to provide internal calibration by its 6p7s ('3)P(,1)('o) hfs separation. Absorption spectra were recorded for several optical thicknesses of the absorber. A single spin value of increased precision was derived from the entire set of combined data.

  6. Isolation of radioactive thallium from lead targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preperation from Pb-targets irradiated with protons: precipitation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. When the target irraiated is extracted during the time necessary for bismuth-201 transformation into lead-201, lead macroquantity containing lead-201 was separated from undesirable thallium radionuclides, which are formed in direct nuclear reactions. The lead fraction was extracted to accumulate thallium-201, and it was separated from lead mocroquantity. The target was dissolved in the nitric acid. The 1st method differs from the 2nd one by the fact that before thallium-201 extraction, lead was precipitaed by the nitric acid. The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - ≥95 %. 2 refs

  7. Genomic loss of tumor suppressor miRNA-204 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by activating AKT/mTOR/Rac1 signaling and actin reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Saadi Imam

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that chromosomal regions containing microRNAs are functionally important in cancers. Here, we show that genomic loci encoding miR-204 are frequently lost in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancers, pediatric renal tumors, and breast cancers. MiR-204 shows drastically reduced expression in several cancers and acts as a potent tumor suppressor, inhibiting tumor metastasis in vivo when systemically delivered. We demonstrated that miR-204 exerts its function by targeting genes involved in tumorigenesis including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin family member which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Analysis of primary tumors shows that increased expression of BDNF or its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB parallel a markedly reduced expression of miR-204. Our results reveal that loss of miR-204 results in BDNF overexpression and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and actin reorganization through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway leading to cancer cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that microdeletion of genomic loci containing miR-204 is directly linked with the deregulation of key oncogenic pathways that provide crucial stimulus for tumor growth and metastasis. Our findings provide a strong rationale for manipulating miR-204 levels therapeutically to suppress tumor metastasis.

  8. 48 CFR 243.204 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 243.204... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204 Administration. Follow the procedures at PGI 243.204 for administration of change orders. [75 FR 48277, Aug. 10, 2010] ...

  9. 17 CFR 204.34 - Employee response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee response. 204.34... DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 204.34 Employee response. (a) Introduction. An employee must respond to... ways discussed in § 204.34, Employee response, and § 204.35, Petition for pre-offset hearing. Where...

  10. 42 CFR 93.204 - Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract. 93.204 Section 93.204 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS... MISCONDUCT Definitions § 93.204 Contract. Contract means an acquisition instrument awarded under the HHS...

  11. 37 CFR 204.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 204.2 Section 204.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) The term...

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLH204 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLH204 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15479-1 SLH204Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLH204Z 657 - - - - Show SLH204 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLH204 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLH2-A/SLH204Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLH20...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLH204 (SLH204Q) /CSM/SL/SLH2-A/SLH204Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...g significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( AU039226 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLH204. 930

  13. 19 CFR 204.5 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports. 204.5 Section 204.5 Customs Duties UNITED... ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.5 Reports. After completion of its investigation, the Commission will transmit to the President a report of the results thereof, including its findings and recommendations based...

  14. 32 CFR 204.6 - Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collections. 204.6 Section 204.6 National... USER FEES § 204.6 Collections. (a) Collections of fees will be made in advance or simultaneously with..., and managing cash and debt collections. (b) Unless a statute provides otherwise, user fee collections...

  15. 37 CFR 204.6 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fees. 204.6 Section 204.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.6 Fees. (a) The Copyright Office will provide, free of charge...

  16. 9 CFR 204.7 - Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 204.7 Section 204.7 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... person whose request under § 204.6 of this part is denied shall have the right to appeal such denial in...

  17. 40 CFR 243.204 - Collection management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection management. 243.204 Section 243.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES... and Recommended Procedures § 243.204 Collection management. ...

  18. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems.24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group.The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  19. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There are significant differences (pblood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204)Pb/(206)Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  20. 48 CFR 811.204 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.204 Section 811.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 811.204 Contract...

  1. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  2. 28 CFR 16.204 - Public notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public notice. 16.204 Section 16.204 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Public Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.204 Public notice. (a) Requirements. Every open meeting and...

  3. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.204 Section 1416.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Indemnity Program II § 1416.204 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to CCC a...

  4. 7 CFR 1430.204 - Requesting benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting benefits. 1430.204 Section 1430.204... Program § 1430.204 Requesting benefits. (a) A request for benefits or contract application, under this... MILC benefits must certify the accuracy and truthfulness of the information in their contract...

  5. Lead isotope ratios as a tracer for lead contamination sources: A lake Andong case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y. H

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stable Pb isotope signatures as a tracer for Pb contamination in Lake Andong. For Pb isotope analysis, we collected water and sediment from Lake Andong, particles in the air, soils, and stream water, mine tailings, sludge and wastewater from zinc smelting around lake Andong watershed. The results showed that Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb for zinc concentrate were 18.809 ± 0.322, 15.650 ± 0.062, and 38.728 ± 0.421, respectively. In wastewater, isotopic ratio values (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb were 17.363 ± 0.133, 15.550 ± 0.025, and 37.217 ± 0.092, respectively. Additionally, isotopic ratio values (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb for sludge were 17.515 ± 0.155, 15.537 ± 0.018, and 37.357 ± 0.173, respectively. These values were similar to those in zinc and lead concentrate originated from Canada and South America. In contrast, Pb isotope ratios of soil, tailings and sediment from Lake Andong were similar to those of Korean ore. Atmospheric particles showed different patterns of Pb isotope ratios from sediments, soils, and zinc smelting and this needs further investigation in order to identify atmospheric Pb sources.

  6. Determination of spallation residues in thin target: toward an hybrid reactor lead target simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bernas, M.; Rejmund, F.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J.; Boudard, A.; Fernandez, B.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C.; Wlazlo, W.; Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Pereira, J.; Czajkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    The production of spallation primary residual nuclei in thin target has been studied by measurement of isotopic yields distributions for several systems. Issues relevant for the design of accelerator-driven systems are presented. Monte-Carlo code abilities to reproduce data are studied in details; it is shown that calculations do not reproduce data in a satisfactory way. Future work orientations leading to an improvement of thin targets calculations and ultimately to a thick target simulation are discussed. (author)

  7. Determination of spallation residues in thin target: toward an hybrid reactor lead target simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bernas, M.; Rejmund, F.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91- Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Enqvist, T.; Armbruster, P.; Ricciardi, M.V.; Schmidt, K.H. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt (Germany); Boudard, A.; Fernandez, B.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C.; Wlazlo, W. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Pereira, J. [University of Santiago de Compostella (Spain); Czajkowski, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, CENBG, CNRS-IN2P3, 33 - Gradignan (France)

    2001-07-01

    The production of spallation primary residual nuclei in thin target has been studied by measurement of isotopic yields distributions for several systems. Issues relevant for the design of accelerator-driven systems are presented. Monte-Carlo code abilities to reproduce data are studied in details; it is shown that calculations do not reproduce data in a satisfactory way. Future work orientations leading to an improvement of thin targets calculations and ultimately to a thick target simulation are discussed. (author)

  8. 37 CFR 204.3 - General policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policy. 204.3 Section 204.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.3 General policy. The Copyright Office serves primarily...

  9. 37 CFR 204.9 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 204.9 Section 204.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.9 Judicial review. Within two years of the...

  10. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  11. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of...

  12. 13 CFR 400.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 400.204 Section 400.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the Program shall be...

  13. Lead isotopes in mantle derived xenoliths from Japan and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Masana; Kigoshi, Kunihiko.

    1978-01-01

    The lead isotopic compositions and the uranium, thorium and lead contents of eclogite and harzburgite inclusions from South African Kimberlite-pipes and lherzolite inclusions from Itinomegata crater, Japan and of their main mineral fractions have been determined. The observed 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 238 U/ 204 Pb in lherzolite samples from Itinomegata range from 17.9 to 18.2, from 15.1 to 15.5 and from 1.9 to 23, respectively. The results suggest that the lherzolites were of recent crystallization. The observed data on eclogite inclusions show no consistent pattern and suggest that they have a complicated history. The observed lead isotopic compositions of harzburgite inclusions from kimberlite-pipes are 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 17.3 -- 19.0 and 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.3 -- 15.6. These results are distributed in a wide range on two regression lines, suggesting that they had been formed from the same source material but with different ages or have been formed recently by mixing of two different source materials and host rock of kimberlite. (author)

  14. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... dog. The building has a no pets policy. It is a violation of § 100.204 for the owner or manager of the...

  15. 13 CFR 500.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 500.204 Section 500.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the...

  16. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  17. Neutron production in interactions of relativistic protons and deuterons with lead targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurevich, V.I.; Amelin, N.S.; Yakovlev, R.M.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Lyapin, V.G.; Tsvetkov, I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Results on the neutron double-differential cross sections and yields obtained in the time-of-flight measurements with different lead targets and beams of protons and deuterons at an energy of about 2 GeV are discussed. The neutron spatial-energy distribution for an extended lead target was studied by the threshold detector method in the energy range of protons and deuterons 1-3.7 GeV. A dependence of the mean neutron multiplicity, energy of neutrons, and process of neutron multiplication in lead on the target dimension, and the type and energy of the beam particle is analyzed. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 1280.204 - Appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment. 1280.204 Section 1280.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information...

  19. 48 CFR 204.7101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Uniform Contract Line Item Numbering System 204.7101 Definitions. Accounting classification reference number (ACRN) means any combination of a two position alpha... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 204.7101...

  20. 48 CFR 204.101 - Contracting officer's signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting officer's signature. 204.101 Section 204.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... officer's signature. Follow the procedures at PGI 204.101 for signature of contract documents. [71 FR 9268...

  1. 5 CFR 2638.204 - Deputy ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deputy ethics official. 2638.204 Section 2638.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Designated Agency Ethics Official § 2638.204...

  2. 41 CFR 101-6.204 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 101-6.204 Section 101-6.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.204 Discrimination prohibited. ...

  3. 37 CFR 204.1 - Purposes and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purposes and scope. 204.1 Section 204.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.1 Purposes and scope. The purposes of these...

  4. 12 CFR 204.3 - Reporting and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting and location. 204.3 Section 204.3... REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.3 Reporting and location. (a) Every depository... corporation is located in the Federal Reserve District that contains the location specified in the institution...

  5. 48 CFR 39.204 - Exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Information Technology 39.204 Exceptions. The... standards to the maximum extent practicable; (b) Is for a national security system; (c) Is acquired by a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions. 39.204 Section...

  6. 31 CFR 800.204 - Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control. 800.204 Section 800.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... preferences of the particular class of stock held by minority investors, as provided in the relevant corporate...

  7. 77 FR 16796 - Lead Requirements for Lead-Based Paint Activities in Target Housing and Child-Occupied Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... document announces the receipt of Arkansas's rules established pursuant to its new 2011 statutory authority... program accreditation requirements, and work practice standards for lead-based paint activities in target...-based paint program and passed a new statute establishing a State lead-based paint program and changing...

  8. miR-204 inhibits angiogenesis and promotes sensitivity to cetuximab in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by blocking JAK2-STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingwei; Zhao, Yingying; Wang, Peihua

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the roles of miR-204 in tumor angiogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we found that miR-204 level was reduced in HNSCC tissues relative to that in normal adjacent tissues. Overexpression of miR-204 promoted tumor angiogenesis in HNSCC cells. Mechanistically, JAK2 was identified as a direct target of miR-204, and miR-204 overexpression blocked JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, overexpression of JAK2 attenuated the inhibition of miR-204 on tumor angiogenesis of HNSCC. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-204 enhanced sensitivity of cetuximab in HNSCC cells, this effect was attenuated by JAK2 overexpression too. Importantly, JAK2 expression was negatively correlated with miR-204 level in HNSCC tissues. Therefore, miR-204 acts as a tumor suppressor by blocking JAK2/STAT3 pathway in HNSCC cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Biogeochemical studies of lead isotopes near a smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrigan, P.J.; Baker, E.L. Jr.; Earl, J.L.; Chow, T.J.

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of 1 to 9 year-old children living within 1 mile of a primary lead smelter in Idaho were found to have whole blood lead levels equal to or greater than 40μg/100 ml, a level indicative of excess lead absorption. To define the sources of this lead, isotope ratios were determined in lead from human and environmental samples obtained near the smelter; determinations were performed using a 30-cm radius, solid-source mass spectrometer with an electron multiplier. The Idaho ore is a pre-Cambrian lead deposit with 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 16.43, 206 Pb = 1.0543 and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb = 0.4518. An ingot smelted in 1974 showed isotope ratios of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 17.66, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.1312 and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb = 0.4694, indicating a mixture of ore sources. Three surface soil samples from within 2 miles of the smelter had lead ratios similar to those in the ingot. A fourth soil sample from beside an interstate highway 32 miles east of the smelter showed different ratios: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.47, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.1826 and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb = 0.4823. Aerosol samples collected from October 4, 1974, to February 1, 1975, near the smelter showed considerable variation in ratios; these variations resulted from smelting of ores from differing sources

  10. 40 CFR 204.3 - Number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number and gender. 204.3 Section 204.3... STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 204.3 Number and gender. As used in this part, words in the singular shall be deemed to import the plural, and words in the masculine gender shall be...

  11. High-precision lead isotope ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma multiple collector mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Furuta, Naoki.

    1993-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ion source coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors has been used to measure the lead isotope ratios in solutions of Sanshiro Pond sediment collected at the University of Tokyo, airborne particulates collected at Shinjuku in Tokyo and Merck multielement standard product number 97279494. A thallium correction technique was utilized to allow a simultaneous correction for mass bias. This work followed an earlier interlaboratory comparison study of the above-mentioned solutions using ICP quadrupole mass spectrometry, and has demonstrated a considerable improvement in analytical precision. The following isotope ratio measurements were recorded. Pond sediment solution containing 82 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.762±0.014; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1424±0.0009; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.678±0.034. Airborne particulate solution containing 45 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.969±0.006; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.1528±0.0003; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=37.915±0.021. Merck multielement standard solution containing 100 ng ml -1 lead: 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=19.255±0.015; 206 Pb/ 207 Pb=1.2238±0.0004; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb=38.476±0.021 (All errors are given as ±2 standard deviations). (author)

  12. 90 deg.Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Foglio-Para, A; Mitaroff, W A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb sup 8 sup 2 sup + lead ions at 40 GeV/c per nucleon and 158 GeV/c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90 deg.with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that--for such high energy heavy ion beams--a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0...

  13. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S.; Wainman, Bruce C.; Martin, Ian D.; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-01-01

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, and a significant negative correlation for 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden

  14. The isotopic composition of lead in man and the environment in Finland: isotope ratios of lead as indicators of pollutant source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinonen, M.

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead was determined in samples from the Helsinki area: in emission sources (gasoline, incinerator and lead smelter emissions, coal), in sources of intake to man (air, diet), in samples representing long-term deposition (lichen, soil, lake sediments) and in human tissue. The measurements of the isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb were done by thermal ionization mass spectrometry after chemical separation of lead by anion exchange and cathodic electrodeposition. The origin of lead in man and the environment in the Helsinki area was evaluated by using the differences in the measured isotope ratios as an indicator. The means of the ratios in gasoline ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb 1.124+-0.026, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb 17.45+-0.42) and the ratios in other emission sources in Helsinki ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb 1.149-1.226, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb 17.94-19.24) were significantly different. Lead in air samples from Helsinki (1.123+-0.013) could be attributed to gasoline, as lead in soil near a highway (1.136+-0.003). By contrast, isotope ratios measured in lichen (1.148+-0.006) indicated considerable amounts of lead from sources with higher 206 Pb abundances, evidently industrial sources. The isotope ratios in human liver, lung, and bone ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb 1.142+-0.015, 1.151+-0.011, and 1.156+-0.013, respectively and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb 17.76+-0.28, 17.91+-0.20, and 17.96+-0.09, respectively) were practically the same and no significant dependence of the isotope ratios on age or concentration of lead was seen. In lake sediment cores a correlation was found between the isotope ratios, lead concentration, and depth. The non-anthropogenic lead of high isotope ratios from bedrock was the major component at depths dated older than 100 years. At the surface of the sediment atmospheric lead prevailed, with ratios similar to those of gasoline, air samples and lichen. In the post-1900 layers, anthropogenic lead made up about 40-60% of the total sedimentary lead

  15. Assistant in design of tissue targeting leads with radio-combinatorial screening vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ciyi; Zeng Jun; Xie Wenhui; Hu Silong; Jin Muxiu

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic efficiency of drug depends highly on the drug distribution in target tissues (tumor for example) both specifically and accumulatively. We report here a powerful approach in design of tissue targeting leads with the assistant of radio-combinatorial screening technique developed in our laboratory. Methods: The C-terminal amide tripeptide libraries were synthesized on Rink Amide-MBHA resin in the OXX aO1OXaO1O2O positional scanning format and iterative protoco. A technetium (V) oxo core[(TcO)3+] was bound to the N4-triligands of tripeptide libraries via four deprotonated anfide nitrogen atoms to form a structure of 99Tcm-tripeptoid libraries. The radio-combinatorial screening (RCS) in vivo was then carried out after SD rats and A549 tumor bearing mice received i.v. with 99Tcm-tripeptoid libraries. Results: Signals of tissue distribution and metabolism of libraries were recorded by g counting or imaging. From library of 8,000 99Tcm-tripeptoid members, the tissue targeting leads had been identified by RCS. Those included 99Tcm-DSG (RES), 99Tcm-VAA, and 99Tcm-VIG that had specific tissue targeting in kidney, stomach, and liver respectively. The percent injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g) of 99Tcm labeled leads in their target tissues was highly structure-dependent The discovery of 99Tcm-VAA and 99Tcm-VIG indicates that side chain methyl at positionl and 2 are crucial for stomach and liver accumulating 99Tcm-tripeptoids. In the case of kidney targeting, Ser in the position 2 and 3 is crucial for 99Tcm-tripeptoids renal excretion and accumulation characteristics respectively. Conclusion: RCS in vivo is a powerful tool for design of tissue targeting leads. (authors)

  16. Photon nuclear scattering on lead and bismuth in the region of the giant resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamas, Gabriel.

    1976-01-01

    The results of monochromatic photon nuclear scattering studies on natural lead and bismuth targets are presented. The cross sections for the inelastic scattering leading to the first excited levels of 204 Pb, 206 Pb and 207 Pb are important, in agreement with theoretical predictions. The elastic scattering amplitude is related to the total photon absorption by dispersion relations. It is then possible to determine the spin of resonances excited by the reaction studied. Precise measurements carried out between 14 and 20MeV revealed that the angular distribution cannot be explained by a single dipolar resonance. A quadrupolar resonance at E 2 =14MeV must be introduced [fr

  17. 29 CFR 20.4 - Determination of delinquency; notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Determination of delinquency; notice. 20.4 Section 20.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Disclosure of Information to Credit Reporting Agencies § 20.4 Determination of delinquency; notice. (a) The agency head (or designee...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.204-70 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Security. 2052.204-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.204-70 Security. As prescribed... National Security information, restricted data, formerly restricted data, and other classified data...

  19. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power limits. 25.204 Section 25.204 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... purposes shall be coordinated between and among adjacent satellite operators. (f) In the band 13.75-14 GHz...

  20. 28 CFR 36.204 - Administrative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative methods. 36.204 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.204 Administrative methods... standards or criteria or methods of administration that have the effect of discriminating on the basis of...

  1. Measured radionuclide production from copper, gold and lead spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.; Belian, A.P. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Spallation target materials are chosen so as to produce large numbers of neutrons while at the same time avoiding the creation of long-lived radioactive wastes. While there has been considerable research to determine the number of neutrons produced per incident particle for various target materials, there has been less effort to precisely quantify the types and amounts of radionuclides produced. Accurate knowledge of the radioactive species produced by spallation reactions is important for specifying waste disposal criteria for targets. In order to verify the production rates calculated by LAHET, a study has been conducted using the Texas A&M University (TAMU) Cyclotron to measure radionuclide yields from copper, gold, and lead targets.

  2. 44 CFR 206.204 - Project performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project performance. 206.204... § 206.204 Project performance. (a) General. This section describes the policies and procedures applicable during the performance of eligible work. (b) Advances of funds. Advances of funds will be made in...

  3. The space distribution of neutrons generated in massive lead target by relativistic nuclear beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chultem, D.; Damdinsuren, Ts.; Enkh-Gin, L.; Lomova, L.; Perelygin, V.; Tolstov, K.

    1993-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to implementation of solid state nuclear track detectors in the research of the neutron generation in extended lead spallation target. Measured neutrons space distribution inside the lead target and neutron distribution in the thick water moderator are assessed. (Author)

  4. 40 CFR 204.57 - Selective enforcement auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selective enforcement auditing. 204.57 Section 204.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT... enforcement auditing. ...

  5. Selection of flowing liquid lead target structural materials for accelerator driven transmutation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.J.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The beam entry window and container for a liquid lead spallation target will be exposed to high fluxes of protons and neutrons that are both higher in magnitude and energy than have been experienced in proton accelerators and fission reactors, as well as in a corrosive environment. The structural material of the target should have a good compatibility with liquid lead, a sufficient mechanical strength at elevated temperatures, a good performance under an intense irradiation environment, and a low neutron absorption cross section; these factors have been used to rank the applicability of a wide range of materials for structural containment Nb-1Zr has been selected for use as the structural container for the LANL ABC/ATW molten lead target. Corrosion and mass transfer behavior for various candidate structural materials in liquid lead are reviewed, together with the beneficial effects of inhibitors and various coatings to protect substrate against liquid lead corrosion. Mechanical properties of some candidate materials at elevated temperatures and the property changes resulting from 800 MeV proton irradiation are also reviewed

  6. 31 CFR 539.204 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 539.204 Section 539.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... of services to market, produce or co-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or...

  7. 19 CFR 10.204 - Imported directly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customs authority in the intermediate country; (2) Did not enter into the commerce of the intermediate... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported directly. 10.204 Section 10.204 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  8. 17 CFR 204.6 - Agency review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agency review. 204.6 Section... COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 204.6 Agency review. (a) To the extent that a debt owed has not been... request to review a disputed debt must be submitted to the Commission official who provided notification...

  9. 10 CFR 63.204 - Preclosure standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure standard. 63.204 Section 63.204 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA... must ensure that no member of the public in the general environment receives more than an annual dose...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.68 - Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hydrogen. 50-204.68..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.68 Hydrogen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of hydrogen shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets G-5.1-1961 and G-5.2...

  11. Comparison of plateletpheresis on the Fresenius AS.TEC 204 and Haemonetics MCS 3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sudha

    2007-02-01

    This is an attempt at comparing two cell separators for plateletpheresis, namely the Fresenius AS.TEC 204 and Haemonetics MCS 3p, at a tertiary care center in India. Donors who weighed between 55-75 kg, who had a hematocrit of 41-43%, and platelet counts of 250x10(3)-400x10(3)/microl were selected for the study. The comparability of the donors who donated on the two cell separators were analysed by t-test independent samples and no significant differences were found (P>0.05). The features compared were time taken for the procedure, volume processed on the separators, adverse reactions of the donors, quality control of the product, separation efficiency of the separators, platelet loss in the donors after the procedure, and the predictor versus the actual yield of platelets given by the cell separator. The volume processed to get a target yield of >3x10(11) was equal to 2.8-3.2 l and equal in both the cell separators. Symptoms of citrate toxicity were seen in 4 and 2.5% of donors who donated on the MCS 3p and the AS.TEC 204, respectively, and 3 and 1% of donors, respectively, had vasovagal reactions. All the platelet products collected had a platelet count of >3x10(11); 90% of the platelet products collected on the AS.TEC 204 attained the predicted yield that was set on the cell separator where as 75% of the platelet products collected on the MCS 3p attained the target yield. Quality control of the platelets collected on both the cell separators complied with the standards except that 3% of the platelets collected on the MCS 3p had a visible red cell contamination. The separation efficiency of the MCS 3p was higher, 50-52% as compared to the 40-45% on the AS.TEC 204. A provision of double venous access, less adverse reactions, negligible RBC contamination with a better predictor yield of platelets makes the AS.TEC 204 a safer and more reliable alternative than the widely used Haemonetics MCS 3p. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. 48 CFR 3003.204 - Treatment of violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of violations. 3003.204 Section 3003.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS...

  13. Status and future application of pilot lead-bismuth target circuit TC-1 for ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, S.; Leonchuk, M.; Orlov, Y.; Pankratov, D.; Reshetnikova, O.; Suvorov, G.; Zabudko, A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, V.; Klimov, N. [Experimental and Design Organization, Gidropress, Podolsk (Russian Federation); Hechanova, A.; Ma, J. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Li, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gudowski, W. [International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    A complicated evolution, status and future application of the pilot molten lead-bismuth target circuit of 1 MW proton beam power (TC-1) as an important part of a target-blanket accelerator driven system (ADS), that has been developed, created and twice tested under the auspice of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), is analyzed. The target complex TC-1 is a circulation lead-bismuth loop whose beam window is made of ferritic steel EP-823 (this steel was used in the past as material of fuel rods cladding in reactors cooled with lead-bismuth). At present TC-1 is operating at coolant temperature up to 300 C degrees and will be used to study different issues linked to the use of lead-bismuth: -) interaction with air, water and hydrogen, -) different regimes of flow, -) corrosion, -) filtering, or -) slag formation.

  14. Hypoxia promotes apoptosis of neuronal cells through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-microRNA-204-B-cell lymphoma-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuwen; Li, Ji; Wu, Dongjin; Bu, Xiangpeng; Qiao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and may be subjected to apoptosis when exposed to hypoxia. Several apoptosis-related genes and miRNAs involve in hypoxia-induced apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the role of HIF1α-miR-204-BCL-2 pathway in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide assay was performed to analyze cell apoptosis in AGE1.HN and PC12 cells under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. The expression of BCL-2 and miR-204 were determined by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-204 overexpression or knockdown on the expression of BCL-2 were evaluated by luciferase assay and Western blot under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 and siHIF-1α were employed to determine the effect of HIF-1α on the up-regulation of miR-204 and down-regulation of BCL-2 induced by hypoxia. Apoptosis assay showed the presence of apoptosis induced by hypoxia in neuronal cells. Moreover, we found that hypoxia significantly down-regulated the expression of BCL-2, and increased the mRNA level of miR-204 in neuronal cells than that in control. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-204 directly targeted and regulated the expression of BCL-2. Specifically, the expression of BCL-2 was inhibited by miR-204 mimic and enhanced by miR-204 inhibitor. Furthermore, we detected that hypoxia induced cell apoptosis via HIF-1α/miR-204/BCL-2 in neuronal cells. This study demonstrated that HIF-1α-miR-204-BCL-2 pathway contributed to apoptosis of neuronal cells induced by hypoxia, which could potentially be exploited to prevent spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. 7 CFR 3015.204 - Federal Register publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register publications. 3015.204 Section 3015.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL... Register publications. (a) Program regulations. Most grant programs have program-specific regulations...

  16. 33 CFR 135.204 - Submission of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of evidence. 135.204 Section 135.204 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of this...

  18. 20 CFR 726.204 - Statutory policy provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory policy provisions. 726.204 Section 726.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S...

  19. 12 CFR 204.7 - Supplemental reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental reserve requirement. 204.7 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.7 Supplemental reserve requirement... reserve requirement on every depository institution of not more than 4 percent of its total transaction...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.8 - Use of compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of compressed air. 50-204.8 Section 50-204.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.8 Use of compressed air. Compressed air shall not be used for...

  1. The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by sponging miR-204 and releasing SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhouhua; Xu, Xuwen; Zhou, Ledu; Fu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Shuhui; Zhou, Jiebin; Tan, Deming; Liu, Shuiping

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the significance of long non-coding RNA in cancer development. Several recent studies suggest the oncogenic activity of long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which MALAT1 modulates hepatocellular carcinoma biological behaviors. We found that microRNA-204 was significantly downregulated in sh-MALAT1 HepG2 cell and 15 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Through bioinformatic screening, luciferase reporter assay, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull-down assay, we identified microRNA-204 as a potential interacting partner for MALAT1. Functionally, wound-healing and transwell assays revealed that microRNA-204 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Notably, sirtuin 1 was recognized as a direct downstream target of microRNA-204 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, si-SIRT1 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration process. These data elucidated, by sponging and competitive binding to microRNA-204, MALAT1 releases the suppression on sirtuin 1, which in turn promotes hepatocellular carcinoma migration and invasion. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which MALAT1 stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma progression and justifies targeting metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Graphic and algebraic solutions of the discordant lead-uranium age problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieff, L.R.; Stern, T.W.

    1961-01-01

    only the Pb207 Pb206 ratio of the contaminating common lead. If isotopic data are available for two samples of the same age, x and y, from the same or related deposits or outcrops, graphs of the normalized difference ratios [ ( N206 N204)x - ( N206 N204)y ( N238 N204)x -( N238 N204)y] vs. [ ( N207 N204)x - ( N207 N204)y ( N235 N204)x -( N235 N204)y] can give concordant ages corrected for unknown amounts of a common lead with an unknown Pb207/ Pb206 ratio. (If thorium is absent the difference ratios may be normalized with the more abundant index isotope, Pb208.) Similar plots of tho normalized, difference ratios for three genetically related samples (x - y) and(x - z), will give concordant ages corrected, in addition, for either one unknown period of past alteration or initial contamination by an older generation of radiogenic lead of unknown Pb207/Pb206 ratio. Practical numerical solutions for many of tho concordant age calculations are not currently available. However, the algebraic equivalents of these new graphical methods give equations which may be programmed for computing machines. For geologically probable parameters the equations of higher order have two positive real roots that rapidly converge on the exact concordant ages corrected for original radiogenic lead and for loss or gain of lead or uranium. Modifications of these general age equations expanded only to the second degree have been derived for use with desk calculators. These graphical and algebraic methods clearly suggest both the type and minimum number of samples necessary for adequate mathematical analysis of discordant lead isotope age data. This mathematical treatment also makes it clear t

  3. 29 CFR 778.204 - “Clock pattern” premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âClock patternâ premium pay. 778.204 Section 778.204 Labor... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... pursuance of an applicable employment contract or collective bargaining agreement,” and the rates of pay and...

  4. 23 CFR 973.204 - Management systems requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system; (2) A process to operate and maintain the management systems and their associated databases; (3... may include consultation with the tribes, as appropriate. (k) The management systems shall be operated... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management systems requirements. 973.204 Section 973.204...

  5. 12 CFR 204.9 - Emergency reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency reserve requirement. 204.9 Section... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.9 Emergency reserve requirement. (a..., additional reserve requirements on depository institutions at any ratio on any liability upon a finding by at...

  6. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 25.204 Section 25.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (a) Offerors proposing to use foreign...

  7. 48 CFR 1325.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 1325.204 Section 1325.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 1325.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. The designee authorized to specify a...

  8. Oblate shapes of 200,202,204Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockisch, A.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Kleinfeld, A.M.; Lieb, K.P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the reorientation effect for the first excited 2 + states in 200 , 202 , 204 Hg were performed by exploiting the dependence of the γ-ray yield on Q 2 + for different projectiles. For 200 Hg, a positive quadrupole moment of Q 2 = 0.96 +- 0.11 eb (for negative interference) or Q 2 = 1.11 +- 0.11 eb (for positive interference) was determined indicating an oblate shape. Small positive Q 2 values were also found for 202 Hg and 204 Hg. Nine B(E2) values for excitation of the 2 + , 2 + ' and 4 + states in 196-204 Hg were measured. (orig.) [de

  9. 48 CFR 952.204-77 - Computer security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computer security. 952.204... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-77 Computer security. As prescribed in 904.404(d)(7), the following clause shall be included: Computer Security (AUG 2006) (a...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.204 - Ground moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground moisture control. 3285.204 Section 3285.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... moisture control. (a) Vapor retarder. If the space under the home is to be enclosed with skirting or other...

  11. 48 CFR 952.204-75 - Public affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public affairs. 952.204-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.204-75 Public affairs. As prescribed in 904.7201, insert the following clause: Public Affairs (DEC 2000) (a) The Contractor must...

  12. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 625.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (b) The head of the contracting activity is the agency...

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.69 - Nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nitrous oxide. 50-204.69..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.69 Nitrous oxide. The piped systems for the in-plant transfer and distribution of nitrous oxide shall be designed, installed, maintained, and operated in accordance...

  14. 37 CFR 204.5 - Procedures for requesting access to records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for requesting access to records. 204.5 Section 204.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.5 Procedures for...

  15. 39 CFR 20.4 - Amendments to the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments to the International Mail Manual. 20.4 Section 20.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.4 Amendments to the International Mail Manual. New issues of the International Mail Manual will be...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.6 - Medical services and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid. 50-204.6 Section 50-204.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.6 Medical services and first aid. (a) The... trained to render first aid. First aid supplies approved by the consulting physician shall be readily...

  17. 44 CFR 204.53 - Certifying costs and payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....21 and U. S. Treasury 31 CFR part 205, Cash Management Improvement Act. ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certifying costs and payments. 204.53 Section 204.53 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  18. Lead isotopic characterization of respirable urban aerosols and related sources, Santiago-Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M; Kawashita, K; Antinao, J.L

    2001-01-01

    Santiago de Chile is located in a poorly ventilated valley at 33 o 30' latitude south at an altitude of 550m. Local climate is semi-arid with mean annual rainfall below 350mm. The atmospheric particles constitute one of the main factors of urban air pollution in the city. Morphological characterization of airborne particles of Santiago done by Scanning Electron Microscopy showed the presence of three groups of particles: crystalline. spherical and agglomerate particles. The crystalline shapes originated in geologic sources have perfectly defined crystallographic parameters. The agglomerated shapes are formed by organic material and submicrometrical mineral particles derived from combustion of fossil fuel and the spherical shapes are products of metallurgical activities. Some of them could been associated with the wear of motorcars. Samples of aerosols. sediments and leaded petrol of different distributors were collected. Aerosols were sampled in two sites of Santiago: the Movil monitoring station, at east of the city, and Parque O'Higgins monitoring station in downtown. These two monitoring stations belong to the MACAM network. Sediments of Mapocho, Maipo, San Francisco and Zanjon de la Aguada rivers and two samples from Disputada and Merceditas ores were studied. All the samples have been measured for their 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios. The experimental chemical procedures of sample dissolution and Pb separation by anion exchange chromatography were developed in the Sernageomin clean laboratory of Santiago de Chile. The isotopic measurements were made using a VG-Sector isotope ratio mass spectrometer fitted with a thermal ion source, multi Faraday collector and Daly collector of the Isotopic Geology Laboratory in the Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The measurements were corrected using NBS 981 and 982 standards. Isotopic results plotted in a 208 Pb/ 204 Pb versus 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram and in a 207 Pb/ 204 Pb versus

  19. Neutron production from 158 GeV/c per nucleon lead ions on thin copper and lead targets in the angular range 30-135 deg

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Foglio-Para, A; Gini, L; Mitaroff, W A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from 5, 10 and 20 mm thick lead and 10 and 20 mm thick copper targets bombarded by a lead ion beam with momentum of 158 GeV/c per nucleon were measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured with an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer in the angular range 30-135 deg. with respect to beam direction. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to establish a guess spectrum for the unfolding of the experimental data. The results have shown that, lacking Monte Carlo radiation transport codes dealing with ions with masses larger than 1 amu, a reasonable prediction can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.85-0.95 for a lead target and 0.88-1.03 for a copper target.

  20. MicroRNA-target gene responses to lead-induced stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuling; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant responses to various metal stresses. To investigate the miRNA-mediated plant response to heavy metals, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most important fiber crop in the world, was exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µM) of lead (Pb) and then the toxicological effects were investigated. The expression patterns of 16 stress-responsive miRNAs and 10 target genes were monitored in cotton leaves and roots by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); of these selected genes, several miRNAs and their target genes are involved in root development. The results show a reciprocal regulation of cotton response to lead stress by miRNAs. The characterization of the miRNAs and the associated target genes in response to lead exposure would help in defining the potential roles of miRNAs in plant adaptation to heavy metal stress and further understanding miRNA regulation in response to abiotic stress.

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.204 - Special award conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special award conditions. 105-72.204 Section 105-72.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... award conditions. If an applicant or recipient: (a) Has a history of poor performance, (b) Is not...

  2. 7 CFR 62.204 - Authority to request service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to request service. 62.204 Section 62.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... prove his/her financial interest in the product or service at the discretion of the Deputy Administrator. ...

  3. 48 CFR 243.204-70-2 - Price ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price ceiling. 243.204-70..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204-70-2 Price ceiling. Unpriced change orders shall include a not-to-exceed price. [75 FR 48277, Aug. 10, 2010] ...

  4. Radiometric trace analysis of lead with diethyldithiocarbamate and 204T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1962-01-01

    Two methods for the determination of submugram amounts of lead are described. (A) Lead is selectively extracted with carbon tetrachloride from an alkaline solution containing exccss diethyl-dithiocarbamatc (DDC) and cyanide. Traces of DDC arc back-extracted. The lead in the DDC complex is exchanged

  5. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  6. 40 CFR 204.5-2 - National security exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National security exemptions. 204.5-2... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 204.5-2 National security... for a national security exemption is required. (c) For purposes of section 11(d) of the Act, any...

  7. 7 CFR 1726.204 - Multiparty unit price quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiparty unit price quotations. 1726.204 Section....204 Multiparty unit price quotations. The borrower or its engineer must contact a sufficient number of... basis of written unit price quotations, the borrower will select the supplier or contractor based on the...

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.204-50 - Records of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 109-38.204-50 Section 109-38.204-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-50 Records of exempted motor vehicles. The Director, Office of...

  9. 15 CFR 20.4 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 20.4 Section 20.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS..., be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  10. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  11. 13 CFR 126.204 - May a qualified HUBZone SBC have affiliates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affiliates? 126.204 Section 126.204 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Requirements to be a Qualified HUBZone SBC § 126.204 May a qualified HUBZone SBC have affiliates? A concern may have affiliates provided that the aggregate size of the concern and all of its...

  12. 46 CFR 180.204 - Survival craft-vessels operating on coastwise routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on coastwise routes. 180.204 Section 180.204 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL... Craft § 180.204 Survival craft—vessels operating on coastwise routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph...

  13. 37 CFR 204.7 - Request for correction or amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for correction or amendment of records. 204.7 Section 204.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.7 Request for...

  14. Lead isotope ratios in Japanese galena ores and archaeological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Kazuo; Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Hinata, Makoto; Yuasa, Mitsuaki.

    1978-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in Japanese galena ores and archaeological bronze objects were determined by a Hitachi RMU-6 mass spectrometer using a rhenium single filament as a surface ionization device. Basic experimental conditions including detection limit, fractionation effect, memory effect, etc. were examined, and the accuracy of determination was checked using the CIT shelf standard No. 1. Archaeological bronze objects were dissolved in nitric acid and lead was extracted by the dithizone method using specially purified reagents in a so-called clean laboratory. When 0.5 μg lead was loaded on the rhenium filament with phosphoric acid and silica gel as stabilizers, an ion current of 10 -13 -- 10 -15 A due to Pb + was obtained and maintained stable for several hours. Coefficients of variation found for the isotope ratios 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb were 0.1 -- 0.5%. Lead isotope ratios are given for 17 Japanese galena ores and for archaeological bronze objects such as bronze bells, halberds (Yayoi period), Horyuji pagoda spire (7th century), and Northern Sung coins (11th century). A close resemblance of the isotope ratios was found between Japanese galena ores and some Japanese bronze objects of the 7th century, suggesting the use of the former as raw materials of the latter. (auth.)

  15. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 27.204 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by security issue. (a) Release Chemicals—(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest...

  16. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these standards...

  17. 12 CFR 204.10 - Payment of interest on balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 204.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.10 Payment of interest on balances. (a) Payment of interest. The Federal Reserve Banks shall pay interest on balances maintained at...

  18. The 17D-204 and 17DD yellow fever vaccines: an overview of major similarities and subtle differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Clarissa de Castro; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Peruhype-Magalhāes, Vanessa; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Albuquerque, Cleandro Pires de; Muniz, Luciana Feitosa; Yokoy de Souza, Talita; Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; da Mota, Licia Maria Henrique

    2018-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated virus vaccine that is considered one of the most efficient vaccines produced to date. The original 17D strain generated the substrains 17D-204 and 17DD, which are used for the current production of vaccines against yellow fever. The 17D-204 and 17DD substrains present subtle differences in their nucleotide compositions, which can potentially lead to variations in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. We will address the main changes in the immune responses induced by the 17D-204 and 17DD yellow fever vaccines and report similarities and differences between these vaccines in cellular and humoral immunity . This is a relevant issue in view of the re-emergence of yellow fever in Uganda in 2016 and in Brazil in the beginning of 2017. Areas covered: This article will be divided into 8 sections that will analyze the innate immune response, adaptive immune response, humoral response, production of cytokines, immunity in children, immunity in the elderly, gene expression and adverse reactions. Expert commentary: The 17D-204 and 17DD yellow fever vaccines present similar immunogenicity, with strong activation of the cellular and humoral immune responses. Additionally, both vaccines have similar adverse effects, which are mostly mild and thus are considered safe.

  19. 48 CFR 2928.204 - Alternatives in lieu of corporate or individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporate or individual sureties. 2928.204 Section 2928.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Bonds 2928.204 Alternatives in lieu of corporate or individual sureties. Upon receipt of any of the... of the security and coordinate the retention of the security with the Chief Financial Officer...

  20. Growth of Enterococcus durans E204 producing bacteriocin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriocin-like substance E204 is an antimicrobial compound produced by Enterococcus durans E204 isolated from camel milk of Morocco that shows a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against taxonomically related microorganisms. It is sensitive to digestive proteases. In the first study, de Man, Regosa and Sharpe ...

  1. 48 CFR 204.7206 - Using CAGE codes to identify agents and brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identify agents and brokers. 204.7206 Section 204.7206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... 204.7206 Using CAGE codes to identify agents and brokers. Authorized agents and brokers are entities... code will be assigned to the agent/broker establishment in addition to any codes assigned to the...

  2. 48 CFR 252.204-7001 - Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Entity (CAGE) code reporting. 252.204-7001 Section 252.204-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Entity (CAGE) Code Reporting (AUG 1999) (a) The offeror is requested to enter its CAGE code on its offer... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.204-7001 Commercial and Government Entity...

  3. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom and...

  4. Contribution of lead in wine to the total dietary intake of lead in humans with and without a meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Gray, B.; Mizon, K.J.; Patison, N.

    2000-01-01

    We have undertaken a case-control study using high precision lead isotopes to evaluate the contribution to blood lead when a normal quantity of wine is consumed with a meal and compared this with consumption under fasting conditions. White wine dosed with a 207 Pb tracer was consumed with a meal by a male subject and blood, urine and faeces monitored for up to four months. In addition to the spiked wine, the male subject and a female control subject residing in the same household consumed approximately equal proportions of unspiked red and white wine from the same vintage and vineyard over the four months. On a succeeding occasion, the male subject consumed 207 Pb-spiked wine under fasting conditions. As the 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio in blood and urine prior to the experiment was 15.48 compared with a value of 355 in the doped wine, changes in the 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio would be easily discernible. Over the four months of the trial, the results confirmed that there is a minimal uptake of lead from vine when consumed with food

  5. 48 CFR 52.204-5 - Women-Owned Business (Other Than Small Business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Women-Owned Business (Other Than Small Business). 52.204-5 Section 52.204-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.204-5 Women-Owned Business (Other Than Small Business). As prescribed in 4.607(b...

  6. 28 CFR 301.204 - Continuation of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of lost-time wages. 301.204... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.204 Continuation of lost-time wages. (a) Once approved, the inmate shall receive lost-time wages until the inmate: (1) Is released; (2) Is transferred to another...

  7. 31 CFR 0.204 - Use of controlled substances and intoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of controlled substances and intoxicants. 0.204 Section 0.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury... intoxicant in a manner that adversely affects their work performance. ...

  8. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD) blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212) μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159) μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713).

  9. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 30 CFR 210.204 - How do I submit facility data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 210.204 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production and Royalty Reports-Solid Minerals § 210.204 How do I submit facility... stockpile inventory. (3) You must include in your facility data all production processed in the facility...

  11. 44 CFR 204.25 - FEMA-State agreement for fire management assistance grant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANT PROGRAM Declaration Process § 204.25 FEMA-State agreement for fire management assistance grant... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FEMA-State agreement for fire management assistance grant program. 204.25 Section 204.25 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL...

  12. MEGAPIE analytical support task : characterization of lead-bismuth eutectic and sodium-cooled tungsten target materials for accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Lead-Bismuth Eutectic and Tungsten are under consideration as target materials with high-energy protons for generating neutrons to drive actinide and fission product transmuters. A detailed characterization has been performed to study the performance of these target materials as a function of the main variables and the design selections. The characterization includes the neutron yield, the spatial energy deposition, the neutron spectrum, the beam window performance, and the target buffer impact on the target performance. The characterization has also considered high-energy deuteron particles to study the impact on the target neutronic performance. The obtained results quantify the performance of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic and Tungsten target materials as a function of the target variables and design selections

  13. A role for fragment-based drug design in developing novel lead compounds for central nervous system targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wasko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacologic screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening, which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of virtual screening is fragment-based drug design, an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for growing the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual fragment-based drug design within central nervous system (CNS targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  14. A Role for Fragment-Based Drug Design in Developing Novel Lead Compounds for Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Michael J; Pellegrene, Kendy A; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacological screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening (VS), which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of VS is fragment-based drug design (FBDD), an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low-molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for "growing" the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual FBDD within central nervous system (CNS) targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor-binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process not only places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  15. 42 CFR 3.204 - Privilege of patient safety work product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privilege of patient safety work product. 3.204... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.204 Privilege of patient safety work product. (a) Privilege...

  16. 41 CFR 109-50.204 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL AUTHORITIES 50.2-Math and Science Equipment Gift Program § 109-50.204 Limitations. (a) Excess and... (or unlimited) level of authority. (d) Gifts shall be serviceable and in working order. Disposal...

  17. 48 CFR 204.7205 - Novation agreements, mergers and sales of assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Novation agreements, mergers and sales of assets. 204.7205 Section 204.7205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Identification...

  18. Neutron production in lead targets by high-energy light-mass heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniehl', A.V.; Lyapin, V.S.; Tsvetkov, I.O.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of the time-of-flight spectrometer and the double different distributions of neutrons and secondary charged particles produced by 2 GeV protons and 1 GeVXA d,α, 6 Li and 12 C ions bombarding lead targets are described. Experimental data are compared with the results of calculations by codes SITHA. 17 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Elemental Technologies for Lead-Bismuth Spallation Target System in J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Saito, S.; Sugawara, T.; Takei, H.; Sasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been researching and developing an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) as a dedicated system for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA uses the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a spallation target material and a coolant. In the various R and D for ADS, construction of the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned under the framework of the J-PARC project as a preceding step before the construction of demonstrative ADS. In this R and D, TEF is considered for the experimental investigation of the feasibility of the beam window, the structural materials, and to investigate the operation properties of the target system by using 400 MeV-250 kW proton beam. This target system is consisted of various elements and must be able to operate without troubles during an operation period of TEF facility. Furthermore, in the maintenance period after the operation, because the inside of a hot cell storing a target is exposed to strong radiations, all elements must be designed as remote control devices. In this study, the present conditions of the design and the result of performance test of each important elements were confirmed in the realisation of the LBE target system, such as the monitoring system of flow rate by using the ultrasonic method, the heater system with the metallic heat insulator joined to a flow channel of LBE, and the operability of remote handing. (authors)

  20. Successful treatment of extreme acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, J; Banovcin, P; Jesenak, M; Hamzikova, J; Statelova, D

    2009-03-01

    Severe acute lead intoxications are rare and are associated with accidental or purposeful ingestion. There were only few cases of severe to fatal poisonings reported in literature in children. We report a case of acute lead intoxication in a child with extremely high lead blood level of 20.4 micromol/L (422.7 microg/dL), who was treated with chelation and in whom significant organ dysfunction did not develop. Documented significant high level above 3.37 micromol/L (corresponding to 70 microg/dL) in this patient persisted for approximately 24 h. Adequate, single or combined chelatation therapy in early phase of acute lead poisoning is essential for the further patient's outcome.

  1. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D... the institution establishing the IBF would continue to be subject to Eurocurrency reserve requirements...

  2. Scheduling rules to achieve lead-time targets in outpatient appointment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Appa Iyer; Nguyen, Thu Ba Thi; Graves, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers how to schedule appointments for outpatients, for a clinic that is subject to appointment lead-time targets for both new and returning patients. We develop heuristic rules, which are the exact and relaxed appointment scheduling rules, to schedule each new patient appointment (only) in light of uncertainty about future arrivals. The scheduling rules entail two decisions. First, the rules need to determine whether or not a patient's request can be accepted; then, if the req...

  3. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H.; Pallister, J.S.

    1981-04-10

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb have been determined for samples from various lithologic units and massive sulfides of the Samail ophiolite. The observed /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios range from 17.90 to 19.06, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios from 15.43 to 15.63, and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb from 37.66 to 38.78. In Pb isotopic evolution diagrams, the initial Pb isotopic compositions of most of the samples from the Samail ophiolite plot within the field of oceanic basalt, clearly distinct from island arc data, and define some of the least radiogenic Pb observed from oceanic rocks. Lead data from the Samail are compatible with a model involving magma generation from an oceanic mantle source and formation of the ophiolite at an oceanic spreading center. U--Th--Pb isotopic systematics demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can be created through differential concentration of U, Th, and Pb during crystal fractionation and alteration at, or near, the spreading ridge. Calcite form amygdules in the ophiolite basalt has similar Pb isotopic composition to the igneous rocks, suggesting precipitation of the calcite from seawater which contained Pb derived mostly from the oceanic crust. Lead isotopic data on Fe--Cu sulfides are also similar to the results from the igneous suite suggesting that the source of the sulfides is predominently from the oceanic crust. Lead data from serpentinized peridotite and a galena sample from below the ophiolite suggest that part of the serpentinization process and the formation of galena could involve addition of radiogenic Pb from either a continental source or from oceanic sediments.

  4. Proton-beam window design for a transmutation facility operating with a liquid lead target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, C.; Lypsch, F.; Lizana, P. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The proton beam target of an accelerator-driven transmutation facility can be designed as a vertical liquid lead column. To prevent lead vapor from entering the accelerator vacuum, a proton-beam window has to separate the area above the lead surface from the accelerator tube. Two radiation-cooled design alternatives have been investigated which should withstand a proton beam of 1.6 GeV and 25 mA. Temperature calculations based on energy deposition calculations with the Monte Carlo code HETC, stability analysis and spallation-induced damage calculations have been performed showing the applicability of both designs.

  5. Study of intense pulse irradiation effects on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, O.

    1994-12-01

    This study aim was centered on morphological and structural alterations induced by laser irradiation on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors. First we recalled the main high light intensity effects on the condensed matter. Then we presented the experimental aspects. The experimental studies were achieved on two sample types: SiO 2 /Si and Si. Two topics were studied: the defect chronology according to wavelength and pulse length, and the crystalline quality as well as the structure defects of irradiated zones by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, irradiation of Si targets by intense pulsed beams may lead to material fusion. This phenomenon is particularly easy when the material is absorbent, when the pulse is short and when the material is superficially oxidized. (MML). 204 refs., 93 figs., 21 tabs., 1 appendix

  6. Neutron yield from thick lead target by the action of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Sorokin, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of studying the complete neutron yield from a lead target bombarded by high-energy electrons. Neutrons were recorded by the method of radio-active indicators. The dependence of the neutron yield on the target thickness varying from 0.2 to 8 cm was obtained at the energies of electrons of 230 and 1200 MeV. The neutron yield for the given energies with the target of 6 cm in thickness is in the range of saturation and is 0.1 +-0.03 and 0.65+-0.22 (neutr./MeV.el.), respectively. The neutron angular distributions were measured for different thicknesses of targets at the 201, 230 and 1200 MeV electrons. Within the error limits the angular distributions are isotropic. The dependence of neutron yield on the electron energy was examined for a 3 cm thick target. In the energy range of 100-1200 MeV these values are related by a linear dependence with the proportionality coefficient C=3x10 -4 (neutr./MeV.el.)

  7. 37 CFR 204.8 - Appeal of refusal to correct or amend an individual's record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal of refusal to correct or amend an individual's record. 204.8 Section 204.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 204.8...

  8. 17 CFR 204.55 - Change in notification to Financial Management Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in notification to Financial Management Service. 204.55 Section 204.55 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Financial Management Service. After the Commission sends FMS notification of an individual's liability for a...

  9. Lead isotopic composition of paleozoic and late proterozoic marine carbonate rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountains, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, R.E.; Kwak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Paleozoic and Late Proterozoic marine carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites, and their metamorphic equivalents) cropping out in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain contain lead with an isotopic composition strongly suggesting them to be a major source of the lead observed at Trench 14 in the carbonate phase of carbonate-silica veins and nearby surficial calcrete deposits. Six whole-rock samples of marine carbonate rocks yield 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 19.21-29.06, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.74-16.01, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 37.90-39.25, and leachate and residue fractions of the rocks reveal additional isotopic heterogeneity within individual samples. Two samples of eolian dust also have isotopic compositions lying along a 'carbonate' to 'silicate' mixing trend that appears to arise entirely from pedeogenic processes. The tendency for the marine carbonate rocks to evolve highly uranogenic, but not thorogenic, lead results in a distinctive isotopic composition that serves as a tracer in eolian dust and secondary carbonate minerals derived from the marine carbonate rocks

  10. 18 CFR 376.204 - Delegation of Commission's authority during emergency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegation of Commission's authority during emergency conditions. 376.204 Section 376.204 Conservation of Power and Water... Director; (ii) Director of the Office of Energy Market Regulation; (iii) Director of the Office of Energy...

  11. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)), Contract...

  12. 38 CFR 1.204 - Information to be reported to the Office of Inspector General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information to be reported to the Office of Inspector General. 1.204 Section 1.204 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Referrals of Information Regarding Criminal Violations § 1.204 Information to be reported to the...

  13. 30 CFR 250.204 - How must I protect the rights of the Federal government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must I protect the rights of the Federal government? 250.204 Section 250.204 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Information § 250.204 How must I protect the rights of the Federal government? (a) To protect the rights of...

  14. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tall, Y.

    2008-03-01

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 745.226 - Certification of individuals and firms engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of experience in a related field (e.g., lead, asbestos, environmental remediation work, or... at least 3 years of experience in a related field (e.g., lead, asbestos, environmental remediation... engaged in lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.226 Section 745...

  16. 17 CFR 275.204A-1 - Investment adviser codes of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ethics. 275.204A-1 Section 275.204A-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... codes of ethics. (a) Adoption of code of ethics. If you are an investment adviser registered or required... enforce a written code of ethics that, at a minimum, includes: (1) A standard (or standards) of business...

  17. 7 CFR 761.204 - Methods of allocating funds to State Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of allocating funds to State Offices. 761.204... Funds to State Offices § 761.204 Methods of allocating funds to State Offices. FO and OL loan funds are... allocation, if the Agency cannot adequately meet program objectives with a formula allocation. The National...

  18. 48 CFR 3052.204-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unclassified information technology resources. 3052.204-70 Section 3052.204-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... for unclassified information technology resources. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3004.470-3, insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology...

  19. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  20. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  1. 42 CFR 415.204 - Services of residents in skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Services of Residents § 415.204 Services of residents in skilled nursing facilities and home health... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services of residents in skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies. 415.204 Section 415.204 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  2. 20 CFR 633.204 - Responsibility review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Grant Planning and Application Procedures § 633.204 Responsibility review. (a...) Established fraud or criminal activity within the organization. (4) Wilfull obstruction of the audit process... hand. (11) Failure to procure or arrange for audit coverage for any two year period when required by...

  3. Tank 241-B-204 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-204 (B-204)

  4. 5 CFR 2640.204 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....204: The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), in a regulation that supplements part 2635...) for interests arising from the ownership of no more than $15,000 worth of publicly traded stock will...

  5. Delayed appearance of tracer lead in facial hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Wetherill, G.; Kopple, J.

    1976-01-01

    Three adult men were fed 204 Pb--a rare, stable isotope of lead--daily for about 100 days. Simultaneous blood and facial hair measurements of this tracer and of total lead concentrations were made by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. Although the blood showed an immediate response to the intake of the tracer, the facial hair showed a more gradual response and a delay of approximately 35 days. Since the pattern of appearance of lead in hair does not appear to represent a simple time delay of blood lead concentration, the existence of a physiological pool of lead fed by the blood and giving rise to the content in hair is suggested. Hair lead values should therefore, be interpreted as the integral of the blood lead values over the mean life of this intermediate pool--about 100 days

  6. Tank 241-T-204, core 188 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-07-24

    TANK 241-T-204, CORE 188, ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR THE FINAL REPORT. This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241 -T-204. Push mode core segments were removed from Riser 3 between March 27, 1997, and April 11, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-8 Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-204 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TRAP) (Winkleman, 1997), Letter of instruction for Core Sample Analysis of Tanks 241-T-201, 241- T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204 (LAY) (Bell, 1997), and Safety Screening Data Qual@ Objective (DO) ODukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group and are not considered in this report.

  7. 48 CFR 28.204-2 - Certified or cashiers checks, bank drafts, money orders, or currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... checks, bank drafts, money orders, or currency. 28.204-2 Section 28.204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Other Security for Bonds 28.204-2 Certified or cashiers checks, bank drafts, money orders, or currency... draft, Post Office money order, or currency, in an amount equal to the penal sum of the bond, instead of...

  8. Studies on neutron production in the interaction of 7.4 GeV protons with extended lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Ochs, M; Wan, J S; Schmidt, T; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Adam, J; Bamblevskij, V P; Bradnova, V; Gelovani, L K; Kalinnikov, V K; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Phlippen, P W; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Zamani-Valassiadou, M; Dwivedi, K K; Wilson, B

    1999-01-01

    A cylindrical lead target of diameter 8 cm and length 20 cm was irradiated with 7.4 GeV protons along the axis of the cylinder. The lead target was surrounded with a paraffin layer of thickness 6 cm to moderate the neutrons produced in p + Pb reactions. The spatial distribution of the slow and fast neutrons on different surfaces of the moderator were determined using LR 115 2B detectors (through sup 1 sup 0 B(n,alpha) sup 7 Li reactions) and CR39 detectors (through proton recoils) respectively. Such results can be valuable in the studies and design of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Waste Incinerators.

  9. Lead isotopes as seepage indicators around a uranium tailings dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Mizon, K.J.; Korsch, M.J.; Noller, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations have been measured in water from 26 bores around the Ranger uranium tailings dam, Northern Territory, Australia, and from the dam itself to determine possible migration of lead derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Lead isotope compositions have also been measured for the particulates retained on selected filters. The concentration of lead in the bore waters is extremely low (usually 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio measured in the bore waters differs by more than a factor of 100 from that in the tailings dam and shows no evidence of lead derived from a significant uranium accumulation. It may be possible to distinguish between lead from the tailings dam and that derived from a nearby uranium ore body

  10. Fission threshold determination of 209Bi and sup(204,206,207,208)Pb by electrofission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerck, D.

    1975-01-01

    At the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator the cross sections for the electrofission of 209 Bi were measured for electron energies between 24 and 70 MeV, for the separated lead isotopes sup(204,206,207,208)Pb between 38 and 50 MeV. For the determination of the fission thresholds the cross sections were examined by the virtuel photon method using calculations in first Born approximation for the point nucleus with Coulomb wave functions. The analytic functions fitting the fission probability were based on level densities after the Fermi-gas-model. (orig./WL) [de

  11. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (a) Required denial of admission—(1) Persons evicted for drug-related criminal activity. The PHA...

  12. On the use of lead/tin alloys as target material for the production of spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.; Baumann, P.; Brys, T.; Daum, M.; Egorov, A.; Fierlinger, P.; Fuchs, P.; Henneck, R.; Joray, St.; Keil, R.; Kirch, K.; Krutova, R.; Kuehne, G.; Lebedev, V.T.; Obermeier, H.; Orlova, D.N.; Perret, Ch.; Pichlmaier, A.; Richard, Ph.; Serebrov, A.; Thies, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the suitability of lead (Pb)/tin (Sn) alloys with atomic ratios between 4:1 and 12:1 for use as a spallation target material for the PSI spallation ultracold neutron source. The measured corrosion rate with distilled water, R c -5 cm/year, is more than a factor of 80, less than for normal Pb; this corrosion rate is satisfactory. Microscopic investigations of the surface after the exposure to water revealed no visual changes. Small angle neutron scattering showed that the alloy is mechanically stable under thermal cycling. An experimental simulation of a water-cooled spallation neutron target made of Pb/Sn pebbles with a filling factor of 60% was investigated; the pulsed proton beam was simulated using hot and cold water in the target 'cooling' circuit. With realistic operational parameters for the cooling circuit, serious deformation of the PbSn pebbles occurred which finally blocked the cooling circuit. The Pb/Sn alloys solve the corrosion problem but its mechanical properties are inadequate leading to too short a lifetime to be practical in the PSI spallation source

  13. Sulfur and lead isotope geochemistry of the orogenic gold deposits in the eastern Kunlun area, Qinghai province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chengyou; Zhang Dequan; Li Daxin; She Hongquan; Zhu Huaping

    2003-01-01

    Based on researches on the basic geological characteristics and sulfur and lead isotopic geochemistry of four typical gold deposits, it is considered that they have many similar geo-geochemical characteristics and are all related genetically to orogenic process. Therefore, they should belong to a type of orogenic gold deposits according to the newest classification of gold deposits provided by Kerrich et al. (2000). There is a big change in the average 34 S values of the sulfides selected from different deposits, varying from -3.7‰-4.4‰ and tower-shape distribution is apparent. The lead isotope in four gold deposits is characterized by high compositions and minor changes, with 206 Pb/ 204 Pb > 18.3380, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb > 15.5555, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb >38.1796 in ores and wall-rocks, it can be concluded that the ore-forming material consisting of sulfur and lead are mainly derived from wall-rocks. Intensive subduction and collision during late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic not only formed deep faults, large-scale shear belt, and low-order folds and faults but also induced fluidization and mineralization, and resulted in formation and zonal distribution of several large or medium gold deposits in this area. (authors)

  14. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related fatigue (CRF is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal, the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft, xenograft and 5-FU treated (control, xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg (BST204, and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg treated group (modafinil. Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CRE, white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEUT, red blood cell (RBC, and hemoglobin (HGB were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  15. Naturally Inspired Peptide Leads: Alanine Scanning Reveals an Actin-Targeting Thiazole Analogue of Bisebromoamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Heather J; Boys, Sarah K; Makda, Ashraff; Carragher, Neil O; Hulme, Alison N

    2016-09-02

    Systematic alanine scanning of the linear peptide bisebromoamide (BBA), isolated from a marine cyanobacterium, was enabled by solid-phase peptide synthesis of thiazole analogues. The analogues have comparable cytotoxicity (nanomolar) to that of BBA, and cellular morphology assays indicated that they target the actin cytoskeleton. Pathway inhibition in human colon tumour (HCT116) cells was explored by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis, which showed a dose-dependent response in IRS-1 expression. Alanine scanning reveals a structural dependence to the cytotoxicity, actin targeting and pathway inhibition, and allows a new readily synthesised lead to be proposed. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. 44 CFR 204.23 - Processing a request for a fire management assistance declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... management assistance declaration. The Principal Advisor may consult with State agencies, usually emergency... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing a request for a fire management assistance declaration. 204.23 Section 204.23 Emergency Management and Assistance...

  17. 7 CFR 160.204 - Fees for extra cost and hourly rate service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for extra cost and hourly rate service. 160.204... STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Specific Fees Payable for Services Rendered § 160.204 Fees for extra cost and hourly rate service. The fees specified in §§ 160.201 and 160.202 apply to the...

  18. 48 CFR 27.204-1 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 27.204-1 Section 27.204-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Patents and Copyrights 27.204-1 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement... the patent holder is from a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  19. The magnetic field of cloud 3 in L204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, Lauren R.; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: lcashman@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The L204 dark cloud complex is a nearby filamentary structure in Ophiuchus North that has no signs of active star formation. Past studies show that L204 is interacting with the nearby runaway O star, ζ Oph, and hosts a magnetic field that is coherent across parsec-length scales. Near-infrared H-band (1.6 μm) linear polarization measurements were obtained for 3896 background stars across a 1° × 1.°5 region centered on the dense Cloud 3 in L204, using the Mimir near-infrared instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins Telescope. Analysis of these observations reveals both large-scale properties and small-scale changes in the magnetic field direction in Cloud 3. In the northern and western ζ Oph facing regions of the cloud, the magnetic field appears to be pushed up against the face of the cloud. This may indicate that the UV flux from ζ Oph has compressed the magnetic field on the western edge of L204. The plane-of-sky magnetic field strength is estimated to be ∼11-26 μG using the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The polarimetry data also reveal that the polarization efficiency (PE ≡ P {sub H}/A {sub V}) steadily decreases with distance from ζ Oph (–0.09% ± 0.03% mag{sup –1} pc{sup –1}). Additionally, power-law fits of PE versus A {sub V} for localized samples of probe stars show steeper negative indices with distance from ζ Oph. Both findings highlight the importance of external illumination, here from ζ Oph, in aligning dust grains to embedded magnetic fields.

  20. 8 CFR 204.1 - General information about immediate relative and family-sponsored petitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relative and family-sponsored petitions. 204.1 Section 204.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... about immediate relative and family-sponsored petitions. (a) Types of petitions. Petitions may be filed..., Application to Determine Suitability as Adoptive Parents for a Convention adoptee; and (ii) After USCIS...

  1. 40 CFR 204.55-3 - Configuration identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.55-3... the following parameters: (1) The compressor type (screw, sliding vane, etc.). (2) Number of compressor stages. (3) Maximum pressure (psi). (4) Air intake system of compressor: (i) Number of filters...

  2. 12 CFR 204.8 - International banking facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.8 International banking facilities... reserve requirements. An institution that is subject to the reserve requirements of this part is not... to reserve requirements under this part or result in the revocation of the institution's ability to...

  3. Formation of black and white smokers in the North Fiji Basin: Sulfur and lead isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, K.; Yoo, C.; Ko, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The hydrothermal chimneys were recovered from 16o50¡_S triple junction area in the North Fiji Basin. The chimney samples are divided into three groups according to their mineralogy and metal contents; 1) Black smoker, 2) White smoker, 3) Transitional type. Black smoker chimneys are mainly composed of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and are enriched in high temperature elements such as Cu, Co, Mo, and Se. White smoker chimneys consist of sphalerite and marcasite with trace of pyrite and chalcopyrite, and are enriched in low temperature elements (Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Ga). Transitional chimneys show intermediate characteristics in mineralogy and composition between black and white smokers. Basaltic rocks sampled from the triple junction show wide variation in geochemistry. Trace elements composition of basaltic rocks indicates that the magma genesis in the triple junction area was affected by mixing between N-MORB and E-MORB sources. The sulfur and lead isotope compositions of hydrothermal chimneys show distinct differences between the black and white smokers. Black smokers are depleted in 34S (Øä34S = +0.4 to +4.8) and are low in lead isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.082 to 18.132; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.440 to 15.481; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.764 to 37.916) compared to white smoker and transitional chimneys (Øä34S = +2.4 to +5.6; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.122 to 18.193; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.475 to 15.554; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.882 to 38.150). The heavier sulfur isotopic fractionation in white smoker can be explained by boiling of hydrothermal fluids and mixing with ambient seawater. The lead isotope compositions of the hydrothermal chimneys indicate that the metal in black and white smokers come from hydrothermal reaction with N-MORB and E-MORB, respectively. Regarding both black and white smoker are located in the same site, the condition of phase separation of hydrothermal fluid that formed white smokers might result from P-T condition of high temperature reaction zone below the hydrothermal

  4. Determining lead sources in Mexico using the lead isotope ratio La identificación de fuentes de exposición a plomo en México a través de la determinación de la razón de isótopos de plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Chaudhary-Webb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning can, in some cases, be traced to a specific route or source of exposure on the basis of the individual's blood lead isotope ratio. To assess the major source of lead exposure among women residing in Mexico City, we compared blood, ceramic, and gasoline lead isotope ratios. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population, randomly selected from participants of a large trial, (1/1996-12/1996 comprised of 16 women whose lead levels exceeded 10 µg/dl and who reported using lead-glazed ceramics. Lead isotope ratios were performed on a Perkin Elmer 5000 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS interfaced with a Perkin Elmer HGA-600MS Electrothermal Vaporization System (ETV. RESULTS: The isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb of both the blood specimens and their corresponding ceramic specimens were highly correlated, with r=0.9979, r²=0.9958, r=0.9957, r²=0.9915 and r=0.9945, r²=0.9890 values for the three isotope ratios, respectively, suggesting that the lead exposure most likely resulted from the use of these ceramic. Measurements of lead isotope ratios from leaded gasoline in use at the time of blood sampling, differed from those in blood and ceramics. CONCLUSIONS: Determining lead isotope ratios can be an efficient tool to identify a major source of lead exposure and to support the implementation of public health prevention and control measures.OBJETIVO: Identificar la fuente principal de exposición a plomo entre mujeres residentes en la Ciudad de México, por medio de la comparación de las razones de isótopos de plomo en sangre, cerámica y gasolina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La población de estudio fue seleccionada aleatoriamente de participantes de una muestra obtenida de enero a diciembre de 1996 y consistió en 16 mujeres con niveles de plomo mayores a 10 µg/dl, que usaban cerámica vidriada con plomo. Las razones de isótopos de plomo se obtuvieron con un espectrómetro de masa de

  5. Measurement of the Neutron Component in a Shower Generated in a Lead Target by Relativistic Nuclear Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chultehm, D.; Damdinsurehn, Ts.; D'yachenko, V.M.; Ehnkhzhin, L.; Lomova, L.A.; Perelygin, V.P.; Tolstov, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper describes a method of determining the total number of neutrons generated in an extended lead target by relativistic nuclei and protons. It is shown that 101±20 neutrons per proton are produced in the target with the volume of 50x50x80 cm 3 at 3.65 GeV energy of protons. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  6. Dual-acting of Hybrid Compounds - A New Dawn in the Discovery of Multi-target Drugs: Lead Generation Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Azizeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2017-01-01

    Finding high quality beginning compounds is a critical job at the start of the lead generation stage for multi-target drug discovery (MTDD). Designing hybrid compounds as selective multitarget chemical entity is a challenge, opportunity, and new idea to better act against specific multiple targets. One hybrid molecule is formed by two (or more) pharmacophore group's participation. So, these new compounds often exhibit two or more activities going about as multi-target drugs (mtdrugs) and may have superior safety or efficacy. Application of integrating a range of information and sophisticated new in silico, bioinformatics, structural biology, pharmacogenomics methods may be useful to discover/design, and synthesis of the new hybrid molecules. In this regard, many rational and screening approaches have followed by medicinal chemists for the lead generation in MTDD. Here, we review some popular lead generation approaches that have been used for designing multiple ligands (DMLs). This paper focuses on dual- acting chemical entities that incorporate a part of two drugs or bioactive compounds to compose hybrid molecules. Also, it presents some of key concepts and limitations/strengths of lead generation methods by comparing combination framework method with screening approaches. Besides, a number of examples to represent applications of hybrid molecules in the drug discovery are included. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. 48 CFR 52.204-2 - Security Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreement (DD Form 441), including the National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (DOD 5220.22-M... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Requirements. 52....204-2 Security Requirements. As prescribed in 4.404(a), insert the following clauses: Security...

  8. 42 CFR 50.204 - Informed consent requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.204 Informed consent... available alternative methods of family planning and birth control; (3) Advice that the sterilization... effectively communicated to any individual to be sterilized who is blind, deaf or otherwise handicapped. (d) A...

  9. 20 CFR 703.204 - Decision on insurance carrier's application; minimum amount of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision on insurance carrier's application; minimum amount of deposit. 703.204 Section 703.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... on the Internet at http://www.dol.gov/esa/owcp/dlhwc/lstable.htm for both the current rating year and...

  10. Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Targeting Accuracy and Procedure Duration between 1.5- and 3-Tesla Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems: An Initial 12-Month Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Derek G; Narvid, Jared A; Martin, Alastair J; Qasim, Salman E; Starr, Philip A; Larson, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) allows deep brain stimulator lead placement under general anesthesia. While the accuracy of lead targeting has been described for iMRI systems utilizing 1.5-tesla magnets, a similar assessment of 3-tesla iMRI procedures has not been performed. To compare targeting accuracy, the number of lead targeting attempts, and surgical duration between procedures performed on 1.5- and 3-tesla iMRI systems. Radial targeting error, the number of targeting attempts, and procedure duration were compared between surgeries performed on 1.5- and 3-tesla iMRI systems (SmartFrame and ClearPoint systems). During the first year of operation of each system, 26 consecutive leads were implanted using the 1.5-tesla system, and 23 consecutive leads were implanted using the 3-tesla system. There was no significant difference in radial error (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.26), number of lead placements that required multiple targeting attempts (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.59), or bilateral procedure durations between surgeries performed with the two systems (p = 0.15). Accurate DBS lead targeting can be achieved with iMRI systems utilizing either 1.5- or 3-tesla magnets. The use of a 3-tesla magnet, however, offers improved visualization of the target structures and allows comparable accuracy and efficiency of placement at the selected targets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 Section 204.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a) If there is not a State concerned for your marginal property, only MMS will decide...

  12. 10 CFR 431.204 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs. 431.204 Section 431.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Procedures § 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs...

  13. Determination of stable isotope ratio of lead in airborne particulate matter by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hitoshi; Ambe, Yoshinari

    1990-01-01

    ICP-MS was applied to the measurement of stable isotope ratios of lead, which are used as an indicator of the source of lead in airborne particulate matter. For the measurement of lead isotopes ratios, the influences of machine conditions, lead concentration and matrix elements to the precision and accuracy of the measurements were studied. At a scanning mode, dwell time of 40∼160 μs gave the best precision to the isotope ratio measurements; about 0.3 % of R.S.D. for 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, 0.6 % for 206 Pb/ 204 Pb. Precision of the measurement was better at a high concentration of lead in sample solution. The observed value of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was not affected by the lead concentration, but in the cases of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, about 1 % of the value changed in the observed ratios with the lead concentration of 100∼500 μg/l. Six matrix elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe) did not affect the observed isotope ratios up to 200 mg/l. The lead isotope ratios of reference materials {Urban Particulates (NIST) and Vehicle Exhausted Particulates (NIES)} were measured by using two kinds of sample; crude sample and lead-isolated sample from matrix elements by anodic deposition. Both cases gave the same isotope ratio values, therefore, lead isotope ratios in airborne particulate samples can be measured by ICP-MS without any separation of lead from matrix elements. (author)

  14. 5 CFR 892.204 - How do I waive participation in premium conversion before the benefit first becomes effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion before the benefit first becomes effective? 892.204 Section 892.204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH BENEFITS PREMIUMS Eligibility and Participation § 892.204 How do I...

  15. 40 CFR 141.204 - Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier 3 Public Notice-Form, manner, and frequency of notice. 141.204 Section 141.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...., house renters, apartment dwellers, university students, nursing home patients, prison inmates, etc...

  16. Assessment of the myostatin Q204X allele using an allelic discrimination assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Puentes-Montiel,Herlinda E.; Moreno-Medina,Víctor R.; Rosa-Reyna,Xóchitl F. de la

    2006-01-01

    An allelic discrimination assay was designed and used to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the myostatin (MSTN) gene Q204X allele from two Mexican Full-French herds. The assay is a simple high throughput genotyping method that could be applied to investigate the effect of the Q204X allele on the Charolais breed.

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.75 - Transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation safety. 50... Transportation Safety § 50-204.75 Transportation safety. Any requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation under 49 CFR Parts 171-179 and Parts 390-397 and 14 CFR Part 103 shall be applied to...

  18. 42 CFR 422.204 - Provider selection and credentialing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.204... with respect to providers and suppliers who have signed contracts or participation agreements that— (1... indicators such as those collected through quality improvement programs, utilization management systems...

  19. Combining lead isotopes and cluster analysis to distinguish the Guarani and Serra Geral Aquifer Systems and contaminated waters in a highly industrialized area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Isadora Aumond; Roisenberg, Ari

    2017-10-01

    The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose. Thirty six groundwater samples, 8 surface water samples and 5 liquid effluents of tanneries and landfills samples were measured using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan and a Neptune Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Groundwater isotopic ratios have a wider range compared to the surface water, with less radiogenic averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1837 vs 38.4050 (standard deviation = 0.2921 vs 0.1343) and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.2947 vs 18.4766 (standard deviation = 0.2215 vs 0.1059), respectively. Industrial liquid effluents (tanneries and industrial landfill) have averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1956 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.3169, distinct from effluent samples of domestic sanitary landfill (averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.2353 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.6607). Hierarchical cluster analysis led to distinguish six groups of groundwater, representing the three aquifers that occur in the area, two clusters suggesting groundwater mixtures and one demonstrating a highly contaminated groundwater. By analyzing the cluster results and wells' stratigraphic profiles it was possible to distinguish the different aquifers in the area. The Serra Geral Aquifer System has 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios between 18.4718 and 18.7089; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb between 15.6692 and 15.6777; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb between 38.6826 and 38.7616; 207 Pb/ 206 Pb between 0.8372 and 0

  20. 41 CFR 109-38.204-1 - Unlimited exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlimited exemptions... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION... § 109-38.204-1 Unlimited exemptions. (a)-(f) [Reserved] (g) The Director, Office of Administrative...

  1. 23 CFR 230.204 - Implementation of supportive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS Supportive Services for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.204... training and assistance programs specifically for the benefit of women and minority businesses. Supportive... only to those minority business enterprises determined to be eligible for participation in the Federal...

  2. The Latest from the LHC: hitting the target luminosity for 2010!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a significant increase in the number of bunches in each beam, the 2010 target peak luminosity of 1032 cm-2 s-1 was reached on 14 October 2010, with further progress made in the following days. Soon, the attention of the LHC operators will turn to operation with lead ions throughout November.   In the last two weeks the number of bunches injected in each beam has steadily increased to reach 312, of which 295 collide in points 1 (ATLAS experiment), 5 (CMS experiment) and 8 (LHCb experiment). This has allowed the operators to reach a luminosity of 1.48x1032 cm-2 s-1, comfortably exceeding the target for 2010. With the present number of bunches, there are over 3.5x1013 protons per beam and around 20MJ of stored energy per beam. Since 4 October, when 204 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, some intensity-related effects have started to be observed, notably, a significant rise in the ATLAS background. This is linked to an increase in pressure in the beam vacuum about 60m either s...

  3. 27 CFR 46.204 - Articles in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.204 Articles in transit. The dealer must include articles subject to floor stocks tax that are in transit in the inventory if the dealer holds title to... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles in transit. 46...

  4. 48 CFR 52.204-7 - Central Contractor Registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central Contractor....204-7 Central Contractor Registration. As prescribed in 4.1105, use the following clause: Central Contractor Registration (APR 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Central Contractor Registration...

  5. 48 CFR 1652.204-70 - Contractor records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor records... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.204-70 Contractor records retention. As prescribed in 1604.705 the following clause will be inserted in all FEHB Program contracts. Contractor Records Retention (JUL 2005...

  6. 12 CFR 204.4 - Computation of required reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.4 Computation of required reserves. (a) In determining the reserve requirement under this part, the amount of cash items in process of... reserves are computed by applying the reserve requirement ratios below to net transaction accounts...

  7. Breakup mechanisms for 7Li + 197Au, 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luong D.H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence measurements of breakup fragments were carried out for the 7Li + 197Au and 204Pb systems at sub-barrier energies. The mechanisms triggering breakup, and time-scales of each process, were identified through the reaction Q-values and the relative energy of the breakup fragments. Binary breakup of 7Li were found to be predominantly triggered by nucleon transfer, with p-pickup leading to 8Be → α + α decay being the preferred breakup mode. From the time-scales of each process, the coincidence yields were separated into prompt and delayed components, allowing the identification of breakup process important in the suppression of complete fusion of 7Li at above-barrier energies.

  8. 37 CFR 204.4 - Procedure for notification of the existence of records pertaining to individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for notification of the existence of records pertaining to individuals. 204.4 Section 204.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT: POLICIES AND...

  9. 48 CFR 204.470-2 - National security exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National security... Within Industry 204.470-2 National security exclusion. (a) The U.S.-IAEA AP permits the United States... associated with such activities, with direct national security significance. (b) In order to ensure that all...

  10. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  11. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vernon G., E-mail: vthomas@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E. [Metals Toxicology Laboratory, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  12. Bone lead levels and lead isotope ratios in red grouse from Scottish and Yorkshire moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; Bond, Della E.

    2009-01-01

    Leg and foot bones of adult and juvenile red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) were collected from hunter-shot birds on two Scottish estates (Glendye and Invermark) and one Yorkshire estate in September, 2003. The lead content of bones was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and corresponding stable lead isotopes (Pb204, 206, 207, 208) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. At the Glendye (N = 111) and Invermark (N = 85) estates, relatively few birds (5.4% and 3.5%, respectively) had highly elevated bone lead concentrations (> 20 mug/g dry weight). In bones of these highly exposed birds, a combination of Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios was consistent with ingestion of lead gunshot available in Europe. By contrast, Yorkshire grouse experienced a high incidence (65.8%) of bone lead > 20 mug/g. The Pb206:Pb207 and Pb208:Pb207ratios in bones of these highly exposed birds were consistent with a combined exposure to ingested lead gunshot and lead from galena mining in the region. Lead isotope ratios also indicated that lead from UK gasoline combustion and fallout from atmospheric particles was not a likely source of elevated lead in bones of either Scottish or Yorkshire grouse. Suggested management options for the three moors include adopting nontoxic shot for all game shooting on the estates, allowing heather (Calluna vulgaris) vegetation to grow tall in lead shot fall-out zones to reduce physical access to high densities of lead shot already present, and provision of calcareous grit across moors to reduce lead assimilation from all ingested sources of lead.

  13. 48 CFR 3052.204-71 - Contractor employee access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor employee access... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.204-71 Contractor employee access. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48...: Contractor Employee Access (JUN 2006) (a) “Sensitive Information,” as used in this Chapter, means any...

  14. 41 CFR 101-6.204-3 - Special benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special benefits. 101-6...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.204-3 Special benefits. An individual shall not be deemed subjected to discrimination by reason of his exclusion from benefits limited by...

  15. NMR approaches in structure-based lead discovery: recent developments and new frontiers for targeting multi-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, David M; Ciulli, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a pivotal method for structure-based and fragment-based lead discovery because it is one of the most robust techniques to provide information on protein structure, dynamics and interaction at an atomic level in solution. Nowadays, in most ligand screening cascades, NMR-based methods are applied to identify and structurally validate small molecule binding. These can be high-throughput and are often used synergistically with other biophysical assays. Here, we describe current state-of-the-art in the portfolio of available NMR-based experiments that are used to aid early-stage lead discovery. We then focus on multi-protein complexes as targets and how NMR spectroscopy allows studying of interactions within the high molecular weight assemblies that make up a vast fraction of the yet untargeted proteome. Finally, we give our perspective on how currently available methods could build an improved strategy for drug discovery against such challenging targets. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Isotope systematic of contaminant leads in Monterey Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegal, A.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Stephenson, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of stable lead ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) were utilized to identify a lead slag deposit as the principal source of contaminant lead in Monterey Bay. This point source had been indicated by anomalously high lead concentrations in native mussels (Mytilus californianus) near that deposit, which were orders of magnitude above the base-line concentration of the species (0.5 μg/g). Subsequent analyses revealed that the lead concentrations of both transplanted mussels and intertidal sediments were positively correlated with their proximity to the slag deposit. Complementary lead isotopic compositions substantiated those empirical correlations by demonstrating that the slag was the predominant source of contaminant lead in both the mussels and the sediments. Analyses of the digestive tracts of mussels from the slag deposit indicated that ingested slag particulates accounted for their elevated lead concentrations, while analyses of their gonads indicated that dissolved lead from other industrial sources was also being bioaccumulated by passive adsorption on exposed surfaces. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the potential of lead isotope systematics both to identify sources of lead contamination in marine organisms and to trace its biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  17. 12 CFR 204.1 - Authority, purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.1 Authority, purpose and scope. (a) Authority... the Federal Reserve Act and of section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105). (b...

  18. Lead isotopes reveal different sources of lead in balsamic and other vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndung'u, Kuria; Hibdon, Sharon; Veron, Alain; Flegal, A. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-eight brands of balsamic vinegars were analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) to test the findings of a previous study indicating relatively high levels of lead contamination in some of those vinegars - more than two thirds (70%) of them exceeded California's State Maximum Level (34 μg/L) based on consumption rates ≥ 0.5 μg Pb per day. The Lead isotopic fingerprints of all those vinegars with high lead concentrations were then found to be primarily anthropogenic. This isotopic analysis unquestionably reveals multiple contamination sources including atmospheric pollutant Pb and an unidentified contamination source, likely occurring after grape harvest. Organically grown grape vinegars display the same Pb content and isotopic signatures as other vinegars. This implies that pesticides might not be a significant source of pollutant Pb in vinegars. A significant post-harvest contamination would be inherited from chemicals added during production and/or material used during transport, processing or storage of these vinegars. This is consistent with the highest Pb levels being found in aged vinegars (112 ± 112 μg/L) in contrast to other vinegars (41.6 ± 28.9 μg/L) suggesting contamination during storage. It is, therefore, projected that lead levels in most vinegars, especially aged balsamic and wine vinegars, will decrease with improvements in their manufacture and storage processes consequential to recent concerns of elevated levels of lead in some vinegars. - Highlights: → First extensive study on content and possible sources of lead in balsamic vinegars. → Half of the vinegars exceed California's State Maximum Level for human consumption. → Lead content in vinegars seems to be mainly post-harvest from industrial processes.

  19. 5 CFR 870.204 - Annual rates of pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual rates of pay. 870.204 Section 870... rates of pay. (a) (1) An insured employee's annual pay is his/her annual rate of basic pay as fixed by law or regulation. (2) Annual pay for this purpose includes the following: (i) Interim geographic...

  20. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes of environmental media and children's blood and urine were analyzed. • Pb exposure and pollution source were studied in lead-acid battery and coking areas. • Pb isotope ratios in blood and urine were similar to those of food, water and PM. • Urine Pb level may not be used as a proxy for indicating the lead levels in blood. • Urine Pb isotope ratios is an alternative to identify source and exposure pathways. - Urinary lead is not a preferable proxy to estimate blood lead level, but urinary lead isotope ratios could be an alternative for identifying the sources of lead exposure in children

  1. Fragile X and autism: Intertwined at the molecular level leading to targeted treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagerman Randi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by an expanded CGG repeat (> 200 repeats in the 5' untranslated portion of the fragile mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1, leading to deficiency or absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA carrier protein that controls the translation of several other genes that regulate synaptic development and plasticity. Autism occurs in approximately 30% of FXS cases, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS occurs in an additional 30% of cases. Premutation repeat expansions (55 to 200 CGG repeats may also give rise to autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including both autism and PDD-NOS, through a different molecular mechanism that involves a direct toxic effect of the expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. RNA toxicity can also lead to aging effects including tremor, ataxia and cognitive decline, termed fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, in premutation carriers in late life. In studies of mice bearing premutation expansions, there is evidence of early postnatal neuronal cell toxicity, presenting as reduced cell longevity, decreased dendritic arborization and altered synaptic morphology. There is also evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in premutation carriers. Many of the problems with cellular dysregulation in both premutation and full mutation neurons also parallel the cellular abnormalities that have been documented in autism without fragile X mutations. Research regarding dysregulation of neurotransmitter systems in FXS, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5 pathway and γ aminobutyric acid (GABAA pathways, have led to new targeted treatments for FXS. Preliminary evidence suggests that these new targeted treatments will also be beneficial in non-fragile X forms of autism.

  2. Improved spatial targeting with directionally segmented deep brain stimulation leads for treating essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Maureen; Deyo, Steve; Abosch, Aviva; Bajwa, Jawad A.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2012-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus (Vim) is known to exert a therapeutic effect on postural and kinetic tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET). For DBS leads implanted near the caudal border of Vim, however, there is an increased likelihood that one will also induce paresthesia side-effects by stimulating neurons within the sensory pathway of the ventral caudal (Vc) nucleus of thalamus. The aim of this computational study was to (1) investigate the neuronal pathways modulated by therapeutic, sub-therapeutic and paresthesia-inducing DBS settings in three patients with ET and (2) determine how much better an outcome could have been achieved had these patients been implanted with a DBS lead containing directionally segmented electrodes (dDBS). Multi-compartment neuron models of the thalamocortical, cerebellothalamic and medial lemniscal pathways were first simulated in the context of patient-specific anatomies, lead placements and programming parameters from three ET patients who had been implanted with Medtronic 3389 DBS leads. The models showed that in these patients, complete suppression of tremor was associated most closely with activating an average of 62% of the cerebellothalamic afferent input into Vim (n = 10), while persistent paresthesias were associated with activating 35% of the medial lemniscal tract input into Vc thalamus (n = 12). The dDBS lead design demonstrated superior targeting of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway, especially in cases of misaligned DBS leads. Given the close proximity of Vim to Vc thalamus, the models suggest that dDBS will enable clinicians to more effectively sculpt current through and around thalamus in order to achieve a more consistent therapeutic effect without inducing side-effects.

  3. 31 CFR 545.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. 545.204 Section 545.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. Except as otherwise... States, or by a U.S. person, wherever located, of any goods, software, technology (including technical...

  4. Analysis of OXA-204 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae reveals possible endoscopy-associated transmission, France, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potron, Anaïs; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Cuzon, Gaëlle; Pontiès, Valérie; Blanchard, Hervé; Seringe, Elise; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice; Dortet, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    OXA-48-like beta-lactamase producing bacteria are now endemic in several European and Mediterranean countries. Among this carbapenemase family, the OXA-48 and OXA-181 variants predominate, whereas other variants such as OXA-204 are rarely reported. Here, we report the molecular epidemiology of a collection of OXA-204-positive enterobacterial isolates (n = 29) recovered in France between October 2012 and May 2014. This study describes the first outbreak of OXA-204-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe, involving 12 isolates of an ST90 Escherichia coli clone and nine isolates of an ST147 Klebsiella pneumoniae clone. All isolates co-produced the cephalosporinase CMY-4, and 60% of them co-produced the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15. The bla OXA-204 gene was located on a 150-kb IncA/C plasmid, isolated from various enterobacterial species in the same patient, indicating a high conjugative ability of this genetic vehicle.

  5. 7 CFR 330.204 - Denial or cancellation of permits; reconsiderations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.204 Denial or... ground it will involve a danger of dissemination of the plant pest into the State, Territory or...

  6. 42 CFR 460.204 - Financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements...-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Data Collection, Record Maintenance, and Reporting § 460.204 Financial... financial statements. (c) Accepted reporting practices. Except as specified under Medicare principles of...

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  8. 41 CFR 302-10.204 - What costs are allowed for preparing a mobile home for shipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and cost of replacement blocks broken while mobile home was being transported; (h) Packing and... for preparing a mobile home for shipment? 302-10.204 Section 302-10.204 Public Contracts and Property...-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Computation of Allowances...

  9. 18 CFR 367.2040 - Account 204, Preferred stock issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Proprietary Capital § 367.2040 Account 204, Preferred stock... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT...

  10. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  11. 40 CFR 2.204 - Initial action by EPA office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (c)(1) of this section discloses the existence of any business which, although it has not asserted... Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.204 Initial action by EPA office. (a) Situations requiring action... whether business information is entitled to confidential treatment for reasons of business confidentiality...

  12. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: rcompany@ualg.pt; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Science Labs., Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  13. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: a freshwater bivalve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Cravo, A; Shepherd, T J; Pearson, G; Bebianno, M J

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  14. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 /Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance

  15. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  16. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A.; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). → Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). → Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. → The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. → Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF

  17. 12 CFR 1806.204 - Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for Bank Enterprise Awards. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.204 Applications for Bank Enterprise... Enterprise Awards in accordance with this section and the applicable NOFA. After receipt of an application...

  18. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-C-204. This report supports the requirements of Tri Party Agreement Milestone M 44 09

  19. Targeted Killing: Managing American Perceptions On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Requirements Proposal Advisor: Dr. Patricia Williams Lessane Project Advisor: Dr. Andrew Niesiobedzki Maxwell AFB, AL February 2016...epistemology of remote fighting." Ethics and Information Technology 15. no. 2. 87-98. Cullen , Peter. 2008. "The Role of Targeted Killing in the...in the Sky." New Statesman 19-25. June. 48. Patterson, Margot. 2015. "Are We Safer." America 212. no. 204. 12. Raven-Hansen, William C. Banks and

  20. Identification of the one-quadrupole phonon 21,ms+ state of 204Hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stegmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One-phonon states of vibrational nuclei with mixed proton–neutron symmetry have been observed throughout the nuclear chart besides the mass A≈200 region. Very recently, it has been proposed that the 22+ state of 212Po is of isovector nature. This nucleus has two valence protons and two valence neutrons outside the doubly-magic 208Pb nucleus. The stable isotope 204Hg, featuring two valence-proton and valence-neutron holes, with respect to 208Pb, is the particle-hole mirror of 212Po. In order to compare the properties of low-lying isovector excitations in these particle-hole mirror nuclei, we have studied 204Hg by using the projectile Coulomb-excitation technique. The measured absolute B(M1;22+→21+ strength of 0.20(2μN2 indicates that the 22+ level of 204Hg is at least the main fragment of the 21,ms+ state. For the first time in this mass region, both lowest-lying, one-quadrupole phonon excitations are established together with the complete set of their decay strengths. This allows for a microscopic description of their structures, achieved in the framework of the Quasi-particle Phonon Model.

  1. 5 CFR 591.204 - Who can receive COLAs and post differentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.204 Who can receive COLAs and post differentials...

  2. Potential containment materials for liquid-lead and lead-bismuth eutectic spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.J.; Butt, D.P.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (44Pb-56Bi) have been the two primary candidate liquid-metal target materials for the production of spallation neutrons. Selection of a container material for the liquid-metal target will greatly affect the lifetime and safety of the target subsystem. For the lead target, niobium-1 (wt%) zirconium (Nb-1Zr) is a candidate containment material for liquid lead, but its poor oxidation resistance has been a major concern. The oxidation rate of Nb-1Zr was studied based on the calculations of thickness loss due to oxidation. According to these calculations, it appeared that uncoated Nb-1Zr may be used for a one-year operation at 900 C at P O 2 = 1 x 10 -6 torr, but the same material may not be used in argon with 5-ppm oxygen. Coating technologies to reduce the oxidation of Nb-1Zr are reviewed, as are other candidate refractory metals such as molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. For the Pb-Bi target, three candidate containment materials are suggested based on a literature survey of the materials compatibility and proton irradiation tests: Croloy 2-1/4, modified 9Cr-1Mo, and 12Cr-1Mo (HT-9) steel. These materials seem to be used only if the lead-bismuth is thoroughly deoxidized and treated with zirconium and magnesium

  3. 14 CFR 204.6 - Certificated and commuter air carriers proposing a change in operations, ownership, or management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proposing a change in operations, ownership, or management which is not substantial. 204.6 Section 204.6... carriers proposing a change in operations, ownership, or management which is not substantial. Carriers proposing to make a change which would not substantially affect their operations, management, or ownership...

  4. Fragmentation cross sections of relativistic 8436Kr and 10947Ag nuclei in targets from hydrogen to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B.S.; Waddington, C.J.; Cummings, J.R.; Garrard, T.L.; Klarmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    With the addition of krypton and silver projectiles we have extended our previous studies of the fragmentation of heavy relativistic nuclei in targets ranging in mass from hydrogen to lead. These projectiles were studied at a number of discrete energies between 450 and 1500A MeV. The total and partial charge-changing cross sections were determined for each energy, target, and projectile, and the values compared with previous predictions. A new parametrization of the dependence of the total charge-changing cross sections on the target and projectile is introduced, based on nuclear charge radii derived from electron scattering. We have also parametrized the energy dependence of the total cross sections over the range of energies studied. New parameters were found for a previous representation of the partial charge-changing cross sections in hydrogen and a new parametrization has been introduced for the nonhydrogen targets. The evidence that limiting fragmentation has been attained for these relatively light projectile nuclei at Bevalac energies is shown to be inconclusive, and further measurements at higher energies will be needed to address this question

  5. Neutron capture at the s-process branching points $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl

    CERN Multimedia

    Branching points in the s-process are very special isotopes for which there is a competition between the neutron capture and the subsequent b-decay chain producing the heavy elements beyond Fe. Typically, the knowledge on the associated capture cross sections is very poor due to the difficulty in obtaining enough material of these radioactive isotopes and to measure the cross section of a sample with an intrinsic activity; indeed only 2 out o the 21 ${s}$-process branching points have ever been measured by using the time-of-flight method. In this experiment we aim at measuring for the first time the capture cross sections of $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl, both of crucial importance for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The combination of both (n,$\\gamma$) measurements on $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl will allow one to accurately constrain neutron density and the strength of the 13C(α,n) source in low mass AGB stars. Additionally, the cross section of $^{204}$Tl is also of cosmo-chrono...

  6. 12 CFR 204.134 - Linked time deposits and transaction accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.134...) establishes general reserve requirements on transaction accounts and nonpersonal time deposits. Under section... other than to allow the payment of higher interest through the avoidance of reserve requirements. As the...

  7. Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooled experimental Accelerator Driven System. Windowless target unit thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Ferri, R.; Moreau, V.

    2004-01-01

    A main concern related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy is the safe management of nuclear wastes, with particular attention to long-lived fission products. An increasing attention has recently been addressed to transmutation systems (Accelerator Driven System: ADS) able to 'burn' the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products (High-Level Waste: HLW), transforming them in short or medium-lived wastes that may be easier managed and stored in the geological disposal, with the consequent easier acceptability by population. An ADS consists of a subcritical-core coupled with an accelerator by means of a target. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulic analysis, performed with STAR-CD and RELAP5 codes for the windowless target unit of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled experimental ADS (XADS), both to assess its behaviour during operational and accident sequences and to provide input data for the thermal-mechanical analyses. It also reports a description of modifications properly implemented in the codes used for the assessment of this kind of plants. (author)

  8. Shell model calculations for levels and transition rates in 204Pb and 206Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; McEllistrem, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Level energies and decay rates of both negative and positive parity levels of 206,204 Pb have been calculated through mixed-configuration shell model calculations using the modified surface delta interaction (MSDI), the Schiffer-True central interaction, and another two-body interaction. These calculations were all carried out with a full six-orbit neutron hole space. The predicted low-lying levels with the MSDI are in excellent agreement with experiments, accounting for the energies, spins, and parities of essentially all levels below 3 MeV excitation energy except known particle-hole collective excitations in both nuclei. Almost all calculated E2 and M1 transition rates are consistent with measured branching ratios for γ-ray decay of excited levels. The comparison of the observed and calculated levels demonstrates the important role played by the neutron-hole i 13/2 configuration in the levels of 204 Pb and 206 Pb, and interprets an apparent discrepancy over the character and energy spacings of 0 + levels in 204 Pb

  9. A potential target for organophosphate insecticides leading to spermatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Himiko; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Ito, Yuki; Abe, Keisuke; Noro, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2013-10-16

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides as an anticholinesterase also act on the diverse serine hydrolase targets, thereby revealing secondary or unexpected toxic effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation detects a possible target molecule(s) for OP-induced spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) from a chemical standpoint. The activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) approach with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe pinpointed the molecular target for fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP insecticide) oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) in the mouse testicular membrane proteome, i.e., FNT oxon phosphorylates the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which plays pivotal roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. Subsequently, mice were treated orally with vehicle or FNT for 10 days, and FAAH activity in testis or epididymis cauda was markedly reduced by the subacute exposure. ABPP analysis revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated testicular membrane proteome. Accordingly, FAAH is a potential target for OP-elicited spermatotoxicity.

  10. 40 CFR 211.204-3 - Label location and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... packaging if the label complying with § 211.204-3(a)(1) is not visible at the point of ultimate purchase or...) If the protector is individually packaged and so displayed at the point of ultimate purchase or... the protector is displayed at the point of ultimate purchase or distribution to prospective users in a...

  11. Delayed visual maturation is not from lead pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.; Howarth, D.

    2000-01-01

    Delayed visual maturation, a term introduced by Illingworth (1961), was first described by Beauvieux in 1926. Patients with delayed visual maturation are found to be blind soon after birth and, if it is the only defect, the vision improves by the time the child is 6 months of age. Since first described, numerous cases have been reported but so far no cause has been found. The diagnosis of three infants with delayed visual maturation in a period of 19 months, in the lead mining community of Broken Hill, raised the possibility of a common cause. Two of the families lived in the most heavily polluted area of the town and were renovating their lead-contaminated houses while the wife was pregnant. The diagnosis of delayed visual maturation was made on the following characteristics:(1) poor visual attention at or soon after birth; (2) normal ocular examination; (3) visual response occurring by 5 to 6 months of age. Once the diagnosis was established, the parents were requested to retain any teeth the children lost for lead isotope and lead concentration analysis. Gulson and Wilson (1994) and Gulson (1996) demonstrated the use of the lead isotope technique, combined with the well-established histology of teeth, in evaluating in utero and early childhood lead exposure from slices of deciduous teeth. In this approach, analysis of the enamel provides evidence of in utero exposure. Analysis of dentine provides evidence of exposure during the early childhood years, when hand-to-mouth activity is usually an important contributor to lead body burden, and potentially up to the time of tooth loss. The lead isotope technique uses the four isotopes of lead. Three are the stable end products of radioactive decay of uranium and thorium: 238 U to 206 Pb, 235 U to 207 Pb, and 232 Th to 208 Pb. The abundance of the fourth, 204 Pb, has been essentially constant since the Earth began and this isotope is commonly used as a reference isotope. Because three isotopes of lead are produced by

  12. Use of Pb and Sr isotopes on the determination of lead mineralization sources from Ribeira valley - Sao Paulo and Parana states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Barbour, A.P.; Sato, K.; Daitx, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    A lead and strontium isotope study was carried out on galena, barite and calcite from Pb-Ag syngenetic stratiform (Perau type) and hydrothermal veins (Panela type) deposits from Vale do Ribeira region (Sao Paulo and Parana states). The leads from the Perau and Panelas type deposits have respectively isotope ratios (sup(206)Pb/ sup(204)Pb 16.157 to 16.505 amd 16.520 to 17.273; sup(207)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 15.466 to 15.720 and 15.470 to 15.780 and sup(208)Pb/ sup(204)Pb = 36.370 to 36.763 and 37.043 to 38.243), that defined a Stacey and Kramers model ages mainly concentrate within 1.7-1.5Ga. A review of published Pb isotopic compositions for these deposits and considerations of new Sr isotope data and Pb results using plumbotectonics model, indicate that the Perau type mineralizations are related to the syngenetic process and the Pb are derived from upper crust with a short crustal residence time. For the Panelas type deposits the Pb and Sr isotope studies support the conclusion that the ores were emplaced during regional metamorphism and the Pb were derived from lithologically complex source which may include metasedimentary and basement rocks. (author)

  13. 30 CFR 90.204 - Approved sampling devices; maintenance and calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; maintenance and... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.204 Approved sampling devices; maintenance and...

  14. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., sale, or supply of any goods, technology, or services to a person in a third country undertaken with...

  15. YCF45 protein, usually associated with plastids, is targeted into the mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Týč, Jiří; Long, Shaojun; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 173, č. 1 (2010), s. 43-47 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Plastid * Mitochondrion * Targeting * YCF45 * Horizontal gene transfer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.875, year: 2010

  16. Next-to leading order analysis of target mass corrections to structure functions and asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.T.; Accardi, A.; Hobbs, T.J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of target mass corrections (TMCs) to spin-averaged structure functions and asymmetries at next-to-leading order. Several different prescriptions for TMCs are considered, including the operator product expansion, and various approximations to it, collinear factorization, and xi-scaling. We assess the impact of each of these on a number of observables, such as the neutron to proton F 2 structure function ratio, and parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries for protons and deuterons which are sensitive to gamma-Z interference effects. The corrections from higher order radiative and nuclear effects on the parity-violating deuteron asymmetry are also quantified.

  17. Cyr61 promotes CD204 expression and the migration of macrophages via MEK/ERK pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeoka, Manabu; Urakawa, Naoki; Nishio, Mari; Takase, Nobuhisa; Utsunomiya, Soken; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Komori, Takahide; Koma, Yu-ichiro; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to be involved in the progression of various human malignancies. We previously demonstrated that CD204 was a useful marker for TAMs contributing to the angiogenesis, progression, and prognosis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We also showed that conditioned media of ESCC cell lines induced CD204 expression in THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells. Here, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis between THP-1 cells stimulated with TPA (macrophage [MΦ]-like THP-1 cells) treated with and without conditioned medium of ESCC cell line to clarify the molecular characteristics of TAMs in ESCC. From the microarray data, we discovered that Cyr61 was induced in CD204-positive-differentiated THP-1 cells (TAM-like THP-1 cells). In the ESCC microenvironment, not only cancer cells but also TAMs expressed Cyr61. Interestingly, the expression levels of Cyr61 showed a significant positive correlation with the number of CD204-positive macrophages in ESCCs by immunohistochemistry. Recombinant human Cyr61 (rhCyr61) promoted cell migration and induced the expression of CD204 along with the activation of the MEK/ERK pathway in MΦ-like THP-1 cells. Pretreatment with a MEK1/2 inhibitor significantly inhibited not only the Cyr61-mediated migration but also the CD204 expression in the MΦ-like THP-1 cells. These results suggest that Cyr61 may contribute to the expression of CD204 and the promotion of cell migration via the MEK/ERK pathway in TAMs in the ESCC microenvironment

  18. 41 CFR 101-6.204-2 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS 6.2-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.204-2 Specific... under the program (including the opportunity to participate in the program as an employee but only to... defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respect individuals...

  19. 30 CFR 204.215 - Are the information collection requirements in this subpart approved by the Office of Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are the information collection requirements in this subpart approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)? 204.215 Section 204.215 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES...

  20. 30 CFR 204.5 - What statutory requirements must I meet to obtain royalty prepayment or accounting and auditing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain royalty prepayment or accounting and auditing relief? 204.5 Section 204.5 Mineral Resources... prepayment or accounting and auditing relief? (a) MMS and the State may allow royalty prepayment or accounting and auditing relief for your marginal property production if MMS and the State jointly determine...

  1. 29 CFR 779.204 - Common types of “enterprise.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Enterprise; the Business Unit § 779.204 Common types of “enterprise.” (a) The single establishment business. In the simplest type of organization—the entire business ordinarily is one enterprise. The entire business...

  2. 30 CFR 204.203 - What is the other relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.203 What is the other... that is appropriate for production from your marginal property, provided it is not prohibited under... are: (1) To report and pay royalties using a valuation method other than that required under 30 CFR...

  3. Power reactors and sub-critical blanket systems with lead and lead-bismuth as coolant and/or target material. Utilization and transmutation of actinides and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    High level radioactive waste disposal is an issue of great importance in the discussion of the sustainability of nuclear power generation. The main contributors to the high radioactivity are the fission products and the minor actinides. The long lived fission products and minor actinides set severe demands on the arrangements for safe waste disposal. Fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS) are under development in Member States to reduce the long term hazard of spent fuel and radioactive waste, taking advantage of their incineration and transmutation capability. Important R and D programmes are being undertaken in many Member States to substantiate this option and advance the basic knowledge in this innovative area of nuclear energy development. The conceptual design of the lead cooled fast reactor concept BREST-OD-300, as well as various other conceptual designs of lead/lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors have been developed to meet enhanced safety and non-proliferation requirements, aiming at both energy production and transmutation of nuclear waste. Some R and D studies indicate that the use of lead and lead-bismuth coolant has some advantages in comparison with existing sodium cooled fast reactor systems, e.g.: simplified design of fast reactor core and BOP, enhanced inherent safety, and easier radwaste management in related fuel cycles. Moreover, various ADS conceptual designs with lead and lead-bismuth as target material and coolant also have been pursued. The results to date are encouraging, indicating that the ADS has the potential to offer an option for meeting the challenges of the back end fuel cycle. During the last decade, there have been substantial advances in several countries with their own R and D programme in the fields of lead/lead-bismuth cooled critical and sub-critical concepts. coolant technology, and experimental validation. In this context, international exchange of information and experience, as well as international

  4. 41 CFR 301-75.204 - May we use Government contractor-issued travelers checks to pay for the interviewee's travel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contractor-issued travelers checks to pay for the interviewee's travel expenses? 301-75.204 Section 301-75.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL Obtaining Travel Services...

  5. The isotopic composition of ore lead of the Creede mining district and vicinity, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Text of a talk presented at the San Juan Mountains symposium to honor Thomas A. Steven; Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, May 2, 1987, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.K.; Barton, P.B.; Bethke, P.M.; Doe, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Galenas from the major Creede veins and their northern extensions are remarkably homogeneous in Pb-isotopic composition and are too radiogenic to have been derived from any magma comparable in composition to the principal volcanic rocks. This pattern was identified by Doe et al. in 1979 who proposed that the lead was derived from the Precambrian basement. The homogeneity of the ore leads, however, requires a uniform reservoir; an unlikely prospect for lead from the Precambrian basement. We report on 16 new analyses of geographically and paragenetically dispersed galenas from the Creede district and other areas as far as 11 km to the north. The lead values range from 18.972 to 19.060 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.591 to 15.671 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.781 to 37.921 for 208Pb/204Pb. These ranges overlap those previously reported for the main ore zone.

  6. Spallation Neutron Spectrum on a Massive Lead/Paraffin Target Irradiated with 1 GeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Barashenkov, V S; Brandt, R; Golovatiouk, V M; Kalinnikov, V G; Katovsky, K; Krivopustov, M I; Kumar, V; Kumawat, H; Odoj, R; Pronskikh, V S; Solnyshkin, A A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Westmeier, W

    2004-01-01

    The spectra of gamma-ray emitted by decaying residual nuclei, produced by spallation neutrons with (n, xn), (n,xnyp), (n,p), (n,gamma) reactions in activation threshold detectors - namely, ^{209}Bi, ^{197}Au, ^{59}Co, ^{115}In, ^{232}Th, were measured in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP), JINR, Dubna, Russia. Spallation neutrons were generated by bombarding a 20 cm long cylindrical lead target, 8 cm in diameter, surrounded by a 6 cm thick layer of paraffin moderator, with a 1 GeV proton beam from the Nuclotron accelerator. Reaction rates and spallation neutron spectrum were measured and compared with CASCADE code calculations.

  7. Hydrogen isotope double differential production cross sections induced by 62.7 MeV neutrons on a lead target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerveno, M.; Haddad, F.; Eudes, Ph.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J.P.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Lefebvres, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Double differential hydrogen isotope production cross sections have been extracted in 62.7 MeV neutron induced reactions on a lead target. The angular distribution was measured at eight angles from 20 deg. to 160 deg. allowing the extraction of angle-differential, energy differential, and total production cross sections. A first set of comparisons with several theoretical calculations is also presented

  8. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shu-ichi; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Oishi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  9. Influence of different moderator materials on characteristics of neutron fluxes generated under irradiation of lead target with proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, A.N.; Polanski, A.; Petrochenkov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron fields generated in extended heavy (Z ≥ 82) targets under irradiation with proton beams at energies in the range of 1 GeV are investigated. Influence of different moderators on the spectra and multiplicities of neutrons escaping the surface of the assembly consisting of a lead target (diam. 8 cm x 20 cm or diam. 8 cm x 50 cm) screened by variable thickness of polyethylene or graphite, respectively, was compared. It is shown that the effectiveness of graphite as a material used in such assemblies to moderate spallation neutrons down to thermal energies is significantly lower than that of paraffin

  10. Examining the fragmentation of 158 A GeV lead ions on copper target: Charge-changing cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed; Manzoor, Shahid

    2008-01-01

    A stack of plastic CR-39 Track Detectors were exposed to 158 A GeV 207 Pb ions at the CERN-SPS beam facility. The exposure of stack was performed at normal incidence with a fluence of about 1500ions/cm 2 . The total number of lead ions in each spill was about 7.8x10 4 with eight spills on each stack. For the stack with the Cu target, the lengths of etched cones on one face of the CR-39 detectors (before and after the target) were measured. Using these measurements and charge identification methodology in CR-39 track detectors, total and partial charge changing cross sections of 158 A GeV Pb 82+ ions on Cu and CR-39 targets are determined in the charge region 63≤Z≤82. The possibilities of presence and absence of odd-even effect in measured partial charge changing cross sections of 158 A GeV Pb ions for Cu and CR-39 targets are described. The charge resolution (σ Z ) achieved in the present experiment is ∼0.18e-0.21e. The analysis of discrepancies between our experimental results and other published results for the identical reaction is also presented

  11. Examining the fragmentation of 158 A GeV lead ions on copper target: Charge-changing cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: marana@alumni.nus.edu.sg; Manzoor, Shahid [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    A stack of plastic CR-39 Track Detectors were exposed to 158 A GeV {sup 207}Pb ions at the CERN-SPS beam facility. The exposure of stack was performed at normal incidence with a fluence of about 1500ions/cm{sup 2}. The total number of lead ions in each spill was about 7.8x10{sup 4} with eight spills on each stack. For the stack with the Cu target, the lengths of etched cones on one face of the CR-39 detectors (before and after the target) were measured. Using these measurements and charge identification methodology in CR-39 track detectors, total and partial charge changing cross sections of 158 A GeV Pb{sup 82+} ions on Cu and CR-39 targets are determined in the charge region 63{<=}Z{<=}82. The possibilities of presence and absence of odd-even effect in measured partial charge changing cross sections of 158 A GeV Pb ions for Cu and CR-39 targets are described. The charge resolution ({sigma}{sub Z}) achieved in the present experiment is {approx}0.18e-0.21e. The analysis of discrepancies between our experimental results and other published results for the identical reaction is also presented.

  12. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nzegwu, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Adigba, E.O. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Aloke, R.U. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Ezomike, C.N. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Okocha, C.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Obi, E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Orisakwe, O.E. [College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@aol.com

    2006-08-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 {mu}g) and 0.177 mg (177 {mu}g), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products.

  13. Lead and cadmium exposures from canned and non-canned beverages in Nigeria: A public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduabuchi, J.-M.U.; Nzegwu, C.N.; Adigba, E.O.; Aloke, R.U.; Ezomike, C.N.; Okocha, C.E.; Obi, E.; Orisakwe, O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The lead and cadmium levels of canned and non-canned foods purchased in Nigeria were studied. Fifty samples of these beverages were digested in nitric acid and were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The cadmium levels ranged from 0.003-0.081 mg/L for the canned and 0.006-0.071 mg/L for non-canned beverages. About 85.71% of the canned beverages had cadmium levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.005 mg/L set by US EPA while 82.7% non-canned beverages had cadmium levels exceeding the MCL. The mean and median levels of cadmium exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. Whereas only 79.3% of the non-canned beverages showed lead levels that exceeded the US EPA's MCL of 0.015 mg/L, 100% of the canned beverages had lead levels that were greater than the MCL. The range of the lead in the canned beverages was 0.002-0.0073 and 0.001-0.092 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The mean and median values of lead exceeded the MCL in both the canned and non-canned beverages. The calculated amount of lead and cadmium in three beverages were 0.204 mg (204 μg) and 0.177 mg (177 μg), respectively. These represent the estimated intake of a consumer who takes three of the products selected randomly in a week; assuming an average volume of one liter (1 L) for each product. Taken together 86% and 84% of the 50 beverages (canned and non-canned) studied in March, 2005 in Nigeria failed to meet the US EPA criteria for acceptable lead and cadmium levels in consumer products

  14. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Dickson, Bruce L; Korsch, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon (222Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206Pb/204Pb from the high uranium content, low 208Pb/204Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees.

  15. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian L.; Mizon, Karen J.; Dickson, Bruce L.; Korsch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon ( 222 Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206 Pb/ 204 Pb from the high uranium content, low 208 Pb/ 204 Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206 Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees

  16. 41 CFR 302-9.204 - What is the “authorized point of origin” when I transport my POV from my post of duty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point of originâ when I transport my POV from my post of duty? 302-9.204 Section 302-9.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND... Return Transportation of a POV From a Post of Duty § 302-9.204 What is the “authorized point of origin...

  17. Study of intense pulse irradiation effects on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors; Etude des effets d`irradiations pulsees intenses sur des cibles de silicium considere en tant que materiau de base pour detecteurs optiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, O

    1994-12-01

    This study aim was centered on morphological and structural alterations induced by laser irradiation on silicon targets considered as ground matter for optical detectors. First we recalled the main high light intensity effects on the condensed matter. Then we presented the experimental aspects. The experimental studies were achieved on two sample types: SiO{sub 2}/Si and Si. Two topics were studied: the defect chronology according to wavelength and pulse length, and the crystalline quality as well as the structure defects of irradiated zones by Raman spectroscopy. Finally, irradiation of Si targets by intense pulsed beams may lead to material fusion. This phenomenon is particularly easy when the material is absorbent, when the pulse is short and when the material is superficially oxidized. (MML). 204 refs., 93 figs., 21 tabs., 1 appendix.

  18. 14 CFR 204.4 - Carriers proposing to provide essential air service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriers proposing to provide essential air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DATA TO SUPPORT FITNESS DETERMINATIONS Filing Requirements § 204.4 Carriers proposing to provide essential air service. Applicants proposing to provide essential air...

  19. Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, L.; Bozza, C.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Fini, R. A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Grella, G.; Ieva, M.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Juget, F.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Petukhov, Y.; Pistillo, C.; Pozzato, M.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Russo, A.; Savvinov, N.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Waelchli, T.

    2007-05-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of νμ→ντ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of ντ's in the CNGS νμ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of ~20 cm2/h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA.

  20. Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L; Bozza, C; Buontempo, S

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of ν μ →ν τ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of ν τ 's in the CNGS ν μ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of ∼20 cm 2 /h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA

  1. Influence of Different Moderator Materials on Characteristics of Neutron Fluxes Generated under Irradiation of Lead Target with Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Petrochenkov, S A; Golovatyuk, V M; Krivopustov, M I; Bamblevski, V P; Westmeier, W; Odoj, R; Brandt, R; Robotham, H; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2002-01-01

    Neutron fields generated in extended heavy (Z\\geq 82) targets under irradiation with proton beams at energies in the range of 1 GeV are investigated. Influence of different moderators on the spectra and multiplicities of neutrons escaping the surface of the assembly consisting of a lead target (\\varnothing 8 cm\\times 20 cm or \\varnothing 8cm\\times 50 cm) screened by variable thickness of polyethylene or graphite, respectively, was compared in the present work. It is shown that the effectiveness of graphite as a material used in such assemblies to moderate spallation neutrons down to thermal energies is significantly lower than that of paraffin.

  2. 17 CFR 275.204-1 - Amendments to application for registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... you have received a continuing hardship exemption under § 275.203-3. (2) If you have received a... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.204-1 Amendments to application for... a complete Part 1A of Form ADV on paper with the SEC by mailing it to FINRA. (c) Special rule for...

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  4. 30 CFR 204.3 - What alternatives are available for marginal properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What alternatives are available for marginal... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES General Provisions § 204.3 What alternatives are available for marginal properties? If you have production from a marginal property, MMS and...

  5. 49 CFR 24.204 - Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of comparable replacement dwelling... General Relocation Requirements § 24.204 Availability of comparable replacement dwelling before displacement. (a) General. No person to be displaced shall be required to move from his or her dwelling unless...

  6. Distinction of [220] and [204] textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} film and their growth behaviors depending on substrate nature and Na incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae-Hyung, E-mail: dhcho@etri.re.kr [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeha [Department of Solar & Energy Engineering, Cheongju University, 298 Daeseongro, Sangdang-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 360-764 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Duck [IT Components and Materials Industry Technology Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), 218 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    For better understanding of the structural property of polycrystalline tetragonal Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films grown on soda-lime glass, it is necessary to characterize the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures clearly that are related to the different physical properties. However, the distinction between the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures is very difficult because of their nearly identical plane spacings and atomic arrangements. Using X-ray diffraction techniques of high resolution θ–2θ scanning and reciprocal space mapping, we distinguished the [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of CIGS films and observed that the behaviors of [220] and [204] textures independently depended on both substrate nature and Na presence. We report the Na- and substrate-related dependence of the physical properties of the CIGS film was attributed to the independent growth behaviors of the [220] and [204] textures in the CIGS. - Highlights: • We investigated [220]- and [204]-oriented textures of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • X-ray diffraction methods distinguished two textures. • The growth behaviors were influenced by underlying substrate and Na. • The [220] and [204] textures in CIGS should be differentially observed.

  7. 33 CFR 165.T14-204 - Safety Zone; fixed mooring balls, south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., south of Barbers Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. 165.T14-204 Section 165.T14-204 Navigation and... Pt Harbor Channel, Oahu, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters... position is approximately 2,500 yards south of Barbers Point Harbor channel buoy #2, Oahu, Hawaii. This...

  8. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You may obtain accounting and auditing relief under...

  9. 46 CFR 117.204 - Survival craft-vessels operating on coastwise routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on coastwise routes... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.204 Survival craft... allowed, the following survival craft requirements apply when not engaged in an overnight voyage: (1...

  10. 41 CFR 109-38.204-4 - Report of exempted motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of exempted motor..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.2-Registration, Identification, and Exemptions § 109-38.204-4 Report of exempted motor vehicles. DOE offices shall provide upon request the...

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  12. Delivery of antagomiR204-conjugated gold nanoparticles from PLGA sheets and its implication in promoting osseointegration of titanium implant in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiangwei Liu,1,* Naiwen Tan,1,* Yuchao Zhou,1 Hongbo Wei,1,* Shuai Ren,1 Fan Yu,2 Hui Chen,3 Chengming Jia,4 Guodong Yang,5 Yingliang Song1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Department of Implant Dentistry, 2Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, 4Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Impaired osseointegration of the implant remains the big hurdle for dental implant therapy in diabetic patients. In this study, the authors first identified that miR204 was strikingly highly expressed in the bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs of diabetic rats. Forced expression of miR204 repressed the osteogenic potential of BMSCs, while inhibition of miR204 significantly increased the osteogenic capacity. Moreover, the miR204 inhibitor was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP-antagomiR204 and dispersed them in the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA solution. The AuNP-antagomiR204 containing PLGA solution was applied for coating the surface of titanium implant. Electron microscope revealed that an ultrathin sheet was formed on the surface of the implant, and the AuNPs were evenly dispersed in the coated PLGA sheet. Cellular experiments revealed that these encapsulated AuNP-antagomiR204 were able to be released from the PLGA sheet and uptaken by adherent BMSCs. In vivo animal study further confirmed that the AuNP-antagomiR204 released from PLGA sheet promoted osseointegration, as revealed by microcomputerized tomography (microCT reconstruction and histological assay. Taken together, this study established that miR204 misexpression accounted for the deficient

  13. Insights into Integrated Lead Generation and Target Identification in Malaria and Tuberculosis Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okombo, John; Chibale, Kelly

    2017-07-18

    New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery. This Account recaps the existing challenges facing antimalarial and antituberculosis drug discovery, including limitations associated with experimental animal models as well as biological complexities intrinsic to the causative pathogens. We enlist various highlights from a body of work within our research group aimed at identifying and characterizing new chemical leads, and navigating these challenges to contribute toward the global drug discovery and development pipeline in malaria and tuberculosis. We describe a catalogue of in-house efforts toward deriving safe and efficacious preclinical drug development candidates via cell-based medicinal chemistry optimization of phenotypic whole-cell medium and high throughput screening hits sourced from various small molecule chemical libraries. We also provide an appraisal of target-based screening, as invoked in our laboratory for mechanistic evaluation of the hits generated, with particular focus on the enzymes within the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic and hemoglobin degradation pathways, the latter constituting a heme detoxification process and an associated cysteine

  14. Molecular characterization of the 17D-204 yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Maud; Gazaignes, Sandrine; Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Garnier, Fabienne; Korimbocus, Jehanara; Colin de Verdière, Nathalie; LeGoff, Jerome; Roques, Pierre; Simon, François

    2015-10-05

    The worldwide use of yellow fever (YF) live attenuated vaccines came recently under close scrutiny as rare but serious adverse events have been reported. The population identified at major risk for these safety issues were extreme ages and immunocompromised subjects. Study NCT01426243 conducted by the French National Agency for AIDS research is an ongoing interventional study to evaluate the safety of the vaccine and the specific immune responses in HIV-infected patients following 17D-204 vaccination. As a preliminary study, we characterized the molecular diversity from E gene of the single 17D-204 vaccine batch used in this clinical study. Eight vials of lyophilized 17D-204 vaccine (Stamaril, Sanofi-Pasteur, Lyon, France) of the E5499 batch were reconstituted for viral quantification, cloning and sequencing of C/prM/E region. The average rate of virions per vial was 8.68 ± 0.07 log₁₀ genome equivalents with a low coefficient of variation (0.81%). 246 sequences of the C/prM/E region (29-33 per vials) were generated and analyzed for the eight vials, 25 (10%) being defective and excluded from analyses. 95% of sequences had at least one nucleotide mutation. The mutations were observed on 662 variant sites distributed through all over the 1995 nucleotides sequence and were mainly non-synonymous (66%). Genome variability between vaccine vials was highly homogeneous with a nucleotide distance ranging from 0.29% to 0.41%. Average p-distances observed for each vial were also homogeneous, ranging from 0.15% to 0.31%. This study showed a homogenous YF virus RNA quantity in vaccine vials within a single lot and a low clonal diversity inter and intra vaccine vials. These results are consistent with a recent study showing that the main mechanism of attenuation resulted in the loss of diversity in the YF virus quasi-species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.204 Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1988 through FY 1997. For discharges occurring on or after October...

  16. Comparison of the osteogenesis and fusion rates between activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) and rhBMP-2 in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang Bin; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-10-01

    Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in a rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model. This is a randomized control animal study. Seventeen male beagle dogs were included. Bilateral posterolateral fusion was performed at the L1-L2 and L4-L5 levels. Biphasic calcium phosphate (2 cc), rhBMP-2 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc), or AB204 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc) were implanted into the intertransverse space randomly. X-ray was performed at 4 and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and new bone formation and fusion rate were evaluated by manual palpation, computed tomography (CT), and undecalcified histology. The AB204 group showed significantly higher fusion rate (90%) than the rhBMP-2 group (15%) or the Osteon group (6.3%) by manual palpation. On x-ray and CT assessment, fusion rate and the volume of newly formed bone were also significantly higher in AB204 group than other groups. In contrast, more osteolysis was found in rhBMP-2 group (40%) than in AB204 group (10%) on CT study. In histologic results, new bone formation was sufficient between transverse processes in AB204 group, and obvious trabeculation and bone remodeling were observed. But in rhBMP-2 group, new bone formation was less than AB204 group and osteolysis was observed between the intertransverse spaces. A low dose of AB204 with BCP as a carrier significantly promotes the fusion rate in a large animal model when compared with the rhBMP-2. These findings demonstrate that AB204 could be an alternative to rhBMP-2 to improve fusion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of electron, positron and Bremsstrahlung spectrum generated due to electromagnetic cascade by 2.5 GeV electron hitting lead target using FLUKA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, P.K.; Dev, Vipin; Haridas, G.; Thakkar, K.K.; Singh, Gurnam; Sarkar, P.K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    INDUS-2 is a high energy electron accelerator facility where electrons are accelerated in circular ring up to maximum energy 2.5 GeV, to generate synchrotron radiation. During normal operation of the machine a fraction of these electrons is lost, which interact with the accelerator structures and components like vacuum chamber and residual gases in the cavity and hence generates significant amount of Bremsstrahlung radiation. The Bremsstrahlung radiation is highly dependent on the incident electron energy, target material and its thickness. The Bremsstrahlung radiation dominates the radiation environment in such electron storage rings. Because of its broad spectrum extending up to incident electron energy and pulsed nature, it is very difficult to segregate the Bremsstrahlung component from the mixed field environment in accelerators. With the help of FLUKA Monte Carlo code, Bremsstrahlung spectrum generated from 2.5 GeV electron on bombardment of high Z lead target is simulated. To study the variation in Bremsstrahlung spectrum on target thickness, lead targets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 mm thickness was used. The energy spectrum of emerging electron and positron is also simulated. The study suggests that as the target thickness increases, the emergent Bremsstrahlung photon fluence increases. With increase in the target thickness Bremsstrahlung photons in the spectrum dominate the low energy part and degrade in high energy part. The electron and positron spectra also extend up to incident electron energy. (author)

  18. Structure-Based Mutagenesis of Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus B204 Reveals Essential Residues in the Virion-Associated DNA-Packaging ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Nikki; Snyder, Jamie C; Dills, Michael; Nicolay, Sheena J; Kerchner, Keshia M; Brumfield, Susan K; Lawrence, C Martin; Young, Mark J

    2015-12-23

    Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV), an archaeal virus that infects the hyperthermoacidophile Sulfolobus solfataricus, is one of the most well-studied viruses of the domain Archaea. STIV shares structural, morphological, and sequence similarities with viruses from other domains of life, all of which are thought to belong to the same viral lineage. Several of these common features include a conserved coat protein fold, an internal lipid membrane, and a DNA-packaging ATPase. B204 is the ATPase encoded by STIV and is thought to drive packaging of viral DNA during the replication process. Here, we report the crystal structure of B204 along with the biochemical analysis of B204 mutants chosen based on structural information and sequence conservation patterns observed among members of the same viral lineage and the larger FtsK/HerA superfamily to which B204 belongs. Both in vitro ATPase activity assays and transfection assays with mutant forms of B204 confirmed the essentiality of conserved and nonconserved positions. We also have identified two distinct particle morphologies during an STIV infection that differ in the presence or absence of the B204 protein. The biochemical and structural data presented here are not only informative for the STIV replication process but also can be useful in deciphering DNA-packaging mechanisms for other viruses belonging to this lineage. STIV is a virus that infects a host from the domain Archaea that replicates in high-temperature, acidic environments. While STIV has many unique features, there exist several striking similarities between this virus and others that replicate in different environments and infect a broad range of hosts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Aside from structural features shared by viruses from this lineage, there exists a significant level of sequence similarity between the ATPase genes carried by these different viruses; this gene encodes an enzyme thought to provide energy that drives DNA packaging into

  19. Identification of potential glutaminyl cyclase inhibitors from lead-like libraries by in silico and in vitro fragment-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaszkó, Mária; Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Dobi, Krisztina; Magyar, Csaba; Simon, István; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Kapui, Zoltán; Pázmány, Tamás; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2017-02-01

    A glutaminyl cyclase (QC) fragment library was in silico selected by disconnection of the structure of known QC inhibitors and by lead-like 2D virtual screening of the same set. The resulting fragment library (204 compounds) was acquired from commercial suppliers and pre-screened by differential scanning fluorimetry followed by functional in vitro assays. In this way, 10 fragment hits were identified ([Formula: see text]5 % hit rate, best inhibitory activity: 16 [Formula: see text]). The in vitro hits were then docked to the active site of QC, and the best scoring compounds were analyzed for binding interactions. Two fragments bound to different regions in a complementary manner, and thus, linking those fragments offered a rational strategy to generate novel QC inhibitors. Based on the structure of the virtual linked fragment, a 77-membered QC target focused library was selected from vendor databases and docked to the active site of QC. A PubChem search confirmed that the best scoring analogues are novel, potential QC inhibitors.

  20. Identification of vortex structures in a cohort of 204 intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Nicole; Trylesinski, Gabriel; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth; Meng, Hui

    2017-05-01

    An intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a cerebrovascular pathology that can lead to death or disability if ruptured. Abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) has been associated with IA growth and rupture, but little is known about the underlying flow physics related to rupture-prone IAs. Previous studies, based on analysis of a few aneurysms or partial views of three-dimensional vortex structures, suggest that rupture is associated with complex vortical flow inside IAs. To further elucidate the relevance of vortical flow in aneurysm pathophysiology, we studied 204 patient IAs (56 ruptured and 148 unruptured). Using objective quantities to identify three-dimensional vortex structures, we investigated the characteristics associated with aneurysm rupture and if these features correlate with previously proposed WSS and morphological characteristics indicative of IA rupture. Based on the Q -criterion definition of a vortex, we quantified the degree of the aneurysmal region occupied by vortex structures using the volume vortex fraction ( vVF ) and the surface vortex fraction ( sVF ). Computational fluid dynamics simulations showed that the sVF , but not the vVF , discriminated ruptured from unruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, we found that the near-wall vortex structures co-localized with regions of inflow jet breakdown, and significantly correlated to previously proposed haemodynamic and morphologic characteristics of ruptured IAs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Report of Apollo 204 Review Board to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Appendix F ; Schedule of Physical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Immediately following the Apollo 204 accident of January 27, 1961. all associated equipment and material were impounded. Release of this equipment and material for normal use was under the close control of the Apollo 204 Review Board. Apollo Review Board Administrative Procedure No. 11, February 11, 1961, established the Apollo 204 Review Board Material Release Record (MRR). This MRR was the official form used to release material from full impoundment and was valid only after being approved by the Board and signed by a Member. The form was used as the authority to place any impounded item into one of the three Categories defined in Administrative Procedure No. 11. This appendix contains all of the authorized MRR's. Each item submitted on an MRR was given a control number; a description, including the part number and serial number; the relevance and location to the accident; any constraints before release; and the control category. The categories placed on the equipment were as follows: Category A - Items which may have a significant influence or bearing on the results or findings of the Apollo 204 Review Board; Category B - All material other than Category A which is considered relevant to the Apollo 204 Review Board investigation; Category C - Material released from Board jurisdiction. Several classes of equipment were released by special Board action prior to the establishment of the MRR system. The operating procedure for release of these classes is Enclosure F-l to this appendix.

  2. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and payments relief...

  3. 31 CFR 515.803 - Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 515.204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customs procedures; merchandise... CONTROL REGULATIONS Procedures § 515.803 Customs procedures; merchandise specified in § 515.204. (a) With... thereto) whether or not such merchandise has been imported into the United States, collectors of customs...

  4. Measurement of the radiative capture cross section of the s-process branching points 204Tl and 171Tm at the n_TOF facility (CERN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Calviño, F.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Dressler, R.; Heinitz, S.; Kivel, N.; Quesada, J. M.; Schumann, D.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Bellia, G.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero-Ontanaya, L.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Macina, D.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Nolte, R.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Persanti, L.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Radeck, D.; Ramos, D.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Simone, S.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N. V.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Talip, T.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Ulrich, J.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; Köster, U.

    2018-05-01

    The neutron capture cross section of some unstable nuclei is especially relevant for s-process nucleosynthesis studies. This magnitude is crucial to determine the local abundance pattern, which can yield valuable information of the s-process stellar environment. In this work we describe the neutron capture (n,γ) measurement on two of these nuclei of interest, 204Tl and 171Tm, from target production to the final measurement, performed successfully at the n_TOF facility at CERN in 2014 and 2015. Preliminary results on the ongoing experimental data analysis will also be shown. These results include the first ever experimental observation of capture resonances for these two nuclei.

  5. 30 CFR 204.4 - What is a marginal property under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a marginal property under this part... REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES General Provisions § 204.4 What is a marginal property under this part? (a) To qualify as a marginal property eligible for royalty prepayment or...

  6. Recent (t,p) and (3He,n) studies of elementary excitations in the lead region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments involving two-nucleon transfer reactions were recently carried out in the region of 208 Pb to explore the limits of the pairing vibration model. ( 3 He,n) studies revealed that the proton pairing elementary excitations give a reasonably simple vibrational picture after corrections for important particle--hole terms. These data are also described accurately by microscopic calculations of the 0 + pairing phonon. (t,p) results on a 204 Hg target reveal a pairing vibrational state in 206 Hg near the predicted energy, after various interactions are taken into account. 14 figures

  7. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204... MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for your property if MMS determines that your property was not eligible for the relief obtained under this subpart because...

  8. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2004-10-28

    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy

  10. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  11. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, D.; St-Laurent, J.; Hahni, M.; Chapados, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10,C50), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb) were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-Francois and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 208 Pb/ 20 '6Pb) are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88?mg kg -1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81?mg kg-1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13?mg kg -1 (Pb), respectively, while the 207 Pb/ 206 Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn) were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10,C50), most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth). The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on flood plains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils

  12. Using Lead Concentrations and Stable Lead Isotope Ratios to Identify Contamination Events in Alluvial Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Saint-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and other contaminants (e.g., As, Cd, Cu, Pb were recently discovered on the banks of the Saint-François and Massawippi rivers. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers, and the level of the contaminated-hydrocarbon layer in the soil profiles is among the highest at the Windsor and Richmond sites. Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios (204Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb are also used to identify contamination events. The maximum and minimum values detected in soil profiles for arsenic, cadmium, and lead vary from 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg-1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg-1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg-1 (Pb, respectively, while the 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratio values are between 0.8545 and 0.8724 for all the profiles. The highest values of trace elements (As, Pb and Zn were detected in the hydrocarbon layer (C10–C50, most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth. The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods. Atmospheric particles which entered the river or deposited on riverbanks must also be considered as another source of pollution recorded in soils.

  13. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate...

  14. Internal Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 204TI in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, M.K.; Ramaswamy, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    The internal Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 204 TI has been measured, using magnetic deflector method, in the X-ray region. The corrected spectral intensity is compared with the Coulomb-corrected KUB theory in the energy region of 10 to 30 keV. The good agreement between experiment and theory in this energy region, suggests that 'detour effects' are negligible in the low energy region. (author)

  15. Factors leading to inflation targeting : The impact of adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the analysis of inflation targeting (IT) adoption is affected by allowing for a structural change after adoption, using panel probit models for 60 countries over the period 1985-2008. Our findings suggest that there is a structural change after IT adoption. Including the

  16. Factors leading to inflation targeting - the impact of adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the analysis of inflation targeting (IT) adoption is affected by the choice of the analyzed period. We test whether country characteristics influence the decision to apply IT differently before and after its adoption, using panel probit models for 60 countries over the period

  17. Measurements of spallation neutrons from a thick lead target bombarded with 0.5 and 1.5 GeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Double differential neutron spectra from a thick lead target bombarded with 0.5 and 1.5 GeV protons have been measured with the time-of-flight technique. In order to obtain the neutron spectra without the effect of the flight time fluctuation by neutron scattering in the target, an unfolding technique has also been employed in the low energy region below 3 MeV. The measured data have been compared with the calculated results of NMTC/JAERI-MCNP-4A code system. It has been found that the code system gives about 50 % lower neutron yield than the experimental ones in the energy region between 20 and 80 MeV for both incident energies. The disagreements, however, have been improved well by taking account of the inmedium nucleon-nucleon scattering cross sections in the NMTC/JAERI code. (author)

  18. Tomatidine Is a Lead Antibiotic Molecule That Targets Staphylococcus aureus ATP Synthase Subunit C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne Boulet, Maxime; Isabelle, Charles; Guay, Isabelle; Brouillette, Eric; Langlois, Jean-Philippe; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Brzezinski, Ryszard; Beauregard, Pascale B; Bouarab, Kamal; Boyapelly, Kumaraswamy; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Marsault, Éric; Malouin, François

    2018-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of deadly hospital-acquired infections. The discovery of anti- Staphylococcus antibiotics and new classes of drugs not susceptible to the mechanisms of resistance shared among bacteria is imperative. We recently showed that tomatidine (TO), a steroidal alkaloid from solanaceous plants, possesses potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs), the notoriously persistent form of this bacterium that has been associated with recurrence of infections. Here, using genomic analysis of in vitro -generated TO-resistant S. aureus strains to identify mutations in genes involved in resistance, we identified the bacterial ATP synthase as the cellular target. Sequence alignments were performed to highlight the modified sequences, and the structural consequences of the mutations were evaluated in structural models. Overexpression of the atpE gene in S. aureus SCVs or introducing the mutation found in the atpE gene of one of the high-level TO-resistant S. aureus mutants into the Bacillus subtilis atpE gene provided resistance to TO and further validated the identity of the cellular target. FC04-100, a TO derivative which also possesses activity against non-SCV strains, prevents high-level resistance development in prototypic strains and limits the level of resistance observed in SCVs. An ATP synthesis assay allowed the observation of a correlation between antibiotic potency and ATP synthase inhibition. The selectivity index (inhibition of ATP production by mitochondria versus that of bacterial ATP synthase) is estimated to be >10 5 -fold for FC04-100. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. 8 CFR 204.313 - Filing and adjudication of a Form I-800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... This option is not available if the child will be adopted in the United States. (2) In applying this....C. 2101, or as a civilian officer or employee of the United States Government, the child will be... providing proper care for the child, as defined in 8 CFR 204.301; (C) Information about the circumstances of...

  20. Pathways for the release of polonium from a lead-bismuth spallation target (thermochemical calculation); Verfluechtigungspfade des Poloniums aus einem Pb-Bi-Spallationstarget (Thermochemische Kalkulation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Neuhausen, J

    2004-06-01

    An analysis of literature data for the thermochemical constants of polonium reveals considerable discrepancies in the relations of these data among each other as well as in their expected trends within the chalcogen group. This fact hinders a reliable assessment of possible reaction paths for the release of polonium from a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target. In this work an attempt is made to construct a coherent data set for the thermochemical properties of polonium and some of its compounds that are of particular importance with respect to the behaviour of polonium in a liquid Pb-Bi target. This data set is based on extrapolations using general trends throughout the periodic table and, in particular, within the chalcogen group. Consequently, no high accuracy should be attributed to the derived data set. However, the data set derived in this work is consistent with definitely known experimental data. Furthermore, it complies with the general trends of physicochemical properties within the chalcogen group. Finally, well known relations between thermochemical quantities are fulfilled by the data derived in this work. Thus, given the lack of accurate experimental data it can be regarded as best available data. Thermochemical constants of polonium hydride, lead polonide and polonium dioxide are derived based on extrapolative procedures. Furthermore, the possibility of formation of the gaseous intermetallic molecule BiPo, which has been omitted from discussion up to now, is investigated. From the derived thermochemical data the equilibrium constants of formation, release and dissociation reactions are calculated for different polonium containing species. Furthermore equilibrium constants are determined for the reaction of lead polonide and polonium dioxide with hydrogen, water vapour and the target components lead and bismuth. The most probable release pathways are discussed. From thermochemical evaluations polonium is expected to be released from liquid lead

  1. Mitochondrial targeting overcomes ABCA1-dependent resistance of lung carcinoma to alpha-tocopheryl succinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, L.; Koudelka, Š.; Dong, L. F.; Štursa, Jan; Goodwin, J.; Neca, J.; Slavík, J.; Cigánek, M.; Mašek, J.; Klučková, Katarína; Nguyen, M.; Turánek, J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2013), s. 286-299 ISSN 1360-8185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1937; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vitamin E analogues * apoptosis * mitochondrial targeting * ABCA1 * acquired resistance Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EA - Cell Biology (BTO-N) Impact factor: 3.614, year: 2013

  2. Fresenius AS.TEC204 blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Mikiya

    2003-02-01

    Fresenius AS.TEC204 is a third-generation blood cell separator that incorporates the continuous centrifugal separation method and automatic control of the cell separation process. Continuous centrifugation separates cell components according to their specific gravity, and different cell components are either harvested or eliminated as needed. The interface between the red blood cell and plasma is optically detected, and the Interface Control (IFC) cooperates with different pumps, monitors and detectors to harvest required components automatically. The system is composed of three major sections; the Front Panel Unit; the Pump Unit, and the Centrifuge Unit. This unit can be used for a wide variety of clinical applications including collection of platelets, peripheral blood stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and exchange of plasma or red cells, and for plasma treatment.

  3. Post-Wisconsinan Chemical Weathering Rates and Trajectories From a 13,400-Year Sediment Core Record of Lead Isotopic Ratios in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R. H.; Norton, S. A.; Koons, P. O.; Handley, M.

    2008-12-01

    Lead isotopic ratios recorded in a 5.3-m 13.4-ka 14C-dated lake sediment core from Sargent Mountain Pond, Maine (USA) are interpreted as an archive of post-glacial chemical weathering. Early weathering yielded highly radiogenic sediment from the preferential release of U and Th decay products (206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) from accessory mineral phases in the catchment's predominantly-granitic till and bedrock relative to non-radiogenic 204Pb from the more abundant primary minerals. Values for 207Pb/206Pb in the sediment increased rapidly from 0.799 to 0.814 in the catchment's first 4,000 years of post-Wisconsinan weathering, and thereafter increased only slightly to just prior to the 19th century. Values for 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb decline over the same time-scale, as a result of decreasing radiogenic Pb being released from catchment weathering. Our results are consistent with: (1) the published interpretation of Pb isotopic variation in ferromanganese ocean crusts as a reflection of continental-scale glacial-interglacial chemical weathering cycles, (2) bench-scale whole-rock weathering experiments, and (3) soil chronosequence Pb isotope dissolution experiments and bridge the gap between short-term, mineral-scale experiments and long-term, ocean sediment records. We establish a time-scale for depletion of accessory minerals, and loss of their Pb isotopic signature at one catchment, and document the concurrent shift to slower primary mineral-controlled chemical weathering after deglaciation.

  4. Selective targeting of the mTORC1/2 protein kinase complexes leads to antileukemic effects in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K; Zheng, J; Arbini, A A; Zhang, C C; Scaglioni, P P

    2011-01-01

    The BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase promotes leukemogenesis through activation of several targets that include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which target BCR/ABL, induce striking clinical responses. However, therapy with TKIs is associated with limitations such as drug intolerance, inability to universally eradicate the disease and emergence of BCR/ABL drug-resistant mutants. To overcome these limitations, we tested whether inhibition of the PI3K/target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has antileukemic effect in primary hematopoietic stem cells and BA/F3 cells expressing the BCR/ABL oncoprotein. We determined that dual inhibition of PI3K/mTOR causes growth arrest and apoptosis leading to profound antileukemic effects both in vitro and in vivo. We also established that pharmacologic inhibition of the mTORC1/mTORC2 complexes is sufficient to cause these antileukemic effects. Our results support the development of inhibitors of the mTORC1/2 complexes for the therapy of leukemias that either express BCR/ABL or display deregulation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway

  5. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.204 What are the State's... description of vocational education strategies designed to improve the performance of the program as measured...

  6. The design of a lead-bismuth target system with a dual injection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.H.; Kim, Y.; Song, T.Y.; Park, W.S.

    2005-01-01

    A spallation target system is a key component to be developed for an accelerator driven system (ADS). It is known that a 15 ∼ 25 MW spallation target is required for a practical 1000 MWth ADS. The design of a 20 MW spallation target is very challenging because more than 60% of the beam power is deposited as heat in a small volume of the target system. In the present work, a numerical design study was performed to obtain the optimal design parameters for a 20 MW spallation target for a 1000 MW ADS. A dual injection tube was proposed for the reduction of the LBE flow rate at the target channel. The results of the present study show that a 30 cm wide proton beam with a uniform beam distribution should be adopted for the spallation target of a 20 MW power. When the dual LBE injection tube is employed, the LBE flow rate could be reduced by a factor of 4 without reducing the maximum allowable beam current. (authors)

  7. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.; Snead, C.L.; Hanson, A.L.; Murray, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 10 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in front of the target further reduced the energy deposition. The measured temperature rises of the energy-deposition target were empirically correlated with the distance from the source, the number of protons incident on the proton-radiography target, the thickness of the lead shielding, and the angle of the energy-deposition target off-axis of the beam line from the proton-radiography target. The correlation of the experimental data that was developed provides a starting point for the evaluation of the shielding requirements for devices downstream of proton-radiography targets such as superconducting magnets

  8. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins\\/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and\\/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i) homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii) targets of known drugs, but are (iii) not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under \\'change-of-application\\' patents.

  9. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii targets of known drugs, but are (iii not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under 'change-of-application' patents.

  10. Spectroscopic measurement of 204Pb isotope shift and 205Pb nuclear spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberger, P.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope shift of 204 Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 X 10 7 -y 205 Pb was determined from a high-resolution optical measurement of the 6p 23 P 0 -6p7s 3 P 1 0 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to 208 Pb is -140.2(8) x 10 -3 cm -1 , the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of 205 Pb I = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or long-lived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4 cm diffraction grating in a 9.1 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of 204 Pb and 207 Pb

  11. 30 CFR 204.210 - What if a property is approved as part of a nonqualifying agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing... from the date your payment was due under § 204.202 (b)(2) until the date MMS receives it. ...

  12. Determination of strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with single collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Miyuki; Ariyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Akira; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    A method for determining strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains was developed. The samples investigated in this study were rice, barley and wheat. The samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and heated in a heating block. Strontium and lead were separated from the matrix by adding an acid digested solution into a column packed with Sr resin, which has selectivity for the absorption of strontium and lead. Strontium and lead isotope ratios were determined using a high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) with a single collector. The intraday relative standard deviations of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) by HR-ICP-MS measurements were < 0.06% and around 0.1%, respectively. This method enabled us to determine strontium and lead isotope ratios in two days. (author)

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  14. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...... - I colour than the eastern component, suggesting the presence of at least some dust. We do not detect the host galaxy of GRB 000301C in neither Lyalpha emission nor in U and I broad-band images. The strongest limit comes from combining the narrow and U-band imaging where we infer a limit of U...

  15. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  16. Spatial distribution of neutrons in paraffin moderator surrounding a lead target irradiated with protons at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Bradnova, V

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of neutrons emitted during the irradiation with 0.65, 1.0 and 1.5 GeV protons from a lead target (O / = 8 cm, l = 20 cm) and moderated by a surrounding paraffin moderator of 6 cm thick was studied with a radiochemical sensor along the beam axis on top of the moderator. Small sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La-sensors of approximately 1 g were used to measure essentially the thermal neutron fluence at different depths near the surface: i.e., on top of the moderator, in 10 mm deep holes and in 20 mm deep holes. The reaction sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 4 sup 0 La (tau sub 1 sub / sub 2 = 40.27 h) was studied using standard procedures of gamma spectroscopy and data analysis. The neutron induced activity of sup 1 sup 4 sup 0 La increases strongly with the depth of the hole inside the moderator, its activity distribution along the beam direction on top of the moderator has its maximum about 10 cm downstream the entrance of the protons into the lead and the induced activity increases about linearity ...

  17. Air pollution and heart rate variability: effect modification by chronic lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; O'Neill, Marie S; Vokonas, Pantel S; Sparrow, David; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution and lead exposure can disturb cardiac autonomic function, but the effects of both these exposures together have not been studied. We examined whether higher cumulative lead exposures, as measured by bone lead, modified cross-sectional associations between air pollution and heart rate variability among 384 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. We used linear regression, controlling for clinical, demographic, and environmental covariates. We found graded, significant reductions in both high-frequency and low-frequency powers of heart rate variability in relation to ozone and sulfate across the quartiles of tibia lead. Interquartile range increases in ozone and sulfate were associated respectively, with 38% decrease (95% confidence interval = -54.6% to -14.9%) and 22% decrease (-40.4% to 1.6%) in high frequency, and 38% decrease (-51.9% to -20.4%) and 12% decrease (-28.6% to 9.3%) in low frequency, in the highest quartile of tibia lead after controlling for potential confounders. We observed similar but weaker effect modification by tibia lead adjusted for education and cumulative traffic (residuals of the regression of tibia lead on education and cumulative traffic). Patella lead modified only the ozone effect on heart rate variability. People with long-term exposure to higher levels of lead may be more sensitive to cardiac autonomic dysfunction on high air pollution days. Efforts to understand how environmental exposures affect the health of an aging population should consider both current levels of pollution and history of lead exposure as susceptibility factors.

  18. Identificación de la variante Q204x en ganado charbray en prueba de comportamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Arellano Vera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identificó por medio de discriminación alélica, la variante Q204X del gen de la Miostatina en un grupo de 34 toretes de la raza Charbray del Noroeste de México sometidos a pruebas de comportamiento. Se obtuvo una frecuencia de 9.3 % de portadores heterocigotos, y una frecuencia génica del 5 % en la muestra evaluada. Este es el primer reporte de la presencia de la variante Q204X en ganado Charbray, con el cual se abre la posibilidad de diseñar estrategias de identificación y cuantificación del efecto de la variante segregada para complementar los esquemas de mejoramiento genético basados en características productivas y reproductivas en el ganado Charbray de México.

  19. A humanized monoclonal antibody neutralizes yellow fever virus strain 17D-204 in vitro but does not protect a mouse model from disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Amanda E; Dixon, Kandice L; Piper, Joseph; Bennett, Susan L; Thibodeaux, Brett A; Barrett, Alan D T; Roehrig, John T; Blair, Carol D

    2016-07-01

    The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D-204 is considered safe and effective, yet rare severe adverse events (SAEs), some resulting in death, have been documented following vaccination. Individuals exhibiting post-vaccinal SAEs are ideal candidates for antiviral monoclonal antibody (MAb) therapy; the time until appearance of clinical signs post-exposure is usually short and patients are quickly hospitalized. We previously developed a murine-human chimeric monoclonal antibody (cMAb), 2C9-cIgG, reactive with both virulent YFV and 17D-204, and demonstrated its ability to prevent and treat YF disease in both AG129 mouse and hamster models of infection. To counteract possible selection of 17D-204 variants that escape neutralization by treatment with a single MAb (2C9-cIgG), we developed a second cMAb, 864-cIgG, for use in combination with 2C9-cIgG in post-vaccinal therapy. MAb 864-cIgG recognizes/neutralizes only YFV 17D-204 vaccine substrain and binds to domain III (DIII) of the viral envelope protein, which is different from the YFV type-specific binding site of 2C9-cIgG in DII. Although it neutralized 17D-204 in vitro, administration of 864-cIgG had no protective capacity in the interferon receptor-deficient AG129 mouse model of 17D-204 infection. The data presented here show that although DIII-specific 864-cIgG neutralizes virus infectivity in vitro, it does not have the ability to abrogate disease in vivo. Therefore, combination of 864-cIgG with 2C9-cIgG for treatment of YF vaccination SAEs does not appear to provide an improvement on 2C9-cIgG therapy alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integral measurements of neutron production in spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frehaut, J.; Deneuville, D.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Longuet, J.L.; Petibon, E.; Alrick, K.; Bownan, D.; Cverna, F.; King, N.S.P.; Morgan, G.L.; Greene, G.; Hanson, A.; Snead, L.; Thompson, R.; Ward, T.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of neutron production for thick iron, tungsten and lead targets of different diameter prototypic for spallation systems have been made at SATURNE in an incident proton energy range from 400 MeV to 2 GeV. TIERCE code system calculations are in good agreement with experiment for iron and large diameter tungsten and lead targets. They overestimate the measured neutron production for tungsten and lead targets for diameter ≤20 cm. (author)

  1. RESULTS OF AIRPLANE TU-204-300 OPERATED BY "VLADIVOSTOK AVIA" COMPANY FUEL FLOW MONITIRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Maslennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results obtained from continuous monitoring of fuel flow on the airplanes Tu-204-300, operated by the aircompany "Vladivostok Avia". The reasons for the change in the cost of each copy of airplane and changes in fuel characteristics due to pilots manner of flying.

  2. Lead isotopes as indicators of environmental contamination from the uranium mining and milling industry in the Grants Mineral Belt, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The unique isotopic composition of lead from uranium ores can be useful in studying the impact of ore processing effluents on the environment. Common lead on the earth's surface is composed of 1.4% 204 Pb, 24.1% 206 Pb, 22.1% 207 Pb, and 52.4% 208 Pb. In contrast, lead associated with young uranium ores may contain as much as 95% 206 Pb. These extreme differences provide the means to quantitatively evaluate the amount of lead introduced into the environment from the mining and milling of uranium ores by measuring variations of the isotopic composition of lead in environmental samples. The use of Pb isotopes as diagnostic tools in studying the hydrologic transport of materials from U ore dressing plants in the Grants Mineral Belt, New Mexico, is discussed. Preliminary measurements on effluents intimately associated with processing wastes are consistent with a simple model in which radiogenic lead from the ores is mixed with common lead from the uncontaminated environments

  3. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  4. Source and impact of lead contamination on δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.; Blasco, J.; Delgado, J.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Nieto, J.M.; Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 ± 1.09 μg g -1 Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 ± 0.10 μg g -1 Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels ( -1 Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e -8.3[Pb] ; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in marine bivalve species with different feeding habits. Lead isotope data

  5. Measurement of activation reaction rate distribution on a mercury target with a lead-reflector and light-water-moderator for high energy proton bombardment using AGS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Meigo, Shin-ichiro

    2001-02-01

    Characteristic of spallation neutrons driven by GeV protons from a mercury target with a lead-reflector and light-water-moderator was studied experimentally using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Several reaction rates along with the mercury target were measured with the activation method at incident proton energies of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV. Indium, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, nickel and bismuth were used as activation detectors to cover the threshold energy of between 0.33 and 40.9 MeV. This report summarizes the experimental procedure with all the measured data. (author)

  6. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  7. Process of Fragment-Based Lead Discovery—A Perspective from NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Ma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD has proven fruitful during the past two decades for a variety of targets, even challenging protein–protein interaction (PPI systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy plays a vital role, from initial fragment-based screening to lead generation, because of its power to probe the intrinsically weak interactions between targets and low-molecular-weight fragments. Here, we review the NMR FBLD process from initial library construction to lead generation. We describe technical aspects regarding fragment library design, ligand- and protein-observed screening, and protein–ligand structure model generation. For weak binders, the initial hit-to-lead evolution can be guided by structural information retrieved from NMR spectroscopy, including chemical shift perturbation, transferred pseudocontact shifts, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. This perspective examines structure-guided optimization from weak fragment screening hits to potent leads for challenging PPI targets.

  8. Spatial distribution of neutrons in paraffin moderator surrounding a lead target irradiated with protons at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Barabanov, M.Yu.; Bradnova, V.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of neutrons emitted during the irradiation with 0.65, 1.0 and 1.5 GeV protons from a lead target (O / = 8 cm, l = 20 cm) and moderated by a surrounding paraffin moderator of 6 cm thick was studied with a radiochemical sensor along the beam axis on top of the moderator. Small 139 La-sensors of approximately 1 g were used to measure essentially the thermal neutron fluence at different depths near the surface: i.e., on top of the moderator, in 10 mm deep holes and in 20 mm deep holes. The reaction 139 La(n, γ) 140 La (τ 1/2 = 40.27 h) was studied using standard procedures of gamma spectroscopy and data analysis. The neutron induced activity of 140 La increases strongly with the depth of the hole inside the moderator, its activity distribution along the beam direction on top of the moderator has its maximum about 10 cm downstream the entrance of the protons into the lead and the induced activity increases about linearity with the proton energy. Some comparisons of the experimental results with model estimations based on the LAHET code are also presented. The experiments were carried out using the Nuclotron accelerator of the Laboratory of High Energies (JINR)

  9. Post-irradiation analysis of an ISOLDE lead-bismuth target: Stable and long-lived noble gas nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leya, I., E-mail: Ingo.Leya@space.unibe.ch [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Grimberg, A. [University of Bern, Space Science and Planetology, Bern (Switzerland); Isotope Geochemistry, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); David, J.-C. [CEA/Saclay, Irfu/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Schumann, D.; Neuhausen, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 117, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Noah, E. [University of Geneva, Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the isotopic concentrations of long-lived and stable He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes in a sample from a lead-bismuth eutectic target irradiated with 1.0 and 1.4 GeV protons. Our data indicate for most noble gases nearly complete release with retention fractions in the range of percent or less. Higher retention fractions result from the decay of long-lived radioactive progenitors from groups 1, 2, or 7 of the periodic table. From the data we can calculate a retention fraction for {sup 3}H of 2–3%. For alkaline metals we find retention fractions of about 10%, 30%, and 50% for Na, Rb, and Cs, respectively. For the alkaline earth metal Ba we found complete retention. Finally, the measured Kr and Xe concentrations indicate that there was some release of the halogens Br and I during and/or after the irradiation.

  10. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241 C 204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2007-05-23

    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct 90Sr values in Chapter 3. The changes were made on page 3.9, paragraph two and Table 3.10; page 3.16, last paragraph on the page; and Tables 3.21 and 3.31. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in October 2004. This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  12. 8 CFR 204.308 - Where to file Form I-800A or Form I-800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee § 204.308 Where to file Form I-800A or... adjudicate the child's application for an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa has jurisdiction to grant final.... When, and if, USCIS adopts electronic, internet-based or other digital means for filing Convention...

  13. 17 CFR 275.204-2 - Books and records to be maintained by investment advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., financial statements, and internal audit working papers relating to the business of such investment adviser... pursuant to § 275.204A-1 that is in effect, or at any time within the past five years was in effect; (ii) A... currently, or within the past five years was, a supervised person of the investment adviser. (13)(i) A...

  14. 30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The... information on Form MMS-2014 for the calendar year, the same as if it were a monthly report; and (5) Report... section until the date MMS receives it. (d) If you take relief you are not qualified for, you may be...

  15. LncRNA TUG1 sponges miR-204-5p to promote osteoblast differentiation through upregulating Runx2 in aortic valve calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cong; Li, Lifu; Xie, Fei; Guo, Shichao; Liu, Fayuan; Dong, Nianguo; Wang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. Although the lncRNA TUG1 is implicated in atherosclerosis, its function in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown. In this study, we found that TUG1 was highly expressed in human aortic valves and primary valve interstitial cells (VICs). Moreover, TUG1 knockdown induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in CAVD both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, silencing of TUG1 increased the expression of miR-204-5p and subsequently inhibited Runx2 expression at the post-transcriptional level. Importantly, TUG1 directly interacted with miR-204-5p and downregulation of miR-204-5p efficiently reversed the suppression of Runx2 induced by TUG1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Thus, TUG1 positively regulated the expression of Runx2, through sponging miR-204-5p, and promoted osteogenic differentiation in CAVD. All together, the evidence generated by our study elucidates the role of lncRNA TUG1 as a miRNA sponge in CAVD, and sheds new light on lncRNA-directed diagnostics and therapeutics in CAVD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Minimal invasive epicardial lead implantation: optimizing cardiac resynchronization with a new mapping device for epicardial lead placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, J G; Phelps, B; Dekker, A L A J; Dijkman, B

    2004-05-01

    To optimize resynchronization in biventricular pacing with epicardial leads, mapping to determine the best pacing site, is a prerequisite. A port access surgical mapping technique was developed that allowed multiple pace site selection and reproducible lead evaluation and implantation. Pressure-volume loops analysis was used for real time guidance in targeting epicardial lead placement. Even the smallest changes in lead position revealed significantly different functional results. Optimizing the pacing site with this technique allowed functional improvement up to 40% versus random pace site selection.

  17. Advisory group meeting on design and performance of reactor and subcritical blanket systems with lead and lead-bismuth as coolant and/or target material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Design and Performance of Reactor and Sub-critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-Bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material was to provide a forum for international information exchange on all the topics relevant to Pb and Pb/Bi cooled critical and sub-critical reactors. In addition, the AGM aimed at: (1) finding ways and means to improve international co-ordination efforts in this area; (2) obtaining advice from the Member States with regard to the activities to be implemented in this area by the IAEA, in order to best meet their needs; and (3) laying out the plans for an effective co-ordination and support of the R and D activities in this area. The AGM stressed that nuclear energy is a realistic solution to satisfy the energy demand, considering the limited resources of fossil fuel, its uneven distribution in the world and the impact of its use on the planet, and taking into account the expected doubling of the world population in the 21st century and tripling of the electricity demand (especially in the developing countries). However, the AGM concluded that the development of an innovative nuclear technology meeting the following requirements must be pursued: (a) deterministic exclusion of any severe accident; (b) proliferation resistance; (c) cost competitiveness with alternative energy sources; (d) sustainable fuel supply; and (e) solution of the radioactive waste management problem

  18. Levels and transitions in /sup 204/Pb and the four valence neutron-hole configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, J.M.; Hicks, S.E.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Yates, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of the nucleus /sup 204/Pb have been investigated using the (n,n'γ) reaction, and γ rays from low-spin excited levels have been observed. Forty-three low-spin levels connected by 78 γ rays are found below 2.9 MeV, whereas only about 28 levels had previously been known. The levels below 2 MeV excitation energy are expected to be dominated by the p/sub 1/2/, f/sub 5/2/, and p/sub 3/2/ valence neutron hole excitations, and 0 + levels at 0, 1730, and 2433.1 keV are associated primarily with these configurations. These states are at almost the same excitation energies as parent 0 + excitations in /sup 206/Pb. Approximately six unnatural-parity levels are identified; this is close to the number predicted in six orbit valence-space shell model calculations. The number of natural-parity levels found, however, is almost twice that calculated with the shell model. Levels and transitions below 2 MeV excitation energy are consistent with expectations basing /sup 204/Pb states on correlated two-hole excitations dominant in /sup 206/Pb

  19. Review and research analysis of computational target methods using BioRuby and in silico screening of herbal lead compounds against pancreatic cancer using R programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadeepa, R M; Ray, Ankita; Naik, Dhaval; Sanyal, Debendra Nath; Shah, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Plants and their natural components sophisticated with the cornerstone of traditional conventional medicinal system throughout the globe for many years and extend to furnish mankind with latest remedies. Natural Products act as lead molecules for the synthesis of various potent drugs. In the current research a study is conducted on herbal small molecule and their potential binding chemical affinity to the effect or molecules of major diseases such as pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate correlation between Cyclin- Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) and malignant progression of Pancreatic Cancer. Using Bioruby Gem's we were able to analyze better characteristics of the target protein. VegaZZ and NAMD were used to minimize the energy of the target protein. Therefore identification of effective, well- tolerated targets was analyzed. Further the target protein was subjected to docking with the anti cancer inhibitors which represents a rational chemo preventive strategy using AutoDock Vina. Later using the dock score top ranked phytochemicals were analyzed for Toxicity Analysis. Using the BioRuby gem we were able to measure the distance between the amino acid. Various R scripting libraries were used to hunt the best leads, as in this case the phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as Wedelolactones and Catechin were analyzed computationally. This study has presented the various effects of naturally occurring anti pancreatic cancer compounds Catechin, Wedelolactones that inhibits Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4. The study results reveal that compounds use less binding energy to CDK4 and inhibit its activity. Future investigation of other various wet lab studies such as cell line studies will confirm results of these two herbal chemical formulations potential ones for treating Pancreatic Cancer.

  20. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  1. Cortical Morphogenesis during Embryonic Development Is Regulated by miR-34c and miR-204

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veno, Morten T.; Veno, Susanne T.; Rehberg, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The porcine brain closely resembles the human brain in aspects such as development and morphology. Temporal miRNA profiling in the developing embryonic porcine cortex revealed a distinct set of miRNAs, including miR-34c and miR-204, which exhibited a highly specific expression profile across...

  2. Targeted deletion of kidney glucose-6 phosphatase leads to nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clar, Julie; Gri, Blandine; Calderaro, Julien; Birling, Marie-Christine; Herault, Yann; Smit, G. Peter A.; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajas, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Renal failure is a major complication that arises with aging in glycogen storage disease type 1a and type 1b patients. In the kidneys, glucose-6 phosphatase catalytic subunit (encoded by G6pc) deficiency leads to the accumulation of glycogen, an effect resulting in marked nephromegaly and

  3. Strategic Targeted Advertising and Market Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lola Esteban; Jose M. Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    This paper proves that oligopolistic price competition with both targeted advertising and targeted prices can lead to a permanent fragmentation of the market into a local monopoly. However, compared to mass advertising, targeting increases social welfare and turns out to be more beneficial for consumers than for firms.

  4. Handbook on lead-bismuth eutectic alloy and lead properties, materials compatibility, thermal-hydraulics and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    As part of the development of advanced nuclear systems, including accelerator-driven systems (ADS) proposed for high-level radioactive waste transmutation and generation IV reactors, heavy liquid metals such as lead (Pb) or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) are under evaluation as reactor core coolant and ADS neutron target material. Heavy liquid metals are also being envisaged as target materials for high-power neutron spallation sources. The objective of this handbook is to collate and publish properties and experimental results on Pb and LBE in a consistent format in order to provide designers with a single source of qualified properties and data and to guide subsequent development efforts. The handbook covers liquid Pb and LBE properties, materials compatibility and testing issues, key aspects of the thermal-hydraulics and system technologies, existing test facilities, open issues and perspectives. (author)

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  6. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation... Section 718.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... than those listed in Table B1 (Males) or Table B2 (Females) in Appendix B to this part for an...

  7. Lead isotopic compositions of South Sandwich Island volcanic rocks and their bearing on magmagenesis in intra-oceanic island arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, B.

    1983-01-01

    Pb isotope ratios have been measured in 12 volcanic rocks from the South Sandwich Islands. The results are reported. In 207 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb correlation diagrams, the South Sandwich data plot distinctly above the fields for ocean ridge basalts, and yield trends showing apparent mixing with a sedimentary end member similar to South Atlantic pelagic sediments as reported by Chow and Patterson (1962) and this study. Armstrong and Cooper (1971) have likewise shown that volcanics from the Lesser Antilles show mixing trends with North Atlantic sediments in Pb isotope correlation diagrams. The North Atlantic sediments have distinctly higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios compared to the South Atlantic sediments. The parallel relationships between sediments and volcanic island arc rocks of the North and South Atlantic provide strong evidence for a component of Pb from subducted sediments in the lavas of the west Atlantic basin. In contrast to these data, lavas from the Mariana Arc in the western Pacific show little or no component of Pb from pelagic sediments. The reason for the different behaviors in the two settings is speculative. (author)

  8. Comparison of the live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D-204 strain to its virulent parental strain Asibi by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; Tesh, Robert B; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Ryman, Kate D; Barrett, Alan D T

    2014-02-01

    The first comparison of a live RNA viral vaccine strain to its wild-type parental strain by deep sequencing is presented using as a model the yellow fever virus (YFV) live vaccine strain 17D-204 and its wild-type parental strain, Asibi. The YFV 17D-204 vaccine genome was compared to that of the parental strain Asibi by massively parallel methods. Variability was compared on multiple scales of the viral genomes. A modeled exploration of small-frequency variants was performed to reconstruct plausible regions of mutational plasticity. Overt quasispecies diversity is a feature of the parental strain, whereas the live vaccine strain lacks diversity according to multiple independent measurements. A lack of attenuating mutations in the Asibi population relative to that of 17D-204 was observed, demonstrating that the vaccine strain was derived by discrete mutation of Asibi and not by selection of genomes in the wild-type population. Relative quasispecies structure is a plausible correlate of attenuation for live viral vaccines. Analyses such as these of attenuated viruses improve our understanding of the molecular basis of vaccine attenuation and provide critical information on the stability of live vaccines and the risk of reversion to virulence.

  9. Lead-lead systematics, the 'age of the earth' and the chemical evolution of our planet in a new representation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhes, G.; Allegre, C.J.; Dupre, B.; Hamelin, B.

    1979-01-01

    A new way to look at the Pb-Pb isotopic results is proposed. The characteristics are as follows: (1) knowledge of the initial ratios of cogenetic samples is not necessary to discuss the isotopic evolution of parent bodies; and (2) linear representations are permissible thus allowing for a simplified treatment in comparison to the classical 206 Pb/ 204 Pb vs. 207 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram. Using Pb-Pb data of terrestrial samples, either stated in past reasearch or as recently measured by the laboratory, problems such as the Earth's age and its evolution are being dealt with utilising this new formalism. The treatment for a set of mantle whole-rock measurements, assuming only the initial isotopic composition furnishes a value for the Earth's age of 4.49 +- 0.17 b.y. (Auth.)

  10. Characterization of a new candidate isotopic reference material for natural Pb using primary measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonose, Naoko; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Miura, Tsutomu; Hioki, Akiharu

    2017-06-29

    A lead isotopic standard solution with natural abundance has been developed by applying a mixture of a solution of enriched 208 Pb and a solution of enriched 204 Pb ( 208 Pb- 204 Pb double spike solution) as bracketing method. The amount-of-substance ratio of 208 Pb: 204 Pb in this solution is accurately measured by applying EDTA titrimetry, which is one of the primary measurement methods, to each enriched Pb isotope solution. Also metal impurities affecting EDTA titration and minor lead isotopes contained in each enriched Pb isotope solution are quantified by ICP-SF-MS. The amount-of-substance ratio of 208 Pb: 204 Pb in the 208 Pb- 204 Pb double spike solution is 0.961959 ± 0.000056 (combined standard uncertainty; k = 1). Both the measurement of lead isotope ratios in a candidate isotopic standard solution and the correction of mass discrimination in MC-ICP-MS are carried out by coupling of a bracketing method with the 208 Pb- 204 Pb double spike solution and a thallium internal addition method, where thallium solution is added to the standard and the sample. The measured lead isotope ratios and their expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in the candidate isotopic standard solution are 18.0900 ± 0.0046 for 206 Pb: 204 Pb, 15.6278 ± 0.0036 for 207 Pb: 204 Pb, 38.0626 ± 0.0089 for 208 Pb: 204 Pb, 2.104406 ± 0.00013 for 208 Pb: 206 Pb, and 0.863888 ± 0.000036 for 207 Pb: 206 Pb. The expanded uncertainties are about one half of the stated uncertainty for NIST SRM 981, for 208 Pb: 204 Pb, 207 Pb: 204 Pb and 206 Pb: 204 Pb, or one eighth, for 208 Pb: 206 Pb and 207 Pb: 206 Pb, The combined uncertainty consists of the uncertainties due to lead isotope ratio measurements and the remaining time-drift effect of mass discrimination in MC-ICP-MS, which is not removed by the coupled correction method. In the measurement of 208 Pb: 204 Pb, 207 Pb: 204 Pb and 206 Pb: 204 Pb, the latter contribution is two or three times larger than the former. When the coupling of

  11. Design of the FMIT lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Annese, C.E.; Greenwell, R.K.; Ingham, J.G.; Miles, R.R.; Miller, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development of the liquid lithium target for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is described. The target concept, major design goals and design requirements are presented. Progress made in the research and development areas leading to detailed design of the target is discussed. This progress, including experimental and analytic results, demonstrates that the FMIT target design is capable of meeting its major design goals and requirements

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  13. Protein Targeting: ER Leads the Way to the Inner Nuclear Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig

    2017-12-04

    Efficient targeting of newly synthesized membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the inner nuclear membrane depends on nucleotide hydrolysis. A new study shows that this dependence reflects critical actions of the atlastin family of GTPases in maintaining the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum network. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. 30 CFR 204.206 - What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will MMS do when it receives my request... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.206 What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief? When MMS receives your...

  15. Electron Scattering from MERCURY-198 and Mercury -204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksanaboonsong, Jarungsaeng

    This experiment is the first electron scattering study on mercury isotopes. Electron scattering from ^{198}Hg and ^{204 }Hg has been performed at the NIKHEF-K Medium Energy Accelerator. Measured cross sections cover an effective momentum transfer range from 0.4 to 2.9 fm^ {-1}. Elastic cross sections were determined for scattering from both isotopes. Cross section for inelastic excitations in ^{198}Hg below 3 MeV were also determined. Measured cross sections were fit using DWBA phase shift codes to determine coefficients for Fourier-Bessel expansions of ground state and transition charge densities. Differences between the ground state charge densities of the two isotopes reveal the effect of the polarization of the proton core in response to the addition of neutrons. Spin and parity of several excited states of ^{198}Hg were determined. Extracted transition densities of these states show their predominantly collective nature. Charge densities for members of the ground state rotational band were compared with axially symmetric Hartree-Fock and geometrical model predictions.

  16. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  17. Community composition of target vs. non-target fungi in fungicide treated wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    disease in wheat and within the last decade, new aggressive strains of yellow rust has caused severe epidemics that lead to substantial yield losses. This study explored the community composition of target versus non-target fungi in yellow rust infected wheat as affected by treatment timing and dose......Fungicide treatments are common control strategies used to manage fungal pathogens in agricultural fields, however, effects of treatments on the composition of total fungal communities, including non-target fungi, in the phyllosphere is not well known. Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) is a common...

  18. High spin states excited by the (p, t) reaction on lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumabe, I.; Hyakutake, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuasa, K.; Yamagata, T.; Kishimoto, S.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find high spin states the sup(204, 206, 208)Pb (p, t) reactions have been investigated with RCNP isochronous cyclotron and a high resolution magnetic spectrograph ''RAIDEN''. The experimental angular distributions were analyzed by DWBA calculations, and the lowest 10/sup +/, 12/sup +/ (i sub(13/2))/sup 2/ and 11/sup -/ (i sub(13/2), h sub(9/2)) states in /sup 202/Pb, /sup 204/Pb and /sup 206/Pb were established.

  19. Studies of photon spectra from a thallium-204 foil source as an aid to dosimetry and shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, T M

    1976-01-01

    Beta ray foil sources incorporating nuclides such as thallium-204, promethium-147 and strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 ar increasingly used in industrial devices such as thickness gauges. These sources are so constructed that they give rise to complex photon spectra containing low energy Bremsstrahlung and X-rays characteristic of the constructional materials. The energy response of practical monitoring instruments is such that they are likely to underestimate the dose due to such spectra unless they are calibrated using appropriate spectra. This report describes a series of measurements carried out on a commercially available thallium-204 foil source and five commonly used shielding materials. The measurements made with a NaI(T1) spectrometer have been corrected for instrumental distortions to obtain the photon spectra in air. These spectra are presented and have been used to compute dose in air with the help of published data on mass energy-absorption coefficients. Also included in the report are data derived f...

  20. Th{sup 232} (n,2n) Th{sup 231} cross section from threshold to 20.4 Mev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J P; Santry, D C

    1961-07-01

    The excitation curve for the reaction Th{sup 232} (n,2n) Th{sup 231} has been measured by the activation method from the threshold energy, 6.34 Mev, to 20.4 Mev, relative to the known cross section for the S{sup 32} (n, p) P{sup 32} reaction. Monoenergetic neutrons were obtained from the D (d,n) He{sup 3} and T (d,n) He{sup 4} reactions employing a Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. From threshold to 9.0 Mev, the (n,2n) cross section rises rapidly, reaching its maximum value of 1.88 {+-} 0.09 barns in the region of 9.5 to 11.0 Mev. Above 11.5 Mev the (n,2n) cross section decreases due to competition of the (n,3n) and (n,2nf) reactions and at 20.4 Mev it has a value of 0.22{sub 5} {+-} 0.01{sub 5} barns. (author)

  1. High Burden of Subclinical Lead Toxicity after Phase Out of Lead from Petroleum in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hafsa; Khan, Aysha Habib; Khan, Nadeem Ullah; Siddiqui, Imran; Ghani, Farooq; Jafri, Lena

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the frequency of subclinical lead toxicity. Cross-sectional study. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2014. Analysis of laboratory data for blood lead levels (BLL) was performed. Lead was tested by atomic absorption spectrometer. For all subjects, only initial test results were included while the results of repeated testing were excluded. Exemption was sought from institutional ethical review committee. BLL of 2-10 ug/dl and 10-70 ug/dl in children and adults, respectively were taken as subclinical lead toxicity. Amongst the total number of subjects tested (n=524), 26.5% (n=139) were children (lead level 16.9 ug/dl (36.1-4)] and lower level [4.2 ug/dl (6.8-2.6)] in children with lead levels while most had either subclinical (76%, n=106) or toxic lead levels (8%, n=11). In adults, (55%, n=212) subjects had desired lead levels, and 40% (n=154) and 4.99% (n=19) had subclinical and toxic lead levels. Presence of subclinical lead poisoning even after phasing out of lead petroleum in Pakistanis is alarming, especially in children. A national population-based study to determine the lead status and targeted intervention to identify potential sources is need of the time.

  2. Determined Initial lead for South Of Isua (SOI) terrain suggests a single homogeneous source for it and possibly other archaean rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera, F.

    2011-12-01

    A Thorogenic-Uranogenic Lead Isotope Plane (TULIP), which entails plotting 206/208 (or its reverse) vs 207/208 (or its reverse), was applied to the Pb data on South of Isua (SOI) by Kamber et al., (1). When the data on 20 samples of these rocks and feldspars are plotted in pairs (each pair is a rock and its feldspar) on TULIP, they fall on 10 mixing lines that converge on a single spot (Fig. 1). This is the end member initial lead (EMIL). The 206/208 & 207/208 so determined are 0.3675 and 0.43525, respectively. From these values one calculates 207/206 = 1.1843 ± 0.0007, for EMIL. This pattern requires either: A) each pair has a singular kappa, K = 232Th/238U, different from others, or B) a pair's in situ decay Pb was homogenized in recent times. On 204/206 vs 207/206 diagram, the whole rocks of SOI define a 3.776 Ga isochron (2). From this and EMIL's 207/206, one obtains: 206/204 = 10.977, 207/204 = 12.974; and 208/204 = 29.756. This singularity of initial Pb contrasts with a deduced variability by the original authors (1). EMIL's radiogenic *(207/206) = 1.6220, gives a single-stage age = 5.9 Ga, indicating inapplicability of its evolution in one stage. Also, the μ calculated from 238U-206Pb for the single stage is different from that inferred from 235U-207Pb, confirming disqualification of this scenario. Reconciliation of the two decay schemes necessitates assumption of EMIL evolution in a minimum of two stages. Starting at 4.563 Ga, five scenarios were assumed: First stage ends and second starts at 4.55, 4.54, 4.53, 4.52 or 4.51 Ga. Second stages end at 3.776 Ga. The calculated μ1 for the first stage are 106, 59.5, 44.6, 36.3 and 30.9 respectively. For μ2 the change is limited, from 5.45 to 5.28. Only an average calculated K for both stages is possible. For the five outlined scenarios it ranges from 1.118 to 1.111. Earlier, Tera (3) observed that initial Pb of the oldest terrestrial reservoir requires evolution in two stages. There too μ1 >> μ2. Data on

  3. A small animal peripheral challenge model of yellow fever using interferon-receptor deficient mice and the 17D-204 vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux, Brett A; Garbino, Nina C; Liss, Nathan M; Piper, Joseph; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T

    2012-05-02

    Yellow fever virus (YFV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is a mosquito-borne pathogen that requires wild-type (wt), virulent strains to be handled at biosafety level (BSL) 3, with HEPA-filtration of room air exhaust (BSL3+). YFV is found in tropical regions of Africa and South America and causes severe hepatic disease and death in humans. Despite the availability of effective vaccines (17D-204 or 17DD), YFV is still responsible for an estimated 200,000 cases of illness and 30,000 deaths annually. Besides vaccination, there are no other prophylactic or therapeutic strategies approved for use in human YF. Current small animal models of YF require either intra-cranial inoculation of YF vaccine to establish infection, or use of wt strains (e.g., Asibi) in order to achieve pathology. We have developed and characterized a BSL2, adult mouse peripheral challenge model for YFV infection in mice lacking receptors for interferons α, β, and γ (strain AG129). Intraperitoneal challenge of AG129 mice with 17D-204 is a uniformly lethal in a dose-dependent manner, and 17D-204-infected AG129 mice exhibit high viral titers in both brain and liver suggesting this infection is both neurotropic and viscerotropic. Furthermore the use of a mouse model permitted the construction of a 59-biomarker multi-analyte profile (MAP) using samples of brain, liver, and serum taken at multiple time points over the course of infection. This MAP serves as a baseline for evaluating novel therapeutics and their effect on disease progression. Changes (4-fold or greater) in serum and tissue levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators as well as other factors associated with tissue damage were noted in AG129 mice infected with 17D-204 as compared to mock-infected control animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. HAMS: High-Affinity Mass Spectrometry Screening. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Identifying the Tightest-Binding Lead Compounds for Target Proteins with No False Positive Identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaduwage, Kasun P; Go, Eden P; Zhu, Zhikai; Desaire, Heather

    2016-11-01

    A major challenge in drug discovery is the identification of high affinity lead compounds that bind a particular target protein; these leads are typically identified by high throughput screens. Mass spectrometry has become a detection method of choice in drug screening assays because the target and the ligand need not be modified. Label-free assays are advantageous because they can be developed more rapidly than assays requiring labels, and they eliminate the risk of the label interfering with the binding event. However, in commonly used MS-based screening methods, detection of false positives is a major challenge. Here, we describe a detection strategy designed to eliminate false positives. In this approach, the protein and the ligands are incubated together, and the non-binders are separated for detection. Hits (protein binders) are not detectable by MS after incubation with the protein, but readily identifiable by MS when the target protein is not present in the incubation media. The assay was demonstrated using three different proteins and hundreds of non-inhibitors; no false positive hits were identified in any experiment. The assay can be tuned to select for ligands of a particular binding affinity by varying the quantity of protein used and the immobilization method. As examples, the method selectively detected inhibitors that have K i values of 0.2 μM, 50 pM, and 700 pM. These findings demonstrate that the approach described here compares favorably with traditional MS-based screening methods. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. Surface Laser Scanning Measurements for the n_TOF spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V; Cennini, P; Lebbos, E; Lettry, J

    2010-01-01

    The n_TOF spallation target is made of pure lead immersed into cooling water. The target was operating normally from 2001 until august 2004, when an increased transfer of radioactive products from the spallation target to the cooling circuit has been observed. The target was considered damaged by the safety commission (SC/RP), and an investigation campaign started to verify the actual status of the target. According to FLUKA and Ansys calculations the target was working in the elastoplastic regime of the lead material, therefore a deformation might be expected. The present paper describes a laser photographic method and the results of a possible such deformation. The target had a surface activity of the order of 20 mSv/h, therefore we were forced to perform the measurement from distance. The used method, is based on a linelaser and a high resolution digital camera for retrieving the 3D position of the surface of the lead target. Similar methods are used in the film industry and animation studios for scanning ...

  6. Total fragmentation cross section of 158A GeV lead projectiles in Cu target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar Ahmed Rana; Shahid Manzoor

    2008-01-01

    Total fragmentation cross section for the reaction 158A Pb ions + Cu target is measured using the most sensitive track detector CR-39. Measured values are compared with calculations. Exposures of target-detector stack with 158A Pb projectiles are made at CERN-SPS beam facility. Results of calibration of CR-39 detector in a charge region (63≤Z≤83) are also reported, which can be used for high energy particle identification using CR-39 and in determination of partial charge changing cross sections. The charge resolution σ Z achieved by this technique is about 0.2e. A systematic dependence of total fragmentation cross section on target properties is revealed and the corresponding results are presented. (authors)

  7. Depth profile of production yields of {sup nat}Pb(p, xn) {sup 206,205,204,203,202,201}Bi nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Nam-Suk; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Arim; Bae, Oryun [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Seock, E-mail: lee@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Experimental and simulation studies on the depth profiles of production yields of {sup nat}Pb(p, xn) {sup 206,205,204,203,202,201}Bi nuclear reactions were carried out. Irradiation experiments were performed at the high-intensity proton linac facility (KOMAC) in Korea. The targets, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, were arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using {sup 27}Al(p, 3p1n){sup 24}Na, {sup 197}Au(p, p1n){sup 196}Au, and {sup 197}Au(p, p3n){sup 194}Au monitor reactions and also by Gafchromic film dosimetry method. The yields of produced radio-nuclei in the {sup nat}Pb activation foils and monitor foils were measured by HPGe spectroscopy system. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS/DCHAIN-SP, and MCNPX/FISPACT codes and the calculated data were compared with the experimental results. A satisfactory agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations.

  8. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xu [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dapeng [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yamanaka, Kenzo [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); An, Yan, E-mail: dranyan@126.com [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  9. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  10. Lead isotope profiling in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John; McClure-Brinton, Kimberly; Zyskowski, Justin; Stensen, Lauren; Lehner, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a common cause of heavy metal poisonings in cattle. Sources of Pb on farms include crankcase oil, machinery grease, batteries, plumbing, and paint chips. Consequently, consumption of Pb from these sources may negatively impact animal health and Pb may be inadvertently introduced into the food supply. Therefore, the scope of poisoning incidents must be clearly assessed and sources of intoxication identified and strategies to mitigate exposure evaluated and implemented to prevent future exposures. Stable isotope analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has proven itself of value in forensic investigations. We report on the extension of Pb stable isotope analysis to bovine tissues and profile comparisons with paint chips and soils collected from an affected dairy farm to elucidate the primary source. Pb occurs naturally as four stable isotopes: (204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb. Herein a case is reported to illustrate the use of (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios to link environmental sources of exposure with tissues from a poisoned animal. Chemical Pb profiling provides a valuable tool for field investigative approaches to Pb poisoning in production agriculture and is applicable to subclinical exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Total Fragmentation Cross Section of 158A GeV Lead Projectiles in Cu Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Total fragmentation cross section for the reaction 158 A Pb ions + Cu target is measured using the most sensitive track detector CR-39. Measured values are compared with calculations. Exposures of target-detector stack with 158A Pb projectiles are made at CERN-SPS beam facility. Results of calibration of CR-39 detector in a charge region (63 ≤ Z ≤ 83) are also reported, which can be used for high energy particle identification using CR-39 and in determination of partial charge changing cross sections. The charge resolution σ z achieved by this technique is about 0.2e. A systematic dependence of total fragmentation cross section on target properties is revealed and the corresponding results are presented. (nuclear physics)

  12. Yellow fever vaccine: comparison of the neurovirulence of new 17D-204 Stamaril™ seed lots and RK 168-73 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Jean-Claude; Silvano, Jérémy; Barban, Véronique; Riou, Patrice; Allain, Caroline

    2013-07-01

    The neurovirulence of two new candidate 17D-204 Stamaril™ working seed lots and that of two reference preparations were compared. The Stamaril™ working seed lots have been used for more than twenty years for the manufacturing of vaccines of acceptable safety and efficacy. The preparation designated RK 168-73 and provided by the Robert Koch Institute was used as a reference. It was confirmed that RK 168-73 strain was not a good virus control in our study because it has a very low neurovirulence regarding both the clinical and histopathological scores in comparison with Stamaril™ strain and is not representative of a vaccine known to be satisfactory in use. The results were reinforced by the phenotypic characterization by plaque assay demonstrating that RK 168-73 was very different from the Stamaril™ vaccine, and by sequencing results showing 4 mutations between Stamaril™ and RK 168-73 viruses leading to amino acid differences in the NS4B and envelop proteins. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the AGS experiment on a mercury target with a moderator and a lead reflector bombarded by GeV energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Ino, Takashi; Sato, Setsuo

    2001-01-01

    The AGS experiment on a mercury target with a moderator and a lead reflector bombarded by GeV energy protons was analyzed to investigate prediction capability of Monte Carlo simulation codes used in neutronic designs of spallation neutron sources. The NMTC/JAM code was used for nucleon meson transport calculations above 20 MeV while the MCNP-4A code with the JENDL cross section library was used for neutron transport below 20 MeV. The MCNPX code with the LA-150 library was also used for a reference. The calculations were compared with the experimental data obtained with 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV proton beams: (1) neutron flux distributions along the mercury target and (2) spectral fluxes of thermal neutrons extracted from a light water moderator. As a result, it was found that all the calculations predicted these experimental results with accuracies better than ±50% in absolute values. Accordingly, it was concluded that these calculation codes were adequate for neutronics designs of spallation neutron sources. (author)

  14. Depth profiles of production yields of natPb(p, xn206,205,204,203,202 Bi reactions using 100-MeV proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranj Leila Mokhtari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, results of the experimental study on the depth profiles of production yields of 206,205,204,203,202Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb target irradiated by a 100-MeV proton beam are presented. Irradiation was performed at proton linac facility (KOMAC in Korea. The target, irradiated by 100-MeV protons, was arranged in a stack consisting of natural Pb, Al, Au foils and Pb plates. The proton beam intensity was determined by activation analysis method using 27Al(p, 3p1n24Na, 197Au(p, p1n196Au, and 197Au(p, p3n194Au monitor reactions and also using dosimetry method by a Gafchromic film. The production yields of produced Bi radio-nuclei in the natural Pb foils and monitor reactions were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX codes and compared with the measurements in order to verify validity of physical models and nuclear data libraries in the Monte Carlo codes. A fairly good agreement was observed between the present experimental data and the simulations by FLUKA, PHITS, and MCNPX. However, physical models and the nuclear data relevant to the end of range of protons in the codes need to be improved.

  15. Current practices in generation of small molecule new leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, R A

    2001-01-01

    The current drug discovery processes in many pharmaceutical companies require large and growing collections of high quality lead structures for use in high throughput screening assays. Collections of small molecules with diverse structures and "drug-like" properties have, in the past, been acquired by several means: by archive of previous internal lead optimization efforts, by purchase from compound vendors, and by union of separate collections following company mergers. More recently, many drug discovery companies have established dedicated efforts to effect synthesis by internal and/or outsourcing efforts of targeted compound libraries for new lead generation. Although high throughput/combinatorial chemistry is an important component in the process of new lead generation, the selection of library designs for synthesis and the subsequent design of library members has evolved to a new level of challenge and importance. The potential benefits of screening multiple small molecule compound library designs against multiple biological targets offers substantial opportunity to discover new lead structures. Subsequent optimization of such compounds is often accelerated because of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) information encoded in these lead generation libraries. Lead optimization is often facilitated due to the ready applicability of high-throughput chemistry (HTC) methods for follow-up synthesis. Some of the strategies, trends, and critical issues central to the success of lead generation processes are discussed below. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of binary (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles via a simple heat treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqer, Anwar Ali; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Al-Hada, Naif Mohammed; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Saion, Elias; Chyi, Josephine Liew Ying; Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che

    2018-06-01

    A binary (CuO)0.6 (CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment method, using copper nitrate, cerium nitrate as precursors, PVP as capping agent and de-ionized water as a solvent. The structures, morphology, composition of the element and optical properties of these nanoparticles have been studied under different temperatures using various techniques. The XRD spectrum of the samples at 500 °C and above confirmed the existence of both monoclinic (CuO) and cubic fluorite (CeO2) structures. The findings of FESEM and TEM exhibited the average practical size and agglomeration increment with an elevation in the calcination temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by FTIR, which indicated the formation of binary Cu-O and Ce-O bonds. The EDX analysis was performed to indicate the chemical composition of the sample. The double energy band gaps of (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 reduction with rising calcination temperature, can be referred to the enhancement of the crystallinity of the samples. PL intensity of (CuO)0.6(CeO2)0.4 nanoparticles peaks, which increased with the elevation of the calcination temperature to 800 °C was observed from the PL spectrum; this was due to the increment of the particle size that occurred.

  17. Methods of thallium-201 preparation from proton irradiated thallium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preparation from Tl-targets irradiated by protons: oxidation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. At first radioactive lead is separated from the target material - thallium macroquantities during ∼32 hours, then thallium-201 was separated from residual activity of lead radioisotopes and transformed it into the necessary chemical formula. The 1st and 2nd methods differ from each other by the 1st stage of target retreatment; only extraction was used to separate radioactive lead in the 2nd method. The target was solved in H 2 SO 4 . The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - higher than 95 %. Volumetric activity of thallium-201 prepared is more than 55 MBq/ml. 5 refs

  18. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-03-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment.

  19. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. (opinion)

  20. Immunological Reactivity Using Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies of Autoimmune Thyroid Target Sites with Dietary Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many hypothyroid and autoimmune thyroid patients experience reactions with specific foods. Additionally, food interactions may play a role in a subset of individuals who have difficulty finding a suitable thyroid hormone dosage. Our study was designed to investigate the potential role of dietary protein immune reactivity with thyroid hormones and thyroid axis target sites. We identified immune reactivity between dietary proteins and target sites on the thyroid axis that includes thyroid hormones, thyroid receptors, enzymes, and transport proteins. We also measured immune reactivity of either target specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH receptor, 5′deiodinase, thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine against 204 purified dietary proteins commonly consumed in cooked and raw forms. Dietary protein determinants included unmodified (raw and modified (cooked and roasted foods, herbs, spices, food gums, brewed beverages, and additives. There were no dietary protein immune reactions with TSH receptor, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroxine-binding globulin. However, specific antigen-antibody immune reactivity was identified with several purified food proteins with triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroglobulin, and 5′deiodinase. Laboratory analysis of immunological cross-reactivity between thyroid target sites and dietary proteins is the initial step necessary in determining whether dietary proteins may play a potential immunoreactive role in autoimmune thyroid disease.

  1. Neutron Production in Spallation Reactions of 0.9 and 1.5 GeV Protons on a Thick Lead Target. Comparison between Experimental Data and Monte-Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Krasa, A; Bradnova, V; Caloun, P; Chultem, D; Henzl, V; Henzlová, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Krivopustov, M I; Krízek, F; Kugler, A; Majerle, M; Solnyshkin, A A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Tumendelger, T; Vasilev, S I; Wagner, V; Nuclear Physics Institute of Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Rez, Czech Republic

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on two experiments performed at the Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron accelerator complex at JINR. Relativistic protons with energies 885 MeV and 1.5 GeV hit a massive cylindrical lead target. The spatial and energetic distributions of the neutron field produced by the spallation reactions were measured by the activation of Al, Au, Bi, Co, and Cu foils placed on the surface of the target and close to it. The yields of the radioactive nuclei produced by threshold reactions in these foils were determined by the analyses of their $\\gamma$ spectra. The comparison with Monte-Carlo based simulations was performed both with the LAHET+MCNP code and the MCNPX code.

  2. Neutron production in spallation reactions of 0.9 and 1.5 GeV protons on a thick lead target. Comparison between experimental data and Monte-Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Wagner, V.; Kugler, A.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Majerle, M.; Adam, J.; Caloun, P.; Bradnova, V.; Chultem, D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Solnyshkin, A.A.; Stegajlov, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Tumehndehlgehr, Ts.; Vasil'ev, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on two experiments performed at the Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron accelerator complex at JINR. Relativistic protons with energies 885 MeV and 1.5 GeV hit a massive cylindrical lead target. The spatial and energetic distributions of the neutron field produced by the spallation reactions were measured by the activation of Al, Au, Bi, Co, and Cu foils placed on the surface of the target and close to it. The yields of the radioactive nuclei produced by threshold reactions in these foils were determined by the analyses of their γ spectra. The comparison with Monte-Carlo based simulations was performed both with the LAHET+MCNP code and the MCNPX code

  3. Measurements of gas and volatile element production rates from an irradiated molten lead and lead-bismuth spallation target with proton beams of 1 and 1.4 GeV; Mesures de taux de production d'elements gazeux et volatiles lors de reactions induites par des protons de 1 et 1,4 GeV sur des cibles epaisses de plomb et plomb-bismuth liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tall, Y

    2008-03-15

    The integrated project EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme aims to demonstrate the transmutation of radioactive waste in ADS (Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system). It will carry out a first advanced design of an experimental facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation, and will produce a conceptual design of an industrial facility dedicated to transmutation. An ADS consists of three fundamental elements: the accelerator of protons, the sub-critical core and the spallation target. SUBATECH (physique Sub-Atomique et des Technologies associees) laboratory is involved to the study of the chosen liquid lead-bismuth as a spallation ADS target. The irradiation of liquid lead-bismuth target with energetic proton beam generates in addition to neutrons, volatile and radioactive residues. In order to determine experimentally the production rates of gas and volatile elements following a spallation reaction in a lead-bismuth target, the experiment IS419 was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN (Centre Europeen de la Recherche Nucleaire). This experiment constitutes the frame of the thesis whose main objective is to assess and study the production and release rates of many gas and volatile element from the irradiated lead-bismuth target with an energetic proton beam. The obtained data are compared to Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNPX) results in order to test the intranuclear cascade model of Bertini and of Cugnon, and the evaporation options of Dresner and Schmidt. (author)

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  5. [Hospital infection in the maternity department. 3 years of surveillance in 9,204 deliveries of which 1,333 were cesarean sections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot-Guerraz, F; Moussy, L; Agniel, F; André, A; Reverdy, M E; Miellet, C C; Audra, P; Putet, G; Sepetjan, M; Dargent, D

    1990-01-01

    Hospital or nosocomial infection, or infection acquired in hospitals, is a health problem in all hospital departments and particularly in the maternity department. We report on a prospective survey of surveillance of hospital-acquired infections both from the mother and the baby's point of view after delivery vaginally or with caesarean carried out at the obstetrical clinic of the Edouard Herriot Hospital in Lyon (France) over three successive years with a series of 9,204 deliveries. The incidence of infection in women who were delivered without caesarean section was 1.37% when urinary tract infections had been excluded but 13% in women who had caesarean sections. Endometritis, skin infections and urinary tract infections were the leading causes. As far as the newborn were concerned, hospital infection ran at about 2.60% and this in the main was due to staphylococcal pustules in the skin. These figures are still too high and prevention should be based on more information given and more care taken by the whole staff of such a hospital.

  6. Lead isotopes combined with a sequential extraction procedure for source apportionment in the dry deposition of Asian dust and non-Asian dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Lead isotopic compositions were determined in leachates that were generated using sequential extractions of dry deposition samples of Asian dust (AD) and non-Asian dust (NAD) and Chinese desert soils, and used to apportion Pb sources. Results showed significant differences in "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"4Pb isotopic compositions in non-residual fractions between the dry deposition samples and the Chinese desert soils while "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"4Pb isotopic compositions in residual fraction of the dry deposition of AD and NAD were similar to the mean "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb and "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"4Pb in residual fraction of the Alashan Plateau soil. These results indicate that the geogenic materials of the dry deposition of AD and NAD were largely influenced by the Alashan Plateau soil, while the secondary sources of the dry deposition were different from those of the Chinese desert soils. In particular, the lead isotopic compositions in non-residual fractions of the dry deposition were homogenous, which implies that the non-residual four fractions (F1 to F4) shared the primary anthropogenic origin. "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb values and the predominant wind directions in the study area suggested that airborne particulates of heavily industrialized Chinese cities were one of the main Pb sources. Source apportionment calculations showed that the average proportion of anthropogenic Pb in the dry deposition of AD and NAD was 87% and 95% respectively in total Pb extraction, 92% and 97% in non-residual fractions, 15% and 49% in residual fraction. Approximately 81% and 80% of the anthropogenic Pb was contributed by coal combustion in China in the dry deposition of AD and NAD respectively while the remainder was derived from industrial Pb contamination. The research result proposes that sequential extractions with Pb isotope analysis are a useful tool for the discrimination of anthropogenic and geogenic origins in highly contaminated AD and NAD. - Highlights:

  7. Standardization of radionuclides 45Ca, 137Cs, 204Tl by tracing method using 4πβ-γ coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponge-Ferreira, Claudia Regina Ponte

    2005-01-01

    The procedure followed for the standardization of 45 Ca, 137 Cs and 204 Tl is described. The activity measurements was carried out in a 4πβ-γ coincidence system by the tracing method. The radionuclides chosen as the P-y emitting tracer nuclide were 60 Co for the 45 Ca and 134 Cs for 137 Cs and 204 TL because their end-point beta-ray energy are close to the respective beta emitters. The radioactive sources were prepared using two different techniques: one was the drops technique and the other was the solution technique. In the drop technique the sources were prepared by dropping directly on the subtract both solutions (tracer and beta pure). In the other technique a solution of tracer plus beta pure was mixed previously before making the radioactive sources. The activities of the radionuclides obtained with these technique were compared and the values are in agreement within the experimental uncertainties. (author)

  8. Genome Sequence of Vibrio campbellii Strain UMTGB204, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Green Barrel Tunicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huan You; Noor, Mohd Ezhar Mohd; Saari, Nur Azna; Musa, Najiah; Mustapha, Baharim; Usup, Gires

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio campbellii strain UMTGB204 was isolated from a green barrel tunicate. The genome of this strain comprises 5,652,224 bp with 5,014 open reading frames, 9 rRNAs, and 116 tRNAs. It contains genes related to virulence and environmental tolerance. Gene clusters for the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides and bacteriocin were also identified. PMID:25814609

  9. Preliminary Design of the Liquid Lead Corrosion Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Cha, Jae Eun; Cho, Choon Ho; Song, Tae Yung; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) or Lead has newly attracted considerable attraction as a coolant to get the more inherent safety. Above all, LBE is preferred as the coolant and target material for an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) due to its high production rate of neutrons, effective heat removal, and good radiation damage properties. But, the LBE or Lead as a coolant has a challenging problem that the LBE or Lead is more corrosive to the construction materials and fuel cladding material than the sodium because the solubility of Ni, Cr and Fe is high. After all, the LBE or Lead corrosion has been considered as an important design limit factor of ADS and Liquid Metal cooled Fast Reactors (LMFR). The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an ADS called HYPER. HYPER is designed to transmute Transuranics (TRU), Tc-99 and I-129 coming from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and uses an LBE as a coolant and target material. Also, an experimental apparatuses for the compatibility of fuel cladding and structural material with the LBE or Lead are being under the construction or design. The main objective of the present paper is introduction of Lead corrosion test loop which will be built the upside of the LBE corrosion test loop by the end of October of 2005

  10. Experimental study of the features of the running part liquid metal target on lead-bismuth alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beznosov, A.V.; Meluzov, A.G.; Novozhilova, O.O.; Efanov, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the through part of a full-scale liquid metal target of an accelerator-control system, where the working cavity of the target communicates directly with the particle accelerator cavity, are presented. Two design variants were investigated - with vertical and horizontal orientation of the target axis in space and spinning of the flow in front of the nozzle adapter located in front of the entrance of the eutectic into the working cavity of the target. The profiles obtained for the free coolant surface with liquid metal flowing through vertically and horizontally positioned targets are presented. It is confirmed that when the pressure of the free surface of the liquid metal corresponds to the pressure in the accelerator cavity it is possible that liquid metal will not flow into the cavity simulating the connecting piece for inflow of accelerated particles with the piece oriented vertically or horizontally [ru

  11. Thermal-hydraulics investigations for the Liquid Lead-Bismuth Target of the SINQ spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, B.; Dury, T.; Hudina, M.; Smith, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contains a discussion of the thermal-hydraulic problems of the target which require detailed analysis by means of a two- or three-dimensional space- and in part also time-dependent fluid dynamics code. There follows a short description of the general-purpose code ASTEC, which is being used for these investigations, and examples of the target modelling, including results. The final part of the paper is devoted to a short discussion of experiments against which this application of the code has to be validated. (author)

  12. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus M204I Mutation by Quantum Dot-Labeled DNA Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are semiconductor nanoparticles with a diameter of less than 10 nm, which have been widely used as fluorescent probes in biochemical analysis and vivo imaging because of their excellent optical properties. Sensitive and convenient detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV gene mutations is important in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, we developed a sensitive, low-cost and convenient QDs-mediated fluorescent method for the detection of HBV gene mutations in real serum samples from chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients who had received lamivudine or telbivudine antiviral therapy. We also evaluated the efficiency of this method for the detection of drug-resistant mutations compared with direct sequencing. In CHB, HBV DNA from the serum samples of patients with poor response or virological breakthrough can be hybridized to probes containing the M204I mutation to visualize fluorescence under fluorescence microscopy, where fluorescence intensity is related to the virus load, in our method. At present, the limits of the method used to detect HBV genetic variations by fluorescence quantum dots is 103 IU/mL. These results show that QDs can be used as fluorescent probes to detect viral HBV DNA polymerase gene variation, and is a simple readout system without complex and expensive instruments, which provides an attractive platform for the detection of HBV M204I mutation.

  13. Method for the irradiation of single targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmel, E.; Dullnig, H.

    1977-01-01

    The invention pertains to a system for the irradiation of single targets with particle beams. The targets all have frames around them. The system consists of an automatic advance leading into a high-vacuum chamber, and a positioning element which guides one target after the other into the irradiation position, at right angles to the automatic advance, and back into the automatic advance after irradiation. (GSCH) [de

  14. Neutron production from 40 GeV/c mixed proton/pion beam on copper, silver and lead targets in the angular range 30-135 deg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Birattari, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Dimovasili, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Foglio Para, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: marco.silari@cern.ch; Ulrici, L. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Vincke, H. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-02-01

    The neutron emission from 50 mm thick copper, silver and lead targets bombarded by a mixed proton/pion beam with momentum of 40 GeV/c were measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident particle on target were measured with an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer in the angular range 30-135 deg with respect to the beam direction. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to provide a priori information for the unfolding of the experimental data. The spectral fluences show two peaks, an isotropic evaporation component centred at 3 MeV and a high-energy peak sitting around 100-150 MeV. The experimental neutron yields are given in four energy bins: <100 keV, 0.1-20 MeV, 20-500 MeV and 0.5-2 GeV. The total yields show a systematic discrepancy of 30-50%, with a peak of 70% at the largest angles, with respect to the results of the Monte Carlo simulations, which it is believed to be mainly due to uncertainties in the beam normalization factor. Analytic expressions are given for the variation of the integral yield as a function of emission angle and of target mass number.

  15. Neutron production from 40 GeV/c mixed proton/pion beam on copper, silver and lead targets in the angular range 30-135 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Dimovasili, E.; Foglio Para, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.; Vincke, H.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron emission from 50 mm thick copper, silver and lead targets bombarded by a mixed proton/pion beam with momentum of 40 GeV/c were measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident particle on target were measured with an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer in the angular range 30-135 deg with respect to the beam direction. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to provide a priori information for the unfolding of the experimental data. The spectral fluences show two peaks, an isotropic evaporation component centred at 3 MeV and a high-energy peak sitting around 100-150 MeV. The experimental neutron yields are given in four energy bins: <100 keV, 0.1-20 MeV, 20-500 MeV and 0.5-2 GeV. The total yields show a systematic discrepancy of 30-50%, with a peak of 70% at the largest angles, with respect to the results of the Monte Carlo simulations, which it is believed to be mainly due to uncertainties in the beam normalization factor. Analytic expressions are given for the variation of the integral yield as a function of emission angle and of target mass number

  16. Neutron production from 40 GeV/c mixed proton/pion beam on copper, silver and lead targets in the angular range 30-135°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Dimovasili, E.; Foglio Para, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.; Vincke, H.

    2005-02-01

    The neutron emission from 50 mm thick copper, silver and lead targets bombarded by a mixed proton/pion beam with momentum of 40 GeV/c were measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident particle on target were measured with an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer in the angular range 30-135° with respect to the beam direction. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to provide a priori information for the unfolding of the experimental data. The spectral fluences show two peaks, an isotropic evaporation component centred at 3 MeV and a high-energy peak sitting around 100-150 MeV. The experimental neutron yields are given in four energy bins: <100 keV, 0.1-20 MeV, 20-500 MeV and 0.5-2 GeV. The total yields show a systematic discrepancy of 30-50%, with a peak of 70% at the largest angles, with respect to the results of the Monte Carlo simulations, which it is believed to be mainly due to uncertainties in the beam normalization factor. Analytic expressions are given for the variation of the integral yield as a function of emission angle and of target mass number.

  17. An acclerator-based installation of small power with the lead-bismuth coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, V.T.; Yefimov, E.I.; Novikova, N.N. [Research and Development Bereau, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The structure of the accelerator-based installation is described that includes the subcritical reactor-blanket with power 15 MW(h) cooled with lead-bismuth, the lead-bismuth flow target where a beam of {alpha}-particle is injected, the equipment of a primary and secondary curcuits. Some results of calculations and estimations are discussed that have been carried out to justify the target and blanket constructions. Some main characteristics of the installation are presented.

  18. Ginger components as new leads for the design and development of novel multi-targeted anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: a computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Faizul Azam,1,2 Abdualrahman M Amer,1 Abdullah R Abulifa,1 Mustafa M Elzwawi1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Misurata University, Misurata, Libya; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nims Institute of Pharmacy, Nims University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale, despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r2=0.931 between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated

  19. Feasibility Studies for Quarkonium Production at a Fixed-Target Experiment Using the LHC Proton and Lead Beams (AFTER@LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidakis, C.; Kikola, D.; Massacrier, L.; Trzeciak, B.; Lansberg, J. P.; Fleuret, F.; Shao, H.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Being used in the fixed-target mode, the multi-TeV LHC proton and lead beams allow for studies of heavy-flavour hadroproduction with unprecedented precision at backward rapidities, far negative Feynman-x, using conventional detection techniques. At the nominal LHC energies, quarkonia can be studied in detail in p+p, p+d, and p+A collisions at √(s_N_N)≃115 GeV and in Pb + p and Pb + A collisions at √(s_N_N)≃72 GeV with luminosities roughly equivalent to that of the collider mode that is up to 20 fb"−"1 yr"−"1 in p+p and p+d collisions, up to 0.6 fb"−"1 yr"−"1 in p+A collisions, and up to 10 nb"−"1 yr"−"1 in Pb + A collisions. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of such studies by performing fast simulations using the performance of a LHCb-like detector.

  20. Feasibility studies for quarkonium production at a fixed-target experiment using the LHC proton and lead beams (AFTER@LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Massacrier, L; Fleuret, F; Hadjidakis, C; Kikola, D; Lansberg, J P; Shao, H -S

    2015-01-01

    Used in the fixed-target mode, the multi-TeV LHC proton and lead beams allow for studies of heavy-flavour hadroproduction with unprecedented precision at backward rapidities - far negative Feyman-x - using conventional detection techniques. At the nominal LHC energies, quarkonia can be studies in detail in p+p, p+d and p+A collisions at sqrt(s_NN) ~ 115 GeV as well as in Pb+p and Pb+A collisions at sqrt(s_NN) ~ 72 GeV with luminosities roughly equivalent to that of the collider mode, i.e. up to 20 fb-1 yr-1 in p+p and p+d collisions, up to 0.6 fb-1 yr-1 in p+A collisions and up to 10 nb-1 yr-1 in Pb+A collisions. In this paper, we assess the feasibility of such studies by performing fast simulations using the performance of a LHCb-like detector.

  1. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  2. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Minimizing driver errors: examining factors leading to failed target tracking and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Driving a motor vehicle is a common practice for many individuals. Although driving becomes : repetitive and a very habitual task, errors can occur that lead to accidents. One factor that can be a : cause for such errors is a lapse in attention or a ...

  4. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  5. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  6. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  7. Drug-induced regulation of target expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskar, Murat; Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug perturbations of human cells lead to complex responses upon target binding. One of the known mechanisms is a (positive or negative) feedback loop that adjusts the expression level of the respective target protein. To quantify this mechanism systems-wide in an unbiased way, drug......-induced differential expression of drug target mRNA was examined in three cell lines using the Connectivity Map. To overcome various biases in this valuable resource, we have developed a computational normalization and scoring procedure that is applicable to gene expression recording upon heterogeneous drug treatments....... In 1290 drug-target relations, corresponding to 466 drugs acting on 167 drug targets studied, 8% of the targets are subject to regulation at the mRNA level. We confirmed systematically that in particular G-protein coupled receptors, when serving as known targets, are regulated upon drug treatment. We...

  8. Target identification using Zernike moments and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.; Jamshidi, Arta A.; Nevis, Andrew J.

    2001-10-01

    The development of an underwater target identification algorithm capable of identifying various types of underwater targets, such as mines, under different environmental conditions pose many technical problems. Some of the contributing factors are: targets have diverse sizes, shapes and reflectivity properties. Target emplacement environment is variable; targets may be proud or partially buried. Environmental properties vary significantly from one location to another. Bottom features such as sand, rocks, corals, and vegetation can conceal a target whether it is partially buried or proud. Competing clutter with responses that closely resemble those of the targets may lead to false positives. All the problems mentioned above contribute to overly difficult and challenging conditions that could lead to unreliable algorithm performance with existing methods. In this paper, we developed and tested a shape-dependent feature extraction scheme that provides features invariant to rotation, size scaling and translation; properties that are extremely useful for any target classification problem. The developed schemes were tested on an electro-optical imagery data set collected under different environmental conditions with variable background, range and target types. The electro-optic data set was collected using a Laser Line Scan (LLS) sensor by the Coastal Systems Station (CSS), located in Panama City, Florida. The performance of the developed scheme and its robustness to distortion, rotation, scaling and translation was also studied.

  9. Lead Adsorption into Activated Carbon: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead has been widely used in many industries due to its desirable chemical and physical properties such as its malleability and resistance to corrosion. However, Lead poisoning is a serious health hazard that causes severe damage to multiple target organs including kidney, liver,...

  10. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003), was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compound 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  11. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    radiolabelled regulatory peptides and their metabolically stabilised analogues. Antigen epitopes: Antibodies, as unlabelled biological drugs, are becoming of increasing interest. They exert an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity which leads to lysis of tumour cells. Radiolabelled versions of these (and other) antibodies are being developed worldwide. The disadvantage of the long circulating time of antibodies can be solved by engineering fragments such as diabodies, bivalent single chain variable fragments (scFv), minibodies or by pretargeting approaches. Transmembrane transporters: Other interesting targets are transporters for radiolabelled amino acids and nutrients. Cancer cells require an increased supply of many such nutrients and obtain these by increased expression of some types of amino-acid transporter. A more detailed analysis of the relationship between amino-acid uptake and transporter expression in normal and malignant cells would be very valuable in identifying the clinical therapeutic potential of this class of tracer. Tumour blood supply: Tumours require an efficient blood supply to grow and metastatise and active angiogenesis of new blood vessels is a feature of many tumours. Specific receptors expressed during this process represent a novel class of targets for TRT. Extra-cellular matrix: Recently, another relevant class of target antigens has raised interest. Lectins, or carbohydrate binding proteins, recognize specific oligosaccharide structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. It is well known that protein and lipid glycosylation are consistently altered in cancer cells for the aberrant activity of specific glycosyltransferase and glycosydases. Experimental evidence demonstrated that tumor growth and progression may depend, at least in part, on the presence of altered glycoproteins on the cell surface, which can mediate aberrant receptor-ligand interactions. (author)

  12. Modeling and Docking Studies on Novel Mutants (K71L and T204V of the ATPase Domain of Human Heat Shock 70 kDa Protein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Elengoe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of exploring protein interactions between human adenovirus and heat shock protein 70 is to exploit a potentially synergistic interaction to enhance anti-tumoral efficacy and decrease toxicity in cancer treatment. However, the protein interaction of Hsp70 with E1A32 kDa of human adenovirus serotype 5 remains to be elucidated. In this study, two residues of ATPase domain of human heat shock 70 kDa protein 1 (PDB: 1 HJO were mutated. 3D mutant models (K71L and T204V using PyMol software were then constructed. The structures were evaluated by PROCHECK, ProQ, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA modules. All evidence suggests that all protein models are acceptable and of good quality. The E1A32 kDa motif was retrieved from UniProt (P03255, as well as subjected to docking interaction with NBD, K71L and T204V, using the Autodock 4.2 program. The best lowest binding energy value of −9.09 kcal/mol was selected for novel T204V. Moreover, the protein-ligand complex structures were validated by RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds and salt bridge analysis. This revealed that the T204V-E1A32 kDa motif complex was the most stable among all three complex structures. This study provides information about the interaction between Hsp70 and the E1A32 kDa motif, which emphasizes future perspectives to design rational drugs and vaccines in cancer therapy.

  13. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory

  14. Next to leading order semi-inclusive spin asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, D. de; Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia C, C.A.; Sassot, R.

    1996-04-01

    We have computed semi-inclusive spin asymmetries for proton and deuteron targets including next to leading order (NLO) QCD corrections and contributions coming from the target fragmentation region. These corrections have been estimated using NLO fragmentation functions, parton distributions and also a model for spin dependent fracture functions which is proposed here. We have found that NLO corrections are small but non-negligible in a scheme where gluons are polarised and that our estimate for target fragmentation effects, which is in agreement with the available semi-inclusive data, does not modify significantly charged asymmetries but is non-negligible for the so called difference asymmetries. (author). 18 refs., 7 figs

  15. Design and features of the target tracker of the Opera's target: study of the electron channel events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon-Sen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations are now well acknowledged, the purpose of the Opera experiment is to show how ν τ appear in a ν μ beam. The ν μ beam is produced at CERN and crosses the earth crust on a distance of 732 km before being detected in the Gran-Sasso underground laboratory. The Opera experiment uses the technique of the photographic emulsion. The detector target is a series of walls of lead bricks, each brick being made of photographic emulsions intercalated with lead sheets. A target tracker enables the localization of the brick in which the neutrino interaction has happened. As soon as the brick is found, the brick is removed from the detector and the emulsion is developed and analysed. the target tracker is made up of plastic scintillator bars on which optic fibers are stuck to collect photons and send them to photomultipliers. The main purpose of this work is the calibration of the target tracker. The first chapter introduces the standard model, the neutrino and the neutrino oscillation phenomenon. The second chapter reviews the neutrino experiments worldwide. The third chapter describes the Opera experiment while chapter 4 and 5 are dedicated to the design and operation of the target tracker. The last chapter studies through simulation the behaviour of the target tracker when submitted to an electron beam in order to use it as a complementary tool for the identification of the τ → e channel. (A.C.)

  16. Design of the MYRRHA Spallation Target Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keijers, S.; Fernandez, R.; Stankovskiy, A.; Kennedy, G.; Van Tichelen, K.

    2015-01-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multi-purpose research facility currently being developed at SCK.CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research reactor will be able to work in both critical and subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material research for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. This paper describes the evolution of the MYRRHA spallation target design. In the early phase of the MYRRHA project (XT-ADS), the target design was based on a dedicated spallation loop inside the primary reactor vessel. Within the core, the 3 central fuel assembly positions were occupied by the spallation target, which enabled a windowless design created by a free surface of LBE facing the proton beam. The windowless option was preferred because of high heat loads in combination with severe irradiation damage in the target region would result in unacceptably short lifetimes of a target window. The LBE in the loop served as spallation target and as target coolant, but was separated from the LBE cooling the reactor core. The loop was equipped with its own pump, heat exchanger and conditioning system. The change from cyclotron to linear accelerator allowed the increase in proton energy from 350 MeV to 600 MeV. This modification led to an important reduction of the specific heat load at the target level and an improvement of the neutronic performance. In addition to

  17. Neutron scattering cross sections for 204,206Pb and neutron and proton amplitudes of E2 and E3 excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.F.; Hanly, J.M.; Hicks, S.E.; Shen, G.R.; McEllistrem, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Differential elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections have been measured for neutrons incident on 204 Pb and 206 Pb at energies of 2.5, 4.6, and 8.0 MeV and total cross sections in 100-keV steps from 250 keV to 4.0 MeV. Both spherical and coupled-channels analyses have been used to interpret this large set of data, together with other cross sections extending to 8 MeV. Several purposes motivate this work. The first is to establish the dispersion-corrected mean field appropriate for these nuclei. A consistent description of the energy dependent neutron scattering potential includes a dispersion relation connecting the real and imaginary parts of the potential; the resultant potential relates the energy dependent scattering field to one representing bound single particle levels. Dispersion relations using both the single channel and coupled-channels models have been examined; both give very similar results. The second motivation is to deduce neutron and proton excitation strengths of the lowest-energy quadrupole and octupole excitations seen via neutron scattering, and to compare those strengths with similar values derived from electromagnetic exciton, heavy-ion and pion scattering. The role of target neutrons in both collective excitations was found to be enhanced compared to the proton role

  18. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Lead generation and examples opinion regarding how to follow up hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Masaya; Ohno, Kazuki; Warizaya, Masaichi; Amano, Yasushi; Niimi, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    In fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), not only identifying the starting fragment hit to be developed but also generating a drug lead from that starting fragment hit is important. Converting fragment hits to leads is generally similar to a high-throughput screening (HTS) hits-to-leads approach in that properties associated with activity for a target protein, such as selectivity against other targets and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox), and physicochemical properties should be taken into account. However, enhancing the potency of the fragment hit is a key requirement in FBDD, unlike HTS, because initial fragment hits are generally weak. This enhancement is presently achieved by adding additional chemical groups which bind to additional parts of the target protein or by joining or combining two or more hit fragments; however, strategies for effecting greater improvements in effective activity are needed. X-ray analysis is a key technology attractive for converting fragments to drug leads. This method makes it clear whether a fragment hit can act as an anchor and provides insight regarding introduction of functional groups to improve fragment activity. Data on follow-up chemical synthesis of fragment hits has allowed for the differentiation of four different strategies: fragment optimization, fragment linking, fragment self-assembly, and fragment evolution. Here, we discuss our opinion regarding how to follow up on fragment hits, with a focus on the importance of fragment hits as an anchor moiety to so-called hot spots in the target protein using crystallographic data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. About miRNAs, miRNA seeds, target genes and target pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Tim; Backes, Christina; Kern, Fabian; Fehlmann, Tobias; Ludwig, Nicole; Meese, Eckart; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Keller, Andreas

    2017-12-05

    miRNAs are typically repressing gene expression by binding to the 3' UTR, leading to degradation of the mRNA. This process is dominated by the eight-base seed region of the miRNA. Further, miRNAs are known not only to target genes but also to target significant parts of pathways. A logical line of thoughts is: miRNAs with similar (seed) sequence target similar sets of genes and thus similar sets of pathways. By calculating similarity scores for all 3.25 million pairs of 2,550 human miRNAs, we found that this pattern frequently holds, while we also observed exceptions. Respective results were obtained for both, predicted target genes as well as experimentally validated targets. We note that miRNAs target gene set similarity follows a bimodal distribution, pointing at a set of 282 miRNAs that seems to target genes with very high specificity. Further, we discuss miRNAs with different (seed) sequences that nonetheless regulate similar gene sets or pathways. Most intriguingly, we found miRNA pairs that regulate different gene sets but similar pathways such as miR-6886-5p and miR-3529-5p. These are jointly targeting different parts of the MAPK signaling cascade. The main goal of this study is to provide a general overview on the results, to highlight a selection of relevant results on miRNAs, miRNA seeds, target genes and target pathways and to raise awareness for artifacts in respective comparisons. The full set of information that allows to infer detailed results on each miRNA has been included in miRPathDB, the miRNA target pathway database (https://mpd.bioinf.uni-sb.de).

  1. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantana, J.; Minemoto, T.; Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V OC before solar cell fabrication

  2. Development of new target concepts for proton beams at CERN/ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, Melanie; Montavon, Ghislain; Peyraut, Francois

    More and more, the power of primary beam sent onto targets increases until reaching several kiloWatts of magnitude, inducing new problematic and challenges. Consequently, the need of new target design arises and leads to new conceptual design proposal. Amongst them, a concept of Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) loop target making use of an heat exchanger (HEX) and a pump has been proposed during the European project EURISOL Design Study. This concept proposed an improvement in terms of release efficiency of short-lived species by transforming the irradiated liquid into droplets shape. This thesis presents the development of this target design proposal. A prototype target has been developed and will be tested under proton beam at ISOLDE at Cern, Geneva. Several analytical tools for the study of this kind of targets are proposed, taking into account different design parameters. These tools can be applied for other high power target concept and allow an easy dimensioning of this kind of targets. As well, an innovativ...

  3. Conceptual design studies for the liquid metal target META:LIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, A.G.; Fazio, C.; Fetzer, J.R.; Gordeev, S.

    2014-01-01

    When the construction of ESS (European Spallation Source) in Sweden was initiated, the target station concept selection group decided to reevaluate a variety of target designs to respect new developments in their selection process. The META:LIC (MEgawatt TArget:Lead bIsmuth Cooled) target concept was developed following an extensive analysis of existing and new proposed designs and reached the level of proof of principle within only 2 years. ESS selected META:LIC as comparative target option for licensing purposes during the design update phase of ESS. The present work describes the design motivation of META:LIC referring to properties and design features of other targets. Therefore, META:LIC design is an evolutionary target which incorporates the extensive experience of liquid metal targets. The modular LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) target concept with focus on the target module is introduced. Both, a window target option for the start of operation and a windowless option with extended lifetime are foreseen. Thermohydraulic simulations show that adequate window cooling can be realized. The stability of the free surface in the windowless option has been shown. Robust target module instrumentation based on free surface levels and the MEGAPIE experience is proposed for target control. Since the META:LIC concept foresees a horizontal extraction for both moderators and target from the monolith a safety concept based on the SNS and JSNS experience is proposed

  4. Lead isotopes in deep-sea coral skeletons: Ground-truthing and a first deglacial Southern Ocean record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David J.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Adkins, Jess F.

    2017-05-01

    Past changes in seawater lead (Pb) isotopes record the temporal evolution of anthropogenic pollution, continental weathering inputs, and ocean current transport. To advance our ability to reconstruct this signature, we present methodological developments that allow us to make precise and accurate Pb isotope measurements on deep-sea coral aragonite, and apply our approach to generate the first Pb isotope record for the glacial to deglacial mid-depth Southern Ocean. Our refined methodology includes a two-step anion exchange chemistry procedure and measurement using a 207Pb-204Pb double spike on a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS instrument. By employing a 1012 Ω resistor (in place of a 1011 Ω resistor) to measure the low-abundance 204Pb ion beam, we improve the internal precision on 206,207,208Pb/204Pb for a 2 ng load of NIST-SRM-981 Pb from typically ∼420 ppm to ∼230 ppm (2 s.e.), and the long term external reproducibility from ∼950 ppm to ∼550 ppm (2 s.d.). Furthermore, for a typical 500 mg coral sample with low Pb concentrations (∼6-10 ppb yielding ∼3-5 ng Pb for analysis), we obtain a comparable internal precision of ∼150-250 ppm for 206,207,208Pb/204Pb, indicating a good sensitivity for tracing natural Pb sources to the oceans. Successful extraction of a seawater signal from deep-sea coral aragonite further relies on careful physical and chemical cleaning steps, which are necessary to remove anthropogenic Pb contaminants and obtain results that are consistent with ferromanganese crusts. Applying our approach to a collection of late glacial and deglacial corals (∼12-40 ka BP) from south of Tasmania at ∼1.4-1.7 km water depth, we generated the first intermediate water Pb isotope record from the Southern Ocean. That record reveals millennial timescale variability, controlled by binary mixing between two Pb sources, but no distinct glacial-interglacial Pb isotope shift. Mixing between natural endmembers is fully consistent with our data and points to

  5. More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: evidence from contralateral delay activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2014-03-05

    The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewed two photorealistic objects and were cued to remember one. CDA was measured during a delay following preview offset but before onset of a four-object search array. One of the targets was always present, and observers were asked to make an eye movement to it and press a button. We found lower magnitude CDA on trials when the initial search saccade was directed to the target (strong guidance) compared to when it was not (weak guidance). This difference also tended to be larger shortly before search-display onset and was largely unaffected by VWM item-capacity limits or number of previews. Moreover, the difference between mean strong- and weak-guidance CDA was proportional to the increase in search time between mean strong-and weak-guidance trials (as measured by time-to-target and reaction-time difference scores). Contrary to most search models, our data suggest that trials resulting in the maintenance of more target features results in poor search guidance to a target. We interpret these counterintuitive findings as evidence for strong search guidance using a small set of highly discriminative target features that remain after pruning from a larger set of features, with the load imposed on VWM varying with this feature-consolidation process.

  6. Structure-based lead optimization to improve antiviral potency and ADMET properties of phenyl-1H-pyrrole-carboxamide entry inhibitors targeted to HIV-1 gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreli, Francesca; Belov, Dmitry S; Kwon, Young Do; Ramesh, Ranjith; Furimsky, Anna M; O'Loughlin, Kathleen; Byrge, Patricia C; Iyer, Lalitha V; Mirsalis, Jon C; Kurkin, Alexander V; Altieri, Andrea; Debnath, Asim K

    2018-05-12

    We are continuing our concerted effort to optimize our first lead entry antagonist, NBD-11021, which targets the Phe43 cavity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, to improve antiviral potency and ADMET properties. In this report, we present a structure-based approach that helped us to generate working hypotheses to modify further a recently reported advanced lead entry antagonist, NBD-14107, which showed significant improvement in antiviral potency when tested in a single-cycle assay against a large panel of Env-pseudotyped viruses. We report here the synthesis of twenty-nine new compounds and evaluation of their antiviral activity in a single-cycle and multi-cycle assay to derive a comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR). We have selected three inhibitors with the high selectivity index for testing against a large panel of 55 Env-pseudotyped viruses representing a diverse set of clinical isolates of different subtypes. The antiviral activity of one of these potent inhibitors, 55 (NBD-14189), against some clinical isolates was as low as 63 nM. We determined the sensitivity of CD4-binding site mutated-pseudoviruses to these inhibitors to confirm that they target HIV-1 gp120. Furthermore, we assessed their ADMET properties and compared them to the clinical candidate attachment inhibitor, BMS-626529. The ADMET data indicate that some of these new inhibitors have comparable ADMET properties to BMS-626529 and can be optimized further to potential clinical candidates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-Target Interactions: Prediction Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Shanmugam; Kesherwani, Manish; Priya, K Vishnu; Vimala, Antonydhason; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the interactions between drugs and target proteins is a key step in drug discovery. This not only aids to understand the disease mechanism, but also helps to identify unexpected therapeutic activity or adverse side effects of drugs. Hence, drug-target interaction prediction becomes an essential tool in the field of drug repurposing. The availability of heterogeneous biological data on known drug-target interactions enabled many researchers to develop various computational methods to decipher unknown drug-target interactions. This review provides an overview on these computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions along with available webservers and databases for drug-target interactions. Further, the applicability of drug-target interactions in various diseases for identifying lead compounds has been outlined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  9. Tank characterization report for single-shell tanks 241-T-201, 241-T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, in addition to other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for the single-shell tank series consisting of 241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with T-200 series tank waste and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. Appendix A contains historical information for 241-T-201 to T-204, including surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge-based computer program. Appendix B summarizes sampling events, sample data obtained before 1989, and the most current sampling results. Appendix C reports the statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in issue resolution. Appendix D contains the evaluation to establish the best-basis for the inventory estimate and the statistical analysis performed for this evaluation. Appendix E is a bibliography that resulted from an in-depth literature search of all known information sources applicable to tanks 241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204. The reports listed in Appendix E are available in the Tank Characterization and Safety Resource Center

  10. Identifying housing that poisons: a critical step in eliminating childhood lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nimia L; Wong, Lee-Yang; MacRoy, Patrick M; Curtis, Gerald; Meyer, Pamela A; Evens, Anne; Brown, Mary Jean

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a method to identify and prioritize "high-risk" buildings in Chicago that could be targeted for childhood lead poisoning prevention activities. We defined "high-risk" buildings as those where multiple children younger than 6 years with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) had lived and where lead hazards were previously identified on environmental inspection. By linking 1997-2003 Chicago elevated blood lead surveillance, environmental inspection, and building footprint data, we found that 49,362 children younger than 6 years with elevated BLLs lived at 30,742 buildings. Of those, 67 were "high-risk" buildings and these were associated with 994 children with elevated BLLs. On average, 15 children with elevated BLLs had lived in each building (range: 10-53, median: 13). Almost two thirds (n = 43) of the high-risk buildings had two or more referrals for inspection to the same apartment or housing unit; of those, 40 percent (n = 17) failed to maintain lead-safe status after compliance. Linking blood lead surveillance, environmental inspection, and building footprint databases allowed us to identify individual high-risk buildings. This approach prioritizes lead hazard control efforts and may help health, housing, and environmental agencies in targeting limited resources to increase lead-safe housing for children.

  11. Tracking a convoy of multiple targets using acoustic sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, T. R.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm to track a convoy of several targets in a scene using acoustic sensor array data. The tracking algorithm is based on template of the direction of arrival (DOA) angles for the leading target. Often the first target is the closest target to the sensor array and hence the loudest with good signal to noise ratio. Several steps were used to generate a template of the DOA angle for the leading target, namely, (a) the angle at the present instant should be close to the angle at the previous instant and (b) the angle at the present instant should be within error bounds of the predicted value based on the previous values. Once the template of the DOA angles of the leading target is developed, it is used to predict the DOA angle tracks of the remaining targets. In order to generate the tracks for the remaining targets, a track is established if the angles correspond to the initial track values of the first target. Second the time delay between the first track and the remaining tracks are estimated at the highest correlation points between the first track and the remaining tracks. As the vehicles move at different speeds the tracks either compress or expand depending on whether a target is moving fast or slow compared to the first target. The expansion and compression ratios are estimated and used to estimate the predicted DOA angle values of the remaining targets. Based on these predicted DOA angles of the remaining targets the DOA angles obtained from the MVDR or Incoherent MUSIC will be appropriately assigned to proper tracks. Several other rules were developed to avoid mixing the tracks. The algorithm is tested on data collected at Aberdeen Proving Ground with a convoy of 3, 4 and 5 vehicles. Some of the vehicles are tracked and some are wheeled vehicles. The tracking algorithm results are found to be good. The results will be presented at the conference and in the paper.

  12. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  13. Tumor-targeting peptides from combinatorial libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiwu; Li, Xiaocen; Xiao, Wenwu; Lam, Kit S.

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major and leading causes of death worldwide. Two of the greatest challenges infighting cancer are early detection and effective treatments with no or minimum side effects. Widespread use of targeted therapies and molecular imaging in clinics requires high affinity, tumor-specific agents as effective targeting vehicles to deliver therapeutics and imaging probes to the primary or metastatic tumor sites. Combinatorial libraries such as phage-display and one-bead one-compound (OBOC) peptide libraries are powerful approaches in discovering tumor-targeting peptides. This review gives an overview of different combinatorial library technologies that have been used for the discovery of tumor-targeting peptides. Examples of tumor-targeting peptides identified from each combinatorial library method will be discussed. Published tumor-targeting peptide ligands and their applications will also be summarized by the combinatorial library methods and their corresponding binding receptors. PMID:27210583

  14. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessner, W

    2003-07-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  15. Target cells in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goessner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Data related to radium induced bone sarcomas in humans are used as a model for defining target cells on bone surfaces and in the bone marrow. The differential distribution of radiation induced bone sarcoma types with a high ratio of non-bone producing, mainly fibroblastic tumours, challenges the ICRP concept that the bone lining cells are target cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells are located within the range of alpha particles, and are the most likely target cells for the fibroblastic type of bone sarcoma. The histogenesis of bone sarcomas after irradiation with alpha emitters shows that their final histopathology is not dependent on a single target cell. Each target cell has a microenvironment, which has to be regarded as a synergistic morpho-functional tissue unit. For this the concept of 'histion', a term used in general pathology, is proposed. Interactions between target cells that have been hit by alpha-particles, leading to lethal, mutational or transformation events with all components of a 'histion', will prove critical to understanding the pathogenesis of both deterministic and stochastic late effects. (author)

  16. The quest for targets executing MYC-dependent cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eHartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MYC represents a transcription factor with oncogenic potential converting multiple cellular signals into a broad transcriptional response, thereby controlling the expression of numerous protein-coding and non-coding RNAs important for cell proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of MYC leads to neoplastic cell transformation, and deregulated MYC alleles are frequently observed in many human cancer cell types. Multiple approaches have been performed to isolate genes differentially expressed in cells containing aberrantly activated MYC proteins leading to the identification of thousands of putative targets. Functional analyses of genes differentially expressed in MYC-transformed cells had revealed that so far more than forty upregulated or downregulated MYC targets are actively involved in cell transformation or tumorigenesis. However, for determination which of the known, or yet unidentified targets are responsible for processing the oncogenic MYC program, further systematic and selective approaches are required. The search for critical targets in MYC-dependent tumor cells is exacerbated by the fact that during tumor development, cancer cells progressively evolve in a multistep process thereby acquiring their characteristic features in an additive manner. Functional expression cloning, combinatorial gene expression and appropriate in vivo tests could represent adequate tools for dissecting the complex scenario of MYC-specified cell transformation. In this context, the central goal is to identify a minimal set of targets that suffices to phenocopy oncogenic MYC. Recently developed genomic editing tools could be employed to confirm the requirement of crucial transformation-associated targets.Knowledge about essential MYC regulated genes is beneficial to expedite the development of specific inhibitors to interfere with growth and viability of human tumor cells in which MYC is aberrantly activated

  17. Volatile elements production rates in a 1.4 Gev proton-irradiated molten lead-bismuth target

    CERN Document Server

    Zanini, L; Everaerts, P; Fallot, M; Franberg, H; Gröschel, F; Jost, C; Kirchner, T; Kojima, Y; Köster, U; Lebenhaft, J; Manfrina, E; Pitcher, E J; Ravn, H L; Tall, Y; Wagner, W; Wohlmuther, M

    2005-01-01

    Production rates of volatile elements following spallation reaction of 1.4 GeV protons on a liquid Pb/Bi target have been measured. The experiment was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. These data are of interest for the developments of targets for accelerator driven systems such as MEGAPIE. Additional data have been taken on a liquid Pb target. Calculations were performed using the FLUKA and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes coupled with the evolution codes ORIHET3 and FISPACT using different options for the intra-nuclear cascades and evaporation models. Preliminary results from the data analysis show good comparison with calculations for Hg and for noble gases. For other elements such as I it is apparent that only a fraction of the produced isotopes is released. The agreement with the experimental data varies depending on the model combination used. The best results are obtained using MCNPX with the INCL4/ABLA models and with FLUKA. Discrepancies are found for some isotopes produced by fission using the MCNPX ...

  18. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  19. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantana, J., E-mail: jakapan@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Minemoto, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K. [Environment and Energy Research Center, Nitto Denko Corporation, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-25

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V{sub OC} before solar cell fabrication.

  20. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  1. Application of a controlled swirl in the XT-ADS spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Siccama, N. B.; Jeanmart, H.; Tichelen, K. V.; Dierckx, M.; Schuurmans, P.

    2008-01-01

    Within the EUROTRANS project, a windowless spallation target is designed and assessed in which there is direct contact between the proton beamline vacuum from the accelerator and a lead-bismuth free surface flow. Windowless spallation targets, which are designed by SCK.CEN, based on their experience for the MYRRHA concept, are experimentally examined in a well instrumented water-loop at UCL. The design work and the experimental campaign are supported by numerical simulations which are performed at NRG. In the current paper, the application of a mild swirl in the windowless spallation target is assessed. For this purpose, SCK.CEN has designed and fabricate, a spallation target in which a controlled swirl is introduced in the annular feeder of the target nozzle. An experimental programme is performed at UCL in their water-loop to evaluate various swirl strengths in one specific target nozzle design. Prior to the experimental programme, numerical simulations were performed at NRG assessing the influence of various swirl strengths on the free surface behaviour. Experimental and numerical results show that a mild swirl stabilizes the free surface and also indicate that applying a stronger swirl leads to undesired free surface behaviour, ultimately leading to a strong vortex in the central downcomer. (authors)

  2. Targets for the APEX experiment at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.; Leonard, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Targets of lead, tantalum, thorium and uranium have been produced for experiments with the APEX (Argonne Positron Experiment) apparatus at ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). APEX is a device built at Argonne National Laboratory to investigate the anomalous positrons observed in collisions of very heavy ion beams on heavy targets. Both fixed and rotating targets have been used. The rotating target system involves a 4-quadrant wheel rotating at speeds up to 700 rpm with the position encoded into the data stream. In addition to the hundreds of targets produced for the heavy-ion reactions studied, a wide variety of targets were employed for beam diagnostics, detector calibration and target wheel development. The experiment used very heavy ion beams ( 238 U, 206 Pb and 208 Pb) from ATLAS and targets of 206 Pb, 208 Pb, 232 Th and 238 U produced in the laboratory

  3. Pattern Recognition Scavenger Receptor A/CD204 Regulates Airway Inflammatory Homeostasis Following Organic Dust Extract Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Jill A.; Anderson, Leigh; Gleason, Angela M.; West, William W.; Romberger, Debra J.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to agriculture organic dusts, comprised of a diversity of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, results in chronic airway diseases. The multi-functional class A macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA)/CD204 has emerged as an important class of pattern recognition receptors with broad ligand binding ability. Our objective was to determine the role of SRA in mediating repetitive and post-inflammatory organic dust extract (ODE)-induced airway inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and SRA knockout (KO) mice were intra-nasally treated with ODE or saline daily for 3 wk and immediately euthanized or allowed to recover for 1 wk. Results show that lung histopathologic changes were increased in SRA KO mice as compared to WT following repetitive ODE exposures marked predominately by increased size and distribution of lymphoid aggregates. After a 1-wk recovery from daily ODE treatments, there was significant resolution of lung injury in WT mice, but not SRA KO animals. The increased lung histopathology induced by ODE treatment was associated with decreased accumulation of neutrophils, but greater accumulation of CD4+ T-cells. The lung cytokine milieu induced by ODE was consistent with a TH1/TH17 polarization in both WT and SRA KO mice. Overall, our data demonstrate that SRA/CD204 plays an important role in the normative inflammatory lung response to ODE as evidenced by the enhanced dust-mediated injury viewed in the absence of this receptor. PMID:24491035

  4. Automatic measurement of target crossing speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Mark; Lougheed, James H.

    1992-11-01

    The motion of ground vehicle targets after a ballistic round is launched can be a major source of inaccuracy for small (handheld) anti-armour weapon systems. A method of automatically measuring the crossing component to compensate the fire control solution has been devised and tested against various targets in a range of environments. A photodetector array aligned with the sight's horizontal reticle obtains scene features, which are digitized and processed to separate target from sight motion. Relative motion of the target against the background is briefly monitored to deduce angular crossing rate and a compensating lead angle is introduced into the aim point. Research to gather quantitative data and optimize algorithm performance is described, and some results from field testing are presented.

  5. JAERI/KEK target material program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Toshinobu

    2001-01-01

    Mercury target was designed for megawatt neutron scattering facility in JAERI/KEK spallation neutron source. The incident proton energy and current are 3 GeV and 333 μA, respectively: the total proton energy is 1 MW in short pulses at a frequency of 25 Hz. Under the guide rule the mercury target was designed: the maximum temperature of target window is 170degC and induced stresses for the type 316 stainless steel are within limits of design guide. In order to demonstrate ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) transmutation critical and engineering facilities have been designed conceptually. In engineering facility lead-bismuth spallation target station is to be planned. Objective to build the facility is to demonstrate material irradiation. According to neutronics calculation irradiation damage of the target vessel window will be 5 dpa per year. (author)

  6. Neutron production from 40 GeV/c mixed proton/pion beam on copper, silver and lead targets in the angular range 30-135 degree

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Dimovasili, E; Foglio-Para, A; Silari, M; Ulrici, L; Vincke, H

    2005-01-01

    The neutron emission from 50 mm thick copper, silver and lead targets bombarded by a mixed proton/pion beam with momentum of 40 GeV/c were measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident particle on target were measured with an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer in the angular range 30-135 degree with respect to the beam direction. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to provide a priori information for the unfolding of the experimental data. The spectral fluences show two peaks, an isotropic evaporation component centred at 3 MeV and a high-energy peak sitting around 100-150 MeV. The experimental neutron yields are given in four energy bins: less than 100 keV, 0.1-20 MeV, 20-500 MeV and 0.5-2 GeV. The total yields show a systematic discrepancy of 30-50%, with a peak of 70% at the largest angles, with respect to the results of the Monte Carlo simulations, which it is believed to be mainly due to uncertainties in the beam normaliza...

  7. Arsenic and lead in foods: a potential threat to human health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Islam, Kazi Nazrul; Ibrahim, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic and lead to adults and children via daily dietary intake of food composites in Bangladesh was estimated. The target hazard quotients (THQs), hazard index (HI) and target carcinogenic risk (TR) were calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk from arsenic and lead. Most of the individual food composites contain a considerable amount of arsenic and lead. The highest mean concentrations of arsenic were found in cereals (0.254 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and vegetables (0.250 mg kg⁻¹ fw), and lead in vegetables (0.714 mg kg⁻¹ fw) and fish (0.326 mg kg⁻¹ fw). The results showed the highest THQs of arsenic in cereals and lead in vegetables for both adults and children which exceeded the safe limit (> 1) indicating that cereals and vegetables are the main food items contributing to the potential health risk. The estimated TR from ingesting dietary arsenic and lead from most of the foods exceeded 10⁻⁶, indicating carcinogenic risks for all adult people of the study area.

  8. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  9. Senegalese sole (solea senegalensis) broodstock nutrition: arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) and reproductive physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Norambuena Filcun, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Considerando la total ausencia del desove natural y fertilización de huevos en reproductores de lenguado Senegalés (Solea senegalensis) nacidos en cautividad (G1) comparados con peces salvajes mantenidos en cautivo que son capaces de producir huevos fertilizados viables para su cultivo. Esta tesis se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la importancia dietética de los ácidos grasos, específicamente del ácido graso araquidónico (20:4n-6, ARA) y su interacción en la disfunción reproductiva pre...

  10. Identification of historical lead sources in roof dust and recent lake sediments from an industrialized are: Indications from lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenhall, B.E.; Depers, A.M.; Jones, B.G.; Chiaradia, M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence and stable lead (Pb) isotopic analyses have been undertaken on dusts, known from microscopic investigation to contain significant quantities of industrially- and urban-derived particulate matter, present in the roof cavities of houses in the Illawarra region (N.S.W., Australia), with the objective of examining the historic record of Pb pollution. All investigated houses contained in excess of 250 μg g -1 Pb, with dwellings close to a copper smelter, in a large industrial complex including a major steelworks, containing higher (>2500 μg g -1 ) Pb concentrations. The isotopic composition in the dusts, expressed here as 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, is relatively constant at 17.0, irrespective of dwelling age or distance from the industrial complex. Contamination of the dusts by Pb sourced from paint cannot explain the isotopic uniformity of the dust samples. Isotopic modelling indicates that the dusts contain Pb derived from the copper smelter, gasoline-air Pb and a minor contribution from the steelworks. Isotopic calculations, together with records of particulate pollution emission, indicate a link between the Pb in roof dusts and Pb contamination of the near surface lagoonal sediments. Over the last five decades, atmospheric fallout of Pb-bearing particulate matter appears to have been the dominant pathway for addition of Pb to the lagoon and dwellings in the Illawarra region

  11. Influence of gamma radiation on productiveness of Cuba C-204 wheat variety in spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Torres, I.; Perez Talavera, S.; Diaz Esquivel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The percentage of flowers carrying seeds in spikes from seed irradiated plant with 100 to 800 Gy and non irradiated control plants was evaluated cv. Cuba C -204 wheat affectation. The results showed a significative (1 %) dose and s'pikes maturity time influence by bi factorial analysis. A significance of 1 % dose-maturity time interaction was obtained too and that bigger flowers carrying seeds percentage is obtained in 400 Gy radiated seeds plants. A delay of 5 days is present in the 500 Gy radiated plants maturity and a seed carrying flowers reduction of 35 % with reference to control. From 600 Gy up in the studied variety seeds were not obtained in the spring season

  12. Targeting ILK and β4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil; Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. ► Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/β4 integrin. ► Combination of ILK/β4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. ► Targeting of β4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of β1 and β4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of β1 and β4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of β4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of β4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting β4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  13. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon, E-mail: cho1988@yuhs.ac [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  14. Theoretical estimates of supernova-neutrino cross sections for the stable even-even lead isotopes: Charged-current reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Ydrefors, E.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed study of the charged-current supernova electron neutrino and electron antineutrino scattering off the stable even-mass lead isotopes A =204 , 206, and 208 is reported in this work. The proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) is adopted to construct the nuclear final and initial states. Three different Skyrme interactions are tested for their isospin and spin-isospin properties and then applied to produce (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections for (anti)neutrino energies below 80 MeV. Realistic estimates of the nuclear responses to supernova (anti)neutrinos are computed by folding the computed cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electron (anti)neutrino energies. The computed cross sections are compared with earlier calculations and the analyses are extended to take into account the effects coming from the neutrino oscillations.

  15. Analysis of Deregulated microRNAs and Their Target Genes in Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas Juzėnas

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are widely studied non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression. MiRNAs are deregulated in different tumors including gastric cancer (GC and have potential diagnostic and prognostic implications. The aim of our study was to determine miRNA profile in GC tissues, followed by evaluation of deregulated miRNAs in plasma of GC patients. Using available databases and bioinformatics methods we also aimed to evaluate potential target genes of confirmed differentially expressed miRNA and validate these findings in GC tissues.The study included 51 GC patients and 51 controls. Initially, we screened miRNA expression profile in 13 tissue samples of GC and 12 normal gastric tissues with TaqMan low density array (TLDA. In the second stage, differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in a replication cohort using qRT-PCR in tissue and plasma samples. Subsequently, we analyzed potential target genes of deregulated miRNAs using bioinformatics approach, determined their expression in GC tissues and performed correlation analysis with targeting miRNAs.Profiling with TLDA revealed 15 deregulated miRNAs in GC tissues compared to normal gastric mucosa. Replication analysis confirmed that miR-148a-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 were consistently deregulated in GC tissues. Analysis of GC patients' plasma samples showed significant down-regulation of miR-148a-3p, miR-375 and up-regulation of miR-223-3p compared to healthy subjects. Further, using bioinformatic tools we identified targets of replicated miRNAs and performed disease-associated gene enrichment analysis. Ultimately, we evaluated potential target gene BCL2 and DNMT3B expression by qRT-PCR in GC tissue, which correlated with targeting miRNA expression.Our study revealed miRNA profile in GC tissues and showed that miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 are deregulated in GC plasma samples, but these circulating miRNAs showed relatively weak diagnostic performance as sole biomarkers

  16. Secondary peritonitis - evaluation of 204 cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doklestić, S K; Bajec, D D; Djukić, R V; Bumbaširević, V; Detanac, A D; Detanac, S D; Bracanović, M; Karamarković, R A

    2014-06-15

    Even at the beginning of the new millennium, secondary peritonitis presents a common life-threatening condition associated with high mortality and morbidity. This article comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with secondary peritonitis. The demographic data, clinical findings and surgical outcome of 204 patients who had a confirmed generalized secondary peritonitis were analyzed retrospectively. Our approach was laparotomy, surgical control of contamination, antibiotic therapy and modern intensive care support. Acid peptic disease was the most common cause of perforation peritonitis 60 (29,41%), following by the perforated appendicitis 45 ( 22,06%). The faecal peritonitis and colon perforation were found in 42 patients (20,59%). The morbidity rate was 50%; 41 (40,2%) patients had more than one complication. The morbidity rate was significantly the highest in patients with colon perforation (n=38, 90%) (Hi-square=40,1; pcases (23,81%), and 4(6,6%) deaths due to gastro-duodenal perforation (Hi-square=45,7; pclinical presentation and outcome of the secondary peritonitis depend on duration of abdominal infection, the site of perforation and the general condition of the patient. Rapid surgical source control, modern intensive care and sepsis therapy may offer the chance of decreased morbidity and mortality of the intra-abdominal infections.

  17. Investigation of wall-slip effect on lead-free solder paste and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the study, three different plate materials were utilised namely; stainless steel plate, aluminium grooved ..... the stainless steel plate and the highest adhesion is to the glass plate. The author also ... Part B 20(4): 416–423. Riedlin M H A 1998 ...

  18. Shergottite Lead Isotope Signature in Chassigny and the Nakhlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Simon, J. I.

    2017-01-01

    The nakhlites/chassignites and the shergottites represent two differing suites of basaltic martian meteorites. The shergottites have ages less than or equal to 0.6 Ga and a large range of initial Sr-/Sr-86 and epsilon (Nd-143) ratios. Conversely, the nakhlites and chassignites cluster at 1.3-1.4 Ga and have a limited range of initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and epsilon (Nd-143). More importantly, the shergottites have epsilon (W-182) less than 1, whereas the nakhlites and chassignites have epsilon (W-182) approximately 3. This latter observation precludes the extraction of both meteorite groups from a single source region. However, recent Pb isotopic analyses indicate that there may have been interaction between shergottite and nakhlite/chassignite Pb reservoirs.Pb Analyses of Chassigny: Two different studies haveinvestigated 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb in Chassigny: (i)TIMS bulk-rock analyses of successive leaches and theirresidue [3]; and (ii) SIMS analysis of individual minerals[4]. The bulk-rock analyses fall along a regression of SIMSplagioclase analyses that define an errorchron that is olderthan the Solar System (4.61±0.1 Ga); i.e., these define amixing line between Chassigny’s principal Pb isotopic components(Fig. 1). Augites and olivines in Chassingy (notshown) also fall along or near the plagioclase regression [4].This agreement indicates that the whole-rock leachateslikely measure indigenous, martian Pb, not terrestrial contamination[5]. SIMS analyses of K-spars and sulfides definea separate, sub-parallel trend having higher 207Pb/206Pbvalues ([4]; Fig. 1). The good agreement between the bulkrockanalyses and the SIMS analyses of plagioclases alsoindicates that the Pb in the K-spars and sulfides cannot be amajor component of Chassigny.The depleted reservoir sampled by Chassigny plagioclaseis not the same as the solar system initial (PAT) andrequires a multi-stage origin. Here we show a two-stagemodel (Fig. 1) with a 238U/204Pb (µ) of 0.5 for 4.5-2.4 Gaand a µ of

  19. 41 CFR 301-71.204 - Within how many calendar days after the submission of a proper travel claim must we reimburse the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Within how many calendar days after the submission of a proper travel claim must we reimburse the employee's allowable expenses... REQUIREMENTS Travel Claims for Reimbursement § 301-71.204 Within how many calendar days after the submission of...

  20. CFD aspects of ADSS target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashi Kumar, G.N.; Mahendra, A.K.; Sanyal, A.; Gouthaman, G.

    2004-03-01

    The preliminary studies on CFD aspects of Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADSS) target design has been presented in this report. The studies involve the thermal hydraulic analysis of the Liquid Metal Spallation Target (LMST) using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as the target material. Apart from acting as Spallation medium LBE is used to remove the heat deposited by High Energy Proton Beam. Window of the target ( one side vacuum and other side LBE) has been reported in literature to be the most critical zone where high temperatures are reached. Numerical Simulations are carried out with Artificial Neural Network coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, Various studies were carried out after the verification and validation of the initial results. Window being, the main parameter to be optimised, various designs of window were tried, along with change in the window material. The best possible combination has been proposed. The thermal hydraulic studies were carried out to arrive at the acceptable operating conditions for the target. (author)

  1. Particle transfer spectroscopy using radioactive targets

    CERN Document Server

    Naumann, R A

    1976-01-01

    The practicality of general use of radioactive targets to study nuclei off the stability line by transfer spectroscopy is examined. Some advantages of this spectroscopic technique are illustrated with recent results from (p, t) and (t, p) stable target studies of negative parity core-coupled states systematically occurring in 4 adjacent odd silver isotopes. Preliminary results from the study of the /sup 205/Pb (t, p)/sup 207/Pb reaction using reactor produced 3*10/sup 7/ year lead 205 are given. (3 refs).

  2. Analytical investigation of energy spectrums of beta rays emitted from 90Sr and 204Tl radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectra of beta rays emitted from 90 Sr and 204 Tl radioisotopes were obtained by using a silicon surface barrier detector with a 1000 μm depleted layer and 50 mm 2 effective area. The detector response function is interpreted by making use of range distributions of mono-energetic electrons in matter and by assuming a linear energy loss along the range in the depleted layer of the detector. An analytical expression is given for pulse height distribution obtained in the surface barrier detector. A good agreement is observed between the experimental results and theoretical interpretation. (author)

  3. Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic lead sources in marine sediments from the inner Ria de Vigo (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Iglesias, P., E-mail: palvarez@uvigo.es [Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Use Management, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo (Spain); Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico Instrumental, C.A.C.T.I., Universidad de Vigo (Spain); Rubio, B., E-mail: brubio@uvigo.es [Department of Marine Geosciences and Land Use Management, Faculty of Marine Sciences, University of Vigo (Spain); Millos, J., E-mail: jmillos@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico Instrumental, C.A.C.T.I., Universidad de Vigo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    San Simon Bay, the inner part of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain), an area previously identified as highly polluted by Pb, was selected for the application of Pb stable isotope ratios as a fingerprinting tool in subtidal and intertidal sediment cores. Lead isotopic ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on extracts from bulk samples after total acid digestion. Depth-wise profiles of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios showed, in general, an upward decrease for both intertidal and subtidal sediments as a consequence of the anthropogenic activities over the last century, or centuries. Waste channel samples from a nearby ceramic factory showed characteristic Pb stable isotope ratios different from those typical of coal and petrol. Natural isotope ratios from non-polluted samples were established for the study area, differentiating sediments from granitic or schist-gneiss sources. A binary mixing model employed on the polluted samples allowed estimating the anthropogenic inputs to the bay. These inputs represented between 25 and 98% of Pb inputs in intertidal samples, and 9-84% in subtidal samples, their contributions varying with time. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned according to a three-source model. Coal combustion-related emissions were the main anthropogenic source Pb to the bay (60-70%) before the establishment of the ceramic factory in the area (in the 1970s) which has since constituted the main source (95-100%), followed by petrol-related emissions. The Pb inputs history for the intertidal area was determined for the 20th century, and, for the subtidal area, the 19th and 20th centuries. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb stable isotope ratios were applied to study Pb sources in coastal sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb isotopic ratios were determined for pre-pollution and for industrial samples. Black

  4. TargetSpy: a supervised machine learning approach for microRNA target prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Martin; Hackenberg, Michael; Langenberger, David; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2010-05-28

    Virtually all currently available microRNA target site prediction algorithms require the presence of a (conserved) seed match to the 5' end of the microRNA. Recently however, it has been shown that this requirement might be too stringent, leading to a substantial number of missed target sites. We developed TargetSpy, a novel computational approach for predicting target sites regardless of the presence of a seed match. It is based on machine learning and automatic feature selection using a wide spectrum of compositional, structural, and base pairing features covering current biological knowledge. Our model does not rely on evolutionary conservation, which allows the detection of species-specific interactions and makes TargetSpy suitable for analyzing unconserved genomic sequences.In order to allow for an unbiased comparison of TargetSpy to other methods, we classified all algorithms into three groups: I) no seed match requirement, II) seed match requirement, and III) conserved seed match requirement. TargetSpy predictions for classes II and III are generated by appropriate postfiltering. On a human dataset revealing fold-change in protein production for five selected microRNAs our method shows superior performance in all classes. In Drosophila melanogaster not only our class II and III predictions are on par with other algorithms, but notably the class I (no-seed) predictions are just marginally less accurate. We estimate that TargetSpy predicts between 26 and 112 functional target sites without a seed match per microRNA that are missed by all other currently available algorithms. Only a few algorithms can predict target sites without demanding a seed match and TargetSpy demonstrates a substantial improvement in prediction accuracy in that class. Furthermore, when conservation and the presence of a seed match are required, the performance is comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms. TargetSpy was trained on mouse and performs well in human and drosophila

  5. TargetSpy: a supervised machine learning approach for microRNA target prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langenberger David

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all currently available microRNA target site prediction algorithms require the presence of a (conserved seed match to the 5' end of the microRNA. Recently however, it has been shown that this requirement might be too stringent, leading to a substantial number of missed target sites. Results We developed TargetSpy, a novel computational approach for predicting target sites regardless of the presence of a seed match. It is based on machine learning and automatic feature selection using a wide spectrum of compositional, structural, and base pairing features covering current biological knowledge. Our model does not rely on evolutionary conservation, which allows the detection of species-specific interactions and makes TargetSpy suitable for analyzing unconserved genomic sequences. In order to allow for an unbiased comparison of TargetSpy to other methods, we classified all algorithms into three groups: I no seed match requirement, II seed match requirement, and III conserved seed match requirement. TargetSpy predictions for classes II and III are generated by appropriate postfiltering. On a human dataset revealing fold-change in protein production for five selected microRNAs our method shows superior performance in all classes. In Drosophila melanogaster not only our class II and III predictions are on par with other algorithms, but notably the class I (no-seed predictions are just marginally less accurate. We estimate that TargetSpy predicts between 26 and 112 functional target sites without a seed match per microRNA that are missed by all other currently available algorithms. Conclusion Only a few algorithms can predict target sites without demanding a seed match and TargetSpy demonstrates a substantial improvement in prediction accuracy in that class. Furthermore, when conservation and the presence of a seed match are required, the performance is comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms. TargetSpy was trained on

  6. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  7. Biophysics: for HTS hit validation, chemical lead optimization, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genick, Christine C; Wright, S Kirk

    2017-09-01

    There are many challenges to the drug discovery process, including the complexity of the target, its interactions, and how these factors play a role in causing the disease. Traditionally, biophysics has been used for hit validation and chemical lead optimization. With its increased throughput and sensitivity, biophysics is now being applied earlier in this process to empower target characterization and hit finding. Areas covered: In this article, the authors provide an overview of how biophysics can be utilized to assess the quality of the reagents used in screening assays, to validate potential tool compounds, to test the integrity of screening assays, and to create follow-up strategies for compound characterization. They also briefly discuss the utilization of different biophysical methods in hit validation to help avoid the resource consuming pitfalls caused by the lack of hit overlap between biophysical methods. Expert opinion: The use of biophysics early on in the drug discovery process has proven crucial to identifying and characterizing targets of complex nature. It also has enabled the identification and classification of small molecules which interact in an allosteric or covalent manner with the target. By applying biophysics in this manner and at the early stages of this process, the chances of finding chemical leads with novel mechanisms of action are increased. In the future, focused screens with biophysics as a primary readout will become increasingly common.

  8. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Fine scale mapping of the 17q22 breast cancer locus using dense SNPs, genotyped within the Collaborative Oncological Gene-Environment Study (COGs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darabi, Hatef; Beesley, Jonathan; Droit, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    for driving breast cancer risk (lead SNP rs2787486 (OR = 0.92; CI 0.90-0.94; P = 8.96 × 10(-15))) and are correlated with two previously reported risk-associated variants at this locus, SNPs rs6504950 (OR = 0.94, P = 2.04 × 10(-09), r(2) = 0.73 with lead SNP) and rs1156287 (OR = 0.93, P = 3.41 × 10(-11), r(2......) = 0.83 with lead SNP). Analyses indicate only one causal SNP in the region and several enhancer elements targeting STXBP4 are located within the 53 kb association signal. Expression studies in breast tumor tissues found SNP rs2787486 to be associated with increased STXBP4 expression, suggesting...

  10. Pharmacogenomics of GPCR Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Chavali, Sreenivas; Masuho, Ikuo

    2018-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in the human genome is a cause of individual differences in responses to medications and is an underappreciated burden on public health. Although 108 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the targets of 475 (∼34%) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs...... and account for a global sales volume of over 180 billion US dollars annually, the prevalence of genetic variation among GPCRs targeted by drugs is unknown. By analyzing data from 68,496 individuals, we find that GPCRs targeted by drugs show genetic variation within functional regions such as drug......- and effector-binding sites in the human population. We experimentally show that certain variants of μ-opioid and Cholecystokinin-A receptors could lead to altered or adverse drug response. By analyzing UK National Health Service drug prescription and sales data, we suggest that characterizing GPCR variants...

  11. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  12. Target Glint Suppression Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rayleigh for either horizontal or vertical polarization). 2.1.2 Spatial Characterization. Before the effects of diversity on target detection can be...ncs) dRCS T If the lower intergration limit is taken as zero for the Rayleigh targct model of interest, then this quantity is unbounded. In...port wing, inner section Trailing edge of starboard .:ing, inner section Leading edge of horizontal stabilizer, inner section, port side TLeal, -g

  13. More target features in visual working memory leads to poorer search guidance: Evidence from contralateral delay activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Joseph; MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The visual-search literature has assumed that the top-down target representation used to guide search resides in visual working memory (VWM). We directly tested this assumption using contralateral delay activity (CDA) to estimate the VWM load imposed by the target representation. In Experiment 1, observers previewed four photorealistic objects and were cued to remember the two objects appearing to the left or right of central fixation; Experiment 2 was identical except that observers previewe...

  14. Parkinson's disease proteins: Novel mitochondrial targets for cardioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Uma A.; Ong, Sang-Bing; Ong, Sang-Ging; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets for protecting the heart against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are required to attenuate cardiomyocyte death, preserve myocardial function, and prevent the onset of heart failure. In this regard, a specific group of mitochondrial proteins, which have been linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), may provide novel therapeutic targets for cardioprotect...

  15. Increased extracellular adenosine in Drosophila that are deficient in adenosine deaminase activates a release of energy stores leading to wasting and death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuberová, M.; Fencková, M.; Šimek, Petr; Janečková, L.; Doležal, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, 11/12 (2010), s. 773-784 ISSN 1754-8403 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KJB501410602; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/09/1463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : central nervous system * glycogen phosphorylase * immune response Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.584, year: 2010

  16. EURAC: A liquid target neutron spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlado, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Euratom/JRC Ispra led some years ago the design of an accelerator based neutron spallation source EURAC, with special emphasis as a fusion material testing device. DENIM was involved in the development of the last version of this source. EURAC proposes to use a beam of 600 MeV or 1.5 GeV protons, produced by an effective and low cost ring cyclotron with a current of 6 mA impinging in a liquid lead, or lead-bismuth, target. It will use an advanced cyclotron technology which can be implemented in the next future, in the line of the actual technology of the upgraded SIN-type cyclotron. The adjacent rows to the target correspond to the lead, or Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}, cooled channels where the samples will be located. The available volumes there were shown enough for material testing purposes. Here, proposal of using those experimental areas to introduce small masses of radioactive wastes for testing of transmutation in spallation source is made. In addition, extrapolation of present conceptual design to make available larger volumes under flexible conditions seems to be possible. Neutrons leaking from the test zone drive a subcritical booster (<10 MW) which could provide a thermal neutron flux trap with a liquid hydrogen moderator in the center.

  17. Age determination of paintings by 210Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilot, E.; Apers, D.

    1977-01-01

    Often the 210 Pb method for age determination of paintings is inoperative because the initial 210 Pb activity of undated lead oxide cannot be determined. This difficulty could be removed if the ores could be identified from which the lead white was prepared. It would be possible to measure the initial 210 Pb activity directly in Pb ores or in identical Pb oxides from properly dated pictures. Some results show that Pb ores can be identified by the isotope ratios 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb. A systematic study of Pb ores and pigment isotopic composition is necessary. (author)

  18. Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High-Energy Oxygen-Lead Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors to look for fractionally charged projectile fragments produced in collisions of high-energy oxygen, sulfur, and calcium nuclei with a lead target. The expected charge resolution is @s^z~=~0.06e for fragments with 17e/3~@$<$~Z~@$<$~23e/3. We request that two target + stack assemblies be exposed to 1~x~10|5 oxygen nuclei at maximum available energy.

  19. Drug-target interaction prediction via class imbalance-aware ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Ali; Wu, Min; Li, Xiao-Li; Kwoh, Chee-Keong

    2016-12-22

    Multiple computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions have been developed to facilitate the drug discovery process. These methods use available data on known drug-target interactions to train classifiers with the purpose of predicting new undiscovered interactions. However, a key challenge regarding this data that has not yet been addressed by these methods, namely class imbalance, is potentially degrading the prediction performance. Class imbalance can be divided into two sub-problems. Firstly, the number of known interacting drug-target pairs is much smaller than that of non-interacting drug-target pairs. This imbalance ratio between interacting and non-interacting drug-target pairs is referred to as the between-class imbalance. Between-class imbalance degrades prediction performance due to the bias in prediction results towards the majority class (i.e. the non-interacting pairs), leading to more prediction errors in the minority class (i.e. the interacting pairs). Secondly, there are multiple types of drug-target interactions in the data with some types having relatively fewer members (or are less represented) than others. This variation in representation of the different interaction types leads to another kind of imbalance referred to as the within-class imbalance. In within-class imbalance, prediction results are biased towards the better represented interaction types, leading to more prediction errors in the less represented interaction types. We propose an ensemble learning method that incorporates techniques to address the issues of between-class imbalance and within-class imbalance. Experiments show that the proposed method improves results over 4 state-of-the-art methods. In addition, we simulated cases for new drugs and targets to see how our method would perform in predicting their interactions. New drugs and targets are those for which no prior interactions are known. Our method displayed satisfactory prediction performance and was

  20. ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates 20:5n3 to very long chain PUFAs over 20:4n6 and 22:6n3[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Benham, Aaron; Logan, Sreemathi; Brush, R. Steven; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Anderson, Robert E.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that reduction/loss of very long chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs) due to mutations in the ELOngase of very long chain fatty acid-4 (ELOVL4) protein contributes to retinal degeneration in autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and age-related macular degeneration; hence, increasing VLC-PUFA in the retina of these patients could provide some therapeutic benefits. Thus, we tested the efficiency of elongation of C20-C22 PUFA by the ELOVL4 protein to determine which substrates are the best precursors for biosynthesis of VLC-PUFA. The ELOVL4 protein was expressed in pheochromocytoma cells, while green fluorescent protein-expressing and nontransduced cells served as controls. The cells were treated with 20:5n3, 22:6n3, and 20:4n6, either individually or in equal combinations. Both transduced and control cells internalized and elongated the supplemented FAs to C22-C26 precursors. Only ELOVL4-expressing cells synthesized C28-C38 VLC-PUFA from these precursors. In general, 20:5n3 was more efficiently elongated to VLC-PUFA in the ELOVL4-expressing cells, regardless of whether it was in combination with 22:6n3 or with 20:4n6. In each FA treatment group, C34 and C36 VLC-PUFAs were the predominant VLC-PUFAs in the ELOVL4-expressing cells. In summary, 20:5n3, followed by 20:4n6, seems to be the best precursor for boosting the synthesis of VLC-PUFA by ELOVL4 protein. PMID:22158834