WorldWideScience

Sample records for lcdm halo concentrations

  1. The statistics of LCDM Halo Concentrations

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Angelo F; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F; Frenk, Carlos S; White, Simon D M; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of LCDM halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; a power-law fits well the concentration-mass relation for over 3 decades in mass, up to the most massive objects to form in a LCDM universe (~ 10^15 h^-1 Msol). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk, & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allow us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3x10^14 h^-1 Msol) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be used to interpret the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the LCDM co...

  2. The Redshift Evolution of LCDM Halo Parameters: Concentration, Spin, and Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Cuartas, J C; Gottlöber, S; Dutton, A A

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the redshift evolution of dark matter halo structural parameters in a LambdaCDM cosmology. We study the mass and redshift dependence of the concentration, shape and spin parameter in Nbody simulations spanning masses from 10^{10} Msun/h to 10^{15} Msun/h and redshifts from 0 to 2. We present a series of fitting formulas that accurately describe the time evolution of the concentration-mass relation since z=2. Using arguments based on the spherical collapse model we study the behaviour of the scale length of the density profile during the assembly history of haloes, obtaining physical insights on the origin of the observed time evolution of the concentration mass relation. We also investigate the evolution with redshift of dark matter halo shape and its dependence on mass. Within the studied redshift range the relation between halo shape and mass can be well fitted by a power law. Finally we show that although for z=0 the spin parameter is practically mass independent, at increasi...

  3. The Redshift Evolution of LCDM Halo Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Cuartas, J C; Gottlöber, Stefan; Dutton, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    We study the mass and redshift dependence of the concentration parameter in Nbody simulations spanning masses from $10^{10} \\hMsun$ to $10^{15} \\hMsun$ and redshifts from 0 to 2. We present a series of fitting formulas that accurately describe the time evolution of the concentration-mass relation since z=2. Using arguments based on the spherical collapse model we study the behaviour of the scale length of the density profile during the assembly history of haloes, obtaining physical insights on the origin of the observed time evolution of the concentration mass relation. We present preliminary results of the implementation of this model in the prediction of the values of the concentration parameter for different masses and redshifts.

  4. The Local Group in LCDM - Shapes and masses of dark halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift bestuderen we de eigenschappen van donkere materie halo's in het LCDM paradigma. Het eerste deel richt zich op de vorm van de massadistributie van dergelijke objecten. We hebben gevonden dat de vorm van ge"isoleerde Melkweg-achtige donkere materie halo's significant afwijkt van bolsymmetrie. De lokale omgeving heeft invloed op de halo's en deze worden daarbij sterk be"invloed door de manier waarop massa aangroeit. We hebben ook de structuur en de baanstructuur van de satellieten van dergelijke halo's in detail onderzocht. In het algemeen zijn deze objecten sferischer dan de halo's zelf. Ze vertonen ook duidelijke afdrukken van getijdenwerking in zowel hun geometrische vorm als in de baanstructuur. Daarna gebruiken we het aantal massieve objecten rond de Melkweg om limieten te zetten op de totale massa van de donkere materie halo van de Melkweg. De eigenschappen van de massaverdeling van de Melkweg worden verder onderzocht in het laatste hoofdstuk. Daar maken we gebruik van de Sagittarius sterstroom om de vorm van de galactische potentiaal beter te bepalen. We komen met een nieuw model dat rekening houdt met de galactische schijf en de invloed van satellietstelsels en die bovendien consistent is met het LCDM paradigma.

  5. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Kyle R; Barton, Elizabeth J; Wechsler, Risa H

    2008-01-01

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies--such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction--likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z=0 to z=4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M>0.3 mass ratio events into typical L > f L* galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt=0.03(1+f)(1+z)^2.1 Gyr^-1. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of >0.4 L* high-redshift galaxies (~3% at z=2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M >0.3) in the very recent past (t0.3) in t...

  6. Reproducing the Stellar Mass/Halo Mass Relation in Simulated LCDM Galaxies: Theory vs Observational Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, A M; Christensen, C; Shen, S; Loebman, S; Moster, B; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J

    2012-01-01

    We examine the present-day total stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) ratio as a function of halo mass for a new sample of simulated field galaxies using fully cosmological, LCDM, high resolution SPH + N-Body simulations.These simulations include an explicit treatment of metal line cooling, dust and self-shielding, H2 based star formation and supernova driven gas outflows. The 18 simulated halos have masses ranging from a few times 10^8 to nearly 10^12 solar masses. At z=0 our simulated galaxies have a baryon content and morphology typical of field galaxies. Over a stellar mass range of 2.2 x 10^3 to 4.5 x 10^10 solar masses, we find extremely good agreement between the SHM ratio in simulations and the present-day predictions from the statistical Abundance Matching Technique presented in Moster et al. (2012). This improvement over past simulations is due to a number systematic factors, each decreasing the SHM ratios: 1) gas outflows that reduce the overall SF efficiency but allow for the formation of a cold gas compone...

  7. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a

  8. The spatial and velocity bias of linear density peaks and proto-haloes in the LCDM cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Elia, Anna; Porciani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We use high resolution N-body simulations to investigate the Lagrangian bias of cold dark matter haloes within the LCDM cosmology. Our analysis focuses on "proto-haloes", which we identify in the simulation initial conditions with the subsets of particles belonging to individual redshift-zero haloes. We then calculate the number-density and velocity-divergence fields of proto-haloes and estimate their auto spectral densities. We also measure the corresponding cross spectral densities with the linear matter distribution. We use our results to test a Lagrangian-bias model presented by Desjacques and Sheth which is based on the assumption that haloes form out of local density maxima of a specific height. Our comparison validates the predicted functional form for the scale-dependence of the bias for both the density and velocity fields. We also show that the bias coefficients are accurately predicted for the velocity divergence. On the contrary, the theoretical values for the density bias parameters do not accura...

  9. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: a Feedback and Code-Independent Prediction of LCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Kyle; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James; Joung, M Ryan; Devriendt, Julien; Ceverino, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Phil; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-01

    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions, but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy's halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ~4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas ($\\lambda_{cold} \\simeq 0.15$) than in the dark matter halo. At z>1, this inflow frequently results in the formation of transient cold flow disks---large co-rotating gaseous structures in the halo of the galaxy that are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the...

  10. The masses and density profiles of halos in a LCDM galaxy formation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; McCarthy, I G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of halos of mass $10^{10}-10^{14}~M_\\odot$ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a $\\Lambda$CDM Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of halos in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, halos are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile at radii larger than ~5% of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in halos of mass $10^{12}-10^{13}M_\\odot$, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where t...

  11. The growth of galactic bulges through mergers in LCDM haloes revisited. II. Morphological mix evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Lacerna, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The mass aggregation and merger histories of present-day distinct haloes selected from the cosmological Millennium Simulations I and II are mapped into stellar mass aggregation and galaxy merger histories of central galaxies by using empirical stellar-to-halo and stellar-to-gas mass relations. The growth of bulges driven by the galaxy mergers/interactions is calculated using analytical recipes. The predicted bulge demographics at redshift z~0 is consistent with observations (Zavala+2012). Here we present the evolution of the morphological mix (traced by the bulge-to-total mass ratio, B/T) as a function of mass up to z=3. This mix remains qualitatively the same up to z~1: B/T0.45 at large masses. At z>1, the fractions of disc-dominated and bulgeless galaxies increase strongly, and by z~2 the era of pure disc galaxies is reached. Bulge-dominated galaxies acquire such a morphology, and most of their mass, following a downsizing trend. Since our results are consistent with several recent observational studies of ...

  12. Dynamical signatures of a LCDM-halo and the distribution of the baryons in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Corbelli, Edvige; Zibetti, Stefano; Giovanardi, Carlo; Salucci, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We map the neutral atomic gas content of M33 using high resolution VLA and GBT observations and fit a tilted ring model to determine the orientation of the extended gaseous disk and its rotation curve. The disk of M33 warps from 8 kpc outwards without substantial change of its inclination with respect to the line of sight. Rotational velocities rise steeply with radius in the inner disk, reaching 100 km/s in 4 kpc, then the rotation curve becomes more perturbed and flatter with velocities as high as 120-130 km/s out to 23 kpc. We derive the stellar mass surface density map of M33's optical disk, via pixel -SED fitting methods based on population synthesis models, which highlights variations in the mass-to-light ratio. The stellar mass surface further out is estimated from deep images of outer disk fields. Stellar and gas maps are then used in the dynamical analysis of the rotation curve to constrain the dark matter distribution which is relevant at all radii. A dark matter halo with a Navarro-Frenk-White dens...

  13. Density profiles of LCDM clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tasitsiomi, A; Gottlöber, S; Klypin, A A; Tasitsiomi, Argyro; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly A.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the mass accretion histories (MAHs) and density profiles of cluster- size halos with virial masses of 0.6-2.5x10^14/h Msun in a flat LCDM cosmology. In agreement with previous studies,we find that the concentration of the density distribution is tightly correlated with the halo's MAH and its formation redshift.During the period of fast mass growth the concentration remains approximately constant and low c_v~3-4,while during the slow accretion stages it increases with decreasing redshift as c_v~(1+z)^-1.We consider fits of three widely discussed analytic density profiles to the simulated clusters focusing on the most relaxed inner regions.We find that there is no unique best fit analytic profile for all the systems.If,however,a cluster is best fit by a particular analytic profile at z=0,the same is usually true at earlier epochs out to z~1-2.The local logarithmic slope of the density profiles at 3% of the virial radius ranges from -1.2 to -2.0,a remarkable diversity for the relatively narrow mass ra...

  14. The Unusually High Halo Concentration of the Fossil Group NGC 6482: Evidence for Weak Adiabatic Contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Buote, David A

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the massive isolated elliptical galaxy / fossil group NGC 6482 for which previous X-ray studies of a modest Chandra observation obtained a very uncertain, but also possibly very high, halo concentration. We present new measurements of the hot gas surface brightness, temperature, and iron abundance using the modest Chandra observation and a previously unpublished Suzaku observation, the latter of which allows measurements of the gas properties to be extended out to ~r_2500. By constructing hydrostatic equilibrium models of the gas with separate components for the gas, BCG stellar mass, and the dark matter (DM), we measure c_200 = 32.2 +/- 7.1 and M_200 = (4.5 +/- 0.6 x 10^12 M_sun using an NFW DM profile. For a halo of this mass, c_200 exceeds the mean value (7.1) expected for relaxed LCDM halos by $3.5 \\sigma$ in terms of the observational error, and by $6 \\sigma$ considering the intrinsic scatter in the LCDM c-M relation, which situates NGC 6482 as the most extreme outlier known for a fossil syste...

  15. The statistics of Λ CDM halo concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Angelo F.; Gao, Liang; Bett, Philip; Cole, Shaun; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to study the statistics of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) halo concentrations at z = 0. Our results confirm that the average halo concentration declines monotonically with mass; the concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law over three decades in mass, up to the most massive objects that form in a ΛCDM universe (~ 1015h-1Msolar). This is in clear disagreement with the predictions of the model proposed by Bullock et al. for these rare objects, and agrees better with the original predictions of Navarro, Frenk & White. The large volume surveyed, together with the unprecedented numerical resolution of the MS, allows us to estimate with confidence the distribution of concentrations and, consequently, the abundance of systems with unusual properties. About one in a hundred cluster haloes (M200 >~ 3 × 1014h-1Msolar) have concentrations exceeding c200 = 7.5, a result that may be useful in interpreting the likelihood of unusually strong massive gravitational lenses, such as Abell 1689, in the ΛCDM cosmogony. A similar fraction of about 1 per cent of galaxy-sized haloes (M200 ~ 1012h-1Msolar) have c200 < 4.5 and this could be relevant to models that attempt to reconcile the ΛCDM cosmology with rotation curves of low surface brightness galaxies by appealing to haloes of unexpectedly low concentration. We find that halo concentrations are independent of spin once haloes manifestly out of equilibrium have been removed from the sample. Compared to their relaxed brethren, the concentrations of out-of-equilibrium haloes tend to be lower and have more scatter, while their spins tend to be higher. A number of previously noted trends within the halo population are induced primarily by these properties of unrelaxed systems. Finally, we compare the result of predicting halo concentrations using the mass assembly history of the main progenitor with predictions based on simple arguments regarding the assembly time of all progenitors

  16. Halo mass - concentration relation from weak lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Hirata, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    We perform a statistical weak lensing analysis of dark matter profiles around tracers of halo mass from galactic- to cluster-size halos. In this analysis we use 170,640 isolated ~L* galaxies split into ellipticals and spirals, 38,236 groups traced by isolated spectroscopic Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and 13,823 MaxBCG clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) covering a wide range of richness. Together these three samples allow a determination of the density profiles of dark matter halos over three orders of magnitude in mass, from 10^{12} M_{sun} to 10^{15} M_{sun}. The resulting lensing signal is consistent with an NFW or Einasto profile on scales outside the central region. We find that the NFW concentration parameter c_{200b} decreases with halo mass, from around 10 for galactic halos to 4 for cluster halos. Assuming its dependence on halo mass in the form of c_{200b} = c_0 [M/(10^{14}M_{sun}/h)]^{\\beta}, we find c_0=4.6 +/- 0.7 (at z=0.22) and \\beta=0.13 +/- 0.07, with very similar results for t...

  17. Correlating galaxy colour and halo concentration: A tunable Halo Model of galactic conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Paranjape, Aseem; Kovac, Katarina; Hartley, William G.; Pahwa, Isha

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) framework to generate mock galaxy catalogs exhibiting varying levels of "galactic conformity", which has emerged as a potentially powerful probe of environmental effects in galaxy evolution. Our model correlates galaxy colours in a group with the concentration of the common parent dark halo through a "group quenching efficiency" $\\rho$ which makes older, more concentrated halos $\\textit{at fixed mass}$ preferentially host redder galaxies. We fi...

  18. Velocity bias in a LCDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pierre; Kravtsov, A V; Colin, Pedro; Klypin, Anatoly; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2000-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study the velocity bias of dark matter halos, the difference in the velocity fields of dark matter and halos, in a flat low- density LCDM model. The high force, 2kpc/h, and mass, 10^9Msun/h, resolution allows dark matter halos to survive in very dense environments of groups and clusters making it possible to use halos as galaxy tracers. We find that the velocity bias pvb measured as a ratio of pairwise velocities of the halos to that of the dark matter evolves with time and depends on scale. At high redshifts (z ~5) halos move generally faster than the dark matter almost on all scales: pvb(r)~1.2, r>0.5Mpc/h. At later moments the bias decreases and gets below unity on scales less than r=5Mpc/h: pvb(r)~(0.6-0.8) at z=0. We find that the evolution of the pairwise velocity bias follows and probably is defined by the spatial antibias of the dark matter halos at small scales. One-point velocity bias b_v, defined as the ratio of the rms velocities of halos and dark matter, provides a mo...

  19. The radiation energy component of the Hubble function and a LCDM cosmological simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Aceves, Hector

    2013-01-01

    We study some effects the inclusion of the radiation energy component in the universe, Omega_r, can have on several quantities of interest for the large-scale structure of the universe in a LCDM cosmological simulation; started at a very high redshift (z=500). In particular we compute the power spectrum density, the halo mass function, and the concentration-mass relation for haloes. We find that Omega_r has an important contribution in the long-term nonlinear evolution of structures in the universe. For instance, a lower matter density power, by approx 50%, in all scales is obtained when compared with a simulation without the radiation term. Also, haloes formed with the Omega_r taken into account are approx 20% less concentrated than when not included in the Hubble function.

  20. The Concentration Dependence of the Galaxy-Halo Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Benjamin V; Becker, Matthew R; Skillman, Samuel W; Wechsler, Risa H

    2015-01-01

    Empirical methods for connecting galaxies to their dark matter halos have become essential in interpreting measurements of the spatial statistics of galaxies. Among the most successful of these methods is the technique of subhalo abundance matching, which has to date been used to associate galaxy properties with a small set of halo properties. We generalize this set of halo properties to allow variable dependence on halo concentration, and parameterize the degree of concentration dependence with a single parameter. This parameter provides a smooth interpolation between abundance matching to peak halo mass and to peak halo circular velocity. We characterize the influence of this parameter on two-point clustering, the satellite fraction, and the degree of galaxy assembly bias. We also evaluate the degeneracies between the concentration dependence and the scatter in the abundance matching relation. We show that low redshift clustering measurements from SDSS prefer a moderate amount of concentration dependence --...

  1. Halo Gas and Galaxy Disk Kinematics Derived from Observations and LCDM Simulations of MgII Absorption Selected Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Ceverino, D; Steidel, C C; Klypin, A; Murphy, M T

    2009-01-01

    We obtained ESI/Keck rotation curves of 10 MgII absorption selected galaxies (0.3 < z < 1.0) for which we have WFPC-2/HST images and high resolution HIRES/Keck and UVES/VLT quasar spectra of the MgII absorption profiles. We perform a kinematic comparison of these galaxies and their associated halo MgII absorption. For all 10 galaxies, the majority of the absorption velocities lie in the range of the observed galaxy rotation velocities. In 7/10 cases, the absorption velocities reside fully to one side of the galaxy systemic velocity and usually align with one arm of the rotation curve. In all cases, a constant rotating thick-disk model poorly reproduces the full spread of observed MgII absorption velocities when reasonably realistic parameters are employed. In 2/10 cases, the galaxy kinematics, star formation surface densities, and absorption kinematics have a resemblance to those of high redshift galaxies showing strong outflows. We find that MgII absorption velocity spread and optical depth distributio...

  2. Halo Concentration and the Dark Matter Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Huffenberger, Kevin M; Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Seljak, Uros

    2003-01-01

    We explore the connection between halo concentration and the dark matter power spectrum using the halo model. We fit halo model parameters to non-linear power spectra over a large range of cosmological models. We find that the non-linear evolution of the power spectrum generically prefers the concentration at non-linear mass scale to decrease with the effective slope of the linear power spectrum, in agreement with the direct analysis of the halo structure in different cosmological models. Using these analyses, we compute the predictions for non-linear power spectrum beyond the current resolution of N-body simulations. We find that the halo model predictions are generically below the analytical non-linear models, suggesting that the latter may overestimate the amount of power on small scales.

  3. Pyramidal ice crystal scattering phase functions and concentric halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    Full Text Available Phase functions have been calculated using the Monte Carlo/geometric ray tracing method for single hexagonal pyramidal ice crystals (such as solid and hollow bullets randomly oriented in space and horizontal plane, in order to study the concentric halo formations. Results from three dimensional model calculations show that 9° halo can be as bright as the common 22° halo for pyramidal angle of 28°, and the 18°, 20°, 24° and 35° halos cannot be seen due to the strong 22° halo domination in the scattering phase function between 18° and 35°. For solid pyramidal ice crystals randomly oriented horizontally, the 35° arc can be produced and its intensity depends on the incident ray solar angle and the particle aspect ratio.

  4. Signatures of LCDM substructure in tidal debris

    CERN Document Server

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, surveys of the stellar component of the Galaxy such as SDSS and 2MASS have revealed a number of stellar streams. Current and future observations are rapidly increasing the precision and quantity of data available, raising the possibility of using tidal streams to constrain the distribution of dark matter in the halo. Simulations of hierarchical structure formation in LCDM cosmologies predict that the dark matter halo of a galaxy like the Milky Way contains a smooth component as well as hundreds of subhalos with masses of ~10^8 solar masses and greater, and it has been suggested that the existence of coherent tidal streams is incompatible with the expected abundance of substructure. We investigate the properties of tidal streams arising from the disruption of satellites in a variety of dark matter halo models. In general, we find that the halo shape and the specific orbital path more strongly determine the degree of disruption of the satellite than does the presence or absence of substructu...

  5. Quantifying and controlling biases in dark matter halo concentration estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Poveda-Ruiz, C N; Muñoz-Cuartas, J C

    2016-01-01

    We use bootstrapping to estimate the bias of concentration estimates on N-body dark matter halos as a function of particle number. We find that algorithms based on the maximum radial velocity and radial particle binning tend to overestimate the concentration by 15%-20% for halos sampled with 200 particles and by 7% - 10% for halos sampled with 500 particles. To control this bias at low particle numbers we propose a new algorithm that estimates halo concentrations based on the integrated mass profile. The method uses the full particle information without any binning, making it reliable in cases when low numerical resolution becomes a limitation for other methods. This method reduces the bias to less than 3% for halos sampled with 200-500 particles. The velocity and density methods have to use halos with at least 4000 particles in order to keep the biases down to the same low level. We also show that the mass-concentration relationship could be shallower than expected once the biases of the different concentrat...

  6. A halo mass-concentration relation from weak lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Seljak, Uros [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hirata, Christopher M, E-mail: rmandelb@ias.edu, E-mail: seljak@physik.unizh.ch, E-mail: chirata@tapir.caltech.edu [Mail Code 130-33, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    We perform a statistical weak lensing analysis of dark matter profiles around tracers of halo mass from galaxy-size to cluster-size halos. In this analysis we use 170 640 isolated {approx}L{sub *} galaxies split into ellipticals and spirals, 38 236 groups traced via isolated spectroscopic luminous red galaxies and 13 823 maxBCG clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey covering a wide range of richness. Together these three samples allow a determination of the density profiles of dark matter halos over three orders of magnitude in mass, from 10{sup 12}M{sub sun} to 10{sup 15}M{sub sun}. The resulting lensing signal is consistent with a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) or Einasto profile on scales outside the central region. In the inner regions, uncertainty in modeling of the proper identification of the halo center and inclusion of baryonic effects from the central galaxy make the comparison less reliable. We find that the NFW concentration parameter c{sub 200b} decreases with halo mass, from around 10 for galactic halos to 4 for cluster halos. Assuming its dependence on halo mass in the form of c{sub 200b}=c{sub 0} (M/10{sup 14}h{sup -1} M{sub sun}){sup -{beta}} we find c{sub 0} = 4.6 {+-} 0.7 (at z = 0.22) and {beta} = 0.13 {+-} 0.07, with very similar results for the Einasto profile. The slope ({beta}) is in agreement with theoretical predictions, while the amplitude is about two standard deviations below the predictions for this mass and redshift, but we note that the published values in the literature differ at a level of 10-20% and that for a proper comparison our analysis should be repeated in simulations. We compare our results to other recent determinations, some of which find significantly higher concentrations. We discuss the implications of our results for the baryonic effects on the shear power spectrum: since these are expected to increase the halo concentration, the fact that we see no evidence of high concentrations on scales above 20% of the virial

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Galactic Satellites in the LCDM Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Cooper, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distribution of galactic satellites in high resolution simulations of structure formation in the LCDM model: the Aquarius dark matter simulations of individual halos and the Millennium II simulation of a large cosmological volume. To relate the simulations to observations of the Milky Way we use two alternative models to populate dark halos with "visible" galaxies: a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and an abundance matching technique. We find that the radial density profile of massive satellites roughly follows that of the dark matter halo (unlike the distribution of dark matter subhalos). Furthermore, our two galaxy formation models give results consistent with the observed profile of the 11 classical satellites of the Milky Way. Our simulations predict that larger, fainter samples of satellites should still retain this profile at least up to samples of 100 satellites. The angular distribution of the classical satellites of the Milky Way is known to be highly anisotropic. D...

  8. Understanding the shape and diversity of dwarf galaxy rotation curves in LCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J I; Agertz, O; Fraternali, F

    2016-01-01

    The shape and wide diversity of dwarf galaxy rotation curves is at apparent odds with dark matter halos in LCDM. We generate mock rotation curve data from dwarf galaxy simulations to show that this owes to bursty star formation driven by stellar feedback. There are three main effects. Firstly, stellar feedback transforms dark matter cusps into cores. Ignoring such transformations leads to a poor fit of the rotation curve shape and a large systematic bias on the halo concentration parameter c. Secondly, if close to a recent starburst, large HI bubbles push the rotation curve out of equilibrium. This makes the gas rotational velocity a poor probe of the underlying potential, leading to a systematic error on the halo virial mass M200 of up to half a dex. Thirdly, when galaxies are viewed near face-on (i<40deg), it is challenging to properly correct for their inclination i. This leads to a very shallow rotation curve, with a systematic underestimate of M200 of over a dex. All three problems can be easily avoid...

  9. Thin, thick and dark discs in LCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J I; Agertz, O; Debattista, Victor P

    2008-01-01

    In a LCDM cosmology, the Milky Way accretes satellites into the stellar disc. We use cosmological simulations to assess the frequency of near disc plane and higher inclination accretion events, and collisionless simulations of satellite mergers to quantify the final state of the accreted material and the effect on the thin disc. On average, a Milky Way-sized galaxy has 1.5 subhalos with vmax>80km/s; 5 with vmax>60km/s; and 13 with vmax>40km/s merge at redshift z>1. A third of these merge at an impact angle 20 degrees) are twice as likely as low inclination ones. These lead to structures that closely resemble the recently discovered inner/outer stellar halos. They also do more damage to the Milky Way stellar disc creating a more pronounced flare, and warp; both long-lived and consistent with current observations. The most massive mergers (vmax > 80km/s) heat t he thin disc enough to produce a thick disc. These heated thin disc stars are essential for obtaining a thick disc as massive as that seen in the Milky ...

  10. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  11. The Mass-Concentration-Redshift Relation of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Angulo, Raul E; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Springel, Volker; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D M

    2013-01-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation series to investigate the mass and redshift dependence of the concentration of equilibrium cold dark matter (CDM) halos. We extend earlier work on the relation between halo mass profiles and assembly histories to show how the latter may be used to predict concentrations for halos of all masses and at any redshift. Our results clarify the link between concentration and the ``collapse redshift'' of a halo as well as why concentration depends on mass and redshift solely through the dimensionless ``peak height'' mass parameter, $\

  12. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Heß, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Predicting structural properties of dark matter haloes is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter haloes and to make 1-2 per cent accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. For massive haloes, the average density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter α in the Einasto approximation. We show that haloes progress through three stages of evolution. They start as rare density peaks and experience fast and nearly radial infall that brings mass closer to the centre, producing a highly concentrated halo. Here, the halo concentration increases with increasing halo mass and the concentration is defined by the α parameter with a nearly constant core radius. Later haloes slide into the plateau regime where the accretion becomes less radial, but frequent mergers still affect even the central region. At this stage, the concentration does not depend on halo mass. Once the rate of accretion and merging slows down, haloes move into the domain of declining concentration-mass relation because new accretion piles up mass close to the virial radius while the core radius is staying constant. Accurate analytical fits are provided.

  13. The dependence on environment of Cold Dark Matter Halo properties

    CERN Document Server

    Avila-Reese, V; Gottlöber, S; Firmani, C; Maulbetsch, C

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution LCDM cosmological N-body simulations are used to study the properties of galaxy-size dark halos in different environments (cluster, void, and "field"). Halos in clusters and their surroundings have a median spin parameter ~1.3 times lower, and tend to be more spherical and to have less aligned internal angular momentum than halos in voids and the field. For halos in clusters the concentration parameters decrease on average with mass with a slope of ~0.1; for halos in voids these concentrations do not change with mass. For masses <5 10^11 M_sh^-1, halos in clusters are on average ~30-40% more concentrated and have ~2 times higher central densities than halos in voids. When comparing only parent halos, the differences are less pronounced but they are still significant. The Vmax-and Vrms-mass relations are shallower and more scattered for halos in clusters than in voids, and for a given Vmax or Vrms, the mass is smaller at z=1 than at z=0 in all the environments. At z=1, the differences in the...

  14. Evolution of dwarf galaxies simulated in the cosmological LCDM scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colin, Pedro; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2014-03-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of low-mass galaxies with the aim to explore the way their stellar masses are assembled. We analyze how the mass assembly histories of the parent halo determine the growth of their host galaxy and its implications on the current paradigm of formation and evolution of low-mass structures in the LCDM scenario. We have found that low-mass galaxies simulated in this scenario assemble their stellar masses following roughly the dark matter halo assembly, which seems to be in tension with the downsizing trend suggested by current observational inferences. We show that there is no more room to increase the strength of feedback from astrophysical processes in order to deviate strongly the stellar mass assembly from the dark halo one, as has been recently invoked to solve some of the potential issues faced by CDM-based simulations of dwarf galaxies. Alejandro González acknowledges finacial support from UNAM, Fundacion UNAM, and the APS to attend this meeting.

  15. A "Light", Centrally-Concentrated Milky Way Halo?

    CERN Document Server

    Rashkov, Valery; Deason, Alis J; Madau, Piero; Rockosi, Constance M; Guedes, Javiera; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a novel approach to "weighing" the Milky Way dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state-of-the-art numerical simulations of Milky Way analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include "Eris", one of the highest-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M_vir=8e11 M_sun late-type spiral, and the dark-matter only M_vir=1.7e12 M_sun "Via Lactea II" simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same "cold veil" recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the Milky Way, with tracers as cold as sigma_los ~ 50 km/s between 100-150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging techni...

  16. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Klypin, Anatoly; Gottlober, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Hess, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Accurately predicting structural properties of dark matter halos is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the new suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. The MultiDark simulations cover a large range of masses 1e10-1e15Msun and volumes upto 50Gpc**3. The total number of dark matter halos in all the simulations exceeds 60 billion. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter halos and to make ~1% accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the traditional ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the NFW profile. For massive halos the averge density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter alpha in the Einasto approximation. Combining results from different redshifts, masses and cosmologies, we show that halos progress thr...

  17. The Mass-Concentration-Redshift Relation of Cold and Warm Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Angulo, Raúl E; Wang, Lan; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Navarro, Julio F; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S

    2016-01-01

    We use a suite of cosmological simulations to study the mass-concentration-redshift relation, $c({\\rm M},z)$, of dark matter halos assembled hierarchically. Our runs include both standard $\\Lambda$-cold dark matter (CDM) models, as well as several additional simulations with sharply truncated density fluctuation power spectra, such as those expected in a thermal warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. As in earlier work, we find that the mass profiles of CDM and WDM halos are self-similar and well approximated by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. The $c({\\rm M},z)$ relation of CDM halos is monotonic: concentrations decrease with increasing virial mass at fixed redshift, and decrease with increasing redshift at fixed mass. The main-progenitor mass accretion histories (MAHs) of CDM halos are also scale-free, a result that has been used to infer halo concentrations directly from MAHs. These results do not apply to WDM halos: their MAHs are not scale-free because of the characteristic scale imposed by the power-spe...

  18. Stellar Mass-gap as a Probe of Halo Assembly History and Concentration: Youth Hidden among Old Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C.; Wetzel, A. R.; Tinker, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ~ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 1012.5 history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  19. STELLAR MASS-GAP AS A PROBE OF HALO ASSEMBLY HISTORY AND CONCENTRATION: YOUTH HIDDEN AMONG OLD FOSSILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wetzel, A. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tinker, J. L., E-mail: alis@ucolick.org [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ∼ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 10{sup 12.5} < M{sub halo}/M{sub ☉} < 10{sup 14.5}. In agreement with previous work, we find that halo mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to {sup f}ossil groups{sup )} are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  20. Intragroup dark matter distribution in small galaxy group-like systems in a LCDM cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Aceves, Hector; Altamirano-Devora, L; Ramon-Fox, F G; Cañas, R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the distribution of dark matter in small galaxy groups, in a LCDM cosmology, identified using a physical criterion. We quantify the amount of intra-group dark matter and characterize its distribution. We find that compact associations of galaxies, as well as those intermediate and loose groups, have a rather flat profiles with a logarithmic slope of gamma =-0.2. Hence, the intra-group dark matter does not follow the same cuspy tendency that haloes of galaxies have. In intermediate and loose galaxy associations the intragroup matter tends to be <50% that of the total mass of the group, and in compact associations is <20% within their group radius. So, in general, common dark matter haloes of small galaxy groups are not cuspy nor massive.

  1. A ''LIGHT'', CENTRALLY CONCENTRATED MILKY WAY HALO?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashkov, Valery; Pillepich, Annalisa; Deason, Alis J.; Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rockosi, Constance M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lock Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Guedes, Javiera [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-08-20

    We discuss a novel approach to ''weighing'' the Milky Way (MW) dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state of the art numerical simulations of MW analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include ''Eris'', one of the highest resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M{sub vir} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} late-type spiral, and the dark-matter-only M{sub vir} = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} ''Via Lactea II'' (VLII) simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same ''cold veil'' recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the MW, with tracers as cold as {sigma}{sub los} Almost-Equal-To 50 km s{sup -1} between 100 and 150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging technique applied to VLII show that a ''heavy'' M{sub vir} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} realistic host produces a poor fit to the kinematic SDSS data. We argue that these results offer added evidence for a ''light'', centrally concentrated MW halo.

  2. A Robust Measure of Dark Matter Halo Ellipticities

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah

    2016-01-01

    In simulations of the standard cosmological model (LCDM), dark matter halos are aspherical. However, so far the asphericity of an individual galaxy's halo has never been robustly established. We use the Jeans equations to define a quantity which robustly characterizes a deviation from rotational symmetry. This quantity is essentially the gravitational torque and it roughly provides the ellipticity projected along the line of sight. We show that the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), with a single epoch of observations combined with those of the Gaia space telescope, can distinguish the LCDM value of the torque from zero for each Sculptor-like dwarf galaxy with a confidence between 0 and 5 sigma, depending on the orientation of each halo. With two epochs of observations, TMT will achieve a 5 sigma discovery of torque and so asphericity for most such galaxies, and so will provide a new and powerful test of the LCDM model.

  3. Stellar mass-gap as a probe of halo assembly history and concentration: youth hidden among old fossils

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, Alis J; Wetzel, Andrew R; Tinker, Jeremy L

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the use of the mass-gap statistic --- defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo --- as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ~ 25,000 group/cluster sized halos in the mass range 10^12.5 < M_halo/M_sun < 10^14.5. In agreement with previous work, we find that mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite population, which limits the use of the mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large mass-gap systems (akin to "fossil groups") are young, and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite and the central galaxy. We relate halo mass-...

  4. The Unusually High Halo Concentration of the Fossil Group NGC 6482: Evidence for Weak Adiabatic Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Although fossil galaxy systems are thought to be very old, and thus should possess above-average halo concentrations, typically fossils have unexceptional concentrations of their masses. We revisit the massive isolated elliptical galaxy/fossil group NGC 6482 for which previous X-ray studies of a modest Chandra observation obtained a very uncertain, but also possibly very high, halo concentration. We present new measurements of the hot gas surface brightness, temperature, and iron abundance using the modest Chandra observation and a previously unpublished Suzaku observation, the latter of which allows the measurements of the gas properties to be extended out to ∼ {r}2500. By constructing hydrostatic equilibrium models of the gas with separate components for the gas, the stellar mass of the large central galaxy (BCG), and the dark matter (DM), we measure {c}200=32.2+/- 7.1 and {M}200=(4.5+/- 0.6)× {10}12 {M}ȯ using a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) DM profile. For a halo of this mass, the measured concentration c200 exceeds the mean value (7.1) expected for relaxed ΛCDM halos by 3.5σ in terms of the observational error, and by 6σ considering the intrinsic scatter in the ΛCDM c–M relation, which situates NGC 6482 as the most extreme outlier known for a fossil system. We explored several variants of adiabatic contraction (AC) models and, while the AC models provide fits of the same quality as the uncontracted models, they do have the following advantages: (1) lower c200 that is less of an outlier in the ΛCDM c–M relation, and (2) baryon fractions ({f}{{b},200}) that agree better with the mean cosmic value. While the standard AC prescriptions yield a BCG stellar mass that is uncomfortably low compared to results from stellar population synthesis (SPS) models, a weaker AC variant that artificially shuts off cooling and star formation at z = 2 yields the same stellar mass as the uncontracted models. These are probably the reasons why our X-ray analysis prefers this

  5. Is the Universe Simpler than LCDM?

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Matthew G

    2014-01-01

    In the standard cosmological model, the Universe consists mainly of two invisible substances: vacuum energy with mass density rho_v = Lambda /(8 pi G), and cold dark matter (CDM). This model has the virtue of simplicity, enabling straightforward calculation of the formation and evolution of cosmic structure against the backdrop of the Hubble flow. Here we discuss apparent discrepancies with observations on small galactic scales, which LCDM must attribute to complexity in the baryon physics of galaxy formation. Yet galaxies exhibit structural scaling relations that evoke simplicity, presenting a clear target for formation models. We use published data to examine the relationship between dynamical components of such relations. Tracers of gravitational potentials dominated by dark matter show a correlation between orbital size, R, and velocity, V, that can be expressed most simply as a characteristic acceleration, a_{DM} ~ 1 km^2/s^2/pc ~ 3 x 10^{-9} cm/s^2 ~ 0.2c(G rho_v)^{1/2}. It remains to be seen whether LC...

  6. Cluster infall in the concordance LCDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Pivato, M C; Lambas, D G; Pivato, Maximiliano C.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Lambas, Diego G.

    2005-01-01

    We perform statistical analyses of the infall of dark-matter onto clusters in numerical simulations within the concordance LCDM model. By studying the infall profile around clusters of different mass, we find a linear relation between the maximum infall velocity and mass which reach 900km/s for the most massive groups. The maximum infall velocity and the group mass follow a suitable power law fit of the form, V_{inf}^{max} = (M/m_0)^{gamma}. By comparing the measured infall velocity to the linear infall model with an exponential cutoff introduced by Croft et al., we find that the best agreement is obtained for a critical overdensity delta_c = 45. We study the dependence of the direction of infall with respect to the cluster centres, and find that in the case of massive groups, the maximum alignment occurs at scales r ~ 6Mpc/h. We obtain a logarithmic power-law relation between the average infall angle and the group mass. We also study the dependence of the results on the local dark-matter density, finding a r...

  7. The accretion history of dark matter haloes - III. A physical model for the concentration-mass relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Camila A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R.

    2015-09-01

    We present a semi-analytic, physically motivated model for dark matter halo concentration as a function of halo mass and redshift. The semi-analytic model combines an analytic model for the halo mass accretion history (MAH), based on extended Press-Schechter (EPS) theory, with an empirical relation between concentration and formation time obtained through fits to the results of numerical simulations. Because the semi-analytic model is based on EPS theory, it can be applied to wide ranges in mass, redshift and cosmology. The resulting concentration-mass (c-M) relations are found to agree with the simulations, and because the model applies only to relaxed haloes, they do not exhibit the upturn at high masses or high redshifts found by some recent works. We predict a change of slope in the z ˜ 0 c-M relation at a mass-scale of 1011 M⊙. We find that this is due to the change in the functional form of the halo MAH, which goes from being dominated by an exponential (for high-mass haloes) to a power law (for low-mass haloes). During the latter phase, the core radius remains approximately constant, and the concentration grows due to the drop of the background density. We also analyse how the c-M relation predicted by this work affects the power produced by dark matter annihilation, finding that at z = 0 the power is two orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from extrapolating best-fitting c-M relations. We provide fits to the c-M relations as well as numerical routines to compute concentrations and MAHs.†

  8. On the origin and properties of Ultrafaint Milky Way Satellites in a LCDM Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Maccio', Andrea V; Fontanot, Fabio; Somerville, Rachel S; Koposov, Sergey E; Monaco, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We study the origin and properties of satellite galaxies within Milky Way size haloes as predicted in LCDM model, making use of hydrodynamic and N-body simulations as well as of three different semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We extract merger trees from high-resolution N-body simulations of four Galaxy-sized DM haloes, and use these as common input for the SAMs. We present a detailed comparison of our predictions with the recent observational data on the Milky Way satellite luminosity function (LF). We find that semi-analytic models with rather standard astrophysical ingredients are able to reproduce the observed luminosity function over six orders of magnitude in luminosity, down to magnitudes as faint as M_V=-2. We also perform a comparison with the actual observed number of satellites as a function of luminosity, by applying the selection criteria of the SSDS to our simulations. We find good agreement for both the luminosity and radial distributions of MW satellites. We investigate which ...

  9. Effects of AGN feedback on LCDM galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Padilla, Nelson D

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback on the formation and evolution of galaxies in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This model is an improved version of the one described by Cora (2006), which now considers the growth of black holes (BHs) as driven by (i) gas accretion during merger-driven starbursts and mergers with other BHs, (ii) accretion during starbursts triggered by disc instabilities, and (iii) accretion of gas cooled from quasi-hydrostatic hot gas haloes. It is assumed that feedback from AGN operates in the later case. The model has been calibrated in order to reproduce observational correlations between BH mass and mass, velocity dispersion, and absolute magnitudes of the galaxy bulge. AGN feedback has a strong impact on reducing or even suppressing gas cooling, an effect that becomes important at lower redshifts. This phenomenon helps to reproduce the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF) in the optical and near IR bands at z=0, and the cosmic star formation ra...

  10. The accretion history of dark matter halos III: A physical model for the concentration-mass relation

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Camila A; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic, physically motivated model for dark matter halo concentration as a function of halo mass and redshift. The semi-analytic model is intimately based on hierarchical structure formation. It uses an analytic model for the halo mass accretion history, based on extended Press Schechter (EPS) theory, and an empirical relation between concentration and an appropriate definition of formation time obtained through fits to the results of numerical simulations. The resulting concentration-mass relations are tested against the simulations and do not exhibit an upturn at high masses or high redshifts as claimed by recent works. Because our semi-analytic model is based on EPS theory, it can be applied to wide ranges in mass, redshift and cosmology. We predict a change of slope in the z=0 concentration-mass relation at a mass scale of $10^{11}\\rm{M}_{\\odot}$, that is caused by the varying power in the density perturbations. We provide best-fitting expressions of the $c-M$ relations as well as nume...

  11. Stochastic contribution to the growth factor in the LCDM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A. L.B.; Andrade, A. P.A.; Letelier, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of noise on the evolution of the growth factor of density perturbations in the context of the LCDM model. Stochasticity is introduced as a Wiener process amplified by an intensity parameter alpha. By comparing the evolution of deterministic and stochastic cases for different values of alpha we estimate the intensity level necessary to make noise relevant for cosmological tests based on large-scale structure data. Our results indicate that the presence of random forces underlying the fluid description can lead to significant deviations from the nonstochastic solution at late times for alpha>0.001.

  12. Statistics of Dark Matter Substructure: III. Halo-to-Halo Variance

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of unprecedented statistical power regarding the halo-to-halo variance of dark matter substructure. Using a combination of N-body simulations and a semi-analytical model, we investigate the variance in subhalo mass fractions and subhalo occupation numbers, with an emphasis on how these statistics scale with halo formation time. We demonstrate that the subhalo mass fraction, f_sub, is mainly a function of halo formation time, with earlier forming haloes having less substructure. At fixed formation redshift, the average f_sub is virtually independent of halo mass, and the mass dependence of f_sub is therefore mainly a manifestation of more massive haloes assembling later. We compare observational constraints on f_sub from gravitational lensing to our model predictions and simulation results. Although the inferred f_sub are substantially higher than the median LCDM predictions, they fall within the 95th percentile due to halo-to-halo variance. We show that while the halo occupation distributio...

  13. Counting Dark Sub-halos with Star Stream Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Raymond G

    2012-01-01

    The Cold Dark Matter paradigm predicts vast numbers of dark matter sub-halos to be orbiting in galactic halos. The sub-halos are detectable through the gaps they create gaps in stellar streams. The gap-rate is an integral over the density of sub-halos, their mass function, velocity distribution and the dynamical age of the stream. The rate of visible gap creation is a function of the width of the stream. The available data for four streams: the NW stream of M31, the Pal~5 stream, the Orphan Stream and the Eastern Banded Structure, are compared to the LCDM predicted relation. We find a remarkably good agreement, although there remains much to be done to improve the quality of the result. The narrower streams require that there is a total population of order 10^5 sub-halos above 10^5 M_sun to create the gaps.

  14. Black hole spin and radio loudness in a LCDM universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Cora, Sofia A

    2009-01-01

    We use a combination of a cosmological N-body simulation of the concordance Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) paradigm and a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to investigate the spin development of central supermassive black holes (BHs) and its relation to the BH host galaxy properties. In order to compute BH spins, we use the alpha-model of Shakura & Sunyaev and consider the King et al. warped disc alignment criterion. The orientation of the accretion disc is inferred from the angular momentum of the source of accreted material, which bears a close relationship to the large-scale structure in the simulation. We find that the final BH spin depends almost exclusively on the accretion history and only weakly on the warped disc alignment. The main mechanisms of BH spin-up are found to be gas cooling processes and disc instabilities, a result that is only partially compatible with Monte-Carlo models where the main spin-up mechanisms are major mergers and disc instabilities; the latter results are reproduce...

  15. The Milky Way system in LCDM cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Qi; Frenk, Carlos; Helly, John; Hellwing, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    We apply a semi-analytic galaxy formation model to two high resolution cosmological N-body simulations to investigate analogues of the Milky Way system. We select these according to observed properties of the Milky Way rather than by halo mass as in most previous work. For disk-dominated central galaxies with stellar mass (5--7) x 10d10Msun, the median host halo mass is 1.4 x 10d12Msun, with 1 sigma dispersion in the range [0.86, 3.1] x 10d12Msun, consistent with dynamical measurements of the Milky Way halo mass. For any given halo mass, the probability of hosting a Milky Way system is low, with a maximum of ~20% in haloes of mass ~10d12Msun. The model reproduces the V-band luminosity function and radial profile of the bright (MV 30 km/s. Our model predicts that around half of the dark matter subhaloes with Vmax > 20 km/s host satellites fainter than MV = -9 and so may be missing from existing surveys.

  16. Halo formation and evolution: unification of structure and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Allan D.; Collins, Matthew P.

    2016-08-01

    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a wide variety of halo structures, often with enigmatic consequences. Giant spiral galaxies, for example, contain both dark matter and hot gas, while dwarf spheroidal galaxies, with weaker gravity, contain much larger fractions of dark matter, but little gas. Globular clusters, superficially resembling these dwarf spheroidals, have little or no dark matter. Halo temperatures are also puzzling: hot cluster halos contain cooler galaxy halos; dwarf galaxies have no hot gas at all despite their similar internal processes. Another mystery is the origin of the gas that galaxies require to maintain their measured star formation rates (SFRs). We outline how gravitational quantum theory solves these problems, and enables baryons to function as weakly-interacting-massive-particles (WIMPs) in Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. Significantly, these dark-baryon ensembles may also be consistent with primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies.

  17. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Pierre; Valenzuela, O; Gottlöber, S

    2003-01-01

    We use N-body simulations to study properties of dwarf halos with virial masses in the range 10^7-10^9 Msun/h. Unlike recent reported results, we find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the NFW profile and do not have cores. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in mass range that covers six orders of magnitude from 10^7 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. (2001). We predict that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~ 35. For halos with masses that range from 4.6 x 10^9 Msun/h to 10^13 Msun/h we measure the subhalo circular velocity function and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth and Tormen model while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with lambda...

  18. The Dark Side of the Halo Occupation Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kravtsov, A V; Wechsler, R H; Klypin, A A; Gottlöber, S; Allgood, B; Primack, J R; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Allgood, Brandon; Primack, Joel R.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the halo occupation distribution (HOD), the probability for a halo of mass M to host a number of subhalos N, and two-point correlation function of galaxy-size dark matter halos using high-resolution dissipationless simulations of the concordance flat LCDM model. The halo samples include both the host halos and the subhalos, distinct gravitationally-bound halos within the virialized regions of larger host systems. We find that the first moment of the HOD, (M), has a complicated shape consisting of a step, a shoulder, and a power law high-mass tail. The HOD can be described by a Poisson statistics at high halo masses but becomes sub-Poisson for (M). We find that ~M^b with b~1 for a wide range of number densities, redshifts, and different power spectrum normalizations. This formulation provides a simple but accurate model for the halo occupation distribution found in simulations. At z=0, the two-point correlation function (CF) of galactic halos can be well fit by a power law down to ~100/h kpc with an...

  19. Galaxy Halo Occupation at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, J S; Somerville, R S; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power-law in the halo mass: N(M) = (M/M_1)^S for M>M_m. Here, M_m is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M_1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias, and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume an LCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the fav...

  20. Pairwise Velocity Statistics of Dark Halos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yan Zhang; Yi-Peng Jing

    2004-01-01

    We have accurately evaluated the halo pairwise velocity dispersion and the halo mean streaming velocity in the LCDM model (the flat ω0 = 0.3 model)using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations. Based on the simulation results,we have developed a model for the pairwise velocity dispersion of halos. Our model agrees with the simulation results over all scales we studied. We have also tested the model of Sheth et al. for the mean streaming motion of halos derived from the pair-conservation equation. We found that their model reproduces the simulation data very well on large scale, but under-predicts the streaming motion on scales r < 10 h-1 Mpc. We have introduced an empirical relation to improve their model.These improved models are useful for predicting the redshift correlation functions and the redshift power spectrum of galaxies if the halo occupation number model,e.g. the cluster weighted model, is given for the galaxies.

  1. Relation between halo spin and cosmic-web filaments at z ≃ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roberto E.; Prieto, Joaquin; Padilla, Nelson; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the spin evolution of dark matter haloes and their dependence on the number of connected filaments from the cosmic web at high redshift (spin-filament relation hereafter). To this purpose, we have simulated 5000 haloes in the mass range 5 × 109 h-1 M⊙ to 5 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ at z = 3 in cosmological N-body simulations. We confirm the relation found by Prieto et al. (2015) where haloes with fewer filaments have larger spin. We also found that this relation is more significant for higher halo masses, and for haloes with a passive (no major mergers) assembly history. Another finding is that haloes with larger spin or with fewer filaments have their filaments more perpendicularly aligned with the spin vector. Our results point to a picture in which the initial spin of haloes is well described by tidal torque theory and then gets subsequently modified in a predictable way because of the topology of the cosmic web, which in turn is given by the currently favoured Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) model. Our spin-filament relation is a prediction from LCDM that could be tested with observations.

  2. Lambda-Cold Dark Matter, Stellar Feedback, and the Galactic Halo Abundance Pattern

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, B; Font, A S; Johnston, K V; Hernquist, L; Robertson, Brant; Bullock, James S.; Font, Andreea S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) The hierarchical formation scenario for the stellar halo requires the accretion and disruption of dwarf galaxies, yet low-metallicity halo stars are enriched in alpha-elements compared to similar, low-metallicity stars in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. We address this primary challenge for the hierarchical formation scenario for the stellar halo by combining chemical evolution modelling with cosmologically-motivated mass accretion histories for the Milky Way dark halo and its satellites. We demonstrate that stellar halo and dwarf galaxy abundance patterns can be explained naturally within the LCDM framework. Our solution relies fundamentally on the LCDM model prediction that the majority of the stars in the stellar halo were formed within a few relatively massive, ~5 x 10^10 Msun, dwarf irregular (dIrr)-size dark matter halos, which were accreted and destroyed ~10 Gyr in the past. These systems necessarily have short-lived, rapid star formation histories, are enriched primarily by Type II supern...

  3. Satellites and Haloes of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, Laura V; White, Simon D M; Navarro, Julio F

    2012-01-01

    We study the abundance of satellite galaxies as a function of primary stellar mass using the SDSS/DR7 spectroscopic catalogue. In contrast with previous studies, which focussed mainly on bright primaries, our central galaxies span a wide range of stellar mass, 10^7.5 < M_*^pri/M_sun < 10^11, from dwarfs to central cluster galaxies. Our analysis confirms that the average number of satellites around bright primaries, when expressed in terms of satellite-to-primary stellar mass ratio (m_*^sat/M_*^pri), is a strong function of M_*^pri. On the other hand, satellite abundance is largely independent of primary mass for dwarf primaries (M_*^pri<10^10 M_sun). These results are consistent with galaxy formation models in the LCDM scenario. We find excellent agreement between SDSS data and semi-analytic mock galaxy catalogues constructed from the Millennium-II Simulation. Satellite galaxies trace dark matter substructure in LCDM, so satellite abundance reflects the dependence on halo mass, M_200, of both substru...

  4. The Evolution of Dark Matter Halo Properties in Clusters, Filaments, Sheets and Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Oliver; Porciani, Cristiano; Dekel, Avishai

    2007-01-01

    We use a series of N-body simulations of the LCDM cosmology to investigate the redshift evolution since z=1 of the properties and alignment with the large-scale structure of haloes in clusters, filaments, sheets and voids. We find that: (i) Once a rescaling of the halo mass with M*, the mass scale collapsing at redshift z, is performed, there is no further significant redshift dependence in the halo properties; (ii) The environment influences halo shape and formation time at all investigated redshifts for haloes with masses MM* in filaments spin more rapidly than similar mass haloes in clusters; haloes in voids have the lowest median spin parameters; c) Haloes with MM* perpendicular to it. For masses M>M*, the major axis of haloes in filaments and sheets is strongly aligned w ith the filament or the sheet. Such halo-LSS alignments may be of importance in weak lensing analyses of cosmic shear. A question that is opened by our study is why, in the 0 < z < 1 redshift regime that we have investigated, the m...

  5. Phase-Space Structure & Substructure of Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Arad, A D I

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for computing the 6-D phase-space density f(x,v) and its PDF v(f) in an N-body system. It is based on Delaunay tessellation, yielding v(f) with a fixed smoothing window over a wide f range, independent of the sampling resolution. It is found that in a gravitationally relaxed halo built by hierarchical clustering, v(f) is a robust power law, v(f) f^{-2.5 \\pm 0.05}, over more than 4 decades in f, from its virial level to the current resolution limit. This is valid for halos of different sizes in the LCDM cosmology, indicating insensitivity to the initial-fluctuation power spectrum as long as the small-scale fluctuations were not completely suppressed. By mapping f in position space, we find that the high-f contributions to v(f) come from the "cold" subhalos within the parent halo rather than the halo central region and its global spherical profile. The f in subhalos near the halo virial radius is more than 100 times higher than at the halo center, and it decreases gradually with decreasing...

  6. Radial velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the radial velocity distribution in dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis. We determine the properties of ten massive haloes in the simulation box approximating their density distribution by the NFW formula characterized by the virial mass and concentration. We also calculate the velocity anisotropy parameter of the haloes and find it mildly radial and increasing with distance from the halo centre. The radial velocity dispersion of the haloes shows a characteristic profile with a maximum, while the radial kurtosis profile decreases with distance starting from a value close to Gaussian near the centre. We therefore confirm that dark matter haloes possess intrinsically non-Gaussian, flat-topped velocity distributions. We find that the radial velocity moments of the simulated haloes are very well reproduced by the solutions of the Jeans equations obtained for the halo parameters with the anisotropy measured in the simu...

  7. The Large Scale Bias of Dark Matter Halos: Numerical Calibration and Model Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Tinker, Jeremy L; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Klypin, Anatoly; Warren, Michael S; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlober, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We measure the clustering of dark matter halos in a large set of collisionless cosmological simulations of the flat LCDM cosmology. Halos are identified using the spherical overdensity algorithm, which finds the mass around isolated peaks in the density field such that the mean density is Delta times the background. We calibrate fitting functions for the large scale bias that are adaptable to any value of Delta we examine. We find a ~6% scatter about our best fit bias relation. Our fitting functions couple to the halo mass functions of Tinker et. al. (2008) such that bias of all dark matter is normalized to unity. We demonstrate that the bias of massive, rare halos is higher than that predicted in the modified ellipsoidal collapse model of Sheth, Mo, & Tormen (2001), and approaches the predictions of the spherical collapse model for the rarest halos. Halo bias results based on friends-of-friends halos identified with linking length 0.2 are systematically lower than for halos with the canonical Delta=200 o...

  8. Bent by baryons: the low mass galaxy-halo relation

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; McCarthy, Ian G; Qu, Yan; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The relation between galaxies and dark matter halos is of vital importance for evaluating theoretical predictions of structure formation and galaxy formation physics. We show that the widely used method of abundance matching based on dark matter only simulations fails at the low mass end because two of its underlying assumptions are broken: only a small fraction of low mass (below 10^9.5 solar masses) halos host a visible galaxy, and halos grow at a lower rate due to the effect of baryons. In this regime, reliance on dark matter only simulations for abundance matching is neither accurate nor self-consistent. We find that the reported discrepancy between observational estimates of the halo masses of dwarf galaxies and the values predicted by abundance matching does not point to a failure of LCDM, but simply to a failure to account for baryonic effects. Our results also imply that the Local Group contains only a few hundred observable galaxies in contrast with the thousands of faint dwarfs that abundance matchi...

  9. Merger Histories of Galaxy Halos and Implications for Disk Survival

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Kyle R; Wechsler, Risa H; Maller, Ariyeh H; Zentner, Andrew R

    2007-01-01

    We study the merger histories of galaxy dark matter halos using a high resolution LCDM N-body simulation. Our merger trees follow ~17,000 halos with masses M_0 = (10^11--10^13) Msun at z=0 and track accretion events involving objects as small as m = 10^10 Msun. We find that mass assembly is remarkably self-similar in m/M_0, and dominated by mergers that are ~10% of the final halo mass. While very large mergers, m > 0.4 M_0, are quite rare, sizeable accretion events, m ~ 0.1 M_0, are common. Over the last 10 Gyr, an overwhelming majority (~95%) of Milky Way-sized halos with M_0 = 10^12 Msun have accreted at least one object with greater total mass than the Milky Way disk (m > 5x10^10 Msun), and approximately 70% have accreted an object with more than twice that mass (m > 10^11 Msun). Our results raise serious concerns about the survival of thin-disk dominated galaxies within the current paradigm for galaxy formation in a CDM universe. In order to achieve a ~70% disk-dominated fraction in Milky Way-sized CDM ha...

  10. Modelling large-scale halo bias using the bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Jennifer E; Porciani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between the halo and matter density fields -- commonly termed bias -- in the LCDM framework. In particular, we examine the local model of biasing at quadratic order in matter density. This model is characterized by parameters b_1 and b_2. Using an ensemble of N-body simulations, we apply several statistical methods to estimate the parameters. We measure halo and matter fluctuations smoothed on various scales and find that the parameters vary with smoothing scale. We argue that, for real-space measurements, owing to the mixing of wavemodes, no scale can be found for which the parameters are independent of smoothing. However, this is not the case in Fourier space. We measure halo power spectra and construct estimates for an effective large-scale bias. We measure the configuration dependence of the halo bispectra B_hhh and reduced bispectra Q_hhh for very large-scale k-space triangles. From this we constrain b_1 and b_2. Using the lowest-order perturbation theory, we find that for B_hhh the...

  11. A Second-order bias model for the Logarithmic Halo Mass Density

    CERN Document Server

    Jee, Inh; Kim, Juhan; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S

    2012-01-01

    We present an analytic model for the local bias of dark matter halos in a LCDM universe. The model uses the halo mass density instead of the halo number density and is searched for various halo mass cuts, smoothing lengths, and redshift epoches. We find that, when the logarithmic density is used, the second-order polynomial can fit the numerical relation between the halo mass distribution and the underlying matter distribution extremely well. In this model the logarithm of the dark matter density is expanded in terms of log halo mass density to the second order. The model remains excellent for all halo mass cuts (from M_{cut}=3\\times10^{11}$ to $3\\times10^{12}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$), smoothing scales (from $R=5h^{-1}$Mpc to $50h^{-1}$Mpc), and redshift ranges (from z=0 to 1.0) considered in this study. The stochastic term in the relation is found not entirely random, but a part of the term can be determined by the magnitude of the shear tensor.

  12. Relation between halo spin and cosmic web filaments at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Roberto E; Padilla, Nelson; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spin evolution of dark matter haloes and their dependence on the number of connected filaments from the cosmic web at high redshift (spin-filament relation hereafter). To this purpose, we have simulated $5000$ haloes in the mass range $5\\times10^{9}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$ to $5\\times10^{11}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$ at $z=3$ in cosmological N-body simulations. We confirm the relation found by Prieto et al. 2015 where haloes with fewer filaments have larger spin. We also found that this relation is more significant for higher halo masses, and for haloes with a passive (no major mergers) assembly history. Another finding is that haloes with larger spin or with fewer filaments have their filaments more perpendicularly aligned with the spin vector. Our results point to a picture in which the initial spin of haloes is well described by tidal torque theory and then gets subsequently modified in a predictable way because of the topology of the cosmic web, which in turn is given by the currently favoured LCDM model...

  13. The Formation and Evolution of Stripped Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jessica; Tuan, Austin Zong; Lee, Christoph; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    We implement a model to describe the density profiles of stripped dark matter halos. Our model generalizes the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) distribution to allow for more flexibility in the slope of the outer halo. We find that the density distributions of stripped halos tend to have outer slopes steeper than assumed by the NFW distribution. We also examine the relationship between severity of stripping and halo shape, spin parameter and concentration, and find that highly stripped halos are more spheroidal, have lower spin parameters, and have higher concentrations compared to less stripped halos.

  14. Shapes and Sizes of Voids in the LCDM Universe: Excursion Set Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shandarin, S; Heitmann, K; Habib, S; Shandarin, Sergei; Feldman, Hume A.; Heitmann, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    We study the global distribution and morphology of dark matter voids in a LCDM universe using density fields generated by N-body simulations. Voids are defined as isolated regions of the low-density excursion set specified via density thresholds, the density thresholds being quantified by the corresponding filling factors, i.e., the fraction of the total volume in the excursion set. Our work encompasses a systematic investigation of the void volume function, the volume fraction in voids, and the fitting of voids to corresponding ellipsoids and spheres. We emphasize the relevance of the percolation threshold to the void volume statistics of the density field both in the high redshift, Gaussian random field regime, as well as in the present epoch. By using measures such as the Inverse Porosity, we characterize the quality of ellipsoidal fits to voids, finding that such fits are a poor representation of the larger voids that dominate the volume of the void excursion set.

  15. Borromean halo, Tango halo, and halo isomers in atomic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izosimov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Structure of the ground and excited states in halo-like nuclei is discussed. Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei.Structure of the halo may be different for the different levels and resonances in atomic nuclei. Isobar analog, double isobar analog, configuration, and double configuration states can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. When the halo structure of the excited state differs from that of the ground state, or the ground state has non-halo structure, the γ-transition from the excited state to the ground state can be essentially hindered, i.e. the formation of a specific type of isomers (halo isomers) becomes possible. B(Mγ) and B(Eγ) values for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei which ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state (halo isomer) may have one.

  16. Cosmic stellar relics in the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, S; Ferrara, A

    2006-01-01

    We study the stellar population history and chemical evolution of the Milky Way (MW) in a hierarchical LCDM model for structure formation. Using a Monte Carlo method based on the semi-analytical EPS formalism, we reconstruct the merger tree of our Galaxy and follow the evolution of gas and stars along the hierarchy. Our approach allows us to compare the observational properties of the MW with model results, exploring different properties of primordial stars, such as their IMF and the critical metallicity for low-mass star formation, Zcr. By matching our predictions to the Metallicity Distribution Function (MDF) of metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo we find that: (i) supernova feedback is required to reproduce the observed properties of the MW; (ii) stars with [Fe/H]0 or the masses of the first stars m_PopIII>0.9Msun; (v) the statistical impact of second generation stars, i.e stars forming out of gas polluted only by metal-free stars, is negligible in current samples; (vi) independently of Zcr, 60% of metal...

  17. Conditions for halo occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.S.; Riisager, K.; Fedorov, D.V. [Inst. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Arhus (Denmark); Garrido, E. [Inst. de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We define quantum halos and apply the definition on many-body systems arriving at the conclusions that halos must have few cluster partitions, small binding energy, low angular momentum, small charge, low excitation energy. (orig.)

  18. Effects of the Size of Cosmological N-body Simulations on Physical Quantities – II: Halo Formation and Destruction Rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayanti Prasad

    2007-06-01

    In this study we show how errors due to finite box size affect formation and the destruction rate for haloes in cosmological N-body simulations. In an earlier study we gave an analytic prescription of finding the corrections in the mass function. Following the same approach, in this paper we give analytical expressions for corrections in the formation rate, destruction rate and the rate of change in comoving number density, and compute their expected values for the power law ( = -2) and LCDM models.

  19. Central mass and luminosity of Milky Way satellites in the LCDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Maccio', Andrea V; Moore, Ben

    2008-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that Milky Way satellites all have a common mass around 1.0e7 Msun within 300 pc (M_{0.3}), while they span almost four orders of magnitude in luminosity. It is argued that this may reflect a specific scales for galaxy formation or a scale for dark matter clustering. Here we use numerical simulations coupled with a semi-analytic model for galaxy formation, to predict the central mass and luminosity of galactic satellites in the LCDM model. We show that this common mass scale can be easily explained within the Cold Dark Matter scenario when the physics of galaxy formation is taken into account. The narrow range of M_{0.3} comes from the narrow distribution of circular velocities at time of accretion (peaking around 20 km/s) for satellites able to form stars. The wide range of satellite luminosities is due to the broad distribution of accretion redshift for a given circular velocity. This causes the satellite baryonic content to be suppressed by photo-ionization to different ext...

  20. The formation and evolution of dark matter halos early in cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.

    2015-08-01

    Observational evidence points to the formation of super-massive black holes, heavy elements and halo structure much earlier in cosmic history than expected [1], and this is challenging for Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) theory. However, if photon scattering cross sections were less than expected it becomes possible for halos to form at earlier times and relax the tensions that exist with LCDM theory. This may indeed be the case: it has recently been shown [2,3] that photon-particle scattering cross sections vary significantly with the eigenspectral distribution of the scattering particle in deep gravity wells, an effect that depends on the degree of localization of the particle wavefunction and the proximity of the halo to thermal equilibrium. Cross sections tend to be lower the larger and deeper the gravitational well. This purely quantum effect means that accepted cross sections, as measured on Earth and used to determine the rate and timing of halo formation, may not be applicable to deep gravity wells, not only at the present epoch but throughout cosmic history.By combining reduced photon scattering cross sections with Carr’s primordial black hole mass spectrum formulation[4] calculated at the last phase transition (t = 1 s), it is possible to provide a scenario of halo formation that enables galaxies and halos to form much earlier in cosmic history, yet maintain consistency with cosmic microwave background observations and primordial nucleosynthesis. In addition this scenario provides a unified model relating globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges, enables an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, and enables prediction of dark to visible matter, based on the physical parameters of a halo. This scenario will be presented and discussed.[1] Xue-Bing Wu et al, 2015, Nature, 518,512-515 doi: 10.1038/nature14241[2] Ernest A. D., 2009, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 115207, 115208[3] Ernest A. D, 2012, in Advances in

  1. The nature of assembly bias - I. Clues from a LCDM cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lacerna, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    We present a new proxy for the overdensity peak height for which the large-scale clustering of haloes of a given mass does not vary significantly with the assembly history. The peak height, usually taken to be well represented by the virial mass, can instead be approximated by the mass inside spheres of different radii, which in some cases can be larger than the virial radius and therefore include mass outside the individual host halo. The sphere radii are defined as r = $a$ delta_t + $b$ log_10(M_vir/M_nl), where delta_t is the age relative to the typical age of galaxies hosted by haloes with virial mass M_vir, M_nl is the non-linear mass, and $a$=0.2 and $b$=-0.02 are the free parameters adjusted to trace the assembly bias effect. Note that $r$ depends on both halo mass and age. In this new approach, some of the objects which were initially considered low-mass peaks belong to regions with higher overdensities. At large scales, i.e. in the two-halo regime, this model properly recovers the simple prescription...

  2. Zoomed cosmological simulations of Milky Way sized halos in f(R)-gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Christian; Puchwein, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of f(R) modified gravity on the internal properties of Milky Way sized dark matter halos in a set of cosmological zoom simulations of seven halos from the Aquarius suite, carried out with our code MG-GADGET in the Hu & Sawicki f(R) model. Also, we calculate the fifth forces in ideal NFW-halos as well as in our cosmological simulations and compare them against analytic model predictions for the fifth force inside spherical objects. We find that these theoretical predictions match the forces in the ideal halos very well, whereas their applicability is somewhat limited for realistic cosmological halos. Our simulations show that f(R) gravity significantly affects the dark matter density profile of Milky Way sized objects as well as their circular velocities. In unscreened regions, the velocity dispersions are increased by up to 40% with respect to LCDM for viable f(R) models. This difference is larger than reported in previous works. The Solar circle is fully screened in $f_{R0} = -1...

  3. Seeking Observable Imprints of Small-Scale Structure on the Properties of Dark Matter Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic prediction of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation is that the Universe should contain a wealth of small-scale structure -- low-mass dark matter haloes and subhaloes. However, galaxy formation is inefficient in their shallow potential wells and so we expect these low-mass haloes and subhaloes to be dark. Can we tell the difference between a Universe in which low-mass haloes are present but dark and one in which they never formed, thereby providing a robust test of the CDM model? We address this question using cosmological simulations to examine how properties of low-mass haloes that are potentially accessible to observation, such as their spatial clustering, rate of accretions and mergers onto massive galaxies and the angular momentum content of massive galaxies, differ between a LCDM model and dark matter models in which low-mass halo formation is suppressed. Adopting an effective cut-off mass scale M_cut below which small-scale power is suppressed in the in...

  4. Analytical halo model of galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Paranjape, Aseem

    2017-09-01

    We present a fully analytical halo model of colour-dependent clustering that incorporates the effects of galactic conformity in a halo occupation distribution framework. The model, based on our previous numerical work, describes conformity through a correlation between the colour of a galaxy and the concentration of its parent halo, leading to a correlation between central and satellite galaxy colours at fixed halo mass. The strength of the correlation is set by a tunable 'group quenching efficiency', and the model can separately describe group-level correlations between galaxy colour (1-halo conformity) and large-scale correlations induced by assembly bias (2-halo conformity). We validate our analytical results using clustering measurements in mock galaxy catalogues, finding that the model is accurate at the 10-20 per cent level for a wide range of luminosities and length-scales. We apply the formalism to interpret the colour-dependent clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find good overall agreement between the data and a model that has 1-halo conformity at a level consistent with previous results based on an SDSS group catalogue, although the clustering data require satellites to be redder than suggested by the group catalogue. Within our modelling uncertainties, however, we do not find strong evidence of 2-halo conformity driven by assembly bias in SDSS clustering.

  5. Hierarchical formation of Dark Matter Halos near the Free Streaming Scale, and Their Implications on Indirect Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2016-10-01

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as ρ ~ r -(1.5-1.3). We present results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately -1.3. The concentration parameter is nearly independent of halo mass, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. The steeper inner cusps of halos near the free streaming scale enhance the annihilation luminosity of a Milky Way sized halo between 12 to 67%.

  6. The Relative and Absolute Ages of Old Globular Clusters in the LCDM Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele; Padoan, Paolo; Jimenez, Raul

    2015-08-01

    Old globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way have ages of about 13 Gyr, placing their formation time in the reionization epoch. We propose a novel scenario for the formation of these systems based on the merger of two or more atomic cooling halos at high redshift (z\\gt 6). First-generation stars are formed as an intense burst in the center of a minihalo that grows above the threshold for hydrogen cooling (halo mass {M}{{h}}˜ {10}8 {M}⊙ ) by undergoing a major merger within its cooling timescale (˜150 Myr). Subsequent minor mergers and sustained gas infall bring a new supply of pristine gas to the halo center, creating conditions that can trigger new episodes of star formation. The dark-matter halo around the GC is then stripped during assembly of the host-galaxy halo. Minihalo merging is efficient only in a short redshift window, set by the {{Λ }}{CDM} parameters, allowing us to make a strong prediction on the age distribution for old GCs. From cosmological simulations, we derive an average merging redshift z> =9 and a narrow distribution {{Δ }}z=2, implying average GC age =13.0+/- 0.2 {Gyr} including ˜0.2 Gyr of star formation delay. Qualitatively, our scenario reproduces other general old GC properties (characteristic masses and number of objects, metallicity versus galactocentric radius anticorrelation, radial distribution), but unlike age, these generally depend on details of baryonic physics. In addition to improved age measurements, direct validation of the model at z˜ 10 may be within reach with ultradeep gravitationally lensed observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  7. How are galaxies assigned to halos? Searching for assembly bias in the SDSS galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Vakili, Mohammadjavad

    2016-01-01

    Clustering of dark matter halos has been shown to depend on halo properties beyond mass such as halo concentration, a phenomenon referred to as halo assembly bias. Standard halo occupation modeling (HOD) in large scale structure studies assumes that halo mass alone is sufficient in characterizing the connection between galaxies and halos. Modeling of galaxy clustering can face systematic effects if the number or properties of galaxies are correlated with other halo properties. Using the Small MultiDark-Planck high resolution $N$-body simulation and the measurements of the projected two-point correlation function and the number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 main galaxy sample, we investigate the extent to which the dependence of halo occupation on halo concentration can be constrained, and to what extent allowing for this dependence can improve our modeling of galaxy clustering. Given the SDSS clustering data, our constraints on HOD with assembly bias, suggests that satellite population is not...

  8. On the Origin of the Inner Structure of Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, A; Salvador-Solé, E; Sanchis, T; Solanes, J M; Manrique, Alberto; Raig, Andreu; Salvador-Sole, Eduard; Sanchis, Teresa; Solanes, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate by means of the Press-Schechter formalism the density profile developed by dark-matter halos during accretion, i.e., the continuous aggregation of small clumps. We find that the shape of the predicted profile is similar to that shown by halos in high-resolution cosmological simulations. Furthermore, the mass-concentration relation is correctly reproduced at any redshift in all the hierarchical cosmologies analyzed, except for very large halo masses. The role of major mergers, which can cause the rearrangement of the halo structure through violent relaxation, is also investigated. We show that, as a result of the boundary conditions imposed by the matter continuously infalling into the halo during the violent relaxation process, the shape of the density profile emerging from major mergers is essentially identical to the shape the halo would have developed through pure accretion. This result explains why, according to high-resolution cosmological simulations, relaxed halos of a given mass have the ...

  9. Occurence and Luminosity Functions of Giant Radio Halos from Magneto-Turbulent Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cassano, R; Setti, G; Cassano, Rossella; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Setti, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the probability to form giant radio halos (~ 1 Mpc size) as a function of the mass of the host clusters by using a Statistical Magneto-Turbulent Model (Cassano & Brunetti, these proceedings). We show that the expectations of this model are in good agreement with the observations for viable values of the parameters. In particular, the abrupt increase of the probability to find radio halos in the more massive galaxy clusters (M > 2x10^{15} solar masses) can be well reproduced. We calculate the evolution with redshift of such a probability and find that giant radio halos can be powered by particle acceleration due to MHD turbulence up to z~0.5 in a LCDM cosmology. Finally, we calculate the expected Luminosity Functions of radio halos (RHLFs). At variance with previous studies, the shape of our RHLFs is characterized by the presence of a cut-off at low synchrotron powers which reflects the inefficiency of particle acceleration in the case of less massive galaxy clusters.

  10. The MassiveBlack-II Simulation: The Evolution of Halos and Galaxies to z~0

    CERN Document Server

    Khandai, Nishikanta; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen M; Feng, Yu; Tucker, Evan; DeGraf, Colin; Liu, Mao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged for arXiv)We investigate the properties of halos, galaxies and blackholes to z=0 in the high resolution hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII) which evolves a LCDM cosmology in a comoving volume Vbox=100(Mpc/h)^3. MBII is the highest resolution simulation of this size which includes a self-consistent model for star formation, black hole accretion and associated feedback. We provide a simulation browser web application which enables interactive search and tagging of halos, subhalos and their properties and publicly release our galaxy catalogs. Our analysis of the halo mass function (MF) in MBII reveals that baryons have strong effects, with changes in the halo abundance of 20-35% below the knee of the MF (Mhalo =2. At z10^11 Msun) galaxies hosting bright AGNs make significant contributions to the GSMF. The quasar bolometric luminosity function is also largely consistent with observations. We note however that more efficient AGN feedback (beyond simple thermal coupling used here) is likely n...

  11. Toward a halo mass function for precision cosmology: the limits of universality

    CERN Document Server

    Tinker, Jeremy L; Klypin, Anatoly; Abazajian, Kevork; Warren, Michael S; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlober, Stefan; Holz, Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    We measure the mass function of dark matter halos in a large set of collisionless cosmological simulations of flat LCDM cosmology and investigate its evolution at z<~2. Halos are identified as isolated density peaks, and their masses are measured within a series of radii enclosing specific overdensities. We argue that these spherical overdensity masses are more directly linked to cluster observables than masses measured using the friends-of-friends algorithm (FOF), and are therefore preferable for accurate forecasts of halo abundances. Our simulation set allows us to calibrate the mass function at z=0 for virial masses in the range 10^{11} Msol/h < M < 10^{15} Msol/h, to <~ 5%. We derive fitting functions for the halo mass function in this mass range for a wide range of overdensities, both at z=0 and earlier epochs. In addition to these formulae, which improve on previous approximations by 10-20%, our main finding is that the mass function cannot be represented by a universal fitting function at t...

  12. Gas-Rich Mergers in LCDM: Disk Survivability and the Baryonic Assembly of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Maller, Ariyeh H.; /New York City Coll. Tech.

    2009-08-03

    We use N-body simulations and observationally-normalized relations between dark matter halo mass, stellar mass, and cold gas mass to derive robust expectations about the baryonic content of major mergers out to redshift z {approx} 2. First, we find that the majority of major mergers (m/M > 0.3) experienced by Milky Way size dark matter halos should have been gas-rich, and that gas-rich mergers are increasingly common at high redshift. Though the frequency of major mergers into galaxy halos in our simulations greatly exceeds the observed late-type galaxy fraction, the frequency of gas-poor major mergers is consistent with the observed fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies across the halo mass range M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11} - 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}}. These results lend support to the conjecture that mergers with high baryonic gas fractions play an important role in building and/or preserving disk galaxies in the universe. Secondly, we find that there is a transition mass below which a galaxy's past major mergers were primarily gas-rich and above which they were gas poor. The associated stellar mass scale corresponds closely to that marking the observed bimodal division between blue, star-forming, disk-dominated systems and red, bulge-dominated systems with old populations. Finally, we find that the overall fraction of a galaxy's cold baryons deposited directly via major mergers is substantial. Approximately 30% of the cold baryonic material in M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 11.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}) galaxies is accreted as cold gas in major mergers. For more massive galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} (M{sub DM} {approx} 10{sup 13} M{sub {circle_dot}} the fraction of baryons amassed in mergers is even higher, {approx} 50%, but most of these accreted baryons are delivered directly in the form of stars. This baryonic mass deposition is almost unavoidable, and provides a

  13. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  14. Gaseous Galaxy Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Putman, M E; Joung, M R

    2012-01-01

    Galactic halo gas traces inflowing star formation fuel and feedback from a galaxy's disk and is therefore crucial to our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this review, we summarize the multi-wavelength observational properties and origin models of Galactic and low redshift spiral galaxy halo gas. Galactic halos contain multiphase gas flows that are dominated in mass by the ionized component and extend to large radii. The densest, coldest halo gas observed in neutral hydrogen (HI) is generally closest to the disk ( 10^5.5 K) and cold mode in simulations, with the compressed material close to the disk the coldest and densest, in agreement with observations. There is evidence in halo gas observations for radiative and mechanical feedback mechanisms, including escaping photons from the disk, supernova-driven winds, and a galactic fountain. Satellite accretion also leaves behind abundant halo gas. This satellite gas interacts with the existing halo medium, and much of this gas will become part of the diffuse h...

  15. The velocity function in the local environment from LCDM and LWDM constrained simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zavala, J; Faltenbacher, A; Yepes, G; Hoffman, Y; Gottlöber, S; Catinella, B

    2009-01-01

    Using constrained simulations of the local Universe for generic cold dark matter and for 1keV warm dark matter, we investigate the difference in the abundance of dark matter halos in the local environment. We find that the mass function within 20 Mpc/h of the Local Group is ~2 times larger than the universal mass function in the 10^9-10^13 M_odot/h mass range. Imposing the field of view of the on-going HI blind survey ALFALFA in our simulations, we predict that the velocity function in the Virgo-direction region exceeds the universal velocity function by a factor of 3. Furthermore, employing a scheme to translate the halo velocity function into a galaxy velocity function, we compare the simulation results with a sample of galaxies from the early catalog release of ALFALFA. We find that our simulations are able to reproduce the velocity function in the 80-300 km/s velocity range, having a value ~10 times larger than the universal velocity function in the Virgo-direction region. In the low velocity regime, 35-8...

  16. Radial distribution and strong lensing statistics of satellite galaxies and substructure using high resolution LCDM hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Maccio, A V; Stadel, J; Diemand, J; Maccio', Andrea V.; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim; Diemand, Juerg

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the number density and radial distribution of substructures and satellite galaxies using cosmological simulations that follow the gas dynamics of a baryonic component, including shock heating, radiative cooling and star formation within the hierarchical concordance LCDM model. We find that the dissipation of the baryons greatly enhances the survival of subhaloes, expecially in the galaxy core, resulting in a radial distribution of satellite galaxies that closely follows the overall mass distribution. Hydrodynamical simulations are necessary to resolve the adiabatic contraction and dense cores of galaxies, resulting in a total number of satellites a factor of two larger than found in pure dark matter simulation. Convergence tests show that the cored distribution found by previous authors was due to physical overmerging of dark matter only structures. We proceed to use a ray-shooting technique in order to study the impact of these additional substructures on the number of violations of the cusp caust...

  17. What's a Halo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soap and damp towel. Avoid using sponges that trap water and can easily leak onto the halo ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  18. Numerical Simulations in Cosmology; 3, Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Klypin, A A

    2000-01-01

    Properties of dark matter halos are reviewed. Taken from different publications, we present results on (1) the mass and velocity functions, (2) density and velocity profiles, and (3) concentration of halos. In the range of radii r=(0.005-1)rvir the density profile for a quiet isolated halo is very accurately approximated by a fit suggested by Moore etal (1997): rho=1/x^1.5(1+x^1.5), where x=r/rs and rs is a characteristic radius. The fit suggested by Navarro et al (1995) rho= 1/x(1+x)^2, also gives a very satisfactory approximation with relative errors of about 10% for radii not smaller than 1% of the virial radius. The mass function of z=0 halos with mass below 10^{13}Msun/h is approximated by a power law with slope alpha =-1.85. The slope increases with the redshift. The velocity function of halos with Vmax< 500km/s is also a power law with the slope beta= -3.8-4. The power-law extends to halos at least down to 10km/s. It is also valid for halos inside larger virialized halos. The concentration of halos ...

  19. Dark matter density profiles of the halos embedding early-type galaxies: characterizing halo contraction and dark matter annihilation strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Frieman, Joshua A; Bernardi, Mariangela

    2012-01-01

    Identifying dark matter and characterizing its distribution in the inner region of halos embedding galaxies are inter-related problems of broad importance. We devise a new procedure of determining dark matter distribution in halos. We first make a self-consistent bivariate statistical match of stellar mass and velocity dispersion with halo mass as demonstrated here for the first time. Then, selecting early-type galaxy-halo systems we perform Jeans dynamical modeling with the aid of observed statistical properties of stellar mass profiles and velocity dispersion profiles. Dark matter density profiles derived specifically using Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies and halos from up-to-date cosmological dissipationless simulations deviate significantly from the dissipationless profle of Navarro-Frenk-White or Einasto in terms of inner density slope and/or concentration. From these dark matter profiles we find that dark matter density is enhanced in the inner region of most early-type galactic halos providing an ind...

  20. Halo vest instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  1. Velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the line-of-sight velocity distribution of dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis, and their application to estimate the mass profiles of cosmological structures. For each of the ten massive haloes selected from the simulation box we determine the virial mass, concentration and the anisotropy parameter. In order to emulate observations from each halo we choose randomly 300 particles and project their velocities and positions along the line of sight and on the surface of the sky, respectively. After removing interlopers we calculate the profiles of the line-of-sight velocity moments and fit them with the solutions of the Jeans equations. The estimates of virial mass, concentration parameter and velocity anisotropy obtained in this way are in good agreement with the values found from the full 3D analysis.

  2. Properties of Dark Matter Halos as a Function of Local Environment Density

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christoph T; Behroozi, Peter; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Hellinger, Doug; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    We study how properties of discrete dark matter halos depend on halo environment, characterized by the mass density around the halos on scales from 0.5 to 16 $\\hmpc$. We find that low mass halos (those less massive than the characteristic mass $M_{\\rm C}$ of halos collapsing at a given epoch) in high-density environments have lower accretion rates, lower spins, higher concentrations, and rounder shapes than halos in median density environments. Halos in median and low-density environments have similar accretion rates and concentrations, but halos in low density environments have lower spins and are more elongated. Halos of a given mass in high-density regions accrete material earlier than halos of the same mass in lower-density regions. All but the most massive halos in high-density regions are losing mass (i.e., being stripped) at low redshifts, which causes artificially lowered NFW scale radii and increased concentrations. Tidal effects are also responsible for the decreasing spins of low mass halos in high...

  3. Origins of Stellar Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  4. The Relation Between Halo Shape, Velocity Dispersion and Formation Time

    CERN Document Server

    Ragone-Figueroa, C; Merchan, M; Gottlober, S; Yepes, G

    2010-01-01

    We use dark matter haloes identified in the MareNostrum Universe and galaxy groups identified in the Sloan Data Release 7 galaxy catalogue, to study the relation between halo shape and halo dynamics, parametrizing out the mass of the systems. A strong shape-dynamics, independent of mass, correlation is present in the simulation data, which we find it to be due to different halo formation times. Early formation time haloes are, at the present epoch, more spherical and have higher velocity dispersions than late forming-time haloes. The halo shape-dynamics correlation, albeit weaker, survives the projection in 2D (ie., among projected shape and 1-D velocity dispersion). A similar shape-dynamics correlation, independent of mass, is also found in the SDSS DR7 groups of galaxies and in order to investigate its cause we have tested and used, as a proxy of the group formation time, a concentration parameter. We have found, as in the case of the simulated haloes, that less concentrated groups, corresponding to late fo...

  5. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, A V; Kurennoy, S S; Ryne, Robert D

    1998-01-01

    A new class of self-consistent 6-D phase space stationary distributions is constructed both analytically and numerically. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the beam stability and halo formation for the case of 3-D axisymmetric beam bunches using particle-in-cell simulations. We concentrate on beams with bunch length-to-width ratios varying from 1 to 5, which covers the typical range of the APT linac parameters. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches. An interesting coupling phenomenon - a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed even for very small mismatches if the mismatch in the other plane is large - is discovered.

  6. An analytic model for the gravitational clustering of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, H J; Mo, H J; White, S D M

    1994-01-01

    We develop a simple analytic model for the gravitational clustering of dark haloes. The statistical properties of dark haloes are determined from the initial density field (assumed to be Gaussian) through an extension of the Press-Schechter formalism. Gravitational clustering is treated by a spherical model which describes the concentration of dark haloes in collapsing regions. We test this model against results from a variety of N-body simulations. The autocorrelation function of dark haloes in such simulations depends significantly on how haloes are identified. Our predictions agree well with results based on algorithms which break clusters into subgroups more efficiently than the standard friends-of-friends algorithm. The agreement is better than that found by assuming haloes to lie at the present positions of peaks of the linear density field. We use these techniques to study how the distribution of haloes is biased with respect to that of the mass. The initial (Lagrangian) positions of haloes identified ...

  7. Disentangling the dark matter halo from the stellar halo

    CERN Document Server

    Libeskind, Noam I; Hoffman, Yehuda; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The outer haloes of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies contain as much important information on their assembly and formation history as the properties of the discs resident in their centres. In this paper we have used the Constrained Local UniversE Simulation project to disentangle the stellar and DM component of three galaxies that resemble the MW, M31 and M33 using both DM only and DM + gas-dynamical simulations. Stars that are accreted in substructures and then stripped follow a completely different radial distribution than the stripped DM: the stellar halo is much more centrally concentrated than DM. In order to understand how the same physical process can lead to different z=0 radial profiles, we examined the potential at accretion of each stripped particle. We found that star particles sit at systematically higher potentials than DM, making them harder to strip. We then searched for a threshold in the potential of accreted particles \\phi_[th], above which DM particles behave as star particles. We foun...

  8. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  9. Reconciling dwarf galaxies with LCDM cosmology: Simulating a realistic population of satellites around a Milky Way-mass galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wetzel, Andrew R; Kim, Ji-hoon; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass "dwarf" galaxies represent the most significant challenges to the cold dark matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation. Because these faint galaxies are (best) observed within the Local Group of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31), understanding their formation in such an environment is critical. We present the first results from the Latte Project: the Milky Way on FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments). This simulation models the formation of a MW-mass galaxy to z = 0 within LCDM cosmology, including dark matter, gas, and stars at unprecedented resolution: baryon mass of 7070 M_sun at spatial resolution down to 1 pc. Latte was simulated using the GIZMO code with a mesh-free method for accurate hydrodynamics and the FIRE model for star formation and explicit feedback within a multi-phase interstellar medium. For the first time, Latte self-consistently resolves the internal structure of dwarf galaxies that form around a MW-mass host down to M_star > 10^5 M_sun. Latte's population of ...

  10. Hydrodynamical simulations of coupled and uncoupled quintessence models I: Halo properties and the cosmic web

    CERN Document Server

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Lewis, Geraint F; Wales, Scott; Yepes, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a series of adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of several quintessence models (both with a free and an interacting scalar field) in comparison to a standard \\LCDM\\ cosmology. For each we use $2\\times1024^3$ particles in a $250$\\hMpc\\ periodic box assuming WMAP7 cosmology. In this work we focus on the properties of haloes in the cosmic web at $z=0$. The web is classified into \\emph{voids}, \\emph{sheets}, \\emph{filaments} and \\emph{knots} depending on the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor, which are an excellent proxy for the underlying overdensity distribution. We find that the properties of objects classified according to their surrounding environment shows a substantial dependence on the underlying cosmology; for example, while $V_{\\rm max}$ shows average deviations of $\\approx5$ per cent across the different models when considering the full halo sample, comparing objects classified according to their environment, the size of the deviation can be as large as $20$ per cent. ...

  11. Haloes gone MAD: The Halo-Finder Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Knebe, Alexander; Muldrew, Stuart I; Pearce, Frazer R; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel Angel; Ascasibar, Yago; Behroozi, Peter S; Ceverino, Daniel; Colombi, Stephane; Diemand, Juerg; Dolag, Klaus; Falck, Bridget L; Fasel, Patricia; Gardner, Jeff; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Klypin, Anatoly; Lukic, Zarija; Maciejewski, Michal; McBride, Cameron; Neyrinck, Mark C; Planelles, Susana; Potter, Doug; Quilis, Vicent; Rasera, Yann; Read, Justin I; Ricker, Paul M; Roy, Fabrice; Springel, Volker; Stadel, Joachim; Stinson, Greg; Sutter, P M; Turchaninov, Victor; Tweed, Dylan; Yepes, Gustavo; Zemp, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    [abridged] We present a detailed comparison of fundamental dark matter halo properties retrieved by a substantial number of different halo finders. These codes span a wide range of techniques including friends-of-friends (FOF), spherical-overdensity (SO) and phase-space based algorithms. We further introduce a robust (and publicly available) suite of test scenarios that allows halo finder developers to compare the performance of their codes against those presented here. This set includes mock haloes containing various levels and distributions of substructure at a range of resolutions as well as a cosmological simulation of the large-scale structure of the universe. All the halo finding codes tested could successfully recover the spatial location of our mock haloes. They further returned lists of particles (potentially) belonging to the object that led to coinciding values for the maximum of the circular velocity profile and the radius where it is reached. All the finders based in configuration space struggled...

  12. Galaxy Populations in Massive Galaxy Clusters to z=1.1: Color Distribution, Concentration, Halo Occupation Number and Red Sequence Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, C; Zenteno, A; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Bocquet, S; Strazzullo, V; Saro, A; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Bayliss, M; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernstein, R A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Capasso, R; Capozzi, D; Carnero, A; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Chiu, I; D'Andrea, C B; daCosta, L N; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti-Neto, A; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gangkofner, C; Gonzalez, A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gupta, N; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; McDonald, M; Melchior, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Reichardt, C; Romer, A K; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    We study the galaxy populations in 74 Sunyaev Zeldovich Effect (SZE) selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey that have been imaged in the science verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The sample extends up to $z\\sim 1.1$ with $4 \\times 10^{14} M_{\\odot}\\le M_{200}\\le 3\\times 10^{15} M_{\\odot}$. Using the band containing the 4000~\\AA\\ break and its redward neighbor, we study the color-magnitude distributions of cluster galaxies to $\\sim m_*+2$, finding: (1) the intrinsic rest frame $g-r$ color width of the red sequence (RS) population is $\\sim$0.03 out to $z\\sim0.85$ with a preference for an increase to $\\sim0.07$ at $z=1$ and (2) the prominence of the RS declines beyond $z\\sim0.6$. The spatial distribution of cluster galaxies is well described by the NFW profile out to $4R_{200}$ with a concentration of $c_{\\mathrm{g}} = 3.59^{+0.20}_{-0.18}$, $5.37^{+0.27}_{-0.24}$ and $1.38^{+0.21}_{-0.19}$ for the full, the RS and the blue non-RS populations, respectively, but with $\\sim4...

  13. Tracking the LHC halo

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In the LHC, beams of 25-ns-spaced proton bunches travel at almost the speed of light and pass through many different devices installed along the ring that monitor their properties. During their whirling motion, beam particles might interact with the collimation instrumentation or with residual gas in the vacuum chambers and this creates the beam halo – an annoying source of background for the physics data. Newly installed CMS sub-detectors are now able to monitor it.   The Beam Halo Monitors (BHM) are installed around the CMS rotating shielding. The BHM are designed and built by University of Minnesota, CERN, Princeton University, INFN Bologna and the National Technical University of Athens. (Image: Andrea Manna). The Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) is a set of 20 Cherenkov radiators – 10-cm-long quartz crystals – installed at each end of the huge CMS detector. Their design goal is to measure the particles that can cause the so-called “machine-induced...

  14. Galaxy Populations in Massive Galaxy Clusters to z = 1.1: Color Distribution, Concentration, Halo Occupation Number and Red Sequence Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, C.; Mohr, J. J.; Zenteno, A.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Bocquet, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Saro, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bayliss, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capasso, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Chiu, I.; D'Andrea, C. B.; daCosta, L. N.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti-Neto, A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McDonald, M.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C.; Romer, A. K.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We study the galaxy populations in 74 Sunyaev Zeldovich Effect (SZE) selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey that have been imaged in the science verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). The sample extends up to z ˜ 1.1 with 4 × 1014M⊙ ≤ M200 ≤ 3 × 1015M⊙. Using the band containing the 4000 Å break and its redward neighbor, we study the color-magnitude distributions of cluster galaxies to ˜m★ + 2, finding: (1) the intrinsic rest frame g - r color width of the red sequence (RS) population is ˜0.03 out to z ˜ 0.85 with a preference for an increase to ˜0.07 at z = 1 and (2) the prominence of the RS declines beyond z ˜ 0.6. The spatial distribution of cluster galaxies is well described by the NFW profile out to 4R200 with a concentration of cg = 3.59^{+0.20}_{-0.18}, 5.37^{+0.27}_{-0.24} and 1.38^{+0.21}_{-0.19} for the full, the RS and the blue non-RS populations, respectively, but with ˜40% to 55% cluster to cluster variation and no statistically significant redshift or mass trends. The number of galaxies within the virial region N200 exhibits a mass trend indicating that the number of galaxies per unit total mass is lower in the most massive clusters, and shows no significant redshift trend. The red sequence (RS) fraction within R200 is (68 ± 3)% at z = 0.46, varies from ˜55% at z = 1 to ˜80% at z = 0.1, and exhibits intrinsic variation among clusters of ˜14%. We discuss a model that suggests the observed redshift trend in RS fraction favors a transformation timescale for infalling field galaxies to become RS galaxies of 2 to 3 Gyr.

  15. Galaxy populations in massive galaxy clusters to z = 1.1: colour distribution, concentration, halo occupation number and red sequence fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, C.; Mohr, J. J.; Zenteno, A.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Bocquet, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Saro, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bayliss, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capasso, R.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Chiu, I.; D'Andrea, C. B.; daCosta, L. N.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti-Neto, A.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McDonald, M.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C.; Romer, A. K.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    We study the galaxy populations in 74 Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope survey, which have been imaged in the science verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. The sample extends up to z ˜ 1.1 with 4 × 1014 M⊙ ≤ M200 ≤ 3 × 1015M⊙. Using the band containing the 4000 Å break and its redward neighbour, we study the colour-magnitude distributions of cluster galaxies to ˜m* + 2, finding that: (1)The intrinsic rest frame g - r colour width of the red sequence (RS) population is ˜0.03 out to z ˜ 0.85 with a preference for an increase to ˜0.07 at z = 1, and (2) the prominence of the RS declines beyond z ˜ 0.6. The spatial distribution of cluster galaxies is well described by the NFW profile out to 4R200 with a concentration of cg = 3.59^{+0.20}_{-0.18}, 5.37^{+0.27}_{-0.24} and 1.38^{+0.21}_{-0.19} for the full, the RS and the blue non-RS populations, respectively, but with ˜40 per cent to 55 per cent cluster to cluster variation and no statistically significant redshift or mass trends. The number of galaxies within the virial region N200 exhibits a mass trend indicating that the number of galaxies per unit total mass is lower in the most massive clusters, and shows no significant redshift trend. The RS fraction within R200 is (68 ± 3) per cent at z = 0.46, varies from ˜55 per cent at z = 1 to ˜80 per cent at z = 0.1 and exhibits intrinsic variation among clusters of ˜14 per cent. We discuss a model that suggests that the observed redshift trend in RS fraction favours a transformation time-scale for infalling field galaxies to become RS galaxies of 2-3 Gyr.

  16. The correlation structure of dark matter halo properties

    CERN Document Server

    Jeeson-Daniel, Akila; Haas, Marcel R; Schaye, Joop

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between nine different dark matter halo properties using a rank correlation analysis and a Principal Component Analysis for a sample of haloes spanning five orders of magnitude in mass. We consider mass and dimensionless measures of concentration, age, relaxedness, sphericity, triaxiality, substructure, spin, and environment, where the latter is defined in a way that makes it insensitive to mass. We find that concentration is the most fundamental property. Except for environment, all parameters are strongly correlated with concentration. Concentration, age, substructure, mass, sphericity and relaxedness can be considered a single family of parameters, albeit with substantial scatter. In contrast, spin, environment, and triaxiality are more independent, although spin does correlate strongly with substructure and both spin and triaxiality correlate substantially with concentration. Although mass sets the scale of a halo, all other properties are more sensitive to concentration.

  17. The chosen few: the low mass halos that host faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F; Theuns, Tom; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2014-01-01

    Since reionization prevents star formation in most halos below 3 x 10^9 solar masses, dwarf galaxies only populate a fraction of existing dark matter halos. We use hydrodynamic cosmological simulations of the Local Group to study the discriminating factors for galaxy formation in the early Universe and connect them to the present-day properties of galaxies and halos. A combination of selection effects related to reionization, and the subsequent evolution of halos in different environments, introduces strong biases between the population of halos that host dwarf galaxies, and the total halo population. Halos that host galaxies formed earlier and are more concentrated. In addition, halos more affected by tidal stripping are more likely to host a galaxy for a given mass or maximum circular velocity, vmax, today. Consequently, satellite halos are populated more frequently than field halos, and satellite halos of 10^8 - 10^9 solar masses or vmax of 12 - 20 km/s, similar to the Local Group dwarf spheroidals, have e...

  18. The first halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, D J

    2006-01-01

    The size and time of formation of the first gravitationally bound objects in the Universe is set by the microphysical properties of the dark matter. It is argued that observations seem to favour cold and thermal candidates for the main contribution to the dark matter. For that type of dark matter, the size and time of formation of the first halos is determined by the elastic cross sections and mass of the CDM particles. Consequently, the astrophysics of CDM might allow us to measure some of the fundamental parameters of CDM particles. Essential for observations is the survival rate and spatial distribution of the very first objetcs, which are currently under debate.

  19. Bar Dissolution in Prolate Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Ideta, M; Ideta, Makoto; Hozumi, Shunsuke

    2000-01-01

    The time evolution of barred structures is examined under the influence of the external forces exerted by a spherical halo and by prolate halos. In particular, galaxy disks are placed in the plane including the major axis of prolate halos, whose configuration is often found in cosmological simulations. N-body disks in fixed external halo fields are simulated, so that bars are formed via dynamical instability. In the subsequent evolution, the bars in prolate halos dissolve gradually with time, while the bar pattern in a spherical halo remains almost unchanged to the end of the simulation. The decay times of the bars suggest that they can be destroyed in a time smaller than a Hubble time. Our results indicate that this dissolution process could occur in real barred galaxies, if they are surrounded by massive dark prolate halos, and the configuration adopted here is not unusual from the viewpoint of galaxy formation. For a prolate halo model, an additional simulation that is restricted to two-dimensional in-plan...

  20. Searching for Pair Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lisa; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlühr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Conrad, J.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Domainko, A. Djannati-Ataü W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fürster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füssling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Güring, D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khálifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Mau-Rin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schück, F. M.; Schünwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sushch, I.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Vülk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    We have conducted a search for the giant Pair Halo structures which are inevitably formed around TeV sources due to interactions of very high energy gamma-rays with the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). The resulting electron/positron pairs are Compton upscattered on photons of the 2.7 K Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to produce a second generation of gamma-rays which again interact with the EBL; thus an electromagnetic cascade develops. If the magnetic fields on Mpc scales surrounding the central source are sufficiently strong (10-11 G or more), electrons are effectively isotropised before interacting with radiation fields. In this case an extended halo is produced around the source. Using H.E.S.S. observations of Active Galactic Nuclei, including data from PKS 2155-304, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 0229+200, we have completed a detailed analysis of these sources. I will present and discuss the astrophysical implications of these results.

  1. Controlling Beam Halo-Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方锦清; 罗晓曙; 陈关荣; 翁甲强

    2001-01-01

    Beam halo-chaos is essentially a complex spatiotemporal chaotic motion in a periodic-focusing channel of a highpower linear proton accelerator. The controllability condition for beam halo-chaos is analysed qualitatively. A special nonlinear control method, i.e. the wavelet-based function feedback, is proposed for controlling beam halochaos. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to explore the nature of halo-chaos formation, which has shown that the beam hMo-chaos is suppressed effectively after using nonlinear control for the proton beam with an initial full Gaussian distribution. The halo intensity factor Hav is reduced from 14%o to zero, and the other statistical physical quantities of beam halo-chaos are more than doubly reduced. The potential applications of such nonlinear control in experiments are briefly pointed out.

  2. Radio halos in merging clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Giacintucci, S; Bardelli, S; Brunetti, G; Dallacasa, D; Rao, P; Zucca, E

    2004-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of 235 MHz, 327 MHz and 610 MHz observations of the galaxy cluster A3562 in the core of the Shapley Concentration. The purpose of these observations, carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, Pune, India) was to study the radio halo located at the centre of A3562 and determine the shape of its radio spectrum at low frequencies, in order to understand the origin of this source. In the framework of the re--acceleration model, the preliminary analysis of the halo spectrum suggests that we are observing a young source (few $10^8$ yrs) at the beginning of the re--acceleration phase.

  3. The overdensity and masses of the friends-of-friends halos and universality of the halo mass function

    CERN Document Server

    More, Surhud; Dalal, Neal; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The friends-of-friends algorithm (hereafter, FOF) is a percolation algorithm which is routinely used to identify dark matter halos from N-body simulations. We use results from percolation theory to show that the boundary of FOF halos does not correspond to a single density threshold but to a range of densities close to a critical value that depends upon the linking length parameter, b. We show that for the commonly used choice of b = 0.2, this critical density is equal to 81.62 times the mean matter density. Consequently, halos identified by the FOF algorithm enclose an average overdensity which depends on their density profile (concentration) and therefore changes with halo mass contrary to the popular belief that the average overdensity is ~180. We derive an analytical expression for the overdensity as a function of the linking length parameter b and the concentration of the halo. Results of tests carried out using simulated and actual FOF halos identified in cosmological simulations show excellent agreemen...

  4. Haloes gone MAD: The Halo-Finder Comparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebe, Alexander; Knollmann, Steffen R.; Muldrew, Stuart I.; Pearce, Frazer R.; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel Angel; Ascasibar, Yago; Behroozi, Peter S.; Ceverino, Daniel; Colombi, Stephane; Diemand, Juerg; Dolag, Klaus; Falck, Bridget L.; Fasel, Patricia; Gardner, Jeff; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Iannuzzi, Francesca; Klypin, Anatoly; Lukić, Zarija; Maciejewski, Michal; McBride, Cameron; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Planelles, Susana; Potter, Doug; Quilis, Vicent; Rasera, Yann; Read, Justin I.; Ricker, Paul M.; Roy, Fabrice; Springel, Volker; Stadel, Joachim; Stinson, Greg; Sutter, P. M.; Turchaninov, Victor; Tweed, Dylan; Yepes, Gustavo; Zemp, Marcel

    2011-08-01

    We present a detailed comparison of fundamental dark matter halo properties retrieved by a substantial number of different halo finders. These codes span a wide range of techniques including friends-of-friends, spherical-overdensity and phase-space-based algorithms. We further introduce a robust (and publicly available) suite of test scenarios that allow halo finder developers to compare the performance of their codes against those presented here. This set includes mock haloes containing various levels and distributions of substructure at a range of resolutions as well as a cosmological simulation of the large-scale structure of the universe. All the halo-finding codes tested could successfully recover the spatial location of our mock haloes. They further returned lists of particles (potentially) belonging to the object that led to coinciding values for the maximum of the circular velocity profile and the radius where it is reached. All the finders based in configuration space struggled to recover substructure that was located close to the centre of the host halo, and the radial dependence of the mass recovered varies from finder to finder. Those finders based in phase space could resolve central substructure although they found difficulties in accurately recovering its properties. Through a resolution study we found that most of the finders could not reliably recover substructure containing fewer than 30-40 particles. However, also here the phase-space finders excelled by resolving substructure down to 10-20 particles. By comparing the halo finders using a high-resolution cosmological volume, we found that they agree remarkably well on fundamental properties of astrophysical significance (e.g. mass, position, velocity and peak of the rotation curve). We further suggest to utilize the peak of the rotation curve, vmax, as a proxy for mass, given the arbitrariness in defining a proper halo edge. Airport code for Madrid, Spain

  5. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Clues to the origins and evolution of our Galaxy can be found in the kinematics of stars around us. Remnants of accreted satellite galaxies produce over- densities in velocity-space, which can remain coherent for much longer than spatial over-densities. This chapter reviews a number of studies that have hunted for these accretion relics, both in the nearby solar-neighborhood and the more-distant stellar halo. Many observational surveys have driven this field forwards, from early work with the Hipparcos mission, to contemporary surveys like RAVE & SDSS. This active field continues to flourish, providing many new discoveries, and will be revolutionised as the Gaia mission delivers precise proper motions for a billion stars in our Galaxy.

  6. Halo Shape and its Relation to Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlöber, S.; Turchaninov, V.

    Using high resolution DM simulations we study the shape of dark matter halos. Halos become more spherical with decreasing mass. This trend is even more pronounced for the inner part of the halo. Angular momentum and shape are correlated. The angular momenta of neighboring halos are correlated.

  7. Halo Shapes and their Relation to Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlöber, S; Gottloeber, Stefan; Turchaninov, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Using high resolution DM simulations we study the shape of dark matter halos. Halos become more spherical with decreasing mass. This trend is even more pronounced for the inner part of the halo. Angular momentum and shape are correlated. The angular momenta of neighboring halos are correlated.

  8. Pro gaming tips Halo Reach

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    ABOUT THE BOOK Halo Reach is the latest installment, and goes back to Halo's roots in more ways than one. Set around one of the most frequently referenced events in the Haloverse-The Fall of Reach-Reach puts you in the shoes of Noble 6, an unnamed Spartan, fighting a doomed battle to save the planet. Dual-wielding's gone, health is back, and equipment now takes the form of different "classes," with different weapon loadouts and special abilities (such as sprinting, cloaking, or flight). If you're reading this guide, you're either new to the Halo franchise and looking to get a leg up on all

  9. The radio halo in the merging cluster A3562

    CERN Document Server

    Venturi, T; Dallacasa, D; Brunetti, G; Giacintucci, S; Hunstead, R W; Morganti, R

    2003-01-01

    we present new VLA observations at 1.4 GHz confirming the presence of a radio halo at the centre of the cluster A3562, in the core of the Shapley Concentration. We also report a detailed multifrequency radio study of the head tail galaxy J1333--3141, which is completely embedded in the halo emission. The radio halo has an irregular shape, and a largest linear size of $\\sim$ 620 kpc, which is among the smallest found in the literature. The source has a steep spectrum, i.e. $\\alpha_{843 MHz}^{1.4 GHz} \\sim 2$, and its total radio power, P$_{1.4 GHz} \\sim 2 \\times10^{23}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, is the lowest known to date.The radio power of the halo and the X-ray parameters of the cluster, such as L$_X$ and kT, nicely fit the correlations found in the literature for the other halo clusters, extending them to low radio powers. We found that the total number of electrons injected in the cluster environment by the head--tail source is enough to feed the halo, if we assume that the galaxy has been radio active over a large fr...

  10. The Effect of Halo Assembly Bias on Self Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Wechsler, Risa H

    2008-01-01

    Self-calibration techniques for analyzing cluster counts rely on using the abundance and the clustering amplitude of clusters to simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the relation between halo mass and its observable mass tracer. It was recently discovered that the clustering amplitude of halos depends not only on halo mass, but also on various secondary variables such as halo formation time and concentration; these dependences are collectively termed ``assembly bias.'' Using a modified Fisher matrix formalism, we explore whether these secondary variables have a significant impact on studying the properties of dark energy with self calibration in current (SDSS) and near future (DES, SPT, and LSST) cluster surveys. We find that for an SDSS-like survey, secondary dependences of halo bias are insignificant given the expected large statistical uncertainties in dark energy parameters. For SPT- or DES-like survey volumes, we find that the dependence of halo bias on secondary variables is not a signif...

  11. Bars in Cuspy Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, John; Shlosman, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    We examine the bar instability in models with an exponential disk and a cuspy NFW-like dark matter (DM) halo inspired by cosmological simulations. Bar evolution is studied as a function of numerical resolution in a sequence of models spanning 10K to 100M DM particles - including a multi-mass model with an effective resolution of 10G. The goal is to find convergence in dynamical behaviour. We characterize the bar growth, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through resonant transfer of angular momentum, and possible destruction of the DM halo cusp. Overall, most characteristics converge in behaviour in detail for halos containing more than 10M particles. Notably, the formation of the bar does not destroy the density cusp in this case. These higher resolution simulations clearly illustrate the importance of discrete resonances in transporting angular momentum from the bar to the halo.

  12. Conformal theory of galactic halos

    CERN Document Server

    Nesbet, R K

    2011-01-01

    Current cosmological theory describes an isolated galaxy as an observable central galaxy, surrounded by a large spherical halo attributed to dark matter. Galaxy formation by condensation of mass-energy out of a primordial uniform background is shown here to leave a scar, observed as a centripetal gravitational field halo in anomalous galactic rotation and in gravitational lensing. Conformal theory accounts for the otherwise counterintuitive centripetal effect.

  13. The origin of scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard; Theuns, Tom

    2017-02-01

    We use the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation to study the magnitude and origin of the scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation for central galaxies. We separate cause and effect by correlating stellar masses in the baryonic simulation with halo properties in a matched dark matter only (DMO) simulation. The scatter in stellar mass increases with redshift and decreases with halo mass. At z = 0.1, it declines from 0.25 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1011 M⊙ to 0.12 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1013 M⊙, but the trend is weak above 1012 M⊙. For M200, DMO halo concentration. At fixed halo mass, a larger stellar mass corresponds to a more concentrated halo. This is likely because higher concentrations imply earlier formation times and hence more time for accretion and star formation, and/or because feedback is less efficient in haloes with higher binding energies. The maximum circular velocity, Vmax, DMO, and binding energy are therefore more fundamental properties than halo mass, meaning that they are more accurate predictors of stellar mass, and we provide fitting formulae for their relations with stellar mass. However, concentration alone cannot explain the total scatter in the M_star - M_{200, DMO} relation, and it does not explain the scatter in Mstar-Vmax, DMO. Halo spin, sphericity, triaxiality, substructure and environment are also not responsible for the remaining scatter, which thus could be due to more complex halo properties or non-linear/stochastic baryonic effects.

  14. Gravitational lensing properties of an isothermal universal halo profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zhong Er

    2013-01-01

    N-body simulations predict that dark matter halos with different mass scales are described by a universal model,the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profiles.As a consequence of baryonic cooling effects,these halos will become more concentrated,and similar to an isothermal sphere over a large range in radii (~ 300 h-1 kpc).The singular isothermal sphere (SIS) model however has to be truncated artificially at large radii since it extends to infinity.We model a massive galaxy halo as a combination of an isothermal sphere and an NFW density profile.We give an approximation for the mass concentration at different baryon fractions and present exact expressions for the weak lensing shear and flexion for such a halo.We compare the lensing properties with the SIS and NFW profiles.We find that the combined profile can generate higher order lensing signals at small radii and is more efficient in generating strong lensing events.In order to distinguish such a halo profile from the SIS or NFW profiles,one needs to combine strong and weak lensing constraints for small and large radii.

  15. Building Halos by Digesting Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    We think galactic halos are built through the addition of material from the smaller subhalos of satellites digested by their hosts. Though most of the stars in Milky-Way-mass halos were probably formed in situ, many were instead accumulated over time, as orbiting dwarf galaxies were torn apart and their stars flung throughout the host galaxy. A recent set of simulations has examined this brutal formation process.In the authors simulations, a subhalo first falls into the host halo. At this point, it can either survive to present day as a satellite galaxy, or it can be destroyed, its stars scattering throughout the host halo. [Deason et al. 2016]Subhalo FateThere are many open questions about the growth of Milky-Way-mass halos from the accretion of subhalos. Which subhalos are torn apart and accreted, and which ones survive intact? Are more small or large subhalos accreted? Does subhalo accretion affect the host galaxys metallicity? And what can we learn from all of this about the Milky Ways formation history?In a recently published study, a team of scientists from Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory set out to answer these questions using a suite of 45 zoom-in simulations of Milky-Way-mass halos. Led by Alis Deason, the team tracked the accretion history of these 45 test galaxies to determine how their halos were built.Piecing Together HistoryDeason and collaborators reach several new and interesting conclusions based on the outcomes of their simulations.Average accreted stellar mass from destroyed dwarfs for each host halo, as a function of the time of the last major accretion event. More stellar mass is accreted in more recent accretion events. [Deason et al. 2016]Most of the stellar mass accreted by the Milky-Way-mass halos typically comes from only one or two destroyed dwarfs. The accreted dwarfs are usually low-mass if they were accreted early on in the simulation (i.e., in the early universe), and high-mass if they were accreted

  16. Caustics in dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohayaee, R; Mohayaee, Roya; Colombi, Stephane; Fort, Bernard; Gavazzi, Raphael; Shandarin, Sergei; Touma, Jihad

    2005-01-01

    Cold dark matter haloes are populated by high-density structures with sharply-peaked profiles known as caustics which have not yet been resolved by 3-dimensional numerical simulations. Here, we derive semi-analytic expressions for the density profiles near caustics in haloes which form by self-similar accretions of dark matter with infinitesimal velocity dispersion. A simple rescaling shows that these profiles are universal: they are valid for all caustics and irrespective of physical parameters of the halo. We derive the maximum density of the caustics and show that it depends on the velocity dispersion and the caustic location. Finally, we demonstrate that there can be a significant contribution to the emission measure from dark matter particle annihilation in the caustics.

  17. Evolution of Characteristic Quantities for Dark Matter Halo Density Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Romano-Diaz, E; Heller, C; Faltenbacher, A; Jones, D; Shlosman, I; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Hoffman, Yehuda; Heller, Clayton; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Jones, Daniel; Shlosman, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an assembly history on the evolution of dark matter (DM) halos of 10^{12} Msun/h using Constrained Realizations of random Gaussian fields. Five different realizations of a DM halo with distinct merging histories were constructed and evolved. Our main results are: A halo evolves via a sequence of quiescent phases of a slow mass accretion intermitted by violent episodes of major mergers. In the quiescent phases, the density is well fitted by an NFW profile, the inner scale radius Rs and the mass enclosed within it remain constant, and the virial radius (Rvir) grows linearly with the expansion parameter "a". Within each quiescent phase the concentration parameter ("c") scales as "a", and the mass accretion history (Mvir) is well described by the Tasitsiomi etal. fitting formula. In the violent phases the halos are not in a virial equilibrium and both Rs and Rvir grow discontinuously. The violent episodes drive the halos from one NFW dynamical equilibrium to another. The final structu...

  18. The f(Script R) halo mass function in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Braun-Bates, F.; Winther, H. A.; Alonso, D.; Devriendt, J.

    2017-03-01

    An important indicator of modified gravity is the effect of the local environment on halo properties. This paper examines the influence of the local tidal structure on the halo mass function, the halo orientation, spin and the concentration-mass relation. We use the excursion set formalism to produce a halo mass function conditional on large-scale structure. Our simple model agrees well with simulations on large scales at which the density field is linear or weakly non-linear. Beyond this, our principal result is that f(Script R) does affect halo abundances, the halo spin parameter and the concentration-mass relationship in an environment-independent way, whereas we find no appreciable deviation from \\text{ΛCDM} for the mass function with fixed environment density, nor the alignment of the orientation and spin vectors of the halo to the eigenvectors of the local cosmic web. There is a general trend for greater deviation from \\text{ΛCDM} in underdense environments and for high-mass haloes, as expected from chameleon screening.

  19. High Resolution Simulations for Hierarchical Formation of Dark Matter Halos Hosting Galaxies and AGNs at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106 -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.

  20. The redshift dependence of the structure of massive Λ cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Neto, Angelo F.

    2008-06-01

    We use two very large cosmological simulations to study how the density profiles of relaxed Λ cold dark matter dark haloes depend on redshift and on halo mass. We confirm that these profiles deviate slightly but systematically from the NFW form and are better approximated by the empirical formula, d logρ/d logr ~ rα, first used by Einasto to fit star counts in the Milky Way. The best-fitting value of the additional shape parameter, α, increases gradually with mass, from α ~ 0.16 for present-day galaxy haloes to α ~ 0.3 for the rarest and most massive clusters. Halo concentrations depend only weakly on mass at z = 0, and this dependence weakens further at earlier times. At z ~ 3 the average concentration of relaxed haloes does not vary appreciably over the mass range accessible to our simulations (M >~ 3 × 1011h-1Msolar). Furthermore, in our biggest simulation, the average concentration of the most massive, relaxed haloes is constant at ~ 3.5-4 for 0 Frenk & White. With their original parameters, the NFW prescription overpredicts halo concentrations at high redshift. This shortcoming can be reduced by modifying the definition of halo formation time, although the evolution of the concentrations of Milky Way mass haloes is still not reproduced well. In contrast, the much-used revisions of the NFW prescription by Bullock et al. and Eke, Navarro & Steinmetz predict a steeper drop in concentration at the highest masses and stronger evolution with redshift than are compatible with our numerical data. Modifying the parameters of these models can reduce the discrepancy at high masses, but the overly rapid redshift evolution remains. These results have important implications for currently planned surveys of distant clusters.

  1. Cosmic Web Type Dependence of Halo Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, J D

    2016-01-01

    We use the Millennium simulation to show that halo clustering varies significantly with cosmic web type. Halos are classified as node, filament, sheet and void halos based on the eigenvalue decomposition of the velocity shear tensor. This classification allows us to examine the clustering of halos as a function of web type in different mass ranges. We find that node halos show positive bias for all mass ranges probed, even for 10^11 and 10^12 Msun/h mass bins where the clustering of the entire halo sample is anti-biased. In all mass bins filament halos show negligible bias, whereas void and sheet halos are anti-biased. The zero-crossing of the void and sheet correlation functions occur at much smaller scales Mpc/h when compared to 5the same correlation functions for the entire halo sample. Our results suggest that the mass dependence of halo clustering is rooted in the composition of web types in the mass bin. The substantial fraction of node type halos for halo masses 2 x 10^13 Msun/h leads to positive bias....

  2. Estimating the dark matter halo mass of our Milky Way using dynamical tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenting; Cooper, Andrew; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Cai, Yanchuan; Lowing, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The mass of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way can be estimated by fitting analytical models to the phase space distribution of dynamical tracers. We test this approach using realistic mock stellar halos constructed from the Aquarius N-body simulations of dark matter halos in the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. We extend the standard treatment to include a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) potential and use a maximum likelihood method to recover the parameters describing the simulated halos from the positions and velocities of their mock halo stars. We find that the estimate of halo mass is degenerate with the estimate of halo concentration. The best-fit halo masses within the virial radius, $R_{200}$, are biased, ranging from a 40% underestimate to a 5% overestimate in the best case (when the tangential velocities of the tracers are included). There are several sources of bias. Deviations from dynamical equilibrium can potentially cause significant bias; deviations from spherical symmetry are relatively less important. F...

  3. Zoomed cosmological simulations of Milky Way-sized haloes in f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christian; Springel, Volker; Puchwein, Ewald

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the impact of f(R) modified gravity on the internal properties of Milky Way-sized dark matter haloes in a set of cosmological zoom simulations of seven haloes from the Aquarius suite, carried out with our code MG-GADGET in the Hu & Sawicki f(R) model. Also, we calculate the fifth forces in ideal NFW-haloes as well as in our cosmological simulations and compare them against analytic model predictions for the fifth force inside spherical objects. We find that these theoretical predictions match the forces in the ideal haloes very well, whereas their applicability is somewhat limited for realistic cosmological haloes. Our simulations show that f(R) gravity significantly affects the dark matter density profile of Milky Way-sized objects as well as their circular velocities. In unscreened regions, the velocity dispersions are increased by up to 40 per cent with respect to ΛCDM for viable f(R) models. This difference is larger than reported in previous works. The Solar circle is fully screened in bar{f}_{R0} = -10^{-6} models for Milky Way-sized haloes, while this location is unscreened for slightly less massive objects. Within the scope of our limited halo sample size, we do not find a clear dependence of the concentration parameter of dark matter haloes on bar{f}_{R0}.

  4. Estimating the dark matter halo mass of our Milky Way using dynamical tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Lowing, Ben

    2015-10-01

    The mass of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way can be estimated by fitting analytical models to the phase-space distribution of dynamical tracers. We test this approach using realistic mock stellar haloes constructed from the Aquarius N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology. We extend the standard treatment to include a Navarro-Frenk-White potential and use a maximum likelihood method to recover the parameters describing the simulated haloes from the positions and velocities of their mock halo stars. We find that the estimate of halo mass is highly correlated with the estimate of halo concentration. The best-fitting halo masses within the virial radius, R200, are biased, ranging from a 40 per cent underestimate to a 5 per cent overestimate in the best case (when the tangential velocities of the tracers are included). There are several sources of bias. Deviations from dynamical equilibrium can potentially cause significant bias; deviations from spherical symmetry are relatively less important. Fits to stars at different galactocentric radii can give different mass estimates. By contrast, the model gives good constraints on the mass within the half-mass radius of tracers even when restricted to tracers within 60 kpc. The recovered velocity anisotropies of tracers, β, are biased systematically, but this does not affect other parameters if tangential velocity data are used as constraints.

  5. The mass profile and accretion history of cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Navarro, Julio F.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bett, Philip E.; Angulo, Raúl E.; Li, Ming; White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos; Springel, Volker

    2013-06-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation series to investigate the relation between the accretion history and mass profile of cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. We find that the mean inner density within the scale radius, r-2 (where the halo density profile has isothermal slope), is directly proportional to the critical density of the Universe at the time when the virial mass of the main progenitor equals the mass enclosed within r-2. Scaled to these characteristic values of mass and density, the average mass accretion history, expressed in terms of the critical density of the Universe, M(ρcrit(z)), resembles that of the enclosed density profile, M(), at z = 0. Both follow closely the Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, which suggests that the similarity of halo mass profiles originates from the mass-independence of halo accretion histories. Support for this interpretation is provided by outlier haloes whose accretion histories deviate from the NFW shape; their mass profiles show correlated deviations from NFW and are better approximated by Einasto profiles. Fitting both M() and M(ρcrit) with either NFW or Einasto profiles yield concentration and shape parameters that are correlated, confirming and extending earlier work that has linked the concentration of a halo with its accretion history. These correlations also confirm that halo structure is insensitive to initial conditions: only haloes whose accretion histories differ greatly from the NFW shape show notable deviations from NFW in their mass profiles. As a result, the NFW profile provides acceptable fits to hot dark matter haloes, which do not form hierarchically, and for fluctuation power spectra other than CDM. Our findings, however, predict a subtle but systematic dependence of mass profile shape on accretion history which, if confirmed, would provide strong support for the link between accretion history and halo structure we propose here.

  6. Ultraviolet Halos Around Spiral Galaxies. I. Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Bregman, Joel

    2016-01-01

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that UV halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 1-10 million solar masses of dust within 2-10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  7. Reionization histories of Milky Way mass halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Alvarez, Marcelo A., E-mail: tonyyli@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu, E-mail: tabel@stanford.edu, E-mail: malvarez@cita.utoronto.ca [CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-04-20

    We investigate the connection between the reionization era and the present-day universe by examining the mass reionization histories of z = 0 dark matter halos. In a 600{sup 3} Mpc{sup 3} volume, we combine a dark matter N-body simulation with a three-dimensional seminumerical reionization model. This tags each particle with a reionization redshift, so that individual present-day halos can be connected to their reionization histories and environments. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ∼ few × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogeneous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ∼115 Myr for 10{sup 12±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos, decreasing slightly to ∼95 Myr for 10{sup 15±0.25} M {sub ☉} halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ∼20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large H II regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

  8. Bar instability in disk-halo systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A

    2016-01-01

    We show that the exponential growth rate of a bar in a stellar disk is substantially greater when the disk is embedded in a live halo than in a rigid one having the same mass distribution. We also find that the vigor of the instability in disk-halo systems varies with the shape of the halo velocity ellipsoid. Disks in rigid halos that are massive enough to be stable by the usual criteria, quickly form bars in isotropic halos and much greater halo mass is needed to avoid a strong bar; thus stability criteria derived for disks in rigid halos do not apply when the halo is responsive. The study presented here is of an idealized family of models with near uniform central rotation and that lack an extended halo; we present more realistic models with extended halos in a companion paper. The puzzle presented by the absence of strong bars in some galaxies having gently rising inner rotation curves is compounded by the results presented here.

  9. Detecting the disruption of dark-matter halos with stellar streams

    CERN Document Server

    Bovy, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the streaminess of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct and indirect-detection dark-matter searches.

  10. Detecting the Disruption of Dark-Matter Halos with Stellar Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-03-25

    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these subhalos may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the lumpiness of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct- and indirect-detection dark-matter searches.

  11. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  12. The Unorthodox Orbits of Substructure Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S; Helmi, Amina

    2008-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to study the properties of substructure within galaxy-sized dark matter halos. Our study extends previous work by considering the whole population of subhalos physically associated with the main system; these are subhalos that have at some time been within the virial radius of the main progenitor and have survived as self-bound entities to z=0. We find that this population extends beyond three times the virial radius and contains objects on extreme orbits. We trace the origin of these unorthodox orbits to multiple-body interactions acting during the tidal dissociation of bound groups. Multiple-body interactions affect primarily low-mass subhalos and push them onto higher energy orbits, resulting in a strong mass-dependent bias in the spatial distribution and kinematics of associated subhalos: the lower the subhalo mass at accretion time, the less concentrated and kinematically hotter their descendant population. Our findings imply that subhalos identified within the virial radius ...

  13. Properties of galaxy halos in Clusters and Voids

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, V; Pagliaro, A; Van Kampen, E; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Germaná, A; Gambera, M

    2000-01-01

    We use the results of a high resolution N-body simulation to investigate the role of the environment on the formation and evolution of galaxy-sized halos. Starting from a set of constrained initial conditions, we have produced a final configuration hosting a double cluster in one octant and a large void extending over two octants of the simulation box. In this paper we concentrate on {\\em gravitationally bound} galaxy-sized halos extracted from the two regions. Exploiting the high mass resolution of our simulation ($m_{body} = 2.1\\times 10^{9} h^{-1} M_{\\odot}$), we focus on halos with a relatively small mass: $5\\times 10^{10} \\leq M \\leq 2\\times 10^{12} M_{\\odot}$. We present results for two statistics: the relationship between 1-D velocity dispersion and mass and the probability distribution of the spin parameter $P(\\lambda)$. We do find a clear difference between halos lying in overdense regions and in voids. The \\svm relationship is well described by the Truncated Isothermal Sphere (TIS) model introduced ...

  14. Simulating halos and coronas in their atmospheric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Gedzelman, Stanley

    2008-12-01

    Models are developed that simulate the light and color of the sky and of circular halos and coronas as a function of atmospheric pressure, cloud height, width, and optical depth, solar zenith angle, aerosol concentration and size, and ozone content. Halos, coronas, and skylight are treated as singly scattered sunbeams that are depleted in their passage through the atmosphere and cloud. Multiple scattering is included only for background cloud light. Halos produced by hexagonal crystal prisms and coronas produced by monodisperse droplets are visible for cloud optical depths in the range 0.0003 halos and coronas can be bright only at smaller cloud optical depths and tend to be faint at their bottoms when produced in high cloud layers but can be bright at the horizon when produced by narrow cloud cells near ground level.

  15. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Sawala, Till

    2016-01-01

    Many dynamical models of the Milky Way halo require the assumption that the distribution function of a tracer population should be independent of time (i.e., a steady state distribution function). We study the limitations of such modelling by applying a general dynamical model with minimal assumptions to a large sample of galactic haloes from cosmological $N$-body and hydrodynamical simulations. Using dark matter particles as dynamical tracers, we find that the systematic biases in the measured mass and concentration parameters typically have an amplitude of 25% to 40%. When stars are used as tracers, however, the biases can be as large as a factor of $2-3$. The biases are not reduced by increasing the tracer sample size and vary stochastically from halo to halo. These biases can be equivalently interpreted as underestimated statistical noise caused by correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady state assumption. The number of independent phase-space structures inferred from the bias level sets ...

  16. Constraining a halo model for cosmological neutral hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Refregier, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    We describe a combined halo model to constrain the distribution of neutral hydrogen (H I) in the post-reionization universe. We combine constraints from the various probes of H I at different redshifts: the low-redshift 21-cm emission line surveys, intensity mapping experiments at intermediate redshifts, and the Damped Lyman-Alpha (DLA) observations at higher redshifts. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to combine the observations and place constraints on the free parameters in the model. Our best-fitting model involves a relation between neutral hydrogen mass M_{H I} and halo mass M with a non-unit slope, and an upper and a lower cutoff. We find that the model fits all the observables but leads to an underprediction of the bias parameter of DLAs at z ˜ 2.3. We also find indications of a possible tension between the H I column density distribution and the mass function of H I-selected galaxies at z ˜ 0. We provide the central values of the parameters of the best-fitting model so derived. We also provide a fitting form for the derived evolution of the concentration parameter of H I in dark matter haloes, and discuss the implications for the redshift evolution of the H I-halo mass relation.

  17. The Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey I: New upper limits on radio halos and mini-halos

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, R; Giacintucci, S; Dallacasa, D; Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Macario, G; Athreya, R

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources called radio halos, radio relics and mini-halos. We present the sample and first results from the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS)- an extension of the GMRT Radio Halo Survey (GRHS, Venturi et al. 2007, 2008). It is a systematic radio survey of galaxy clusters selected from the REFLEX and eBCS X-ray catalogs . Analysis of GMRT data at 610/ 235/ 325 MHz on 12 galaxy clusters are presented. We report the detection of a newly discovered mini-halo in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021 at 610 MHz. A small scale relic (~200 kpc) is suspected in the cluster Z348. We do not detect cluster-scale diffuse emission in 11 clusters. Robust upper limits on the detection of radio halo of size of 1 Mpc are determined. We also present upper limits on the detections of mini-halos in a sub-sample of cool-core clusters. The upper limits for radio halos and mini-halos are plotted in the radio power- X-ray luminosity plane and the correlations are discussed. Diffuse extended e...

  18. Magnetized galactic halos and velocity lags

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytic model of a magnetized galactic halo surrounding a Mestel gravitating disc. The magnetic field is taken to be in energy equipartition with the pressure dominant rotating halo gas ({\\it not} with the cosmic rays), and the whole system is in a steady state. A more flexible `anisotropic equipartition' model is also explored. A definite pressure law is required to maintain the equilibrium, but the halo density is constant. The velocity/magnetic system is scale-free. The objective is to find the rotational velocity lag in such a halo. The magnetic field is not force-free so that angular momentum may be transported from the halo to the intergalactic medium. We find that the `X'-shaped structure observed for halo magnetic fields can be obtained together with a simple analytic formula for the rate of decline of the velocity with height $z$. The formula also predicts the change in lag with radius, $r$.

  19. Historical halo displays as past weather indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Certain halo displays like the 22° circle were known to indicate specific weather pattern since millennia - as specified in Babylonian omina, Aristotle's Meteorology, farmers' weather lore, etc. Today, it is known that halo phenomena are due to refraction and reflection of sun and moon light in ice crystals in cirrus and cirrostratus, so that halo observations do indicate atmospheric conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure etc. in a few km height. The Astronomical Diaries of Babylonia have recorded both halo phenomena (circles, parhelia, etc.) and weather conditions (rain, clouds, etc.), so that we can use them to show statistically, whether, which and how fast halo phenomena are related to weather - for the last few centuries BC for Babylonia. We can then also compare the observations of Babylonian priests in the given BC epoch (without air and light pollution) with the last few decades of the modern epoch (with air and light pollution), where amateur halo observers have systematically recorded such phenomena (in Europe). Weather and climate are known to be partly driven by solar activity. Hence, one could also consider whether there is an indirect relation between halo displays as weather proxy and aurorae as solar activity proxy - if low solar activity leads to low pressure systems, one could expect more halos, preliminary studies show such a hint. For the last few decades, we have many halo observations, satellite imaging of the aurora oval, and many data on solar activity. A statistically sufficient amount of aurora and halo observations should be available for the historic time to investigate such a possible connection: halos were recorded very often in antiquity and the medieval times (as found in chronicles etc.), and modern scholarly catalogs of aurorae also often contain unrecognized halo displays.

  20. CT "halo sign" in pulmonary tuberculoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M; Volta, S; Stroscio, S; Romeo, P; Pandolfo, I

    1992-01-01

    The CT halo sign has been described as the CT finding of a low-attenuation zone surrounding a pulmonary nodule. It is an early clue to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We describe a case of CT halo sign associated with a pulmonary tuberculoma. Therefore, we think that a diagnosis other than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered in the presence of the CT halo sign in immunocompetent patients.

  1. Diffuse Cluster-wide Radio Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, H

    2000-01-01

    We will discuss the properties and origins of halos and relics including estimates of the cluster magnetic fields, and present results for a few recently discovered halos and relics. The electrons in the suprathermal high energy tail of the thermal gas distribution are likely to provide the seed particles for acceleration through mergers and turbulences to relativistic energies. These relativistic particles are then responsible for the synchrotron emission of the halos.

  2. Halo Effective Field Theory of 6He

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapaliya Arbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 6He has a cluster structure with a tight 4He (α core surrounded by two loosely bound neutrons (n making it a halo nucleus. The leading-order (LO Halo Effective Field Theory (EFT [1, 2] calculations using momentum-space Faddeev equations pertinent to a bound 6He were carried out in [3]. In this work, we investigate 6He up to next-to-leading order (NLO within Halo EFT.

  3. The Connection between the Host Halo and the Satellite Galaxies of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H. G.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-10-01

    Many properties of the Milky Way’s (MW) dark matter halo, including its mass-assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the MW and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the MW halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of MW-mass halos with a fixed final {M}{vir}˜ {10}12.1 {M}⊙ , we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that MW-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the MW with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different mass-assembly histories and concentrations can lead to different best-fit models for galaxy-formation physics, especially for the strength of feedback. These biases arise because the presence of the Magellanic Clouds boosts the overall population of high-mass subhalos, thus requiring a different stellar-mass-to-halo-mass ratio to match the data. These biases also lead to significant differences in the mass-metallicity relation, the kinematics of low-mass satellites, the number counts of small satellites associated with the Magellanic Clouds, and the stellar mass of MW itself. Observations of these galaxy properties can thus provide useful constraints on the properties of the MW halo.

  4. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: behroozi@stanford.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  5. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2013-06-13

    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  6. PAHs in the Halo of NGC 5529

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J A; Parkin, T; Madden, S

    2007-01-01

    We present sensitive ISO $\\lambda 6.7 \\mu$m observations of the edge-on galaxy, NGC 5529, finding an extensive MIR halo around NGC 5529. The emission is dominated by PAHs in this band. The PAH halo has an exponential scale height of 3.7 kpc but can still be detected as far as $\\approx 10$ kpc from the plane to the limits of the high dynamic range (1770/1) data. This is the most extensive PAH halo yet detected in a normal galaxy. This halo shows substructure and the PAHs likely originate from some type of disk outflow. PAHs are long-lived in a halo environment and therefore continuous replenishment from the disk is not required (unless halo PAHs are also being destroyed or removed), consistent with the current low SFR of the galaxy. The PAHs correlate spatially with halo H$\\alpha$ emission, previously observed by Miller & Veilleux (2003); both components are likely excited/ionized by in-disk photons that are leaking into the halo. The presence of halo gas may be related to the environment of NGC 5529 which...

  7. Progress in understanding halo current at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, V.; Arnoux, G.; Beaumont, P.; Hacquin, S.; Hobirk, J.; Howell, D.; Huber, A.; Joffrin, E.; Koslowski, R.; Lam, N.; Leggate, H.; Rachlew, E.; Sergienko, G.; Stephen, A.; Todd, T.; Zerbini, M.; Delogu, R.; Grando, L.; Marcuzzi, D.; Peruzzo, S.; Pomaro, N.; Sonato, P.; JET EFDA Contributors

    2009-05-01

    The poloidal distribution of the halo current density on the top dump plate in JET can now be measured thanks to a new set of Rogowskii coils. These are the first measurements in JET able to offer an insight in the width of the halo current interaction with the wall. Therefore they offer both validation of the assumption made for JET disruption design criteria and one additional point in the extrapolation of the expected halo current width, and hence halo current density (and related local electro-mechanical loads on in-vessel components) for ITER. During upward events, the measured current density is consistent with the measured total poloidal halo current. The halo footprint extends over most of the upper dump plate, converting to a halo current flux tube width of ~100 mm. A set of four toridal field pick-up coils installed 90° apart now allows a more accurate measurement of the poloidal halo current, in particular its toroidal peaking factor, and direct comparison between halo and plasma asymmetries.

  8. On the shape of dark matter halos from MultiDark Planck simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, Jesús; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The halo shape plays a central role in determining important observational properties of the halos such as mass, concentration and lensing cross sections. The triaxiality of lensing galaxy clusters has a substantial impact on the distribution of the largest Einstein radii, while weak lensing techniques are sensitive to the intrinsic halo ellipticity. In this work, we provide scaling relations for the shapes of dark matter halos as a function of mass (peak height) and redshift over more than four orders of magnitude in halo masses, namely from $10^{11.5} h^{-1}$M$_\\odot$ to $10^{15.8}h^{-1}$M$_\\odot$. We have analysed four dark matter only simulations from the MultiDark cosmological simulation suite with more than 56 billion particles within boxes of 4.0, 2.5, 1.0 and 0.4 $h^{-1}$Gpc size assuming Planck cosmology. The dark matter halos have been identified in the simulations using the RockStar halo finder, which also determines the axis ratios in terms of the diagonalisation of the inertia tensor. The minor-t...

  9. The importance of the cosmic web and halo substructure for power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Francesco; Bacon, David J; Crittenden, Robert; Percival, Will J

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the relevance of the cosmic web and substructures on the matter and lensing power spectra measured from halo mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. Since N-body simulations are computationally expensive, it is common to use faster methods that approximate the dark matter field as a set of halos. In this approximation, we replace mass concentrations in N-body simulations by a spherically symmetric Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile. We also consider the full mass field as the sum of two distinct fields: dark matter halos ($M>9\\times 10^{12}~M_{\\odot}$/h) and particles not included into halos. Mock halos reproduce well the matter power spectrum, but underestimate the lensing power spectrum on large and small scales. For sources at $z_{\\rm s}=1$ the lensing power spectrum is underestimated by up to 40% at $\\ell\\approx 10^4$ with respect to the simulated halos. The large scale effect can be alleviated by combining the mock catalogue with the dark matter distribution out...

  10. The connection between the host halo and the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yu; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Peter, Annika H G; Wetzel, Andrew R; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    Many properties of the Milky Way's dark matter halo, including its mass assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population, remain poorly constrained. We explore the connection between these properties of the Milky Way and its satellite galaxy population, especially the implication of the presence of the Magellanic Clouds for the properties of the Milky Way halo. Using a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of Milky Way-mass halos, we find that the presence of Magellanic Cloud-like satellites strongly correlates with the assembly history, concentration, and subhalo population of the host halo, such that Milky Way-mass systems with Magellanic Clouds have lower concentration, more rapid recent accretion, and more massive subhalos than typical halos of the same mass. Using a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model that is tuned to reproduce the stellar mass function of the classical dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way with Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo, we show that adopting host halos with different ma...

  11. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is http://haloe.gats-inc.com/home/index.php The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  12. Testing feedback-modified dark matter haloes with galaxy rotation curves: estimation of halo parameters and consistency with ΛCDM scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Harley; Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris B.; Schombert, James M.

    2017-04-01

    Cosmological N-body simulations predict dark matter (DM) haloes with steep central cusps (e.g. NFW). This contradicts observations of gas kinematics in low-mass galaxies that imply the existence of shallow DM cores. Baryonic processes such as adiabatic contraction and gas outflows can, in principle, alter the initial DM density profile, yet their relative contributions to the halo transformation remain uncertain. Recent high-resolution, cosmological hydrodynamic simulations by Di Cintio et al. (DC14) predict that inner density profiles depend systematically on the ratio of stellar-to-DM mass (M*/Mhalo). Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, we test the NFW and the M*/Mhalo-dependent DC14 halo models against a sample of 147 galaxy rotation curves from the new Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves data set. These galaxies all have extended H I rotation curves from radio interferometry as well as accurate stellar-mass-density profiles from near-infrared photometry. The DC14 halo profile provides markedly better fits to the data compared to the NFW profile. Unlike NFW, the DC14 halo parameters found in our rotation-curve fits naturally fall within two standard deviations of the mass-concentration relation predicted by Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and the stellar mass-halo mass relation inferred from abundance matching with few outliers. Halo profiles modified by baryonic processes are therefore more consistent with expectations from ΛCDM cosmology and provide better fits to galaxy rotation curves across a wide range of galaxy properties than do halo models that neglect baryonic physics. Our results offer a solution to the decade long cusp-core discrepancy.

  13. Controlling Beam Halo-Chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we proposed the wavelet-based feedback controller is as follows: G = -g{fab(rrms)-fab(am)} (1)where the master wavelet function is in a simplified form(2)where a and b are scaling and translation constants, respectively. C is a selected constant. The main reason of using wavelet function for controller design is that it has strong nonlinearity and excellent localization property. It turns out that for halo-chaos control purpose, the translation b can be very small, so for simplicity one may let b = 0 . Our goal of control is rms→am, in this

  14. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the normal matter (baryons) observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We describe the current status of HaloSat.

  15. Strong lensing in the inner halo of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, C.; Campusano, L. E.; Cypriano, E. S.; Sodré, L.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an axially symmetric formula to calculate the probability of finding gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters, being induced by their massive dark matter haloes, as a function of clusters redshifts and virial masses. The formula includes the ellipticity of the clusters dark matter potential by using a pseudo-elliptical approximation. The probabilities are calculated and compared for two dark matter halo profiles, the Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) and the non-singular-isothermal-sphere (NSIS). We demonstrate the power of our formulation through a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test on the strong lensing statistics of an X-ray bright sample of low-redshift Abell clusters. This KS test allows us to establish limits on the values of the concentration parameter for the NFW profile (c_Δ) and the core radius for the NSIS profile (rc), which are related to the lowest cluster redshift (zcut) where strong arcs can be observed. For NFW dark matter profiles, we infer cluster haloes with concentrations that are consistent to those predicted by ΛCDM simulations. As for NSIS dark matter profiles, we find only upper limits for the clusters core radii and thus do not rule out a purely SIS model. For alternative mass profiles, our formulation provides constraints through zcut on the parameters that control the concentration of mass in the inner region of the clusters haloes. We find that zcut is expected to lie in the 0.0-0.2 redshift, highlighting the need to include very low-z clusters in samples to study the clusters mass profiles.

  16. Gaseous haloes : Linking galaxies to the IGM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraternali, Filippo; Binney, James; Oosterloo, Tom; Sancisi, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, evidence has accumulated that nearby spiral galaxies are surrounded by massive haloes of neutral and ionised gas. These gaseous haloes rotate more slowly than the disks and show inflow motions. They are clearly analogous to the High Velocity Clouds of the Milky Way. We show that the

  17. The H I halo of NGC 891

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Sancisi, R; vanderHulst, JM

    1997-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen observations of the nearby, edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891 reveal the presence of an H I halo extending up to at least 5 kpc from the plane. This halo gas appears to rotate 25 to 100 km s(-1) more slowly than the gas in the plane. If this velocity difference is due to the gradient in

  18. THE UNORTHODOX ORBITS OF SUBSTRUCTURE HALOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Navarro, Julio F.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of cosmological N-body simulations to study the properties of substructure halos (subhalos) in galaxy-sized cold dark matter halos. We extend prior work on the subject by considering the whole population of subhalos physically associated with the main system. These are defined as subh

  19. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  20. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes ana

  1. Examining the Halo Effect in Lotto Games

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Matheson; Kent Grote

    2005-01-01

    The "Halo Effect" occurs when lotto ticket sales are unexpectedly high following a large jackpot. An examination of the Powerball lottery finds evidence that the halo effect exists and that it is the result of bettors exchanging prize winnings for new tickets.

  2. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all ...

  3. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...

  4. Dark matter halo occupation: environment and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, Rupert; Khandai, Nishikanta; Springel, Volker; Jana, Anirban; Gardner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    We use a large dark matter simulation of a LambdaCDM model to investigate the clustering and environmental dependence of the number of substructures in a halo. Focusing on redshift z=1, we find that the halo occupation distribution is sensitive at the tens of percent level to the surrounding density and to a lesser extent to asymmetry of the surrounding density distribution. We compute the autocorrelation function of halos as a function of occupation, building on the finding of Wechsler et al. (2006) and Gao and White (2007) that halos (at fixed mass) with more substructure are more clustered. We compute the relative bias as a function of occupation number at fixed mass, finding a strong relationship. At fixed mass, halos in the top 5% of occupation can have an autocorrelation function ~ 1.5-2 times higher than the mean. We also compute the bias as a function of halo mass, for fixed halo occupation. We find that for group and cluster sized halos, when the number of subhalos is held fixed, there is a strong an...

  5. Galactic stellar haloes in the CDM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Helly, J.; Benson, A. J.; De Lucia, G.; Helmi, A.; Jenkins, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Springel, V.; Wang, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present six simulations of galactic stellar haloes formed by the tidal disruption of accreted dwarf galaxies in a fully cosmological setting. Our model is based on the Aquarius project, a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes. We tag subsets of particles in

  6. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of equality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in $N$-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these "smoothness sizes" have no direct relation to the virial radii.

  7. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Fedotov, A.V. [Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kurennoy, S.; Ryne, R. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a class of self-consistent six-dimensional (6D) phase space stationary distributions. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without it being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3D axisymmetric beam bunches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the result that, due to the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion, a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed for a mismatch less than 10{percent} if the mismatch in the other plane is large. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstern, R. L.; Fedotov, A. V.; Kurennoy, S.; Ryne, R.

    1998-10-01

    We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a class of self-consistent six-dimensional (6D) phase space stationary distributions. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without it being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3D axisymmetric beam bunches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the result that, due to the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion, a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed for a mismatch less than 10% if the mismatch in the other plane is large.

  9. Effects of Angular Momentum on Halo Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2016-01-01

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N-body simulations has proven to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. In this letter we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ($\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ($\\lambda \\gtrsim 0.20$) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to $\\lambda \\lesssim 0.20$. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  10. Where have all the cluster halos gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Sulkanen, Martin E.; Gisler, Galen R.; Perley, Rick A.

    1992-01-01

    A new LF (330 MHz) VLA image of the Perseus cluster confirms the presence of a miniradio halo with diameter of about 430 kpc (H0 = 75 km/s Mpc) surrounding 3C 84. A careful comparison with the Coma cluster shows that there is no evidence for a similar, very extended halo in Perseus despite the large number of cluster radio galaxies which could power such a halo. These two clusters represent two classes of radio halos which differ by the absence (Coma) or presence (Perseus) of cooling inflows. It is argued that smaller halos as in Perseus result form insufficient clusterwide magnetic fields. A simple model is presented which suggests that cooling flows can suppress the diffusion of turbulently amplified B-fields outward from the cluster core. Such a suppression leads to the development of minihalos which are confined to the cores of cooling flow clusters.

  11. Strong Lensing In The Inner Halo Of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Saez, C; Cypriano, E S; Sodré, L; Kneib, J -P

    2016-01-01

    We present an axially symmetric formula to calculate the probability of finding gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters, being induced by their massive dark matter haloes, as a function of clusters redshifts and virial masses. The formula includes the ellipticity of the clusters dark matter potential by using a pseudo-elliptical approximation. The probabilities are calculated and compared for two dark-matter halo profiles, the Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) and the Non-Singular-Isothermal-Sphere (NSIS). We demonstrate the power of our formulation through a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test on the strong lensing statistics of an X-ray bright sample of low redshift Abell clusters. This KS test allows to establish limits on the values of the concentration parameter for the NFW profile ($c_\\Delta$) and the core radius for the NSIS profile (\\rc), which are related to the lowest cluster redshift ($z_{\\rm cut}$) where strong arcs can be observed. For NFW dark matter profiles, we infer cluster haloes with concentrations tha...

  12. Galaxy Morphology - Halo Gas Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Steidel, C C; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied a sample of 38 intermediate redshift MgII absorption-selected galaxies using (1) Keck/HIRES and VLT/UVES quasar spectra to measure the halo gas kinematics from MgII absorption profiles and (2) HST/WFPC-2 images to study the absorbing galaxy morphologies. We have searched for correlations between quantified gas absorption properties, and host galaxy impact parameters, inclinations, position angles, and quantified morphological parameters. We report a 3.2-sigma correlation between asymmetric perturbations in the host galaxy morphology and the MgII absorption equivalent width. We suggest that this correlation may indicate a connection between past merging and/or interaction events in MgII absorption-selected galaxies and the velocity dispersion and quantity of gas surrounding these galaxies.

  13. The origin of scatter in the stellar mass - halo mass relation of central galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Matthee, Jorryt; Crain, Robert A; Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We use the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation to study the magnitude and origin of the scatter in the stellar mass - halo mass relation for central galaxies. We separate cause and effect by correlating stellar masses in the baryonic simulation with halo properties in a matched dark matter only (DMO) simulation. The scatter in stellar mass increases with redshift and decreases with halo mass. At $z = 0.1$ it declines from 0.25 dex at $M_{200, \\rm DMO} \\approx 10^{11}$ M$_{\\odot}$ to 0.12 dex at $M_{200, \\rm DMO} \\approx 10^{13}$ M$_{\\odot}$, but the trend is weak above $10^{12}$ M$_{\\odot}$. For $M_{200, \\rm DMO} < 10^{12.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$ up to 0.04 dex of the scatter is due to scatter in the halo concentration. At fixed halo mass, a larger stellar mass corresponds to a more concentrated halo. This is likely because higher concentrations imply earlier formation times and hence more time for accretion and star formation, and/or because feedback is less efficient in haloes with higher binding energies. The maximu...

  14. The Dual Origin of Galactic Stellar Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Adi

    2011-01-01

    Accreted stellar halos are a natural consequence of galaxy formation in a Lambda-CDM Universe, and contain unique fossil records of hierarchical galaxy formation. The properties of local Milky Way halo stars, however, suggest that the Galaxy's halo is composed of at least two distinct stellar populations, each exhibiting different spatial distributions, orbits, and metallicities. This observed dichotomy is the result of the assembly history of the halo, which likely formed through a process more complex than pure hierarchical accretions. In this talk I will describe the formation of stellar halos surrounding Milky Way-massed disk galaxies simulated using high-resolution cosmological Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics + N-Body simulations. We find that two competing physical processes - accretion of dwarf galaxies and in situ star formation - contribute to the formation of every stellar halo. While the outer regions (r > 20 kpc) of the halos were assembled solely through the accretion and disruption of satellites, in situ star formation supplements accretion in the formation of inner halos. The relative contribution of each stellar population to a halo is shown to be a function of a galaxy's merging history. Galaxies with recent mergers, like M31, will host relatively few in situ stars, while galaxies with more quiescent recent histories, like the Milky Way, will likely have a larger population of such stars. We show how the chemical abundance trends ([Fe/H] vs. [alpha/Fe]) of accreted and in situ stars diverge at the high [Fe/H] end of the metallicity distribution function, and discuss how such trends can be used to study and identify the observable imprints of the Milky Way's formation history.

  15. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  16. Halo Scale Predictions of Symmetron Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Clampitt, Joseph; Khoury, Justin

    2011-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter sources, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect ("blanket screening") on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  17. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  18. Off-centred dark matter halo leading to strong central disc lopsidedness

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Chaitanya

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence now from simulations and observations that the centre of dark matter halo in a Milky Way type galaxy could be off-centred by a few 100 pc w.r.t. the galactic disc. We study the effect of such an offset halo on the orbits and kinematics in the central few kpc of the disc. The equations of motion in the disc plane can be written in terms of the disc and halo potentials when these two are concentric and a perturbation term due to the offset halo. This perturbation potential shows an m=1 azimuthal variation, or is lopsided, and its magnitude increases at small radii. On solving these equations, we find that the perturbed orbit shows a large deviation of ~ 40 % in radius at R = 1.5 kpc, and also strong kinematical lopsidedness. Thus even a small halo offset of 350 pc can induce surprisingly strong spatial and kinematical lopsidedness in the central region within ~ 3 kpc radius. Further, the disc would remain lopsided for several Gyr, as long as the halo offset lasts. This would have im...

  19. A halo model for cosmological neutral hydrogen : abundances and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Amara, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We extend the results of previous analyses towards constraining the abundance and clustering of post-reionization ($z \\sim 0-5$) neutral hydrogen (HI) systems using a halo model framework. We work with a comprehensive HI dataset including the small-scale clustering, column density and mass function of HI galaxies at low redshifts, intensity mapping measurements at intermediate redshifts and the UV/optical observations of Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) systems at higher redshifts. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to constrain the parameters of the best-fitting models, both for the HI-halo mass relation and the HI radial density profile. We find that a radial exponential profile results in a good fit to the low-redshift HI observations, including the clustering and the column density distribution. The form of the profile is also found to match the high-redshift DLA observations, when used in combination with a three-parameter HI-halo mass relation and a redshift evolution in the HI concentration. The...

  20. Planck Intermediate Results. XI: The gas content of dark matter halos: the Sunyaev-Zeldovich-stellar mass relation for locally brightest galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    gas, and that this gas must be less concentrated than the dark matter in such halos in order to remain consistent with X-ray observations. At the high-mass end, the measured SZ signal is 20% lower than found from observations of X-ray clusters, a difference consistent with Malmquist bias effects......We present the scaling relation between Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and stellar mass for almost 260,000 locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). These are predominantly the central galaxies of their dark matter halos. We calibrate the stellar-to-halo...... indication of signal at even lower stellar mass. We derive the scaling relation between SZ signal and halo mass by assigning halo properties from our mock catalogues to the real LBGs and simulating the Planck observation process. This relation shows no evidence for deviation from a power law over a halo mass...

  1. Systematic problems with using dark matter simulations to model stellar halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Bell, Eric F.; Valluri, Monica [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stinson, Greg S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Debattista, Victor P. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James, E-mail: jbailin@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    The limits of available computing power have forced models for the structure of stellar halos to adopt one or both of the following simplifying assumptions: (1) stellar mass can be 'painted' onto dark matter (DM) particles in progenitor satellites; (2) pure DM simulations that do not form a luminous galaxy can be used. We estimate the magnitude of the systematic errors introduced by these assumptions using a controlled set of stellar halo models where we independently vary whether we look at star particles or painted DM particles, and whether we use a simulation in which a baryonic disk galaxy forms or a matching pure DM simulation that does not form a baryonic disk. We find that the 'painting' simplification reduces the halo concentration and internal structure, predominantly because painted DM particles have different kinematics from star particles even when both are buried deep in the potential well of the satellite. The simplification of using pure DM simulations reduces the concentration further, but increases the internal structure, and results in a more prolate stellar halo. These differences can be a factor of 1.5-7 in concentration (as measured by the half-mass radius) and 2-7 in internal density structure. Given this level of systematic uncertainty, one should be wary of overinterpreting differences between observations and the current generation of stellar halo models based on DM-only simulations when such differences are less than an order of magnitude.

  2. Control of Beam Halo-Chaos by Soliton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Long; WENG Jia-Qiang; FANG Jin-Qing

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky beam through an alternating-gradient quadrupole magnetic field is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and the soliton controller is proposed based on the mechanism of halo formation and strategy of controlling halo-chaos. We perform a multiparticle simulation to control the halo by soliton controller, and find that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated. It is shown that our control method is effective.

  3. On the integrability of halo dipoles in gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Werner M.; Letelier, Patricio S.

    1997-01-01

    We stress that halo dipole components are nontrivial in core-halo systems in both Newton's gravity and General Relativity. To this end, we extend a recent exact relativistic model to include also a halo dipole component. Next, we consider orbits evolving in the inner vacuum between a monopolar core and a pure halo dipole and find that, while the Newtonian dynamics is integrable, its relativistic counterpart is chaotic. This shows that chaoticity due only to halo dipoles is an intrinsic relati...

  4. Few-Body Universality in Halo Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few-body systems with resonant S-wave interactions show universal properties which are independent of the interaction at short distances. These properties include a geometric spectrum of three- and higher-body bound states and universal correlations between few-body observables. They can be observed on a wide range of scales from hadrons and nuclei to ultracold atoms. In this contribution, we focus on few-body universality in halo nuclei which can be considered as effective few-body systems consisting of halo nucleons and a core. This concept provides a unifying framework for halo nuclei with calculable corrections. Recent progress in this field with an emphasis on the possibility of finding Efimov states in halo nuclei is discussed.

  5. Few-Body Universality in Halo Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.

    2016-03-01

    Few-body systems with resonant S-wave interactions show universal properties which are independent of the interaction at short distances. These properties include a geometric spectrum of three- and higher-body bound states and universal correlations between few-body observables. They can be observed on a wide range of scales from hadrons and nuclei to ultracold atoms. In this contribution, we focus on few-body universality in halo nuclei which can be considered as effective few-body systems consisting of halo nucleons and a core. This concept provides a unifying framework for halo nuclei with calculable corrections. Recent progress in this field with an emphasis on the possibility of finding Efimov states in halo nuclei is discussed.

  6. High resolution studies of massive primordial haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2012-01-01

    Atomic cooling haloes with T_vir > 10^4 K are the most plausible sites for the formation of the first galaxies. In this article, we aim to study the implications of gravity driven turbulence in protogalactic haloes. By varying the resolution per Jeans length, we explore whether the turbulent cascade is resolved well enough to obtain converged results. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo including a subgrid-scale turbulence model to study the role of unresolved turbulence. We compared the results of three different Jeans resolutions from 16 to 64 cells. While radially averaged profiles roughly agree at different resolutions, differences in the morphology reveal that even the highest resolution employed provides no convergence. Moreover, taking into account unresolved turbulence significantly influences the morphology of a halo. We have quantified the properties of the high-density clumps in the halo. These clumps are gravitationally unbound wi...

  7. The Vertical Structure of the Halo Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinman, T D; Bragaglia, A; Buzzoni, A; Spagna, A

    2002-01-01

    New GSC-II proper motions of RR Lyrae and Blue Horizontal Branch (BHB) stars near the North Galactic Pole are used to show that the Galactic Halo 5 kpc above the Plane has a significantly retrograde galactic rotation.

  8. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  9. Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are increased in the early stages of halo nevi: clinicopathological features of 30 halo nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Jin, S A; Choi, Y-D; Shin, M-H; Lee, S E; Yun, S J

    2012-01-01

    There have been few clinical studies of the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in halo formation of halo nevus. To evaluate the clinicopathologic features and the presence of Tregs in halo nevi. We analyzed 30 halo nevi and performed immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against CD4, CD8, CD25 and Foxp3. We also performed double immunohistochemical staining for Foxp3 and CD25. We found significant increases in Foxp3(+) Tregs, and the shorter the halo nevus duration, the more Foxp3(+) Tregs were detected. Also, the ratio of Foxp3 to CD8 T cells was increased in early stages of halo nevi. Double immunohistochemical staining suggested that the Tregs in the halo nevi were CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Foxp3(+) Tregs were greatly increased in the halo nevi. The shorter the halo nevi duration, the more Foxp3(+) Tregs were involved in the earlier developmental stages of halo nevi. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Reionization Histories of Milky Way Mass Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tony Y.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the connection between the epoch of reionization and the present day universe, by examining the extended mass reionization histories of dark matter halos identified at z=0. We combine an N-body dark matter simulation of a 600 Mpc volume with a three-dimensional, seminumerical reionization model. This provides reionization redshifts for each particle, which can then be connected with the properties of their halos at the present time. We find that the vast majority of present-day...

  11. Beam halo study on ATF damping ring

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dou; Yokoya, Kaoru; Naito, Takashi; Gao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Halo distribution is a key topic for background study. This paper has developed an analytical method to give an estimation of ATF beam halo distribution. The equilibrium particle distribution of the beam tail in the ATF damping ring is calculated analytically with different emittance and different vacuum degree. The analytical results agree the measurements very well. This is a general method which can be applied to any electron rings.

  12. Beam halo studies in LEHIPA DTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Pande, R.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) project at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) consists of a 20 MeV, 30 mA proton linac. The accelerator comprises of a 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a 20 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL). In such high intensity accelerators, beam halos are of concern as they not only cause an increase in emittance, but also lead to beam loss and radio activation. We have studied the effect of beam mismatch at the DTL input on halo formation and propagation. The particle core model is used to excite the three envelope eigen modes; the quadrupole mode, the fast mode and the slow mode by giving input beam mismatch. These modes get damped as the beam progresses through the DTL. The damping mechanism is clearly Landau damping and leads to increase in rms emittance of the beam. The evolution of these modes and the corresponding increase in beam emittance and maximum beam extent, as the beam propagates through the DTL, has been studied for different space charge tunes. The halo parameter based on the definition of Allen and Wangler has been calculated. It is seen that beam halos are very important for LEHIPA DTL, even at 20 MeV and leads to emittance and beam size increase and also to beam loss in some cases. The longitudinal halo is present even without mismatch and transverse halos arise in the presence of beam mismatch.

  13. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R. [Department of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bullock, James S. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Maller, Ariyeh H. [Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Diemand, Juerg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Main Street West, Hamilton L85 4M1 (Canada); Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with {approx}70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by {lambda} {approx} 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  14. Contributions to the accreted stellar halo - I. An atlas of stellar deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Amorisco, N C

    2015-01-01

    The accreted component of stellar haloes is composed of the contributions of several satellites, infalling onto the host with their different masses, at different times, on different orbits. This work uses a suite of idealised, collisionless N-body simulations of minor mergers to understand how these different ingredients shape each contribution to the accreted halo, in both density and kinematics. I find that more massive satellites deposit their central particles deeper into the gravitational potential of the host, with a clear correlation enforced by dynamical friction, resulting in a marked mass segregation. After mass, both infall redshift and the scatter in the satellites concentration play important roles. Earlier accretion events contribute more to the inner regions of the halo; more concentrated subhaloes sink deeper through dynamical friction. Any effect due to the initial orbital circularity is only important for low-mass satellites: dynamical friction efficiently radialises the most massive minor ...

  15. Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, J; Zuker, A P

    2016-01-01

    The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one---isovector monopole polarizability---amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of $sd$ and $pf$ shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond $N=28$ and the near constancy of radii in the $A=40-56$ region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not...

  16. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  17. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Busha, Michael T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich (Switzerland); Klypin, Anatoly A. [Astronomy Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Primack, Joel R., E-mail: behroozi@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  18. Gravitationally Consistent Halo Catalogs and Merger Trees for Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  19. The Milky Way, the Galactic Halo, and the Halos of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The Milky Way, ``our'' Galaxy, is currently the subject of intense study with many ground-based surveys, in anticipation of upcoming results from the Gaia mission. From this work we have been learning about the full three-dimensional structure of the Galactic box/peanut bulge, the distribution of stars in the bar and disk, and the many streams and substructures in the Galactic halo. The data indicate that a large fraction of the Galactic halo has been accreted from outside. Similarly, in many external galaxy halos there is now evidence for tidal streams and accretion of satellites. To study these features requires exquisite, deep photometry and spectroscopy. These observations illustrate how galaxy halos are still growing, and sometimes can be used to ``time'' the accretion events. In comparison with cosmological simulations, the structure of galaxy halos gives us a vivid illustration of the hierarchical nature of our Universe.

  20. HaloSat - A CubeSat to Study the Hot Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the nearby universe fail to locate about half of the baryons observed in the early universe. The missing baryons may be in hot galactic halos. HaloSat is a CubeSat designed to map oxygen line emission (O VII and O VIII) around the Milky Way in order to constrain the mass and spatial distribution of hot gas in the halo. HaloSat has a grasp competitive with current X-ray observatories. Its observing program will be optimized to minimize contributions from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission that limit the accuracy of current measurements. We will describe the HaloSat mission concept, progress towards its implementation, and plans for archiving and distribution of the data.

  1. The insight into the dark side - I. The pitfalls of the dark halo parameters estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburova, Anna S.; Kasparova, Anastasia V.; Katkov, Ivan Yu.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the reliability of estimates of pseudo-isothermal, Burkert and NFW dark halo parameters for the methods based on the mass-modelling of the rotation curves. To do it, we constructed the χ2 maps for the grid of the dark matter halo parameters for a sample of 14 disc galaxies with high-quality rotation curves from THINGS. We considered two variants of models in which: (a) the mass-to-light ratios of disc and bulge were taken as free parameters, (b) the mass-to-light ratios were fixed in a narrow range according to the models of stellar populations. To reproduce the possible observational features of the real galaxies, we made tests showing that the parameters of the three halo types change critically in the cases of a lack of kinematic data in the central or peripheral areas and for different spatial resolutions. We showed that due to the degeneracy between the central densities and the radial scales of the dark haloes there are considerable uncertainties of their concentrations estimates. Due to this reason, it is also impossible to draw any firm conclusion about universality of the dark halo column density based on mass-modelling of even a high-quality rotation curve. The problem is not solved by fixing the density of baryonic matter. In contrast, the estimates of dark halo mass within optical radius are much more reliable. We demonstrated that one can evaluate successfully the halo mass using the pure best-fitting method without any restrictions on the mass-to-light ratios.

  2. The accretion history of dark matter halos II: The connections with the mass power spectrum and the density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Camila A; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    We explore the relation between the structure and mass accretion histories of dark matter halos using a suite of cosmological simulations. We confirm that the formation time, defined as the time when the virial mass of the main progenitor equals the mass enclosed within the scale radius, correlates strongly with concentration. We provide a semi-analytic model for halo mass history that combines analytic relations with fits to simulations. This model has the functional form, $M(z) = M_{0}(1+z)^{\\alpha}e^{\\beta z}$, where the parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are directly correlated with concentration. We then combine this model for the halo mass history with the analytic relations between $\\alpha$, $\\beta$ and the linear power spectrum derived by Correa et al. (2014) to establish the physical link between halo concentration and the initial density perturbation field. Finally, we provide fitting formulas for the halo mass history as well as numerical routines, we derive the accretion rate as a function of halo ma...

  3. New views of the distant stellar halo

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Robyn E; Johnston, Kathryn V; Bochanski, John J

    2016-01-01

    Currently only a small number of Milky Way (MW) stars are known to exist beyond 100 kpc from the Galactic center. Though the distribution of these stars in the outer halo is believed to be sparse, they can provide evidence of more recent accretion events than in the inner halo and help map out the MW's dark matter halo to its virial radius. We have re-examined the outermost regions of 11 existing stellar halo models with two synthetic surveys: one mimicking present-day searches for distant M giants and another mimicking RR Lyrae (RRLe) projections for LSST. Our models suggest that color and proper motion cuts currently used to select M giant candidates for follow-up successfully remove nearly all halo dwarf self-contamination and are useful for focusing observations on distant M giants, of which there are thousands to tens of thousands beyond 100 kpc in our models. We likewise expect that LSST will identify comparable numbers of RRLe at these distances. We demonstrate that several observable properties of bot...

  4. Alignments between galaxies, satellite systems and haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Shi; Frenk, Carlos S; Gao, Liang; Crain, Robert A; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the satellite populations of the Milky Way and Andromeda are puzzling in that they are nearly perpendicular to the disks of their central galaxies. To understand the origin of such configurations we study the alignment of the central galaxy, satellite system and dark matter halo in the largest of the "Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments" (EAGLE) simulation. We find that centrals and their satellite systems tend to be well aligned with their haloes, with a median misalignment angle of $33^{\\circ}$ in both cases. While the centrals are better aligned with the inner $10$ kpc halo, the satellite systems are better aligned with the entire halo indicating that satellites preferentially trace the outer halo. The central - satellite alignment is weak (median misalignment angle of $52^{\\circ}$) and we find that around $20\\%$ of systems have a misalignment angle larger than $78^{\\circ}$, which is the value for the Milky Way. The central - satellite alignment is a conseq...

  5. Why are halo coronal mass ejections faster?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Min Zhang; Yang Guo; Peng-Fei Chen; Ming-De Ding; Cheng Fang

    2010-01-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections(CMEs)have been to be significantly faster than normal CMEs,which is a long-standing puzzle.In order to solve the puzzle,we first investigate the observed properties of 31 limb CMEs that clearly display loopshaped frontal loops.The observational results show a strong tendency that slower CMEs are weaker in white-light intensity.Then,we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of 20000 artificial limb CMEs that have an average velocity of~523 km s-1.The Thomson scattering of these events is calculated when they are assumed to be observed as limb and halo events,respectively.It is found that the white-light intensity of many slow CMEs becomes remarkably reduced when they turn from being viewed as a limb event to being viewed as a halo event.When the intensity is below the background solar wind fluctuation,it is assumed that they would be missed by coronagraphs.The average velocity of"detectable"halo CMEs is~922 km s-1,very close to the observed value.This also indicates that wider events are more likely to be recorded.The results soundly suggest that the higher average velocity of halo CMEs is due to that a majority of slow events and some of narrow fast events carrying less material are so faint that they are blended with the solar wind fluctuations,and therefore are not observed.

  6. Evolution and statistics of non-sphericity of dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass-scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modeling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turnaround epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting non-sphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turnaround, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction: massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z = 0, inner regions of the simulated halos are less spherical than outer regions; that is, the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not self-similar (concentric ellipsoids with the same axis ratio and orientation). This is also inconsistent with the homogeneous density distribution that is commonly assumed in EC. Since most of previous fitting formulae for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the axis ratio of triaxial ellipsoids have been constructed under the self-similarity assumption, they are not accurate. Indeed, we compute the PDF of the projected axis ratio a1/a2 directly from the simulation data without the self-similarity assumption, and find that it is very sensitive to the assumption. The latter needs to be carefully taken into account in direct comparison with observations, and therefore we provide an empirical fitting formula for the PDF of a1/a2. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the derived PDF of a1/a2 roughly agrees with the current weak-lensing observations. More importantly, the present results will be useful for future exploration of the non

  7. Evolution and statistics of non-sphericity of dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Daichi; Kitayama, Tetsu; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    We revisit the non-sphericity of cluster-mass-scale halos from cosmological N-body simulation on the basis of triaxial modeling. In order to understand the difference between the simulation results and the conventional ellipsoidal collapse model (EC), we first consider the evolution of individual simulated halos. The major difference between EC and the simulation becomes appreciable after the turnaround epoch. Moreover, it is sensitive to the individual evolution history of each halo. Despite such strong dependence on individual halos, the resulting non-sphericity of halos exhibits weak but robust mass dependence in a statistical fashion; massive halos are more spherical up to the turnaround, but gradually become less spherical by z = 0. This is clearly inconsistent with the EC prediction: massive halos are usually more spherical. In addition, at z = 0, inner regions of the simulated halos are less spherical than outer regions; that is, the density distribution inside the halos is highly inhomogeneous and therefore not self-similar (concentric ellipsoids with the same axis ratio and orientation). This is also inconsistent with the homogeneous density distribution that is commonly assumed in EC. Since most of previous fitting formulae for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the axis ratio of triaxial ellipsoids have been constructed under the self-similarity assumption, they are not accurate. Indeed, we compute the PDF of the projected axis ratio a1/a2 directly from the simulation data without the self-similarity assumption, and find that it is very sensitive to the assumption. The latter needs to be carefully taken into account in direct comparison with observations, and therefore we provide an empirical fitting formula for the PDF of a1/a2. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the derived PDF of a1/a2 roughly agrees with the current weak-lensing observations. More importantly, the present results will be useful for future exploration of the non

  8. Halo Scraping, Diffusion and Repopulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Bruce, R; Burkart, F; Redaelli, F; Salvachua, B; Previtali, V; Stancari, G; Valishev, A

    2012-01-01

    Beam halo measurements in the LHC were conducted through collimator scrapings in an MD carried out on the 22nd June 2012 for the first time at 4 TeV. The time evolution of losses during a collimator scan provides information on halo diffusion and population. Four scans were performed with two collimators in the vertical and horizontal plane in B1 and B2 respectively, before and after bringing the beams into collisions. During an inward step, the beam losses measured at the BLMs for the first 3 seconds are believed to be dominated by multi-turn halo removal by the collimator jaw. However, a good comparison was found between fits of the diffusion model and the subsequent loss decay. In addition, the fitted diffusion coefficients compare well to the coefficients estimated from the core emittance growth rates as a function of action.

  9. Off-center dark matter halo leading to strong central disk lopsidedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chaitanya; Jog, Chanda J.

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing evidence from simulations and observations that the center of the dark matter halo in a Milky Way-type galaxy could be off-center by a few 100 pc with respect to the galactic disk. We study the effect of such an offset halo on the orbits and kinematics in the central few kpc of the disk via a simple, analytical model. The equations of motion in the disk plane can be written in terms of the potentials of the disk and halo when they are concentric, and a perturbation term arising due to the offset halo. We show that this perturbation potential has an m = 1 azimuthal variation, or is lopsided, and its magnitude increases at small radii. On solving these equations, we find that the perturbed orbit shows a large deviation, 40% in radius at R = 1.5 kpc, and also strong kinematical lopsidedness. Thus, even a small halo offset of 350 pc can induce surprisingly strong spatial and kinematical lopsidedness in the central region within a 3 kpc radius. The disk lopsidedness would have important implications for the evolution of this region; for example, it could help fuel the central active galactic nucleus.

  10. Halo formation in spheroidal bunches with self-consistent stationary distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Gluckstern, R.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kurennoy, S.S.; Ryne, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new class of self-consistent 6-D phase space stationary distributions is constructed both analytically and numerically. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and the authors explore the beam stability and halo formation for the case of 3-D axisymmetric beam bunches using particle-in-cell simulations. They concentrate on beams with bunch length-to-width ratios varying from 1 to 5, which covers the typical range of the APT linac parameters. They find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches. An interesting coupling phenomenon -- a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed even for very small mismatches if the mismatch in the other plane is large -- is discovered.

  11. Two New Ultra-Faint Star Clusters in the Milky Way Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2016-08-01

    Kim 1 & 2 are two new star clusters discovered in the Stromlo Missing Satellite Survey. Kim 1, located at a heliocentric distance of 19.8 +/- 0.9 kpc, features an extremely low total luminosity (M V = 0.3 +/- 0.5 mag) and low star concentration. Together with the large ellipticity (ɛ = 0.42 +/- 0.10) and irregular isophotes, these properties suggest that Kim 1 is an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. Kim 2 is a rare ultra-faint outer halo globular cluster located at a heliocentric distance of 104.7 +/- 4.1 kpc. The cluster exhibits evidence of significant mass loss such as extra-tidal stars and mass-segregation. Kim 2 is likely to follow an orbit confined to the peripheral region of the Galactic halo, and/or to have formed in a dwarf galaxy that was later accreted into the Galactic halo.

  12. Galaxy halo occupation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power law in the halo mass: N(M)=(M/M1)S for M>Mmin. Here, Mmin is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass-dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume a ΛCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the favoured range for our model parameters is Mmin~=(0.4-8)×1010h- 1Msolar, M1~=(6-10)×1012h- 1Msolar, and 0.9acceptable if the allowed range of bg is permitted to span all recent observational estimates. We also discuss how the observed clustering of LBGs as a function of luminosity can be used to constrain halo occupation, although because of current observational uncertainties we are unable to reach any strong conclusions. Our methods and results can be used to constrain more realistic models that aim to derive the occupation function N(M) from first principles, and offer insight into how basic physical properties affect the observed properties of LBGs.

  13. Galaxy-galaxy Lensing: Dissipationless Simulations Versus the Halo Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, R; Seljak, U; Kravtsov, A V; Wechsler, R H; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Tasitsiomi, Argyro; Seljak, Uros; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2004-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy lensing is a powerful probe of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos, but its theoretical interpretation requires a careful modeling of various contributions, such as the contribution from central and satellite galaxies. For this purpose, a phenomenological approach based on the halo model has been developed, allowing for fast exploration of the parameter space of models. In this paper, we investigate the ability of the halo model to extract information from the g-g weak lensing signal by comparing it to high-resolution dissipationless simulations that resolve subhalos. We find that the halo model reliably determines parameters such as the host halo mass of central galaxies, the fraction of galaxies that are satellites, and their radial distribution inside larger halos. If there is a significant scatter present in the central galaxy host halo mass distribution, then the mean and median mass of that distribution can differ significantly from one another, and the halo model mass dete...

  14. Scalar field haloes as gravitational lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, F E; Mielke, E W

    2006-01-01

    A non-topological soliton model with a repulsive scalar self-interaction of the Emden type provides a constant density core,similarly as the empirical Burkert profile of dark matter haloes. As a further test, we derive the gravitational lens properties of our model, in particular, the demarcation curves between `weak' and `strong' lensing. Accordingly, strong lensing with typically three images is almost three times more probable for our solitonic model than for the Burkert fit. Moreover, some prospective consequences of a possible flattening of dark matter haloes are indicated.

  15. Halo Effect on Direct Neutron Capture Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖华; 周宏余

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the capture cross sections of the 10Be(n,γ) 11 Be reaction by means of the asymptotic normalization coefficient method and demonstrate the halo effects on the capture cross sections for the direct radiative neutron capture where a p-, s- or d-wave neutron is captured into an s-orbit or p-orbit in 11 Be by emitting an E1 γ-ray,respectively. The result shows that the enormous enhancement of the capture cross section is just due to the large overlap of the incident neutron wave with the extended tail of the halo, which is clearly illustrated by the reduced transition amplitude function.

  16. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  17. Deep images of cluster radio halos

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchi, M; Giovannini, G; Govoni, F

    2003-01-01

    New radio data are presented for the clusters A401, A545, A754, A1914, A2219 and A2390, where the presence of diffuse radio emission was suggested from the images of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. Sensitive images of these clusters, obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA)at 20 cm confirm the existence of the diffuse sources and allow us to derive their fluxes and intrinsic parameters.The correlation between the halo radio power and cluster X-ray luminosity is derived for a large sample of halo clusters, and is briefly discussed.

  18. Some Results on Halo Research at RIBLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Last years,several experiments about halo nuclei were performed at RIBLL.On the analyzing and fitting the data by using Glauber theory with some assumptions,following some results were deduced.1.~8B shows a proton halo structure.The reaction cross section σR of 54 MeV/u~8B on Si was measured as 1634±49 mb.The density distribution of ~8B was studied through a fitting procedure on the enhancement of the σR at low energies including the high energy data by using Glauber theory.The result shows a long tail ...

  19. Understanding the Equilibrium Structure of CDM Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, P R; Alvarez, M; Iliev, I T; Martel, H; Shapiro, Paul R.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Alvarez, Marcelo; Iliev, Ilian T.; Martel, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    N-body simulations find a universal structure for the halos which result from the nonlinear growth of Gaussian-random-noise density fluctuations in the CDM universe. This talk summarized our attempts to derive and explain this universal structure by analytical approximation and simplified models. As an example, we show here that a 1D spherical infall model involving a fluid approximation derived from the Boltzmann equation can explain not only the halo density profile but its phase-space density profile, as well.

  20. Low frequency follow up of radio halos and relics in the GMRT Radio Halo Cluster Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Venturi, Tiziana; Dallacasa, Daniele; Cassano, Rossella; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Macario, Giulia; Athreya, Ramana

    2012-01-01

    We performed GMRT low frequency observations of the radio halos, relics and new candidates belonging to the GMRT Radio Halo Cluster Sample first observed at 610 MHz. High sensitivity imaging was performed using the GMRT at 325 MHz and 240 MHz. The properties of the diffuse emission in each cluster were compared to our 610 MHz images and/or literature information available at other frequencies, in order to derive the integrated spectra over a wide frequency range.Beyond the classical radio halos, whose spectral index $\\alpha$ is in the range $\\sim1.2\\div1.3$ (S$\\propto\

  1. The Non-Parametric Model for Linking Galaxy Luminosity with Halo/Subhalo Mass: Are First Brightest Galaxies Special?

    CERN Document Server

    Vale, A

    2007-01-01

    We revisit the longstanding question of whether first brightest cluster galaxies are statistically drawn from the same distribution as other cluster galaxies or are "special", using the new non-parametric, empirically based model presented in Vale&Ostriker (2006) for associating galaxy luminosity with halo/subhalo masses. We introduce scatter in galaxy luminosity at fixed halo mass into this model, building a conditional luminosity function (CLF) by considering two possible models: a simple lognormal and a model based on the distribution of concentration in haloes of a given mass. We show that this model naturally allows an identification of halo/subhalo systems with groups and clusters of galaxies, giving rise to a clear central/satellite galaxy distinction. We then use these results to build up the dependence of brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitudes on cluster luminosity, focusing on two statistical indicators, the dispersion in BCG magnitude and the magnitude difference between first and second bri...

  2. Numerical Convergence in the Dark Matter Halos Properties Using Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Escobar, X. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the accepted cosmological model is the so called -Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In such model, the universe is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, composed of diverse components as the dark matter and dark energy, where the latter is the most abundant one. Dark matter plays an important role because it is responsible for the generation of gravitational potential wells, commonly called dark matter halos. At the end, dark matter halos are characterized by a set of parameters (mass, radius, concentration, spin parameter), these parameters provide valuable information for different studies, such as galaxy formation, gravitational lensing, etc. In this work we use the publicly available code Gadget2 to perform cosmological simulations to find to what extent the numerical parameters of the simu- lations, such as gravitational softening, integration time step and force calculation accuracy affect the physical properties of the dark matter halos. We ran a suite of simulations where these parameters were varied in a systematic way in order to explore accurately their impact on the structural parameters of dark matter halos. We show that the variations on the numerical parameters affect the structural pa- rameters of dark matter halos, such as concentration, virial radius, and concentration. We show that these modifications emerged when structures become non- linear (at redshift 2) for the scale of our simulations, such that these variations affected the formation and evolution structure of halos mainly at later cosmic times. As a quantitative result, we propose which would be the most appropriate values for the numerical parameters of the simulations, such that they do not affect the halo properties that are formed. For force calculation accuracy we suggest values smaller or equal to 0.0001, integration time step smaller o equal to 0.005 and for gravitational softening we propose equal to 1/60th of the mean interparticle distance, these values, correspond to the

  3. Alignments of galaxies and halos in hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Libeskind, Noam I.

    2016-10-01

    We use a 200 h -1Mpc cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to examine the alignments of galaxies with respect to the host halo. We do separate study for the different components of the halo, such as stars, gas and dark matter. We show that angular momentum of gas is more aligned with the angular momentum of host halo compared with the stellar component.

  4. Interactions between massive dark halos and warped disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    The normal mode theory for warping of galaxy disks, in which disks are assumed to be tilted with respect to the equator of a massive, flattened dark halo, assumes a rigid, fixed halo. However, consideration of the back-reaction by a misaligned disk on a massive particle halo shows there to be strong

  5. Substructure in the Stellar Halos of the Aquarius Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; White, S. D. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities

  6. The properties of warm dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, Mark R; Eke, Vincent R; Jenkins, Adrian; Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Well-motivated elementary particle candidates for the dark matter, such as the sterile neutrino, behave as warm dark matter (WDM).For particle masses of order a keV, free streaming produces a cutoff in the linear fluctuation power spectrum at a scale corresponding to dwarf galaxies. We investigate the abundance and structure of WDM haloes and subhaloes on these scales using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations of galactic haloes of mass similar to the Milky Way's. On scales larger than the free-streaming cutoff, the initial conditions have the same power spectrum and phases as one of the cold dark matter (CDM) haloes previously simulated by Springel et al as part of the Virgo consortium Aquarius project. We have simulated four haloes with WDM particle masses in the range 1.4-2.3keV and, for one case, we have carried out further simulations at varying resolution. N-body simulations in which the power spectrum cutoff is resolved are known to undergo artificial fragmentation in filaments producing spu...

  7. The Halo Occupation Distribution of HI Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wyithe, Stuart; Zwaan, Martin A; Meyer, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the spatial clustering properties of HI selected galaxies from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) using the formalism of the halo occupation distribution (HOD). The resulting parameter constraints show that the fraction of satellite galaxies (i.e. galaxies which are not the central member of their host dark matter halo) among HIPASS galaxies is <20%, and that satellite galaxies are therefore less common in HIPASS than in optically selected galaxy redshift surveys. Moreover the lack of fingers-of-god in the redshift space correlation function of HIPASS galaxies may indicate that the HI rich satellites which do exist are found in group mass rather than cluster mass dark matter halos. We find a minimum halo mass for HIPASS galaxies at the peak of the redshift distribution of M~10^11 solar masses, and show that less than 10% of baryons in HIPASS galaxies are in the form of HI. Quantitative constraints on HOD models from HIPASS galaxies are limited by uncertainties introduced throug...

  8. Excited-state Halo of 14C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture processes on carbon isotope play an important role in astrophysics ranging fromnucleosynthesis in the stellar helium and carbon burning stages to possibly inhomogeneous big bangmodels. The capture rate in astrophysical environments strongly depends on the structure of these carbonnuclei. For example, the first 1/2+ state in 13C is a neutron halo state, and these results in an enormous

  9. Streams in the Aquarius stellar haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina; Cooper, Andrew P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We use the very high resolution, fully cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project, coupled to a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, to study the phase-space distribution of halo stars in `solar neighbourhood' like volumes. We find that this distribution is very rich in substructure in

  10. Streams in the Aquarius stellar haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina; Cooper, Andrew P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We use the very high resolution, fully cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project, coupled to a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, to study the phase-space distribution of halo stars in 'solar neighbourhood' like volumes. We find that this distribution is very rich in substructure in

  11. GAS CONDENSATION IN THE GALACTIC HALO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, M. Ryan; Bryan, Greg L.; Putman, Mary E., E-mail: moo@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamic simulations of vertically stratified hot halo gas, we examine the conditions under which clouds can form and condense out of the hot halo medium to potentially fuel star formation in the gaseous disk. We find that halo clouds do not develop from linear isobaric perturbations. This is a regime where the cooling time is longer than the Brunt-Vaeisaelae time, confirming previous linear analysis. We extend the analysis into the nonlinear regime by considering mildly or strongly nonlinear perturbations with overdensities up to 100, also varying the initial height, the cloud size, and the metallicity of the gas. Here, the result depends on the ratio of cooling time to the time required to accelerate the cloud to the sound speed (similar to the dynamical time). If the ratio exceeds a critical value near unity, the cloud is accelerated without further cooling and gets disrupted by Kelvin-Helmholtz and/or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. If it is less than the critical value, the cloud cools and condenses before disruption. Accreting gas with overdensities of 10-20 is expected to be marginally unstable; the cooling fraction will depend on the metallicity, the size of the incoming cloud, and the distance to the galaxy. Locally enhanced overdensities within cold streams have a higher likelihood of cooling out. Our results have implications on the evolution of clouds seeded by cold accretion that are barely resolved in current cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and absorption line systems detected in galaxy halos.

  12. Cosmology and cluster halo scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Melo, Pablo A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the effects of dark matter and dark energy on the dynamical scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We investigate the cluster Faber-Jackson (FJ), Kormendy and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations between the mass, radius and velocity dispersion of cluster-sized haloes in cosmological N-body s

  13. Substructure of fuzzy dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Xiaolong; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2016-01-01

    We derive the halo mass function (HMF) for fuzzy dark matter (FDM) by solving the excursion set problem explicitly with a mass-dependent barrier function, which has not been done before. We find that compared to the naive approach of the Sheth-Tormen HMF for FDM the one we obtain has a higher cut off mass and the cut off mass change less strongly with redshifts. Using merger trees constructed with a modified version of the Lacey & Cole formalism that accounts for suppressed small scale power and the scale-dependent growth of FDM halos and the semi-analytic Galacticus code, we study the statistics of halo substructure including the effects from dynamical friction and tidal stripping. We find that if the dark matter is a mixture of cold dark matter (CDM) and FDM, there will be a suppression on the halo substructure on small scales which may be able to solve the Missing Satellites Problem faced by the pure CDM model. The suppression becomes stronger with increasing FDM fraction or decreasing FDM mass. Thus i...

  14. Reflection halo twins : subsun and supersun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnen, Gunther P.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2011-01-01

    From an aircraft, a short distinct vertical structure is sometimes seen above the setting sun. Such a feature can be understood as a halo, which is the counterpart of the well-known subsun. Whereas the latter arises from reflections off basal faces of plate-oriented ice crystals illuminated from abo

  15. Substructure of fuzzy dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaolong; Behrens, Christoph; Niemeyer, Jens C.

    2017-02-01

    We derive the halo mass function (HMF) for fuzzy dark matter (FDM) by solving the excursion set problem explicitly with a mass-dependent barrier function, which has not been done before. We find that compared to the naive approach of the Sheth-Tormen HMF for FDM, our approach has a higher cutoff mass and the cutoff mass changes less strongly with redshifts. Using merger trees constructed with a modified version of the Lacey & Cole formalism that accounts for suppressed small-scale power and the scale-dependent growth of FDM haloes and the semi-analytic GALACTICUS code, we study the statistics of halo substructure including the effects from dynamical friction and tidal stripping. We find that if the dark matter is a mixture of cold dark matter (CDM) and FDM, there will be a suppression on the halo substructure on small scales which may be able to solve the missing satellites problem faced by the pure CDM model. The suppression becomes stronger with increasing FDM fraction or decreasing FDM mass. Thus, it may be used to constrain the FDM model.

  16. The properties of warm dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Mark R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Eke, Vincent R.; Jenkins, Adrian; Gao, Liang; Theuns, Tom

    2014-03-01

    Well-motivated elementary particle candidates for the dark matter, such as the sterile neutrino, behave as warm dark matter (WDM). For particle masses of the order of a keV, free streaming produces a cutoff in the linear fluctuation power spectrum at a scale corresponding to dwarf galaxies. We investigate the abundance and structure of WDM haloes and subhaloes on these scales using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations of galactic haloes of mass similar to the Milky Way's. On scales larger than the free-streaming cutoff, the initial conditions have the same power spectrum and phases as one of the cold dark matter (CDM) haloes previously simulated by Springel et al. as part of the Virgo consortium Aquarius project. We have simulated four haloes with WDM particle masses in the range 1.5-2.3 keV and, for one case, we have carried out further simulations at varying resolution. N-body simulations in which the power spectrum cutoff is resolved are known to undergo artificial fragmentation in filaments producing spurious clumps which, for small masses (Frenk-White or Einasto profiles. Their central densities are lower for lower WDM particle masses and none of the models we have considered suffering from the `too big to fail' problem recently highlighted by Boylan-Kolchin et al.

  17. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO. VIII. QUANTIFYING SUBSTRUCTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; van Woerden, Hugo; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and

  18. The stellar halo of the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina

    2008-01-01

    Stellar halos may hold some of the best preserved fossils of the formation history of galaxies. They are a natural product of the merging processes that probably take place during the assembly of a galaxy, and hence may well be the most ubiquitous component of galaxies, independently of their Hubble

  19. Effective field theory for halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Philipp Robert

    2014-02-19

    We investigate properties of two- and three-body halo systems using effective field theory. If the two-particle scattering length a in such a system is large compared to the typical range of the interaction R, low-energy observables in the strong and the electromagnetic sector can be calculated in halo EFT in a controlled expansion in R/ vertical stroke a vertical stroke. Here we focus on universal properties and stay at leading order in the expansion. Motivated by the existence of the P-wave halo nucleus {sup 6}He, we first set up an EFT framework for a general three-body system with resonant two-particle P-wave interactions. Based on a Lagrangian description, we identify the area in the effective range parameter space where the two-particle sector of our model is renormalizable. However, we argue that for such parameters, there are two two-body bound states: a physical one and an additional deeper-bound and non-normalizable state that limits the range of applicability of our theory. With regard to the three-body sector, we then classify all angular-momentum and parity channels that display asymptotic discrete scale invariance and thus require renormalization via a cut-off dependent three-body force. In the unitary limit an Efimov effect occurs. However, this effect is purely mathematical, since, due to causality bounds, the unitary limit for P-wave interactions can not be realized in nature. Away from the unitary limit, the three-body binding energy spectrum displays an approximate Efimov effect but lies below the unphysical, deep two-body bound state and is thus unphysical. Finally, we discuss possible modifications in our halo EFT approach with P-wave interactions that might provide a suitable way to describe physical three-body bound states. We then set up a halo EFT formalism for two-neutron halo nuclei with resonant two-particle S-wave interactions. Introducing external currents via minimal coupling, we calculate observables and universal correlations for

  20. The Impact of Theoretical Uncertainties in the Halo Mass Function and Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Pittsburgh U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2010-06-04

    We study the impact of theoretical uncertainty in the dark matter halo mass function and halo bias on dark energy constraints from imminent galaxy cluster surveys. We find that for an optical cluster survey like the Dark Energy Survey, the accuracy required on the predicted halo mass function to make it an insignificant source of error on dark energy parameters is {approx}1%. The analogous requirement on the predicted halo bias is less stringent ({approx}5%), particularly if the observable-mass distribution can be well constrained by other means. These requirements depend upon survey area but are relatively insensitive to survey depth. The most stringent requirements are likely to come from a survey over a significant fraction of the sky that aims to observe clusters down to relatively low mass, M{sub th}{approx} 10{sup 13.7} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}; for such a survey, the mass function and halo bias must be predicted to accuracies of {approx}0.5% and {approx}1%, respectively. These accuracies represent a limit on the practical need to calibrate ever more accurate halo mass and bias functions. We find that improving predictions for the mass function in the low-redshift and low-mass regimes is the most effective way to improve dark energy constraints.

  1. PEEK-Halo effect in interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Hogan, Jarred A; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Recent developments have seen poly[aryl-ether-ether-ketone] (PEEK) being increasingly used in vertebral body fusion. More novel approaches to improve PEEK have included the introduction of titanium-PEEK (Ti-PEEK) composites and coatings. This paper aims to describe a potential complication of PEEK based implants relating to poorer integration with the surrounding bone, producing a "PEEK-Halo" effect which is not seen in Ti-PEEK composite implants. We present images from two patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The first patient underwent an L5/S1 ALIF using a PEEK implant whilst the second patient underwent L4/L5 ALIF using a Ti-PEEK composite implant. Evidence of osseointegration was sought using CT imaging and confirmed using histological preparations of a sheep tibia model. The PEEK-Halo effect is demonstrated by a halo effect between the PEEK implant and the bone graft on CT imaging. This phenomenon is secondary to poor osseointegration of PEEK implants. The PEEK-Halo effect was not demonstrated in the second patient who received a Ti-PEEK composite graft. Histological analysis of graft/bone interface surfaces in PEEK versus Ti-PEEK implants in a sheep model further confirmed poorer osseointegration of the PEEK implant. In conclusion, the PEEK-Halo effect is seen secondary to minimal osseointegration of PEEK at the adjacent vertebral endplate following a PEEK implant insertion. This effect is not seen with Ti-PEEK implants, and may support the role of titanium in improving the bone-implant interface of PEEK substrates.

  2. The age structure of the Milky Way's halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, D.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Santucci, R. M.; Denissenkov, P.; Tissera, P. B.; Lentner, G.; Rossi, S.; Lee, Y. S.; Tumlinson, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new, high-resolution chronographic (age) map of the Milky Way's halo, based on the inferred ages of ~130,000 field blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars with photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our map exhibits a strong central concentration of BHB stars with ages greater than 12 Gyr, extending up to ~15 kpc from the Galactic Centre (reaching close to the solar vicinity), and a decrease in the mean ages of field stars with distance by 1-1.5 Gyr out to ~45-50 kpc, along with an apparent increase of the dispersion of stellar ages, and numerous known (and previously unknown) resolved over-densities and debris streams, including the Sagittarius Stream. These results agree with expectations from modern lambda cold dark matter cosmological simulations, and support the existence of a dual (inner/outer) halo system, punctuated by the presence of over-densities and debris streams that have not yet completely phase-space mixed.

  3. Bulge and Halo Kinematics Across the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Luis C

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the maximum rotational velocity of the disk (v_m) and the central stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge (sigma) offers insights into the relationship between the halo and the bulge. We have assembled integrated H I line widths and central stellar velocity dispersions to study the v_m-sigma relation for 792 galaxies spanning a broad range of Hubble types. Contrary to earlier studies based on much smaller samples, we find that the v_m-sigma relation exhibits significant intrinsic scatter and that its zeropoint varies systematically with galaxy morphology, bulge-to-disk ratio, and light concentration, as expected from basic dynamical considerations. Nucleated but bulgeless late-type spiral galaxies depart significantly from the v_m-sigma relation. While these results render questionable any attempt to supplant the bulge with the halo as the fundamental determinant of the central black hole mass in galaxies, the observed distribution of v_m/sigma, which depends on both the density profi...

  4. Structural Parameters for 10 Halo Globular Clusters in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present the properties of 10 halo globular clusters (GCs) with luminosities L ≃ 5-7 × 105 L⊙ in the Local Group galaxy M33 using images from the Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 in the F555W and F814W bands. We obtained the ellipticities, position angles, and surface brightness profiles for each GC. In general, the ellipticities of the M33 sample clusters are similar to those of the M31 clusters. The structural and dynamical parameters are derived by fitting the profiles to three different models combined with mass-to-light ratios (M/L values) from population-synthesis models. The structural parameters include core radii, concentration, half-light radii, and central surface brightness. The dynamical parameters include the integrated cluster mass, integrated binding energy, central surface mass density, and predicted line of sight velocity dispersion at the cluster center. The velocity dispersions of the four clusters predicted here agree well with the observed dispersions by Larsen et al. The results here showed that the majority of the sample halo GCs are better fitted by both the King model and the Wilson model than the Sérsic model. In general, the properties of the clusters in M33, M31, and the Milky Way fall in the same regions of parameter spaces. The tight correlations of cluster properties indicate a “fundamental plane” for clusters, which reflects some universal physical conditions and processes operating at the epoch of cluster formation.

  5. The age structure of the Milky Way's halo

    CERN Document Server

    Carollo, Daniela; Placco, Vinicius; Santucci, Rafael; Denissenkov, Pavel; Tissera, Patricia; Lentner, Geoffrey; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Tumlinson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We present a new, high-resolution chronographic (age) map of the Milky Way's halo, based on the inferred ages of ~130,000 field blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars with photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our map exhibits a strong central concentration of BHB stars with ages greater than 12 Gyr, extending up to ~15 kpc from the Galactic center (reaching close to the solar vicinity), and a decrease in the mean ages of field stars with distance by 1-1.5 Gyr out to ~45-50 kpc, along with an apparent increase of the dispersion of stellar ages, and numerous known (and previously unknown) resolved over-densities and debris streams, including the Sagittarius Stream. These results agree with expectations from modern LambdaCDM cosmological simulations, and support the existence of a dual (inner/outer) halo system, punctuated by the presence of over-densities and debris streams that have not yet completely phase-space mixed.

  6. Large-scale bias of dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Valageas, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We build a simple analytical model for the bias of dark matter halos that applies to objects defined by an arbitrary density threshold, $200\\leq\\delta\\leq 1600$, and that provides accurate predictions from low-mass to high-mass halos. We point out that it is possible to build simple and efficient models, with no free parameter for the halo bias, by using integral constraints that govern the behavior of low-mass and typical halos, whereas the properties of rare massive halos are derived through explicit asymptotic approaches. We also describe how to take into account the impact of halo motions on their bias, using their linear displacement field. We obtain a good agreement with numerical simulations for the halo mass functions and large-scale bias at redshifts $0\\leq z \\leq 2.5$, for halos defined by nonlinear density threshold $200\\leq\\delta\\leq 1600$. We also evaluate the impact on the halo bias of two common approximations, i) neglecting halo motions, and ii) linearizing the halo two-point correlation.

  7. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  8. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Gerhardt

    2012-09-27

    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.

  9. ORIGAMI: Delineating Halos using Phase-Space Folds

    CERN Document Server

    Falck, Bridget L; Szalay, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along 3 orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids respectively. We compare this method to a standard Friends-of-Friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  10. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  11. The role of Dark Matter sub-halos in the non-thermal emission of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Marchegiani, P

    2016-01-01

    Annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles has been recognized as one of the possible mechanisms for the production of non-thermal particles and radiation in galaxy clusters. Previous studies have shown that, while DM models can reproduce the spectral properties of the radio halo in the Coma cluster, they fail in reproducing the shape of the radio halo surface brightness because they produce a shape that is too concentrated towards the center of the cluster with respect to the observed one. However, in previous studies the DM distribution was modeled like a single spherically symmetric halo, while the DM distribution in Coma is found to have a complex and elongated shape. In this work we calculate a range of non-thermal emissions in the Coma cluster by using the observed distribution of DM sub-halos. We find that, by including the sub-halos in the DM model, we obtain a radio surface brightness with a shape similar to the observed one, and that the sub-halos boost the radio emission by a factor between 5 and 2...

  12. A Speeding Binary in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The recent discovery of a hyper-velocity binary star system in the halo of the Milky Way poses a mystery: how was this system accelerated to its high speed?Accelerating StarsUnlike the uniform motion in the Galactic disk, stars in the Milky Ways halo exhibit a huge diversity of orbits that are usually tilted relative to the disk and have a variety of speeds. One type of halo star, so-called hyper-velocity stars, travel with speeds that can approach the escape velocity of the Galaxy.How do these hyper-velocity stars come about? Assuming they form in the Galactic disk, there are multiple proposed scenarios through which they could be accelerated and injected into the halo, such as:Ejection after a close encounter with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic centerEjection due to a nearby supernova explosionEjection as the result of a dynamical interaction in a dense stellar population.Further observations of hyper-velocity stars are necessary to identify the mechanism responsible for their acceleration.J1211s SurpriseModels of J1211s orbit show it did not originate from the Galactic center (black dot). The solar symbol shows the position of the Sun and the star shows the current position of J1211. The bottom two panels show two depictions(x-y plane and r-z plane) of estimated orbits of J1211 over the past 10 Gyr. [Nmeth et al. 2016]To this end, a team of scientists led by Pter Nmeth (Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen-Nrnberg) recently studied the candidate halo hyper-velocity star SDSS J121150.27+143716.2. The scientists obtained spectroscopy of J1211 using spectrographs at the Keck Telescope in Hawaii and ESOs Very Large Telescope in Chile. To their surprise, they discovered the signature of a companion in the spectra: J1211 is actually a binary!Nmeth and collaborators found that J1211, located roughly 18,000 light-years away, is moving at a rapid ~570 km/s relative to the galactic rest frame. The binary system consists of a hot (30,600 K) subdwarf and a

  13. Coupled Quintessence and the Halo Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrant, Ewan R M; Copeland, Edmund J; Green, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    A sufficiently light scalar field slowly evolving in a potential can account for the dark energy that presently dominates the universe. This quintessence field is expected to couple directly to matter components, unless some symmetry of a more fundamental theory protects or suppresses it. Such a coupling would leave distinctive signatures in the background expansion history of the universe and on cosmic structure formation, particularly at galaxy cluster scales. Using semi--analytic expressions for the CDM halo mass function, we make predictions for halo abundance in models where the quintessence scalar field is coupled to cold dark matter, for a variety of quintessence potentials. We evaluate the linearly extrapolated density contrast at the redshift of collapse using the spherical collapse model and we compare this result to the corresponding prediction obtained from the non--linear perturbation equations in the Newtonian limit. For all the models considered in this work, if there is a continuous flow of en...

  14. ODONTOID FRACTURES TREATED WITH HALO-JACKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Komadina

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontoid fractures remains controversial. Methods. Late results of 10 patients treated with Halo-jacket from 1995–97 are presented. The displacement bigger than 6 mm was reduced under image intensifier and stabilized by Halo-jacket for 8–12 weeks.Results. After one year the fracture was rentgenologically consolidated in 8 patients, in all of 10 without neurological deficit, in 4 with reduced range of motion, in 6 without subjective consequences, in 3 painful motion and in 4 cervical stiffness was reported.Conclusions. The authors recommend semioperative method for treatment of majority of odontoid fractures displaced 6 mm and more, open reduction and internal fixation is necessary in selected cases. Neurological deficit crucially influences the way of treatment.

  15. Halo mass distribution reconstruction across the cosmic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Tao, Charling

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between halo mass and its environment from a probabilistic perspective. We find that halo mass depends not only on local dark matter density, but also on non-local quantities such as the cosmic web environment and the halo-exclusion effect. Given these accurate relations, we have developed the HADRON-code (Halo mAss Distribution ReconstructiON), a technique which permits us to assign halo masses to a distribution of haloes in three-dimensional space. This can be applied to the fast production of mock galaxy catalogues, by assigning halo masses, and reproducing accurately the bias for different mass cuts. The resulting clustering of the halo populations agree well with that drawn from the BigMultiDark $N$-body simulation: the power spectra are within 1-$\\sigma$ up to scales of $k=0.2\\,h\\,{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, when using augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory based mock catalogues. Only the most massive haloes show a larger deviation. For these, we find evidence of the halo-exclusion effect. ...

  16. Controlling halo-chaos via wavelet-based feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo-chaos in high-current accelerator has become one of the key issues because it can cause excessive radioactivity from the accelerators and significantly limits the applications of the new accelerators in industrial and other fields. Some general engineering methods for chaos control have been developed, but they generally are unsuccessful for halo-chaos suppression due to many technical constraints. In this article, controllability condition for beam halo-chaos is analyzed qualitatively. Then Particles-in-Cell (PIC simulations explore the nature of beam halo-chaos formation. A nonlinear control method and wavelet function feedback controller are proposed for controlling beam halo-chaos. After control of beam halo-chaos for initial proton beam with water bag distributions, the beam halo strength factor H is reduced to zero, and other statistical physical quantities of beam halo-chaos are doubly reduced. The results show that the developed methods in this paper are very effective for proton beam halo-chaos suppression. Potential application of the halo-chaos control method is finally pointed out.

  17. Polytropic dark haloes of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Curtis J.; Ferreras, Ignacio

    2010-06-01

    The kinematics of stars and planetary nebulae in early-type galaxies provide vital clues to the enigmatic physics of their dark matter haloes. We fit published data for 14 such galaxies using a spherical, self-gravitating model with two components: (i) a Sérsic stellar profile fixed according to photometric parameters, and (ii) a polytropic dark matter halo that conforms consistently to the shared gravitational potential. The polytropic equation of state can describe extended theories of dark matter involving self-interaction, non-extensive thermostatistics or boson condensation (in a classical limit). In such models, the flat-cored mass profiles widely observed in disc galaxies are due to innate dark physics, regardless of any baryonic agitation. One of the natural parameters of this scenario is the number of effective thermal degrees of freedom of dark matter (Fd) which is proportional to the dark heat capacity. By default, we assume a cosmic ratio of baryonic and dark mass. Non-Sérsic kinematic ideosyncrasies and possible non-sphericity thwart fitting in some cases. In all 14 galaxies, the fit with a polytropic dark halo improves or at least gives similar fits to the velocity dispersion profile, compared to a stars-only model. The good halo fits usually prefer Fd values from six to eight. This range complements the recently inferred limit of 7 < Fd < 10, derived from constraints on galaxy cluster core radii and black hole masses. However, a degeneracy remains: radial orbital anisotropy or a depleted dark mass fraction could shift our models' preference towards lower Fd; whereas a loss of baryons would favour higher Fd.

  18. The Halo B2B Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynski, Mark; Derocher, Mike; Mitchell, April Slayden

    Research underway at Hewlett-Packard on remote communication resulted in the identification of three important components typically missing in existing systems. These missing components are: group nonverbal communication capabilities, high-resolution interactive data capabilities, and global services. Here we discuss some of the design elements in these three areas as part of the Halo program at HP, a remote communication system shown to be effective to end-users.

  19. Probing halo molecules with nonresonant light

    CERN Document Server

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    We show that halo molecules can be probed by "shaking" in a pulsed nonresonant laser field. The field introduces a centrifugal term which expels the highest vibrational level from the potential that binds it. Our numerical simulations as well as an analytic model applied to the Rb$_2$ and KRb Feshbach molecules indicate that shaking by feasible laser pulses can be used to accurately recover the square of the vibrational wavefunction and, by inversion, also the molecular potential.

  20. On the age of field halo stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofré P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of stellar ages for a sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS is presented. The results are consolidated with a set of globular clusters (GCs and show that this stellar sample is composed by one dominant population of 10–12 Gyr. This supports the Eggen's scenario, which claims that the inner halo of the Milky Way formed rapidly, probably during the collapse of the proto-Galactic cloud.

  1. The Vertical Structure of the Halo Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, T. D.; Bragaglia, A.; Cacciari, C.; Buzzoni, A.; Spagna, A.

    New GSC-II proper motions and radial velocities of RR Lyrae and Blue Horizontal Branch stars near the North Galactic Pole are used to show that the Galactic Halo 5 kpc above the Plane has a significantly retrograde galactic rotation. Streaming motions cannot be excluded. Based on observations collected at the Kitt Peak and TNG Observatories. Funded by MIUR-Cofin 2001 (PI: Gratton).

  2. Stellar Spirals in Triaxial Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoran; Sijacki, Debora

    2017-03-01

    Two-armed grand-design spirals may form if the shape of its dark matter halo changes abruptly enough. The feasibility of such a mechanism is tested in realistic simulations. The interplay of such externally-driven spirals and self-induced transient spirals is then studied. Subhaloes are also found to lead to transient grand-design spiral structures when they impact the disk.

  3. The Blackhole-Dark Matter Halo Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Sabra, Bassem M; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive blackholes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well{}-established SMBH mass{}-bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using...

  4. Halo Star Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Kepley, Amanda A; Helmi, Amina; Kinman, T D; Van Duyne, Jeffrey; Martin, John C; Harding, Paul; Norris, John E; Freeman, Kenneth C

    2007-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of halo stars in the solar neighborhood to look for halo substructure in velocity and angular momentum space. Our sample includes red giants, RR Lyrae, and red horizontal branch stars within 2.5 kpc of the Sun with [Fe/H] less than -1.0. It was chosen to include stars with accurate distances, space velocities, and metallicities as well as well-quantified errors. We confirm the existence of the streams found by Helmi and coworkers, which we refer to as the H99 streams. These streams have a double-peaked velocity distribution in the z direction. We use the results of modeling of the H99 streams by Helmi and collaborators to test how one might use v_z velocity information and radial velocity information to detect kinematic substructure in the halo. We find that detecting the H99 streams with radial velocities alone would require a large sample. We use the velocity distribution of the H99 streams to estimate their age. From our model of the progenitor of the H99 streams, we determine th...

  5. Halo Occupation Distribution of Infrared Selected Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kaustav

    2016-01-01

    We perform a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars that are observed in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) telescope with counter-parts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release (DR)-8 quasar catalog at a median redshift of $z\\sim 1.04 (\\pm 0.58)$. Using a four parameter HOD model we derive the host mass scales of WISE selected quasars. Our results show that the median halo masses of central and satellite quasars lie in the range $M_{\\mathrm{cen}} = (5 \\pm 1.0) \\times 10^{12} M_{\\odot}$ and $M_{\\mathrm{sat}} = 8 (^{+7.8} _{-4.8}) \\times 10^{13} M_{\\odot}$, respectively. The derived satellite fraction is $f_{\\mathrm{sat}}= 5.5 (^{+35} _{-5.0})\\times 10^{-3}$. Previously Richardson et al.\\ used the SDSS DR7 quasar clustering data to obtain the halo mass distributions of $z\\sim 1.4$ quasars. Our results on the HOD of central quasars are in excellent agreement with Richardson et al.\\ but the host mass scale of satellite ...

  6. Scaling limit analysis of Borromean halos

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, L A; Frederico, T; Yamashita, M T; Tomio, L

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the core recoil momentum distribution of neutron-rich isotopes of light exotic nuclei is performed within a model of the halo nuclei described by a core and two neutrons dominated by the $s-$wave channel. We adopt the renormalized three-body model with a zero-range force, that accounts for the universal Efimov physics. This model is applicable to nuclei with large two-neutron halos compared to the core size, and a neutron-core scattering length larger than the interaction range. The halo wave function in momentum space is obtained by using as inputs the two-neutron separation energy and the energies of the singlet neutron-neutron and neutron-core virtual states. Within our model, we obtain the momentum probability densities for the Borromean exotic nuclei Lithium-11 ($^{11}$Li), Berylium-14 ($^{14}$Be) and Carbon-22 ($^{22}$C). A fair reproduction of the experimental data was obtained in the case of the core recoil momentum distribution of $^{11}$Li and $^{14}$Be, without free parameters. By e...

  7. Scaling Limit Analysis of Borromean Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L. A.; Bellotti, F. F.; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of the core recoil momentum distribution of neutron-rich isotopes of light exotic nuclei is performed within a model of halo nuclei described by a core and two neutrons dominated by the s-wave channel. We adopt the renormalized three-body model with a zero-range force, which accounts for the Efimov physics. This model is applicable to nuclei with large two-neutron halos compared to the core size, and a neutron-core scattering length larger than the interaction range. The halo wave function in momentum space is obtained by using as inputs the two-neutron separation energy and the energies of the singlet neutron-neutron and neutron-core virtual states. Within our model, we obtain the momentum probability densities for the Borromean exotic nuclei Lithium-11 (^{11}Li), Berylium-14 (^{14}Be) and Carbon-22 (^{22}C). A fair reproduction of the experimental data was obtained in the case of the core recoil momentum distribution of ^{11}Li and ^{14}Be, without free parameters. By extending the model to ^{22}C, the combined analysis of the core momentum distribution and matter radius suggest (i) a ^{21}C virtual state well below 1 MeV; (ii) an overestimation of the extracted matter ^{22}C radius; and (iii) a two-neutron separation energy between 100 and 400 keV.

  8. Dissecting Halo Components in IFU Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merrifield

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While most astronomers are now familiar with tools to decompose images into multiple components such as disks, bulges, and halos, the equivalent techniques for spectral data cubes are still in their infancy. This is unfortunate, as integral field unit (IFU spectral surveys are now producing a mass of data in this format, which we are ill-prepared to analyze effectively. We have therefore been developing new tools to separate out components using this full spectral data. The results of such analyses will prove invaluable in determining not only whether such decompositions have an astrophysical significance, but, where they do, also in determining the relationship between the various elements of a galaxy. Application to a pilot study of IFU data from the cD galaxy NGC 3311 confirms that the technique can separate the stellar halo from the underlying galaxy in such systems, and indicates that, in this case, the halo is older and more metal poor than the galaxy, consistent with it forming from the cannibalism of smaller satellite galaxies. The success of the method bodes well for its application to studying the larger samples of cD galaxies that IFU surveys are currently producing.

  9. Comparing halo bias from abundance and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Kai; Gaztanaga, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We model the abundance of haloes in the $\\sim(3 \\ \\text{Gpc}/h)^3$ volume of the MICE Grand Challenge simulation by fitting the universal mass function with an improved Jack-Knife error covariance estimator that matches theory predictions. We present unifying relations between different fitting models and new predictions for linear ($b_1$) and non-linear ($c_2$ and $c_3$) halo clustering bias. Different mass function fits show strong variations in their overall poor performance when including the low mass range ($M_h \\lesssim 3 \\ 10^{12} \\ M_{\\odot}/h$) in the analysis, which indicates noisy friends-of-friends halo detection given the MICE resolution ($m_p \\simeq 3 \\ 10^{10} \\ M_{\\odot}$/h). Together with fits from the literature we find an overall variance in the amplitudes of around $10%$ in the low mass and up to $50%$ in the high mass (galaxy cluster) range ($M_h > 10^{14} \\ M_{\\odot}/h$). These variations propagate into a $10%$ change in $b_1$ predictions and a $50%$ change in $c_2$ or $c_3$. Despite the...

  10. Gas Condensation in the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Joung, M Ryan; Putman, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamic simulations of vertically stratified hot halo gas, we examine the conditions under which clouds can form and condense out of the hot halo medium to potentially fuel star formation in the gaseous disk. We find that halo clouds do not develop from linear isobaric perturbations. This is a regime where the cooling time is longer than the Brunt-Vaisala time, confirming previous linear analysis. We extend the analysis into the nonlinear regime by considering mildly or strongly nonlinear perturbations with overdensities up to 100, also varying the initial height, the cloud size, and the metallicity of the gas. Here, the result depends on the ratio of cooling time to the time required to accelerate the cloud to the sound speed (similar to the dynamical time). If the ratio exceeds a critical value near unity, the cloud is accelerated without further cooling and gets disrupted by Kelvin-Helmholtz and/or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. If it is less than the critical valu...

  11. r-Process Enhanced Halo Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, J J; Lawler, J E; Den Hartog, E A

    2006-01-01

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of rapid-neutron capture (i.e., r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy -- the progenitors of the halo stars -- responsible for neutron-capture synthesis of the heavy elements. The large star-to-star scatter observed in the abundances of neutron-capture element/iron ratios at low metallicities -- which diminishes with increasing metallicity or [Fe/H] -- suggests the formation of these heavy elements (presumably from certain types of supernovae) was rare in the early Galaxy. The stellar abundances also indicate a change from the r-process to the slow neutron capture (i.e., s-) process at higher metallicities in the Galaxy and provide insight into Galactic chemical evolution. Finally, the detection of thorium and uranium in halo and globular cluster stars offers an independent age-dating technique that can put lower limits on the age of t...

  12. Velocity dispersion profile in dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeft, M; Gottlöber, S

    2004-01-01

    Numerous numerical studies indicate that dark matter halos show an almost universal radial density profile. The origin of the profile is still under debate. We investigate this topic and pay particular attention to the velocity dispersion profile. To this end we have performed high-resolution simulations with two independent codes, ART and {\\sc Gadget}. The radial velocity dispersion can be approximated as function of the potential by $\\sigma_r^2 = a (\\Phi / \\Phi_{\\rm{out}})^\\kappa (\\Phi_{\\rm{out}} - \\Phi)$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm{out}}$ is the outer potential of the halo. For the parameters $a$ and $\\kappa$ we find $a=0.29\\pm0.04$ and $\\kappa=0.41\\pm0.03$. We find that the power-law asymptote $\\sigma^2 \\propto \\Phi^\\kappa$ is valid out to much larger distances from the halo center than any power asymptote for the density profile $\\rho \\propto r^{-n}$. The asymptotic slope $n(r \\to 0)$ of the density profile is related to the exponent $\\kappa$ via $n=2\\kappa/(1+\\kappa)$. Thus the value obtained for $\\kappa$ from th...

  13. Composition of Low Redshift Halo Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2013-01-01

    Halo gas in low-z (z0.1L* galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: (cold, warm, hot) with temperatures equal to (10^6)K, respectively. The warm component is compared, utilizing O VI \\lambda\\lambda 1032, 1038 absorption lines, to observations and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. Having the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions, with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galacto-ce...

  14. The insight into the dark side. I. The pitfalls of the dark halo parameters estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Saburova, Anna; Katkov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the reliability of estimates of pseudoisothermal, Burkert and NFW dark halo parameters for the methods based on the mass-modelling of the rotation curves.To do it we constructed the $\\chi^2$ maps for the grid of the dark matter halo parameters for a sample of 14 disc galaxies with high quality rotation curves from THINGS. We considered two variants of models in which: a) the mass-to-light ratios of disc and bulge were taken as free parameters, b) the mass-to-light ratios were fixed in a narrow range according to the models of stellar populations. To reproduce the possible observational features of the real galaxies we made tests showing that the parameters of the three halo types change critically in the cases of a lack of kinematic data in the central or peripheral areas and for different spatial resolutions. We showed that due to the degeneracy between the central densities and the radial scales of the dark haloes there are considerable uncertainties of their concentrations estimates. Due to thi...

  15. The inner structure of dwarf sized halos in Warm and Cold Dark Matter cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Samaniego, Alejandro; Colin, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    By means of N-body+Hydrodynamics zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses mh=2-3x10^10 Msun at z=0, both in a WDM and CDM cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is Mv= 2x 10^10 Msun. In the dark matter only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the NFW parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors 1.5--2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamical simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope measured at ~ 0.02xRv, alpha, becomes shallow in periods of 2 to 5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global SF, Ms/Mv ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not ...

  16. The Magellanic Stream to Halo Interface: Processes that shape our nearest gaseous Halo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Nigra, Lou; Gallagher, J S; Lockman, Felix J; Nidever, David L; Majewski, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the hydrodynamical processes and conditions at the interface between the Magellanic Stream (MS) and the Galactic halo is critical to understanding the MS and by extension, gaseous tails in other interacting galaxies. These processes operate on relatively small scales and not only help shape this clumpy stream, but also affect the neutral gas dynamics and transfer of mass from the stream to the halo, thus affecting metal enrichment and gas replenishment of the Galaxy. We describe an observational program to place constraints on these processes through high-resolution measurements of HI emission, HI absorption and Halpha emission with unprecedented sensitivity. Methods will include structural analysis, searching for cold gas cores in clumps and analyzing gas kinematics as it transitions to the halo. The latter method includes sophisticated spatial integration techniques to deeply probe the neutral gas, which we apply to a new HI map obtained from the Green Bank Telescope with the highest sensitivi...

  17. Major Mergers Going Notts: Challenges for Modern Halo Finders

    CERN Document Server

    Behroozi, Peter; Pearce, Frazer R; Elahi, Pascal; Han, Jiaxin; Lux, Hanni; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Muldrew, Stuart I; Potter, Doug; Srisawat, Chaichalit

    2015-01-01

    Merging haloes with similar masses (i.e., major mergers) pose significant challenges for halo finders. We compare five halo finding algorithms' (AHF, HBT, Rockstar, SubFind, and VELOCIraptor) recovery of halo properties for both isolated and cosmological major mergers. We find that halo positions and velocities are often robust, but mass biases exist for every technique. The algorithms also show strong disagreement in the prevalence and duration of major mergers, especially at high redshifts (z>1). This raises significant uncertainties for theoretical models that require major mergers for, e.g., galaxy morphology changes, size changes, or black hole growth, as well as for finding Bullet Cluster analogues. All finders not using temporal information also show host halo and subhalo relationship swaps over successive timesteps, requiring careful merger tree construction to avoid problematic mass accretion histories. We suggest that future algorithms should combine phase-space and temporal information to avoid the...

  18. Self-consistent massive disks in triaxial dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bolatto, Alberto D; Gibson, Brad K; Power, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Galactic disks in triaxial dark matter halos become deformed by the elliptical potential in the plane of the disk in such a way as to counteract the halo ellipticity. We develop a technique to calculate the equilibrium configuration of such a disk in the combined disk-halo potential, which is based on the method of Jog (2000) but accounts for the radial variation in both the halo potential and the disk ellipticity. This crucial ingredient results in qualitatively different behavior of the disk: the disk circularizes the potential at small radii, even for a reasonably low disk mass. This effect has important implications for proposals to reconcile cuspy halo density profiles with low surface brightness galaxy rotation curves using halo triaxiality. The disk ellipticities in our models are consistent with observational estimates based on two-dimensional velocity fields and isophotal axis ratios.

  19. On the shoulders of giants: properties of the stellar halo and the Milky Way mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafle, Prajwal Raj; Sharma, Sanjib; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss, E-mail: p.kafle@physics.usyd.edu.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-10-10

    Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components—a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A* proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R {sub ☉} = 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2{sub −1.0}{sup +1.1} kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7{sub −15.8}{sup +15.6} kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with β {sub s} = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass M {sub vir} to be 0.80{sub −0.16}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, concentration c to be 21.1{sub −8.3}{sup +14.8}, disk mass to be 0.95{sub −0.30}{sup +0.24}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}, disk scale length to be 4.9{sub −0.4}{sup +0.4} kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91{sub −0.38}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity v{sub esc}=550.9{sub −22.1}{sup +32.4} km s{sup −1} and

  20. Galaxy disks do not need to survive in the L-CDM paradigm: the galaxy merger rate out to z\\sim1.5 from morpho-kinematic data

    CERN Document Server

    Puech, M; Hopkins, P F; Athanassoula, E; Flores, H; Rodrigues, M; Wang, J L; Yang, Y B

    2012-01-01

    About two-thirds of present-day, large galaxies are spirals such as the Milky Way or Andromeda, but the way their thin rotating disks formed remains uncertain. Observations have revealed that half of their progenitors, six billion years ago, had peculiar morphologies and/or kinematics, which exclude them from the Hubble sequence. Major mergers, i.e., fusions between galaxies of similar mass, are found to be the likeliest driver for such strong peculiarities. However, thin disks are fragile and easily destroyed by such violent collisions, which creates a critical tension between the observed fraction of thin disks and their survival within the L-CDM paradigm. Here we show that the observed high occurrence of mergers amongst their progenitors is only apparent and is resolved when using morpho-kinematic observations which are sensitive to all the phases of the merging process. This provides an original way of narrowing down observational estimates of the galaxy merger rate and leads to a perfect match with predi...

  1. NGC 5907 revisited a stellar halo formed by cannibalism?

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, J; Dantel-Fort, M; Cuillandre, J C; Fort, B; Mellier, Y

    1998-01-01

    We report on further observations of the luminous halo of NGC 5907. New V, I and B deep photometry confirms the existence of an extended stellar halo redder than the disk. Our data are consistent with a faint halo, or very thick disk, composed of a metal-rich old stellar population. We propose that it could be the remnant of a merged small elliptical, and we support our hypothesis with N-body simulations.

  2. The shapes and alignments of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Michael D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808 L-210, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Frenk, Carlos S.; Cole, Shaun, E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov, E-mail: c.s.frenk@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: shaun.cole@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    We present measurements of the triaxial dark matter halo shapes and alignment correlation functions in the Millennium and Millennium-2 dark matter N-body simulations. These two simulations allow us to measure the distributions of halo shapes down to 10% of the virial radius over a halo mass range of 6 × 10{sup 9}–2 × 10{sup 14} h{sup −1}M{sub s}un. We largely confirm previous results on the distributions of halo axis ratios as a function of halo mass, but we find that the median angle between halo major axes at different halo radii can vary by a factor of 2 between the Millennium-1 and 2 simulations because of the different mass resolution. Thus, error in the shape determinations from limited resolution is potentially degenerate with the misalignment of halo inner and outer shapes used to constrain Brightest Cluster Galaxy alignments in previous works. We also present simplifying parameterizations for the 3-D halo-mass alignment correlation functions that are necessary ingredients for triaxial halo models of large-scale structure and models of galaxy intrinsic alignments as contaminants for cosmic shear surveys. We measure strong alignments between halos of all masses and the surrounding dark matter overdensities out to several tens of h{sup −1} Mpc, in agreement with observed shear-galaxy and cluster shape correlations. We use these measurements to forecast the contribution to the weak lensing signal around galaxy clusters from correlated mass along the line-of-sight. For prolate clusters with major axes aligned with the line-of-sight the fraction of the weak lensing signal from mass external to the cluster can be twice that predicted if the excess halo alignment correlation is assumed to be zero.

  3. Spatial and kinematic alignments between central and satellite halos

    OpenAIRE

    Faltenbacher, A.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng; Mao, Shude; Mo, H. J.; Pasquali, Anna; Bosch, Frank C. van den

    2007-01-01

    Based on a cosmological N-body simulation we analyze spatial and kinematic alignments of satellite halos within six times the virial radius of group size host halos (Rvir). We measure three different types of spatial alignment: halo alignment between the orientation of the group central substructure (GCS) and the distribution of its satellites, radial alignment between the orientation of a satellite and the direction towards its GCS, and direct alignment between the orientation of the GCS and...

  4. Interactions Between Massive Dark Halos And Warped Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijken, Konrad

    1996-01-01

    The normal mode theory for warping of galaxy disks, in which disks are assumed to be tilted with respect to the equator of a massive, flattened dark halo, assumes a rigid, fixed halo. However, consideration of the back-reaction by a misaligned disk on a massive particle halo shows there to be strong coupling leading to efficient damping (or in some circumstances excitation) of the misalignment, and hence the warp. We therefore discuss possible alternative explanations of the warp phenomenon, ...

  5. Controlling Beam Halo-chaos Using a Special Nonlinear Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Beam halo-chaos in high-current accelerators has become a key concerned issue because it can cause excessive radioactivity from the accelerators therefore significantly limits their applications in industry,medicine, and national defense. Some general engineering methods for chaos control have been developedin recent years, but they generally are unsuccessful for beam halo-chaos suppression due to manytechnical constraints. Beam halo-chaos is essentially a spatotemporal chaotic motion within a high power

  6. The Tidal Origin of the Environment Dependence of Halo Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Oliver; Dekel, Avishai; Carollo, C Marcella

    2008-01-01

    We uncover the origin of the puzzling anti-correlation between the formation epoch of galactic dark-matter haloes and their environment density. This correlation has been revealed from cosmological N-body simulations and it is in conflict with the simple excursion-set model of halo clustering. Using similar simulations, we first quantify the straightforward association of an early formation epoch with a reduced mass growth rate at late times. We then find that the primary driver of suppressed growth, by accretion or mergers, is tidal effects dominated by a neighbouring massive halo. The tidal effects range from a slowdown of the assembly of haloes due to the shear along the large-scale filaments that feed the massive halo to actual mass loss in haloes that pass through the massive halo. Our results suggest that the dependence of formation epoch on environment density is a secondary effect induced by the enhanced density of haloes in filaments near massive haloes where the tides are strong. Our measures of ass...

  7. N-body Merger Trees and Halo Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Lilian; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S

    2013-01-01

    We present the Dhalo algorithm which analyses a series of cosmological N-body simulation snapshots to define a self-consistent set of dark matter haloes and merger trees describing their evolution. The advantage over the more common FoF haloes is that the Dhalo algorithm maintains as distinct haloes objects that can be prematurely linked into a single FoF group by tenuous bridges of particles or by the onset of the overlap of their outer diffuse haloes. It is important to understand the properties of the haloes defined by this new algorithm to ensure the assumptions made in galform are consistent with the simulation. We generate FoF and Dhalo catalogues for the Millennium Simulation II and compare their properties. About 90% of the Dhaloes have a bijective match with a FoF halo. The remaining 10% are typically secondary components of large FoF haloes. While a significant fraction FoF haloes are split into more than one Dhalo we find that there is little difference in their overall halo mass functions. Compare...

  8. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Charlie

    2008-01-01

    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs -- i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo--galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the n...

  9. Scaling Evolution of Universal Dark-Matter Halo Density Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Raig, A; Salvador-Solé, E

    1998-01-01

    Dark-matter halos show a universal density profile with a scaling such that less massive systems are typically denser. This mass-density relation is well described by a proportionality between the characteristic density of halos and the mean cosmic density at halo formation time. It has recently been shown that this proportionality could be the result of the following simple evolutionary picture. Halos form in major mergers with essentially the same, cosmogony-dependent, dimensionless profile, and then grow inside-outside, as a consequence of accretion. Here we verify the consistency of this picture and show that it predicts the correct zero point of the mass-density relation.

  10. The velocity shear tensor: tracer of halo alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Libeskind, Noam I; Forero-Romero, Jaime; Gottlöber, Stefan; Knebe, Alexander; Steinmetz, Matthias; Klypin, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of DM halos and the surrounding large scale structure (LSS) is examined in the context of the cosmic web. Halo spin, shape and the orbital angular momentum of subhaloes is investigated relative to the LSS using the eigenvectors of the velocity shear tensor evaluated on a grid with a scale of 1 Mpc/h, deep within the non-linear regime. Knots, filaments, sheets and voids are associated with regions that are collapsing along 3, 2, 1 or 0 principal directions simultaneously. Each halo is tagged with a web classification (i.e. knot halo, filament halo, etc) according to the nature of the collapse at the halo's position. The full distribution of shear eigenvalues is found to be substantially different from that tagged to haloes, indicating that the observed velocity shear is significantly biased. We find that larger mass haloes live in regions where the shear is more isotropic, namely the expansion or collapse is more spherical. A correlation is found between the halo's shape and the eigenvectors of t...

  11. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (model of the distinct halo mass function. We also model the subhalo mass function and its relation to the distinct halo mass function. The set of models obtained provides a complete and precise framework for the description of haloes in the concordance Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z occupation distribution using Vmax. The data and the analysis code are made publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  12. Halo and subhalo demographics with Planck cosmological parameters: Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Behroozi, Peter; Primack, Joel; Klypin, Anatoly; Lee, Christoph; Hellinger, Doug

    2016-10-01

    We report and provide fitting functions for the abundance of dark matter haloes and subhaloes as a function of mass, circular velocity, and redshift from the new Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck ΛCDM cosmological simulations, based on the Planck parameters. We also report halo mass accretion rates and concentrations. We show that the higher cosmological matter density of the Planck parameters compared with the WMAP parameters leads to higher abundance of massive haloes at high redshifts. We find that the median halo spin parameter {λ _B}= J(√{2}M_virR_virV_vir)^{-1} is nearly independent of redshift, leading to predicted evolution of galaxy sizes that is consistent with observations, while the significant decrease with redshift in median {λ _P}= J|E|^{-1/2}G^{-1}M^{-5/2} predicts more decrease in galaxy sizes than is observed. Using the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations between galaxy velocity and mass, we show that a simple model of how galaxy velocity is related to halo maximum circular velocity leads to increasing overprediction of cosmic stellar mass density as redshift increases beyond z ˜ 1, implying that such velocity-mass relations must change at z ≳ 1. By making a realistic model of how observed galaxy velocities are related to halo circular velocity, we show that recent optical and radio observations of the abundance of galaxies are in good agreement with our ΛCDM simulations. Our halo demographics are based on updated versions of the ROCKSTAR and CONSISTENT TREES codes, and this paper includes appendices explaining all of their outputs. This paper is an introduction to a series of related papers presenting other analyses of the Bolshoi-Planck and MultiDark-Planck simulations.

  13. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  14. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical... 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made application... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes...

  15. Fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Haibin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems is discussed under ephemeris constraints. According to the structure of an invariant manifold, employing an invariant manifold and planetary gravity assist to save fuel consumption is analyzed from the view of orbital energy. Then, a pseudo-manifold is introduced to replace the invariant manifold in such a way that more transfer opportunities are allowed. Fast escape and capture can be achieved along the pseudo-manifold. Furthermore, a global searching method that is based on patched-models is proposed to find an appropriate transfer trajectory. In this searching method, the trajectory is divided into several segments that can be designed under simple dynamical models, and an analytical algorithm is developed for connecting the segments. Earth–Mars and Earth–Venus halo-to-halo transfers are designed to demonstrate the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the transfers that combine the pseudo-manifolds and planetary gravity assist can offer significant fuel consumption and flight time savings over traditional transfer schemes.

  16. The Tilt of the Halo Velocity Ellipsoid and the Shape of the Milky Way Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M C; An, J

    2009-01-01

    A sample of roughly 1,800 halo subdwarf stars with radial velocities and proper motions is assembled, using the repeated multi-band Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric measurements in Stripe 82. Our sample of halo subdwarfs is extracted via a reduced proper motion diagram and distances are obtained using photometric parallaxes, thus giving full phase space information. The tilt of the velocity ellipsoid with respect to the spherical polar coordinate system is computed and found to be consistent with zero for two of the three tilt angles, and very small for the third. We prove that if the inner halo is in a steady-state and the triaxial velocity ellipsoid is everywhere aligned in spherical polar coordinates, then the potential must be spherically symmetric. The detectable, but very mild, misalignment with spherical polars is consistent with the perturbative effects of the Galactic disk on a spherical dark halo. Banana orbits are generated at the 1:1 resonance (in horizontal and vertical frequency) by the disk...

  17. COMPOSITION OF LOW-REDSHIFT HALO GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Halo gas in low-z (z < 0.5) {>=}0.1 L{sub *} galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: cold, warm, and hot with temperatures of <10{sup 5}, 10{sup 5-6}, and >10{sup 6} K, respectively. Utilizing O VI {lambda}{lambda}1032, 1038 absorption lines, the warm component is compared to observations, and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of the O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies, and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating, and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities, and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. With the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galactocentric radius r = (30, 150) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies. Second, at r > (30, 200) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies the hot component becomes the majority. Third, the warm component is a perpetual minority, with its contribution peaking at {approx}30% at r = 100-300 kpc in blue galaxies and never exceeding 5% in red galaxies. The significant amount of cold gas in low-z early-type galaxies, which was found in simulations and in agreement with recent observations (Thom et al.), is intriguing, as is the dominance of hot gas at large radii in blue galaxies.

  18. Composition of Low-redshift Halo Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue

    2013-06-01

    Halo gas in low-z (z =0.1 L * galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: cold, warm, and hot with temperatures of 106 K, respectively. Utilizing O VI λλ1032, 1038 absorption lines, the warm component is compared to observations, and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of the O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies, and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating, and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities, and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. With the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galactocentric radius r = (30, 150) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies. Second, at r > (30, 200) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies the hot component becomes the majority. Third, the warm component is a perpetual minority, with its contribution peaking at ~30% at r = 100-300 kpc in blue galaxies and never exceeding 5% in red galaxies. The significant amount of cold gas in low-z early-type galaxies, which was found in simulations and in agreement with recent observations (Thom et al.), is intriguing, as is the dominance of hot gas at large radii in blue galaxies.

  19. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  20. Haloes, molecules and multi-neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M

    2003-01-01

    Away from the equilibrium between protons and neutrons within stable nuclei, many exotic nuclei exist. Most of the known nuclear properties evolve smoothly with exoticism, but some extreme proton-neutron combinations have revealed during the last decade completely new concepts. They will be illustrated through three examples: the extended and dilute halo formed by very weakly bound neutrons, the molecular-like neutron orbitals found in nuclei exhibiting a clustering, and the recently revived debate on the possible existence of neutral nuclei. The different experimental results will be reviewed, and we will see how several properties of these new phenomena can be well understood within relatively simple theoretical approaches. (author)

  1. Analytical estimation of ATF beam halo distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dou; Philip, Bambade; Kaoru, Yokoya; Gao, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the backgrounds in the ATF2 beam line and the interaction point (IP), this paper has developed an analytical method to give an estimation of the ATF beam halo distribution based on K. Hirata and K. Yokoya's theory. The equilibrium particle distribution of the beam tail in the ATF damping ring is presented, with each electron affected by several stochastic processes such as beam-gas scattering, beam-gas bremsstrahlung and intra-beam scattering, in addition to the synchrotron radiation damping effects. This is a general method which can also be applied to other electron rings.

  2. Analytical estimation of ATF beam halo distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dou; Yokoya, Kaoru; Gao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the background status in the ATF2 beam line and the interaction point (IP), this paper developed an analytical method to give the estimation of ATF beam halo distribution based on K. Hirata and K. Yokoya's theory. The equilibrium particle distribution of beam tail in ATF damping ring, when each electron is being affected by, in addition to the synchrotron radiation damping effects, several stochastic processes, such as beam-gas scattring, beam-gas bremsstrahlung and intra-beam scattering, was presented. This method is common and can be applied on other electron rings.

  3. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  4. Rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular hydroarylation of 1-halo-1-alkynes: regioselective synthesis of semihydrogenated aromatic heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Hirohiko; Senda, Kousuke; Senoo, Masato; Hata, Takeshi; Urabe, Hirokazu

    2014-01-03

    The regioselective intramolecular hydroarylation of (3-halo-2-propynyl)anilines, (3-halo-2-propynyl) aryl ethers, or (4-halo-3-butynyl) aryl ethers was efficiently catalyzed by Rh2(OCOCF3)4 to give semihydrogenated aromatic heterocycles, such as 4-halo-1,2-dihydroquinolines, 4-halo-3-chromenes, or 4-(halomethylene)chromans, in good to excellent yields. Some synthetic applications taking advantage of the halo-substituents of the products are also illustrated.

  5. A Remark on Using Gravitational Lensing Probability as a Probe of the Central Regions of CDM Halos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the gravitational lensing probabilities by cold dark matter (CDM) halos with different density profiles, and compare them with current observations from the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS) and the Jodrell-Bank VLAAstrometric Survey (JVAS). We find that the lensing probability is dramatically sensitive to the clumping of the dark matter, or quantitatively, the concentration parameter. We also find that our predicted lensing probabilities in most cases show inconsistency with the observations. It is argued that high lensing probability may not be an effective tool for probing the statistical properties of inner structures of dark matter halos.

  6. Large Geomagnetic Storms Associated with Limb Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Xie, Hong; Akiyama, Sachiko; Makela, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    Solar cycle 23 witnessed the observation of hundreds of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs), thanks to the high dynamic range and extended field of view of the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. More than two thirds of halo CMEs originating on the front side of the Sun have been found to be geoeffective (Dst = 45deg) have a 20% shorter delay time on the average. It was suggested that the geomagnetic storms due to limb halos must be due to the sheath portion of the interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) so that the shorter delay time can be accounted for. We confirm this suggestion by examining the sheath and ejecta portions of ICMEs from Wind and ACE data that correspond to the limb halos. Detailed examination showed that three pairs of limb halos were interacting events. Geomagnetic storms following five limb halos were actually produced by other disk halos. The storms followed by four isolated limb halos and the ones associated with interact...

  7. The diversity and similarity of simulated cold dark matter haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, Julio F.; Ludlow, Aaron; Springel, Volker; Wang, Jie; Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2010-01-01

    We study the mass, velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles of Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) haloes using a suite of N-body simulations of unprecedented numerical resolution. The Aquarius Project follows the formation of six different galaxy-sized haloes simulated several times at varying

  8. The diversity and similarity of simulated cold dark matter haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, Julio F.; Ludlow, Aaron; Springel, Volker; Wang, Jie; Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2010-01-01

    We study the mass, velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) haloes using a suite of N-body simulations of unprecedented numerical resolution. The Aquarius Project follows the formation of six different galaxy-sized haloes simulated several times at varying numerical r

  9. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  10. Encounters between spherical galaxies - II. Systems with a dark halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS

    2005-01-01

    We perform N-body simulations of encounters between spherical systems surrounded by a spherical halo. Following a preceding paper with a similar aim, the initial systems include a spherical Jaffe model for the luminous matter and a Hernquist model for the halo. The merger remnants from this sample a

  11. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    van Oirschot, Pim; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G A; Helmi, Amina; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~ 3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference w...

  12. Controlling Beam Halo-Chaos via Time-Delayed Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin-Qing; WENG Jia-Qiang; ZHU Lun-Wu; LUO Xiao-Shu

    2004-01-01

    The study of controlling high-current proton beam halo-chaos has become a key concerned issue for many important applications. In this paper, time-delayed feedback control method is proposed for beam halo-chaos. Particle in cell simulation results show that the method is very effective and has some advantages for high-current beam experiments and engineering.

  13. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  14. SECULAR DAMPING OF STELLAR BARS IN SPINNING DARK MATTER HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Stacy; Shlosman, Isaac [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Heller, Clayton [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of isolated galaxies that growth of stellar bars in spinning dark matter halos is heavily suppressed in the secular phase of evolution. In a representative set of models, we show that for values of the cosmological spin parameter λ ≳ 0.03, bar growth (in strength and size) becomes increasingly quenched. Furthermore, the slowdown of the bar pattern speed weakens considerably with increasing λ until it ceases completely. The terminal structure of the bars is affected as well, including extent and shape of their boxy/peanut bulges. The essence of this effect lies in the modified angular momentum exchange between the disk and the halo facilitated by the bar. For the first time we have demonstrated that a dark matter halo can emit and not purely absorb angular momentum. Although the halo as a whole is not found to emit, the net transfer of angular momentum from the disk to the halo is significantly reduced or completely eliminated. The paradigm shift implies that the accepted view that disks serve as sources of angular momentum and halos serve as sinks must be revised. Halos with λ ≳ 0.03 are expected to form a substantial fraction, based on the lognormal distribution of λ. The dependence of secular bar evolution on halo spin, therefore, implies profound corollaries for the cosmological evolution of galactic disks.

  15. Is the dark halo of our Galaxy spherical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A

    2004-01-01

    It has been recently claimed that the confined structure of the debris from the Sagittarius dwarf implies that the dark matter halo of our Galaxy should be nearly spherical, in strong contrast with predictions from cold dark matter simulations, where dark haloes are found to have typical density axi

  16. Depth-Dependent Halos : Illustrative Rendering of Dense Line Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten H.; Bekker, Henk; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for the illustrative rendering of 3D line data at interactive frame rates. We create depth-dependent halos around lines to emphasize tight line bundles while less structured lines are de-emphasized. Moreover, the depth-dependent halos combined with depth cueing via line width

  17. Beam halo definitions based upon moments of the particle distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Allen

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different parameters for the quantitative description of beam halo are discussed. Both are based on moments of the particle distribution and represent a convenient and model-independent method for quantifying the magnitude of beam halo observed in either spatial or phase-space projections. One parameter is a measure of spatial profile of the beam and has been defined by Wangler and Crandall previously. The current authors defined a new parameter using kinematic invariants to quantify halo formation in 2D phase space. Here we expand the development and present detailed numerical results. Although the spatial-profile parameter and the phase-space halo parameter both reduce to the same value when the distribution has the elliptical symmetry, in general these parameters are not equal. Halo in the 1D spatial profiles is relatively easily measured, but is variable as the beam distribution evolves and can hide as it rotates in phase space. The 2D phase-space halo is more difficult to measure, but it varies more smoothly as the halo evolves. It provides a more reliable characterization of the halo as an intrinsic property of the beam.

  18. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolut

  19. One Neutron Halo in a 12B Excited State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宝秋; 马中玉

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with a new effective interaction NL3 has been used to inves tigate the bulk properties of the 12B nucleus. The results obtained in the RMF predict one neutron halo in a 12Bexcited state. 12B does not show the neutron halo structure if it is in its ground state.

  20. MOND predictions of 'halo' phenomenology in disc galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milgrom, M; Sanders, RH

    2005-01-01

    We examine two corollaries of MOND pertaining to properties of the equivalent dark matter halo. MOND predicts for pure exponential discs a tight relation involving the halo and disc scalelengths and the mean acceleration in the disc, which we find to test favourably against the Verheijen sample of

  1. Lyman-Werner UV escape fractions from primordial haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Anna T. P.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2015-12-01

    Population III (Pop III) stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby haloes, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own haloes, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H2 in other haloes, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic haloes by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9-120 M⊙ Pop III stars in 105-107 M⊙ haloes with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H2 in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0 to 85 per cent. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18-13.6 eV energy range, which can be redshifted into the LW lines at cosmological distances, are generally much higher, being above 60 per cent for all but the least massive stars in the most massive haloes. We find that shielding of H2 by neutral hydrogen, which has been neglected in most studies to date, produces escape fractions that are up to a factor of 3 smaller than those predicted by H2 self-shielding alone.

  2. How well do cosmological simulations reproduce individual-halo properties?

    CERN Document Server

    Trenti, M; Hallman, E J; Skillman, S W; Shull, J M

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation often rely on prescriptions for star formation and feedback that depend on halo properties such as halo mass, central over-density, and virial temperature. In this paper we address the convergence of individual halo properties, based on their number of particles N, focusing in particular on the mass of halos near the resolution limit of a simulation. While it has been established that the halo mass function is sampled on average down to N~30 particles, we show that individual halo properties exhibit significant scatter, and some systematic biases, as one approaches the resolution limit. We carry out a series of cosmological simulations using the Gadget2 and Enzo codes with N_p=64^3 to N_p=1024^3 total particles, keeping the same large-scale structure in the simulation box. We consider boxes from l_{box} = 8 Mpc/h to l_{box} = 512 Mpc/h to probe different halo masses and formation redshifts. We cross-identify dark matter halos in boxes at different resolutions and m...

  3. Red Galaxy Growth and the Halo Occupation Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T; Benson, Andrew J; Brand, Kate; Brodwin, Mark; Croton, Darren J

    2008-01-01

    We have traced the past 7 Gyr of red galaxy stellar mass growth within dark matter halos. We have determined the halo occupation distribution, which describes how galaxies reside within dark matter halos, using the observed luminosity function and clustering of 40,696 0.2halos host a red central galaxy, and this fraction increases with increasing halo mass. We do not observe any evolution of the relationship between red galaxy stellar mass and host halo mass, although we expect both galaxy stellar masses and halo masses to evolve over cosmic time. We find that the stellar mass contained within the red population has doubled since z=1, with the stellar mass within red satellite galaxies tripling over this redshift range. In cluster mass halos most of the stellar mass resides within satellite galaxies and the intra-cluster light, with a minority of the stellar mass residing within central galaxies. The stellar masses of the most luminous red central ...

  4. Revisiting scaling relations for giant radio halos in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cassano, R; Brunetti, G; Giacintucci, S; Pratt, G W; Venturi, T; Kale, R; Dolag, K; Markevitch, M

    2013-01-01

    Many galaxy clusters host Megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck SZ catalog, to revisit the correlations between the power of halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power of halos at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1--2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R_500 as P_1.4 L_500^2.0. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L_500 > 5x10^44 erg/s) clusters branch into two populations --- radio halos lie on the correlation,...

  5. Polytropic dark halos of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saxton, Curtis J

    2010-01-01

    The kinematics of stars and planetary nebulae in early type galaxies provide vital clues to the enigmatic physics of their dark matter halos. We fit published data for fourteen such galaxies using a spherical, self-gravitating model with two components: (1) a Sersic stellar profile fixed according to photometric parameters, and (2) a polytropic dark matter halo that conforms consistently to the shared gravitational potential. The polytropic equation of state can describe extended theories of dark matter involving self-interaction, non-extensive thermostatistics, or boson condensation (in a classical limit). In such models, the flat-cored mass profiles widely observed in disc galaxies are due to innate dark physics, regardless of any baryonic agitation. One of the natural parameters of this scenario is the number of effective thermal degrees of freedom of dark matter (F_d) which is proportional to the dark heat capacity. By default we assume a cosmic ratio of baryonic and dark mass. Non-Sersic kinematic ideosy...

  6. Testing Inflation with Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    LoVerde, Marilena; Smith, Kendrick M

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic inflation provides a mechanism for generating the early density perturbations that seeded the large-scale structures we see today. Primordial non-Gaussianity is among the most promising of few observational tests of physics at this epoch. At present non-Gaussianity is best constrained by the cosmic microwave background, but in the near term large-scale structure data may be competitive so long as the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity can be modeled through the non-linear process of structure formation. We discuss recent work modeling effects of a few types of primordial non-Gaussianity on the large-scale halo clustering and the halo mass function. More specifically, we compare analytic and N-body results for two variants of the curvaton model of inflation: (i) a "tauNL" scenario in which the curvaton and inflaton contribute equally to the primordial curvature perturbation and (ii) a "gNL" model where the usual quadratic fNL term in the potential cancels, but a large cubic term remains.

  7. Spheroidal galactic halos and mirror dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R

    2004-01-01

    Mirror matter has been proposed as a dark matter candidate. It has several very attractive features, including automatic stability and darkness, the ability to mimic the broad features of cold dark matter while in the linear density perturbation regime, and consistency with all direct dark matter search experiments, both negative (e.g. CDMS II) and positive (DAMA). In this paper we consider an important unsolved problem: Are there plausible reasons to explain why most of the mirror matter in spiral galaxies exists in the form of gaseous {\\it spheroidal} galactic halos around ordinary matter {\\it disks}? We compute an order-of-magnitude estimate that the mirror photon luminosity of a typical spiral galaxy today is around $10^{44}$ erg/s. Interestingly, this rate of energy loss is similar to the power supplied by ordinary supernova explosions. We discuss circumstances under which supernova power can be used to heat the gaseous part of the mirror matter halo and hence prevent its collapse to a disk. The {\\it mac...

  8. Alternative techniques for beam halo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, CP; Burel, B; Lefèvre, T; Chapman, T; Pilon, MJ

    2006-01-01

    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized, as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Measurements based on optical transition radiation (OTR) are a well-established technique for measurements of the transverse beam profile. However, in order to be suitable for halo measurements as well, the dynamic range of the final image acquisition system needs to be high, being able to cover at least five orders of magnitude in intensity changes. Here, the performance of a standard acquisition system as it is used in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is compared to a step-by-step measurement with a small movable photo multiplier tube and an innovative camera system based on charge injection de...

  9. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. Here, I present the detector...

  10. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly Marie

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  11. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  12. Efimov effect in 2-neutron halo nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Mazumdar

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of our theoretical investigations in search of Efimov states in light 2-neutron halo nuclei. The calculations have been carried out within a three-body formalism, assuming a compact core and two valence neutrons forming the halo. The calculations provide strong evidence for the occurrence of at least two Efimov states in 20C nucleus. These excited states move into the continuum as the two-body (core-neutron) binding energy is increased and show up as asymmetric resonances in the elastic scattering cross-section of the n- 19C system. The Fano mechanism is invoked to explain the asymmetry. The calculations have been extended to 38Mg, 32Ne and a hypothetical case of a very heavy core ( = 100) with two valence neutrons. In all these cases the Efimov states show up as resonances as the two-body energy is increased. However, in sharp contrast, the Efimov states, for a system of three equal masses, show up as virtual states beyond a certain value of the two-body interaction.

  13. Constraining the halo mass function with observations

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Tiago; Quartin, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The abundances of matter halos in the universe are described by the so-called halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behavior through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of type Ia supernovae. Our results show that DES is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints, while both Euclid and J-PAS can give constraints on the HMF parameters which are comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even mo...

  14. Constraining the halo mass function with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Tiago; Marra, Valerio; Quartin, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The abundances of dark matter haloes in the universe are described by the halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behaviour through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper, we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of Type Ia supernovae. Our results show that Dark Energy Survey is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints on the HMF, while both Euclid and J-PAS (Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey) can give stronger constraints, comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even more important for measuring the HMF than for constraining the cosmological parameters, and can vastly improve the determination of the HMF. Measuring the HMF could thus be used to cross-check simulations and their implementation of baryon physics. It could even, if deviations cannot be accounted for, hint at new physics.

  15. Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2016-08-01

    In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.

  16. Simulating the carbon footprint of galactic haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Suresh, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-10-01

    We compare simulations, including the Illustris simulations, to observations of C IV and C II absorption at z = 2-4. These are the C IV column density distribution function in the column density range 1012-1015 cm-2, the C IV equivalent width distribution at 0.1-2 Å, and the covering fractions and equivalent widths of C IV1548 Å and C II 1337 Å around damped Lyman α systems (DLAs). In the context of the feedback models that we investigate, all C IV observations favour the use of more energetic wind models, which are better able to enrich the gas surrounding haloes. We propose two ways to achieve this: an increased wind velocity and an increase in wind thermal energy. However, even our most energetic wind models do not produce enough absorbers with C IV equivalent width >0.6 Å, which in our simulations are associated with the most massive haloes. All simulations are in reasonable agreement with the C II covering fraction and equivalent widths around damped Lyman α absorbers, although there is a moderate deficit in one bin 10-100 kpc from the DLA. Finally, we show that the C IV in our simulations is predominantly photoionized.

  17. Secondary infall and dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Ascasibar, Y; Gottlöber, S

    2006-01-01

    We test the Secondary Infall Model (SIM) by direct comparison with the results of N-body simulations. Eight cluster-size and six galactic-size dark matter haloes have been selected at $z=0$ and re-simulated with high resolution. Based on their density profiles at the initial redshift, we compute their evolution by the SIM, assuming a simple prescription for the angular momentum. A comparison of the density profiles obtained by the SIM and the numerical experiments at $z=5$, 1 and 0 shows that, for most of the haloes at most epochs, the SIM reproduces the simulated mater distribution with a typical fractional deviation of less than 40 per cent over more than six order of magnitudes in the density. It is also found that, within the SIM framework, most of the diversity in the shape of the density profiles at $z=0$ arises from the scatter in the primordial initial conditions rather than the scatter in the angular momentum distribution. A crude optimization shows that a similar degree of agreement is obtained for ...

  18. The Inner Structure of Dwarf-sized Halos in Warm and Cold Dark Matter Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Colín, P.

    2016-03-01

    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses Mv = (2-3) × 1010 h-1 M⊙ at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is Mf = 2 × 1010 h-1 M⊙. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5-2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02Rv, α0.02, becomes shallow in periods of 2-5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), Ms/Mv ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α0.02 is shallower than -0.5, Ms/Mv is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the dwarfs are softened, their stellar half-mass radii strongly grow with time, and their central surface densities

  19. THE INNER STRUCTURE OF DWARF-SIZED HALOS IN WARM AND COLD DARK MATTER COSMOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., México (Mexico); Colín, P. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 72-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacán 58089, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-10

    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses M{sub v} = (2–3) × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is M{sub f} = 2 × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro–Frenk–White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5–2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02R{sub v}, α{sub 0.02}, becomes shallow in periods of 2–5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), M{sub s}/M{sub v} ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α{sub 0.02} is shallower than −0.5, M{sub s}/M{sub v} is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the

  20. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    CERN Document Server

    Arag'on-Calvo, M A; Jones, B J T; Van der Hulst, T; Arag\\'on-Calvo, Miguel A.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2006-01-01

    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The shape orientation is such that the halo minor axes tend to lie perpendicular to the host structure, be it a wall or filament. The orientation of the halo spin vector is mass dependent. Low mass haloes in walls and filaments have a tendency to have their spins oriented within the parent structure, while higher mass haloes in filaments have spins that tend to lie perpendicular to the parent structure.

  1. Reversed halo sign in pneumocystis pneumonia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Kimio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reversed halo sign may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, but is rarely associated with other diseases. Case presentation We present a case study of a 32-year-old male patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who had previously been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A chest X-ray showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. High-resolution computed tomography revealed the reversed halo sign in both upper lobes. The patient was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia, which was successfully treated with sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; the reversed halo sign disappeared, leaving cystic lesions. Cases such as this one are rare, but show that the reversed halo sign may occur in patients who do not have cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Conclusion Physicians can avoid making an incorrect diagnosis and prescribing the wrong treatment by carefully evaluating all clinical criteria rather than assuming that the reversed halo sign only occurs with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia.

  2. Statistics of Dark Matter Halos from the Excursion Set Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lapi, A; Danese, L

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the excursion set approach in integral formulation to derive novel, accurate analytic approximations of the unconditional and conditional first crossing distributions, for random walks with uncorrelated steps and general shapes of the moving barrier; we find the corresponding approximations of the unconditional and conditional halo mass functions for Cold Dark Matter power spectra to represent very well the outcomes of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In addition, we apply these results to derive and confront with simulations other quantities of interest in halo statistics, including the rates of halo formation and creation, the average halo growth history, and the halo bias. Finally, we discuss how our approach and main results change when considering random walks with correlated instead of uncorrelated steps, and Warm instead of Cold Dark Matter power spectra.

  3. Why are Halo Density Profiles Stable at Formation?

    CERN Document Server

    González-Casado, G; Salvador-Solé, E

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the physical justification of the picture proposed by Salvador-Sole et al. in these proceedings for the time evolution of the universal density profile of dark-matter halos. According to this picture, halos have at formation a stable (i.e. independent of mass and time) dimensionless density profile, the characteristic length and density scales of the profile depending on the underlying cosmogony. Subsequent evolution is driven by mass accretion onto the outskirts of halos and can be characterized simply by the increment of halo radius with time and the corresponding decrease of the critical density of the universe. We find this picture to be a reasonable good description of the expected evolution of halos in hierarchical models of structure formation.

  4. Scale Radii and Aggregation Histories of Dark Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Salvador-Solé, E; Solanes, J M; Salvador-Sole, Eduard; Manrique, Alberto; Solanes, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    Relaxed dark-matter haloes are found to exhibit the same universal density profiles regardless of whether they form in hierarchical cosmologies or via spherical collapse. Likewise, the shape parameters of haloes formed hierarchically do not seem to depend on the epoch in which the last major merger took place. Both findings suggest that the density profile of haloes does not depend on their aggregation history. Yet, this possibility is apparently at odds with some correlations involving the scale radius r_s found in numerical simulations. Here we prove that the scale radius of relaxed, non-rotating, spherically symmetric haloes endowed with the universal density profile is determined exclusively by the current values of four independent, though correlated, quantities: mass, energy and their respective instantaneous accretion rates. Under this premise and taking into account the inside-out growth of haloes during the accretion phase between major mergers, we build a simple physical model for the evolution of r...

  5. An improved catalog of halo wide binary candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved catalog of halo wide binaries, compiled from an extensive literature search. Most of our binaries stem from the common proper motion binary catalogs by Allen et al. (2004), and Chanam\\'e \\& Gould. (2004) but we have also included binaries from the lists of Ryan (1992) and Zapatero-Osorio \\& Martin (2004). All binaries were carefully checked and their distances and systemic radial velocities are included, when available. Probable membership to the halo population was tested by means of reduced proper motion diagrams for 251 candidate halo binaries. After eliminating obvious disk binaries we ended up with 211 probable halo binaries, for 150 of which radial velocities are available. We compute galactic orbits for these 150 binaries and calculate the time they spend within the galactic disk. Considering the full sample of 251 candidate halo binaries as well as several subsamples, we find that the distribution of angular separations (or expected major semiaxes) follows a power law $f...

  6. Control of beam halo-chaos by sample function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Long; Zhang Rong; Weng Jia-Qiang; Luo Xiao-Shu; Fang Jin-Qing

    2006-01-01

    The K-V beam through an axisymmetric uniform-focusing channel is studied using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and a sample function controller is proposed based on mechanism of halo formation and strategy of controlling halo-chaos. We perform multiparticle simulation to control the halo by using the sample function controller. The numerical results show that our control method is effective. We also find that the radial ion density changes when the ion beam is in the channel: not only can the halo-chaos and its regeneration be eliminated by using the sample function control method, but also the density uniformity can be found at the beam's centre as long as an appropriate control method is chosen.

  7. Photoevaporation of Satellite Halos by the First Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Daniel; Smidt, Joseph; Norman, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the photoevaporation of cosmological halos clustered around a 120 M$_\\odot$ primordial star, confining our study to structures capable of hosting Population III star formation. The calculations include self-consistent multifrequency conservative transfer of UV photons together with nine-species primordial chemistry and all relevant radiative processes. The ultimate fates of these halos varies with central density and proximity to the central source but generally fall into one of four categories. Diffuse halos with central densities below 2 - 3 cm$^{-3}$ are completely ionized and evaporated by the central star anywhere in the cluster. More evolved halo cores at densities above 2000 cm$^{-3}$ are impervious to both ionizing and Lyman-Werner flux at most distances from the star and collapse of their cores proceeds without delay. Radiative feedback in halos of intermediate density can be either positive or negative, depending on how the I-front remnant shock both compresses an...

  8. Photoionization of Clustered Halos by the First Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Daniel; Smidt, Joseph; Norman, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the photoevaporation of cosmological halos clustered around a 120 M$_\\odot$ primordial star, confining our study to structures capable of hosting Population III star formation. The calculations include self-consistent multifrequency conservative transfer of UV photons together with nine-species primordial chemistry and all relevant radiative processes. The ultimate fates of these halos varies with central density and proximity to the central source but generally fall into one of four categories. Diffuse halos with central densities below 2 - 3 cm$^{-3}$ are completely ionized and evaporated by the central star anywhere in the cluster. More evolved halo cores at densities above 2000 cm$^{-3}$ are impervious to both ionizing and Lyman-Werner flux at most distances from the star and collapse of their cores proceeds without delay. Radiative feedback in halos of intermediate density can be either positive or negative, depending on how the I-front remnant shock both compresses an...

  9. Evolution of dark-matter halos in numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2009-11-01

    The properties of gravitationally bound clouds (halos) of dark matter derived via numerical simulations of the distribution of dark matter in the Universe are investigated. The analysis makes use of a catalog of halos obtained in the European “MareNostrum Universe” project, which has achieved a better balance between resolution and representativeness than catalogs used earlier for similar studies. This has made it possible to refine the main tendencies displayed by the evolution of the halo masses and the angular velocities and density profiles of the halos. The results are compared with the newest available observational data and with known results obtained earlier in numerical simulations with lower resolution and using smaller samples of halos, making it possible to trace the influence of these factors on the results obtained. Disagreements between observations and numerical models obtained in earlier studies are confirmed, and possible ways to explain them discussed.

  10. Can Massive Dark Haloes Destroy the Disks of Dwarf Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B

    2007-01-01

    Recent high-resolution simulations together with theoretical studies of the dynamical evolution of galactic disks have shown that contrary to wide-held beliefs a `live', dynamically responsive, dark halo surrounding a disk does not stabilize the disk against dynamical instabilities. We generalize Toomre's Q stability parameter for a disk-halo system and show that if a disk, which would be otherwise stable, is embedded in a halo, which is too massive and cold, the combined disk-halo system can become locally Jeans unstable. The good news is, on the other hand, that this will not happen in real dark haloes, which are in radial hydrostatic equilibrium. Even very low-mass disks are not prone to such dynamical instabilities.

  11. The Origin of Angular Momentum in Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitska, Maya; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Primack, Joel R.; Bullock, James S.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a new explanation for the origin of angular momentum in galaxies and their dark halos, in which the halos obtain their spin through the cumulative acquisition of angular momentum from satellite accretion. In our model, the buildup of angular momentum is a random walk process associated with the mass assembly history of the halo's major progenitor. We assume no correlation between the angular momenta of accreted objects. The main role of tidal torques in this approach is to produce the random tangential velocities of merging satellites. Using the extended Press-Schechter approximation, we calculate the growth of mass, angular momentum, and spin parameter λ for many halos. Our random walk model reproduces the key features of the angular momentum of halos found in ΛCDM N-body simulations: a lognormal distribution in λ with an average of ~0.045 and dispersion σλ=0.56, independent of mass and redshift. The evolution of the spin parameter in individual halos in this model is quite different from the steady increase with time of angular momentum in the tidal torque picture. We find both in N-body simulations and in our random walk model that the value of λ changes significantly with time for a halo's major progenitor. It typically has a sharp increase due to major mergers and a steady decline during periods of gradual accretion of small satellites. The model predicts that, on average, the λ of ~1012 Msolar halos that had major mergers after redshift z=3 should be substantially larger than the λ of those that did not. Perhaps surprisingly, this suggests that halos that host later forming elliptical galaxies should rotate faster than halos of spiral galaxies.

  12. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference with a bottom-heavy IMF is small. A burst of star formation 13 Gyr ago fits slightly better than a star formation burst 10 Gyr ago and also slightly better than continuous star formation 10-13 Gyr ago. Gaia will be the first instument to constrain the bright end of the field halo WDLF, where contributions from binary WDs are considerable. Many of these will have He cores, of which a handful have atypical surface gravities (log g 0 in our standard model for WD cooling. These so called pre-WDs, if observed, can help us to constrain white dwarf cooling models and might teach us something about the fraction of halo stars that reside in binaries. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Impact of baryon physics on dark matter structures: a detailed simulation study of halo density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Alan R; Kay, Scott T; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Battye, Richard A; Booth, C M

    2010-01-01

    The back-reaction of baryons on the dark matter halo density profile is of great interest, not least because it is an important systematic uncertainty when attempting to detect the dark matter. Here, we draw on a large suite of high resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, to systematically investigate this process and its dependence on the baryonic physics associated with galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryons results in significantly more concentrated density profiles if radiative cooling is efficient and feedback is weak. The dark matter halo concentration can in that case increase by as much as 30 (10) per cent on galaxy (cluster) scales. The most significant effects occur in galaxies at high redshift, where there is a strong anti-correlation between the baryon fraction in the halo centre and the inner slope of both the total and the dark matter density profiles. If feedback is weak, isothermal inner profiles form, in agreement with observations of massive, early-type galaxies. However, we ...

  14. AN IMPROVED CATALOG OF HALO WIDE BINARIES AND LIMITS ON HALO DARK MATTER (MACHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una extensa b ́squeda en la literatura, hemos construido un cat ́logo mejorado de binarias abiertas u a del halo gal ́ctico. La probable pertenencia de nuestras binarias al halo gal ́ctico fue verificada mediante el a a diagrama de movimiento propio reducido para 252 candidatos. Despu ́s de eliminar las estrellas del disco, e subsisten 212 probables binarias del halo, para 150 de las cuales pudimos calcular ́rbitas gal ́cticas y con ello, o a determinar la fracci ́n de sus vidas que pasan en el disco. Estudiamos la distribuci ́n de separaciones angulares o o (o semiejes esperados para la totalidad del cat ́logo, as ́ como para distintas sub-muestras. Encontramos que, a ı en todos los casos, la distribuci ́n se representa bien por una ley de potencias con exponente −1 (distribuci ́n o o de Oepik hasta distintos l ́ ımites para las separaciones angulares o semiejes esperados. Para las 50 binarias que pasan toda su vida en el disco (entre z = ±500 pc el l ́ ımite es de 19000 au, mientras que para el grupo de binarias que pasa s ́lo el 18% de su vida en el disco el l ́ o ımite que encontramos es de 63000 au. Empleamos este cat ́logo a ımites superiores a las masas de los perturbadores masivos del halo (MACHOs. Tomando en para encontrar l ́ cuenta los efectos din ́micos del disco gal ́ctico, as ́ como la densidad no uniforme del halo, encontramos una a a ı cota superior de 13 M⊙ para la masa de los MACHOs. Esta cota, junto con las cotas inferiores encontradas en otros estudios, pr ́cticamente excluye la existencia de MACHOs en el halo gal ́ctico.

  15. Turbulence and Particle Acceleration in Giant Radio Halos: the Origin of Seed Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pinzke, Anders; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    About 1/3 of X-ray-luminous clusters show smooth, unpolarized radio emission on ~Mpc scales, known as giant radio halos. One promising model for radio halos is Fermi-II acceleration of seed relativistic electrons by turbulence of the intracluster medium (ICM); Coulomb losses prohibit acceleration from the thermal pool. However, the origin of seed electrons has never been fully explored. Here, we integrate the Fokker-Planck equation of the cosmic ray (CR) electron and proton distributions in a cosmological simulations of cluster formation. For standard assumptions, structure formation shocks lead to a seed electron population which produces too centrally concentrated radio emission. Instead, we present three realistic scenarios that each can reproduce the spatially flat radio emission observed in the Coma cluster: (1) the ratio of injected turbulent energy density to thermal energy density increase significantly with radius, as seen in cosmological simulations. This generates a flat radio profile even if the s...

  16. Turbulence and Particle Acceleration in Giant Radio Haloes: the Origin of Seed Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pinzke, Anders; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    About 1/3 of X-ray-luminous clusters show smooth, Mpc-scale radio emission, known as giant radio haloes. One promising model for radio haloes is Fermi-II acceleration of seed relativistic electrons by compressible turbulence. The origin of these seed electrons has never been fully explored. Here, we integrate the Fokker-Planck equation of the cosmic ray (CR) electron and proton distributions when post-processing cosmological simulations of cluster formation, and confront them with radio surface brightness and spectral data of Coma. For standard assumptions, structure formation shocks lead to a seed electron population which produces too centrally concentrated radio emission. Matching observations requires modifying properties of the CR population (rapid streaming; enhanced CR electron acceleration at shocks) or turbulence (increasing turbulent-to-thermal energy density with radius), but at the expense of fine-tuning. In a parameter study, we find that radio properties are exponentially sensitive to the amplit...

  17. New analytical threshold voltage model for halo-doped cylindrical surrounding-gate MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Cong; Zhuang Yiqi; Han Ru, E-mail: cong.li@mail.xidan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Using an exact solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation in cylindrical coordinates, a new analytical model comprising electrostatic potential, electric field, threshold voltage and subthreshold current for halo-doped surrounding-gate MOSFETs is developed. It is found that a new analytical model exhibits higher accuracy than that based on parabolic potential approximation when the thickness of the silicon channel is much larger than that of the oxide. It is also revealed that moderate halo doping concentration, thin gate oxide thickness and small silicon channel radius are needed to improve the threshold voltage characteristics. The derived analytical model agrees well with a three-dimensional numerical device simulator ISE. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Reconstruction of halo power spectrum from redshift-space galaxy distribution: cylinder-grouping method and halo exclusion effect

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Teppei; More, Surhud; Masaki, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    The peculiar velocity field measured by redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys provides a unique probe of the growth of large-scale structure. However, systematic effects arise when including satellite galaxies in the clustering analysis. Since satellite galaxies tend to reside in massive halos with a greater halo bias, the inclusion boosts the clustering power. In addition, virial motions of the satellite galaxies cause a significant suppression of the clustering power due to nonlinear RSD effects. We develop a novel method to recover the redshift-space power spectrum of halos from the observed galaxy distribution by minimizing the contamination of satellite galaxies. The cylinder grouping method (CGM) we study effectively excludes satellite galaxies from a galaxy sample. However, we find that this technique produces apparent anisotropies in the reconstructed halo distribution over all the scales which mimic RSD. On small scales, the apparent anisotropic clustering is caused by exclusion of halos...

  19. Low-metallicity stellar halo populations as tracers of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Tissera, Patricia B

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the density profiles of the stellar halo populations in eight Milky-Way mass galaxies, simulated within the $\\Lambda$-Cold Dark Matter scenario. We find that accreted stars can be well-fitted by an Einasto profile, as well as any subsample defined according to metallicity. We detect a clear correlation between the Einasto fitting parameters of the low-metallicity stellar populations and those of the dark matter haloes. The correlations for stars with [Fe/H]$<-3$ allow us to predict the shape of the dark matter profiles within residuals of $\\sim 10 $ per cent, in case the contribution from in situ stars remains small. Using Einasto parameters estimated for the stellar halo of the Milky Way and assuming the later formed with significant contributions from accreted low-mass satellite, our simulations predict $\\alpha \\sim 0.15 $ and $r_2 \\sim 15$ kpc for its dark matter profile. These values, combined with observed estimations of the local dark matter density, yield an enclosed dark matter mass at $...

  20. Evaluation and evolution of speed for halo and partial halo CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Carlos; Muñoz Martínez, Guadalupe; Lopez-Lopez, Jose Luis

    Halo CMEs are known to be directed towards the Earth; and therefore are of great interest in space weather forecasting. Two main issues are involved in making good arrival predictions: the precision of the evaluation of the initial parameters near the Sun and an appropriate model for ICME propagation. The initial CME speed and direction are needed to infer the travel time, but these crucial parameters are difficult to obtain for earthward pointed CMEs. In this work we identified halo and partial halo CMES associated to EIT flares and Interplanetary Shocks. Considering the location of the flare and the projection effect we evaluated the initial speed of the CME; using the initial values we calculated the arrival time and speed and compared these values to the ones of the ICME related. We found a good approximation to the actual parameters, showing that the models applied in the evaluation of the initial parameters and the prediction of the final ones are consistent to the real evolution of the phenomena.

  1. SubHaloes going Notts: The SubHalo-Finder Comparison Project

    CERN Document Server

    Onions, Julian; Pearce, Frazer R; Muldrew, Stuart I; Lux, Hanni; Knollmann, Steffen R; Ascasibar, Yago; Behroozi, Peter; Elahi, Pascal; Han, Jiaxin; Maciejewski, Michal; Merchán, Manuel E; Neyrinck, Mark; Ruiz, Andrés N; Sgró, Mario A; Springel, Volker; Tweed, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the substructure properties of a single Milky Way sized dark matter halo from the Aquarius suite at five different resolutions, as identified by a variety of different (sub-)halo finders for simulations of cosmic structure formation. These finders span a wide range of techniques and methodologies to extract and quantify substructures within a larger non-homogeneous background density (e.g. a host halo). This includes real-space, phase-space, velocity-space and time- space based finders, as well as finders employing a Voronoi tessellation, friends-of-friends techniques, or refined meshes as the starting point for locating substructure.A common post-processing pipeline was used to uniformly analyse the particle lists provided by each finder. We extract quantitative and comparable measures for the subhaloes, primarily focusing on mass and the peak of the rotation curve for this particular study. We find that all of the finders agree extremely well on the presence and location ...

  2. Solitonic axion condensates modeling dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castañeda Valle, David, E-mail: casvada@gmail.com; Mielke, Eckehard W., E-mail: ekke@xanum.uam.mx

    2013-09-15

    Instead of fluid type dark matter (DM), axion-like scalar fields with a periodic self-interaction or some truncations of it are analyzed as a model of galaxy halos. It is probed if such cold Bose–Einstein type condensates could provide a viable soliton type interpretation of the DM ‘bullets’ observed by means of gravitational lensing in merging galaxy clusters. We study solitary waves for two self-interacting potentials in the relativistic Klein–Gordon equation, mainly in lower dimensions, and visualize the approximately shape-invariant collisions of two ‘lump’ type solitons. -- Highlights: •An axion model of dark matter is considered. •Collision of axion type solitons are studied in a two dimensional toy model. •Relations to dark matter collisions in galaxy clusters are proposed.

  3. Halo Structure Traced by SDSS RR Lyrae

    CERN Document Server

    Ivezic, Z; Schlegel, D J; Smolcic, V; Johnston, D; Gunn, J E; Knapp, G R; Strauss, M A; Rockosi, C M

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the density and radial velocity distributions of over 3000 candidate RR Lyrae stars selected by various methods using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data for about 1000 deg^2 of sky. This is more than 20 times larger sample than previously reported by SDSS (Ivezic et al. 2000), and includes candidate RR Lyrae stars out to the sample limit of 100 kpc. A cutoff in the radial distribution of halo RR Lyrae at ~50-60 kpc that was suggested by the early SDSS data appears to be a statistical anomaly confined to a small region (~100 deg^2). Despite the large increase in observed area, the most prominent features remain to be those associated with the Sgr dwarf tidal stream. We find multiple number density peaks along three lines of sight in the Sgr dwarf tidal stream plane, that may indicate several perigalactic passages of the Sgr dwarf galaxy.

  4. Signals from dark atom formation in halos

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider indirect detection signals of atomic dark matter, with a massive dark photon which mixes kinetically with hypercharge. In significant regions of parameter space, dark matter remains at least partially ionized today, and dark atom formation can occur efficiently in dense regions, such as the centers of galactic halos. The formation of dark atoms is accompanied by emission of a dark photon, which can subsequently decay into Standard Model particles. We discuss the expected signal strength and compare it to that of annihilating dark matter. As a case study, we explore the possibility that dark atom formation can account for the observed 511 keV line and outline the relevant parameter space.

  5. Mass Function of Low Mass Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Yahagi, H; Yoshii, Y; Yahagi, Hideki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    The mass function of dark halos in a Lambda-dominated cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) universe is investigated. 529 output files from five runs of N-body simulations are analyzed using the friends-of-friends cluster finding algorithm. All the runs use 512^3 particles in the box size of 35 h^{-1}Mpc to 140 h^{-1}Mpc. Mass of particles for 35 h^{-1} Mpc runs is 2.67 times 10^7 h^{-1} M_{solar}. Because of the high mass resolution of our simulations, the multiplicity function in the low-mass range, where the mass is well below the characteristic mass and $\

  6. The Doubloon Models of Dark Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W; Bowden, A; Williams, A A

    2015-01-01

    A family of spherical halo models with flat circular velocity curves is presented. This includes models in which the rotation curve has a finite central value but declines outwards (like the Jaffe model). It includes models in which the rotation curve is rising in the inner parts, but flattens asymptotically (like the Binney model). The family encompasses models with both finite and singular (cuspy) density profiles. The self-consistent distribution function depending on binding energy $E$ and angular momentum $L$ is derived and the kinematical properties of the models discussed. These really describe the properties of the total matter (both luminous and dark). For comparison with observations, it is better to consider tracer populations of stars. These can be used to represent elliptical galaxies or the spheroidal components of spiral galaxies. Accordingly, we study the properties of tracers with power-law or Einasto profiles moving in the doubloon potential. Under the assumption of spherical alignment, we p...

  7. Neutron halo state of 13C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Angular distributions for the 12C(d, p)13C transfer reactionshave been measured at Ed = 11.8 MeV, and compared with those of the DWBA calculations. By means of this comparison, density distributions of the last neutron in the ground state and the first 1/2+ state of 13C are extracted. The properties of these states in 13C have also been studied in the framework of the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory with NL-SH parameters. It is found that the first 1/2+ state in 13C is a neutron halo state shown by both the experimental and theoretical density distributions of the last neutron.

  8. Kinematic imprint of clumpy disk formation on halo objects

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    Context: Clumpy disk galaxies in the distant universe, at redshift of z>1, have been observed to host several giant clumps in their disks. They are thought to correspond to early formative stages of disk galaxies. On the other hand, halo objects, such as old globular clusters and halo stars, are likely to consist of the oldest stars in a galaxy (age>10 Gyr), therefore the clumpy disk formation can be presumed to take place in a pre-existing halo system. Aims: Giant clumps are orbiting in the same direction in a premature disk and so massive that they may be expected to interact gravitationally with halo objects and exercise influence on kinematic state of the halo. Accordingly, I scrutinize the possibility that the clumps leave a kinematic imprint of the clumpy disk formation on a halo system. Methods: I perform a restricted N-body calculation with a toy-model to study the kinematic influence on a halo by orbital motions of clumps, examine dependence of the results on masses (mass-loss), number and orbital ra...

  9. The halo sign: HRCT findings in 85 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Watte, Guilherme; Pasqualotto, Alessandro Comarú; Severo, Luiz Carlos; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The halo sign consists of an area of ground-glass opacity surrounding pulmonary lesions on chest CT scans. We compared immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients in terms of halo sign features and sought to identify those of greatest diagnostic value. Methods: This was a retrospective study of CT scans performed at any of seven centers between January of 2011 and May of 2015. Patients were classified according to their immune status. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed the scans in order to determine the number of lesions, as well as their distribution, size, and contour, together with halo thickness and any other associated findings. Results: Of the 85 patients evaluated, 53 were immunocompetent and 32 were immunosuppressed. Of the 53 immunocompetent patients, 34 (64%) were diagnosed with primary neoplasm. Of the 32 immunosuppressed patients, 25 (78%) were diagnosed with aspergillosis. Multiple and randomly distributed lesions were more common in the immunosuppressed patients than in the immunocompetent patients (p < 0.001 for both). Halo thickness was found to be greater in the immunosuppressed patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Etiologies of the halo sign differ markedly between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Although thicker halos are more likely to occur in patients with infectious diseases, the number and distribution of lesions should also be taken into account when evaluating patients presenting with the halo sign. PMID:28117474

  10. Connecting Galaxy Disk and Extended Halo Gas Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Steidel, C C; Ceverino, D; Klypin, A A; Murphy, M T

    2007-01-01

    We have explored the galaxy disk/extended halo gas kinematic relationship using rotation curves (Keck/ESI) of ten intermediate redshift galaxies which were selected by MgII halo gas absorption observed in quasar spectra. Previous results of six edge-on galaxies, probed along their major axis, suggest that observed halo gas velocities are consistent with extended disk-like halo rotation at galactocentric distances of 25-72 kpc. Using our new sample, we demonstrate that the gas velocities are by and large not consistent with being directly coupled to the galaxy kinematics. Thus, mechanisms other than co-rotation dynamics (i.e., gas inflow, feedback, galaxy-galaxy interactions, etc.) must be invoked to account for the overall observed kinematics of the halo gas. In order to better understand the dynamic interaction of the galaxy/halo/cosmic web environment, we performed similar mock observations of galaxies and gaseous halos in Lambda-CDM cosmological simulations. We discuss an example case of a z=0.92 galaxy wi...

  11. The slight spin of the old stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Belokurov, Vasily; Koposov, Sergey E.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Grand, Robert J.; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger

    2017-09-01

    We combine Gaia data release 1 astrometry with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images taken some ∼10-15 years earlier, to measure proper motions of stars in the halo of our Galaxy. The SDSS-Gaia proper motions have typical statistical errors of 2 mas yr-1 down to r ∼ 20 mag, and are robust to variations with magnitude and colour. Armed with this exquisite set of halo proper motions, we identify RR Lyrae, blue horizontal branch (BHB), and K giant stars in the halo, and measure their net rotation with respect to the Galactic disc. We find evidence for a gently rotating prograde signal (〈Vϕ〉 ∼ 5-25 km s-1) in the halo stars, which shows little variation with Galactocentric radius out to 50 kpc. The average rotation signal for the three populations is 〈Vϕ〉 = 14 ± 2 ± 10 (syst.) km s-1. There is also tentative evidence for a kinematic correlation with metallicity, whereby the metal richer BHB and K giant stars have slightly stronger prograde rotation than the metal poorer stars. Using the Auriga simulation suite, we find that the old (T >10 Gyr) stars in the simulated haloes exhibit mild prograde rotation, with little dependence on radius or metallicity, in general agreement with the observations. The weak halo rotation suggests that the Milky Way has a minor in situ halo component, and has undergone a relatively quiet accretion history.

  12. Lyman-Werner UV Escape Fractions from Primordial Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schauer, Anna T P; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S

    2015-01-01

    Population III stars can regulate star formation in the primordial Universe in several ways. They can ionize nearby halos, and even if their ionizing photons are trapped by their own halos, their Lyman-Werner (LW) photons can still escape and destroy H$_2$ in other halos, preventing them from cooling and forming stars. LW escape fractions are thus a key parameter in cosmological simulations of early reionization and star formation but have not yet been parametrized for realistic halos by halo or stellar mass. To do so, we perform radiation hydrodynamical simulations of LW UV escape from 9--120 M$_{\\odot}$ Pop III stars in $10^5$ to $10^7$ M$_{\\odot}$ halos with ZEUS-MP. We find that photons in the LW lines (i.e. those responsible for destroying H$_{2}$ in nearby systems) have escape fractions ranging from 0% to 85%. No LW photons escape the most massive halo in our sample, even from the most massive star. Escape fractions for photons elsewhere in the 11.18--13.6~eV energy range, which can be redshifted into t...

  13. Squeezing the halo bispectrum: a test of bias models

    CERN Document Server

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Noreña, Jorge; Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We study the halo-matter cross bispectrum in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type. We restrict ourselves to the squeezed limit, for which the calculation are straightforward, and perform the measurements in the initial conditions of N-body simulations, to mitigate the contamination induced by nonlinear gravitational evolution. Interestingly, the halo-matter cross bispectrum is not trivial even in this simple limit as it is strongly sensitive to the scale-dependence of the quadratic and third-order halo bias. Therefore, it can be used to test biasing prescriptions. We consider three different prescription for halo clustering: excursion set peaks (ESP), local bias and a model in which the halo bias parameters are explicitly derived from a peak-background split. In all cases, the model parameters are fully constrained with statistics other than the cross bispectrum. We measure the cross bispectrum involving one halo fluctuation field and two mass overdensity fields for various halo masses...

  14. Halo Abundance Matching: accuracy and conditions for numerical convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Klypin, Anatoly; Yepes, Gustavo; Hess, Steffen; Gottlober, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the abundance and clustering of dark matter haloes play a key role in testing the standard cosmological model. Here, we investigate the accuracy of one of the leading methods of connecting the simulated dark matter haloes with observed galaxies -- the Halo Abundance Matching (HAM) technique. We show how to choose the optimal values of the mass and force resolution in large-volume N-body simulations so that they provide accurate estimates for correlation functions and circular velocities for haloes and their subhaloes -- crucial ingredients of the HAM method. At the 10% accuracy, results converge for 50 particles for haloes and 150 particles for progenitors subhaloes. In order to achieve this level of accuracy a number of conditions should be satisfied. The force resolution for the smallest resolved (sub)haloes should be in the range (0.1-0.3)rs, where rs is the scale radius of (sub)haloes. The number of particles for progenitors of subhaloes should be 150. We also demonstrate that the ...

  15. Discovery of solar system-size halos around young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, S.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Dyck, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Near-infrared speckle interferometric observations of five pre-main-sequence stars reveal a core-halo structure around two of these stars: HL Tau and R Mon. The halo light distribution is shown to arise from scattered light from small circumstellar particles. Halo sizes of 320 x 200 AU (alpha x delta FWHM) and 1300 x 1300 AU are deduced for HL Tau and R Mon, respectively, and the halo light is substantially bluer than the stellar light. The minimum mass of small particles in the scattering regions is comparable to the earth's mass in HL Tau and ten times greater in R Mon. Mass loss from the stars is almost certainly insufficient to produce the halo matter. The halos probably consist of relatively slowly moving matter bound gravitationally to the stars. From the size and mass of the circumstellar matter, it appears likely that these halos are in the early stage in the formation of planet-forming disks around the young stars.

  16. [A special instrument: the halo fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, Stephan; Gossé, Frank

    2008-03-01

    Installation of an external fixator in combination with a body cast for temporary or definitive immobilization and retention of unstable fractures of the craniocervical junction and upper part of the cervical spine. Further established applications include presurgical extension treatment of paralytic scoliosis and temporary retention within complex spine deformity operations after ventral release or mobilized osteotomies. Closed reposition and temporary retention of unstable injuries of the cervical spine up to operation. Extension treatment for careful reposition of fresh or dated malpositions of the cervical spine. Conservative treatment of injuries of the craniocervical junction and the upper part of the cervical spine. Presurgical extension of paralytic scoliosis. Temporary extension after ventral release. Cranial fractures and intracranial injuries. Soft-tissue infections of the skull. Children traction is applied in two stages; first, the head ring is attached to the skull, then, the body cast and suspension assembly are added. Local anesthesia, depending on circumstances. Sizing of the components; the optimal size of the ring is about 1.5" larger than the circumference of the patient's head. Patient in sitting or supine position. The halo ring is held in proper position by stabilizer plates; the lower margin of the ring should be just above the ears and about 0.4" above the eyebrows. The anterior pins are placed in shallow groove on the forehead between supraorbital ridges and frontal protuberances. Threaded skull pins are screwed with defined torque (4-8"/pounds) in the lamina externa of the cranial calotte without perforating the lamina interna. To avoid side-to-side drifting, the diagonally opposite pins should be tightened simultaneously. Finally, connection of the halo ring with a body cast or putting on an extension device. Secure external stabilization of unstable injuries of upper cervical spine. Improvement of correction results of patients with

  17. Halo occupation distribution of massive galaxies since z= 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Masaki, S.; Kawara, K.; Sugiyama, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present a clustering analysis of ˜60 000 massive (stellar mass M★ > 1011 M⊙) galaxies out to z= 1 drawn from 55.2 deg2 of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) II Supernova Survey. Strong clustering is detected for all the subsamples of massive galaxies characterized by different stellar masses (M★= 1011.0-11.5 M⊙, 1011.5-12.0 M⊙) or rest-frame colours (blue: U-V 1.0). We find that more mature (more massive or redder) galaxies are more clustered, which implies that the more mature galaxies have started stellar-mass assembly earlier within the highly biased region where the structure formation has also started earlier. By means of halo occupation distribution (HOD) models fitted to the observed angular correlation function, we infer the properties of the underlying host dark haloes. We find that the estimated bias factors and host halo masses are systematically larger for galaxies with larger stellar masses, which is consistent with the general agreement that the capability of hosting massive galaxies depends strongly on halo mass. The estimated effective halo masses are ˜1014 M⊙, which gives the stellar-mass to halo-mass ratios of ˜0.003. The observed evolution of bias factors indicates rapid evolution of spatial distributions of cold dark matter relative to those traced by the massive galaxies, while the transition of host halo masses might imply that the fractional mass growth rate of haloes is less than those of stellar systems. The inferred halo masses and high fractions of central galaxies indicate that the massive galaxies in the current sample are possibly equivalent to central galaxies of galaxy clusters.

  18. A Universal Angular Momentum Profile for Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shihong; Chen, Jianxiong; Chu, M.-C.

    2017-07-01

    The angular momentum distribution in dark matter halos and galaxies is a key ingredient in understanding their formation. Specifically, the internal distribution of angular momenta is closely related to the formation of disk galaxies. In this article, we use halos identified from a high-resolution simulation, the Bolshoi simulation, to study the spatial distribution of specific angular momenta, j(r,θ ). We show that by stacking halos with similar masses to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the profile can be fitted as a simple function, j{(r,θ )={j}s{\\sin }2{(θ /{θ }s)(r/{r}s)}2/(1+r/{r}s)}4, with three free parameters, {j}s,{r}s, and {θ }s. Specifically, j s correlates with the halo mass M vir as {j}s\\propto {M}{vir}2/3, r s has a weak dependence on the halo mass as {r}s\\propto {M}{vir}0.040, and {θ }s is independent of M vir. This profile agrees with that from a rigid shell model, though its origin is unclear. Our universal specific angular momentum profile j(r,θ ) is useful in modeling the angular momenta of halos. Furthermore, by using an empirical stellar mass-halo mass relation, we can infer the average angular momentum distribution of a dark matter halo. The specific angular momentum-stellar mass relation within a halo computed from our profile is shown to share a similar shape as that from the observed disk galaxies.

  19. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Kim, Young Kwang; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas; Jung, Jaehun

    2017-02-01

    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.5 and -2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A(C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP-s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s-process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP-s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  20. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-06-02

    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar

  1. Scaling Laws and Occurrence Conditions of Nuclear Halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖华; 张锡珍; 张焕乔

    2003-01-01

    Available data regarding the nuclear halo candidates are systematically analysed in terms of the asymptotic normalization coefficients measured experimentally. On the other hand, we have put forth conditions for nuclear halo formation, and compared with the experimental data. Based on the analytical expressions of the expectation value for the operator r2 in a finite square well potential, we have presented the improved scaling laws for the dimensionless quantity / R2 of nuclear halo, which seem to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Stability and Halo Formation in Axisymmetric Intense Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gluckstern, R L; Gluckstern, Robert L.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1998-01-01

    Beam stability and halo formation in high-intensity axisymmetric 2D beams in a uniform focusing channel are analyzed using particle-in-cell simulations. The tune depression - mismatch space is explored for the uniform (KV) distribution of the particle transverse-phase-space density, as well as for more realistic ones (in particular, the water-bag distribution), to determine the stability limits and halo parameters. The numerical results show an agreement with predictions of the analytical model for halo formation (R.L. Gluckstern, Phys. Rev. Letters, 73 (1994) 1247).

  3. Stability and Halo Formation in Axisymmetric Intense Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstern, Robert L.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1997-05-01

    Beam stability and halo formation in high-intensity axisymmetric 2D beams in a uniform focusing channel are analyzed using particle-in-cell simulations. The tune depression - mismatch space is explored for the uniform distribution of the particle transverse phase space density (Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky), as well as for more realistic ones (in particular, the water-bag distribution), to determine the stability limits and halo parameters. The numerical results obtained are compared and show an agreement with the predictions of the analytical model for halo formation developed earlier (R.L. Gluckstern, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73), 1247 (1994)..

  4. Stability and halo formation in axisymmetric intense beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluckstern, R.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kurennoy, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Beam stability and halo formation in high-intensity axisymmetric 2D beams in a uniform focusing channel are analyzed using particle-in-cell simulations. The tune depression-mismatch space is explored for the uniform (KV) distribution of the particle transverse-phase-space density, as well as for more realistic ones (in particular, the water-bag distribution), to determine the stability limits and halo parameters. The numerical results show an agreement with predictions of the analytical model for halo formation.

  5. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P., E-mail: jpqian@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Granetz, R. S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  6. Controlling beam halo-chaos via backstepping design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Kong Feng

    2008-01-01

    A backstepping control method is proposed for controlling beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels PFCs) of high-current ion accelerator. The analysis and numerical results show that the method, via adjusting an exterior magnetic field, is effective to control beam halo chaos with five types of initial distribution ion beams, all statistical quantities of the beam halo-chaos are largely reduced, and the uniformity of ion beam is improved. This control method has an important value of application, for the exterior magnetic field can be easily adjusted in the periodical magnetic focusing channels in experiment.

  7. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Granetz, R. S.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  8. Hints on halo evolution in SFDM models with galaxy observations

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo; Valenzuela, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    A massive, self-interacting scalar field has been considered as a possible candidate for the dark matter in the universe. We present an observational constraint to the model arising from strong lensing observations in galaxies. The result points to a discrepancy in the properties of scalar field dark matter halos for dwarf and lens galaxies, mainly because halo parameters are directly related to physical quantities in the model. This is an important indication that it becomes necessary to have a better understanding of halo evolution in scalar field dark matter models, where the presence of baryons can play an important role.

  9. Halo Mass of Three-Dimension Milky Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Fang; PENG Qiu He

    2000-01-01

    We emphasize the effects of several factors on halo mass for our Galaxy, such as the disk thickness, the local surface density, and the shape of the rotation curve. By fitting the observed rotation curve of our Galaxy with the five-component model, we deduce a halo with a mass of 6.62× 1011 M within 50 kpc and a local density of 0.009M pc-3. It is found that the realistic Galaxy needs only about half of the halo mass that the Galaxy with n infinitesmally thin disk requires.

  10. Halo Modification of a Supernova Neutronization Neutrino Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    We give the first self-consistent calculation of the effect of the scattered neutrino halo on flavor evolution in supernovae. Our example case is an O-Ne-Mg core collapse supernova neutronization neutrino burst. We find that the addition of the halo neutrinos produces qualitative and quantitative changes in the final flavor states of neutrinos. We also find that the halo neutrinos produce a novel distortion of the neutrino flavor swap. Our results provide strong motivation for tackling the full multidimensional and composition-dependent aspects of this problem in the future.

  11. Complications of halo fixation of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Victor M; Silber, Jeff S; Siddiqi, Farhan N; Kondrachov, Dmitriy; Lipetz, Jason S; Lonner, Baron

    2005-06-01

    Halo fixators play an integral role in stabilizing the cervical spine. They are most widely used after upper cervical to midcervical spine fractures and dislocations and as a supplement to various surgical fixation techniques. Compared with supine cervical traction techniques, halo fixators allow early patient mobilization and shorten hospital stays. The incidence of halo-fixator complications remains high. Minor complications include pin loosening, localized infection, periorbital edema, superficial pressure sores, and unsightly scars. Major complications include pin penetration, osteomyelitis, subdural abscess, nerve palsies, fracture overdistraction, and persistent instability. Many of these potential complications can be avoided with proper pin placement and meticulous pin care.

  12. The assembly of the halo system of the Milky Way as revealed by SDSS/SEGUE – The CEMP star connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carollo D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, massive new spectroscopic data sets, such as the over half million stellar spectra obtained during the course of SDSS (in particular its sub-survey SEGUE, have provided the quantitative detail required to formulate a coherent story of the assembly and evolution of the Milky Way. The disk and halo systems of our Galaxy have been shown to be both more complex, and more interesting, than previously thought. Here we concentrate on the halo system of the Milky Way. New data from SDSS/SEGUE has revealed that the halo system comprises at least two components, the inner halo and the outer halo, with demonstrably different characteristics (metallicity distributions, density distributions, kinematics, etc.. In addition to suggesting new ways to examine these data, the inner/outer halo dichotomy has enabled an understanding of at least one long-standing observational result, the increase of the fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP stars with decreasing metallicity.

  13. Effects of arm truncation on the appearance of the halo artifact in (68)Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC) PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Wolf, Maya; Haberkorn, Uwe; Kachelrieß, Marc; Gnirs, Regula; Kopka, Klaus; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Freitag, Martin T

    2017-09-01

    PSMA ligand imaging with hybrid PET/MRI scanners could be an integral part of the clinical routine in the future. However, the first study about this novel method revealed a severe photopenic artifact ("halo artifact") around the urinary bladder causing significantly reduced tumor visibility. The aim of this evaluation was to analyze the role of arm truncation on the appearance of the halo artifact in (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/MRI hypothesizing that this influences the appearance. Twenty-seven consecutive patients were subjected to (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT (1 h p.i.) followed by PET/MRI (3 h p.i.). PET/MRI was first started with scans of the abdomen to pelvis with arms positioned up above the head. Immediately thereafter, additional scans from the pelvis to abdomen were conducted with arms positioned down beside the trunk. All investigations were first analyzed separately and then compared with respect to tumor detection and tumor uptake (SUV) as well as the presence and intensity of the halo artifact. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine statistical differences including Bonferroni correction. The halo was significantly reduced if the arms were elevated. Lesions inside the halo artifact (n = 16) demonstrated significantly increased SUVmean (p = 0.0007) and SUVmax (p = 0.0024) with arms positioned up. The halo appearance and intensity was not dependent on the total activity and activity concentration of the urinary bladder. Positioning the arms down was shown to be significantly associated with the appearance of the halo artifact in PET/MRI. Positioning the arms up above the head can significantly reduce the halo artifact, thereby detecting more tumor lesions.

  14. Contributions to the accreted stellar halo: an atlas of stellar deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorisco, N. C.

    2017-01-01

    The accreted component of stellar haloes is composed of the contributions of several satellites, falling on to their host with their different masses, at different times, on different orbits. This work uses a suite of idealized, collisionless N-body simulations of minor mergers and a particle-tagging technique to understand how these different ingredients shape each contribution to the accreted halo, in both density and kinematics. I find that more massive satellites deposit their stars deeper into the gravitational potential of the host, with a clear segregation enforced by dynamical friction. Earlier accretion events contribute more to the inner regions of the halo; more concentrated subhaloes sink deeper through increased dynamical friction. The orbital circularity of the progenitor at infall is only important for low-mass satellites: dynamical friction efficiently radializes the most massive minor mergers erasing the imprint of the infall orbit for satellite-to-host virial mass ratios ≳ 1/20. The kinematics of the stars contributed by each satellite is also ordered with satellite mass: low-mass satellites contribute fast-moving populations, in both ordered rotation and radial velocity dispersion. In turn, contributions by massive satellites have lower velocity dispersion and lose their angular momentum to dynamical friction, resulting in a strong radial anisotropy.

  15. Discovery of two low-luminosity star clusters in the Milky Way halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Star clusters in the halo of the Milky Way (MW) hold important clues to the formation and structure of their host galaxy. In the talk, I present the discovery of two new low-luminosity star clusters in the inner and outer halo of the Milky Way. These two star clusters, named as Kim 1 and Kim 2, were first detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and our independent 500 sqr degree survey using the Dark Energy Survey camera (DECam) at the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO repectively. Their true identies were confirmed by deep follow-up imaging using DECam and Gemini-South 8-m telescope. Kim 1 and Kim 2 both exhibit unsual physical properties compared to other classically known star clusters. Kim 1, located at a heliocentric distance of 17 kpc, features extremely low luminosity (Mv~0.3 mag) and low star concentration. Together with the high ellipticity (e ~ 0.4) and irregular isophotes, these properties suggest that we are seeing an intermediate mass star cluster being stripped by the Galactic tidal field. In the case of Kim 2, ~ 104 kpc away from the sun, is the faintest globular cluster ever found in the outer halo of the Milky Way. The globular cluster exhibits evidence of significant mass loss such as extra-tidal stars and mass-segregation. The observed properties of the new star cluster also raise the question about how such a low luminosity star cluster could have survived until today. One possible scenario is that Kim 2 is a star cluster originally located in a satellite dwarf galaxy and was accreted into the Milky Way's halo.

  16. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia

    2008-12-01

    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  17. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  18. On the Origin of the Internal Structure of Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Manrique, A; Salvador-Solé, E

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution N-body simulations of hierarchical cosmologies have shown that the density and velocity dispersion profiles of dark-matter haloes display well-definite universal forms whose origin remains unknown. In the present paper, we calculate the internal structure of haloes expected to arise in any such cosmologies by simply taking into account that halo growth proceeds through an alternate sequence of discrete major mergers and long periods of gentle accretion. Major mergers cause the violent relaxation of the system subject to the boundary conditions imposed by accreting layers beginning to fall in at that moment. Accretion makes the system develop inside-out from the previous seed according to the spherical infall model. The predicted structure is in very good agreement with the results of numerical simulations, particularly for moderate and low mass haloes. We find strong indications that the slight departure observed in more massive systems is not due to a poorer theoretical prediction, but to the...

  19. A beam halo event of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Beam halo events: These occur as a single beam of protons is circulating in one direction in LHC, just passing through ATLAS. An outlier particle hits a part of the detector causing a spray of particles.

  20. First Attempts at using Active Halo Control at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Joschka [CERN; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Garcia Morales, Hector [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Kotzian, Gerd [CERN; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina [CERN; Langner, Andy [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Quaranta, Elena [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Tomás, Rogelio [CERN; Valentino, Gianluca [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN

    2016-06-01

    The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.

  1. Spatial and kinematic alignments between central and satellite halos

    CERN Document Server

    Faltenbacher, A; Li, Cheng; Mao, Shude; Mo, H J; Pasquali, Anna; Bosch, Frank C van den

    2007-01-01

    Based on a cosmological N-body simulation we analyze spatial and kinematic alignments of satellite halos within six times the virial radius of group size host halos (Rvir). We measure three different types of spatial alignment: halo alignment between the orientation of the group central substructure (GCS) and the distribution of its satellites, radial alignment between the orientation of a satellite and the direction towards its GCS, and direct alignment between the orientation of the GCS and that of its satellites. In analogy we use the directions of satellite velocities and probe three further types of alignment: the radial velocity alignment between the satellite velocity and connecting line between satellite and GCS, the halo velocity alignment between the orientation of the GCS and satellite velocities and the auto velocity alignment between the satellites orientations and their velocities. We find that satellites are preferentially located along the major axis of the GCS. Within at least 6 Rvir (the ran...

  2. The structure and evolution of cold dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Diemand, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the formation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in th...

  3. Constraining dark matter halo properties using lensed SNLS supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, J; Hook, I; Basa, S; Carlberg, R; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Howell, D A; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper exploits the gravitational magnification of SNe Ia to measure properties of dark matter haloes. The magnification of individual SNe Ia can be computed using observed properties of foreground galaxies and dark matter halo models. We model the dark matter haloes of the galaxies as truncated singular isothermal spheres with velocity dispersion and truncation radius obeying luminosity dependent scaling laws. A homogeneously selected sample of 175 SNe Ia from the first 3-years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1 is used to constrain models of the dark matter haloes associated with foreground galaxies. The best-fitting velocity dispersion scaling law agrees well with galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements. We further find that the normalisation of the velocity dispersion of passive and star forming galaxies are consistent with empirical Faber-Jackson and Tully-Fisher relations, respectively. If we make no assumption on the normalisation of these relations, we find th...

  4. Terminal Velocity Infall in QSO Absorption Line Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Robert A.

    We explore the hypothesis that clouds detected in quasar absorption line systems are falling at a terminal velocity toward the center of high redshift gaseous galactic halos. Since both the ionization level and terminal velocity of halo clouds increase with increasing distance from the central galaxy, velocity resolved profiles of highly ionized gas are predicted to have a greater width than low ionization gas. A line of sight passing through the center of gaseous halo (an idealized damped Ly alpha system), yields low ionization absorption at the velocity of the galaxy, flanked by high ionization on either side. Reasonable halo parameters yield total velocity extents for C IV of Delta v_{C IV}=100-200 km s^{-1}, in agreement with many systems observed by Lu et al (1997). The remaining systems may better described by the rotating disk model of Prochaska & Wolfe (1998). Finally, observational tests are suggested for verifying or falsifying the terminal velocity hypothesis for these systems.

  5. Building Blocks of the Milky Way's Stellar Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2016-08-01

    We study the assembly history of the stellar halo of Milky Way-like galaxies using the six high-resolution Aquarius dark matter simulations combined with the Munich-Groningen semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Our goal is to understand the stellar population contents of the building blocks of the Milky Way halo, including their star formation histories and chemical evolution, as well as their internal dynamical properties. We are also interested in how they relate or are different from the surviving satellite population. Finally, we will use our models to compare to observations of halo stars in an attempt to reconstruct the assembly history of the Milky Way's stellar halo itself.

  6. Halo performance on low light level image intensifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongxu; Ren, Ling; Chang, Benkang; Shi, Feng; Shi, Jifang; Qian, Yunsheng; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju

    To analyze the formation mechanism of the halo on low light level image intensifiers and the influencing factors on the halo size, a halo tester has been designed. Under the illumination between 10-2 lx and 10-4 lx, we use the tester to collect a 0.1922 mm hole image directly with CoolSNAPK4 charge-coupled device (CCD) in a darkroom. The practical measurement result shows that the amplification ratio is 343.4. Then we put the super second and third generation image intensifiers after the hole, and the halo sizes of the hole images on the screens are determined as 0.2388 and 0.5533 mm respectively. The results are helpful to improve the quality of the low light level image intensifiers.

  7. Planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of galaxy stellar halos

    CERN Document Server

    Coccato, Lodovico

    2016-01-01

    The kinematic and dynamical properties of galaxy stellar halos are difficult to measure because of the faint surface brightness that characterizes these regions. Spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio HI emission; on the contrary, early-type galaxies contain less gas, therefore alternative kinematic tracers need to be used. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be easily detected far out in the halo thanks to their bright emission lines. It is therefore possible to map the halo kinematics also in early-type galaxies, typically out to 5 effective radii or beyond. Thanks to the recent spectroscopic surveys targeting extra-galactic PNe, we can now rely on a few tens of galaxies where the kinematics of the stellar halos are measured. Here, I will review the main results obtained in this field in the last decades.

  8. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  9. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan

    2015-09-25

    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  10. Aircraft measurements of aerosol properties during GoAmazon - G1 and HALO inter-comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, F.; Cecchini, M. A.; Wang, J.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Pekour, M. S.; Machado, L.; Wendisch, M.; Longo, K.; Martin, S. T.; Schmid, B.; Weinzierl, B.; Krüger, M. L.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, the indirect effects of atmospheric aerosols remain the most uncertain components in forcing of climate change over the industrial period (IPCC, 2013). This large uncertainty is partially a result of our incomplete understanding of the ability of particles to form cloud droplets under atmospherically relevant supersaturations. One objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Green Ocean Amazon Project (GoAmazon2014/5) is to understand the influence of the emission from Manaus, a tropical megacity, on aerosol size, concentration, and chemical composition, and their impact on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectrum. The GoAmazon2014/5 study was an international campaign with the collaboration efforts from US, Brazil and Germany. During the intensive operation period, in the dry season (Sep. 1st - Oct. 10th, 2014), aerosol concentration, size distributions, and CCN spectra, both under pristine conditions and inside the Manaus plume, were characterized in-situ from the DOE Gulfstream-1 (G-1) research aircraft and German HALO aircraft during 4 coordinated flights on Sep. 9th, Sep. 16th, Sep 21st and Oct. 1st, 2014. During those four flights, aerosol number concentrations and CCN concentrations at two supersaturations (0.25% and 0.5%) were measured by condensation particle counters (CPCs) and a DMT dual column CCN counter onboard both G-1 and HALO. Aerosol size distribution was also measured by a Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer (FIMS) aboard the G-1 and is compared with the size distribution from Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer - Airborne (UHSAS-A, DMT), which were deployed both on the G-1 and the HALO. Good agreement between the aerosol properties measured from the two aircraft has been achieved. The vertical profiles of aerosol size distribution and CCN spectrum will be discussed.

  11. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  12. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  13. Possible existence of wormholes in the galactic halo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Kuhfittig, P.K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Islam, Nasarul [Danga High Madrasah, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2014-02-15

    Two observational results, the density profile from simulations performed in the ΛCDM scenario and the observed flat galactic rotation curves, are taken as input with the aim of showing that the galactic halo possesses some of the characteristics needed to support traversable wormholes. This result should be sufficient to provide an incentive for scientists to seek observational evidence for wormholes in the galactic halo region. (orig.)

  14. Controlling of Beam Halo-chaos by Adaptation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJin-qing; GAOYuan; LUOXiao-shu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the parametric adaptation method for controlling the beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels of high-current proton linacs is proposed. The study of proton beam halo-chaos based on controlled beam envelope equation and the Particles-in-Cell simulations for proton beam dynamics show that the proton beam chaotic envelope as well as the beam rsm radius can be controlled to the matched radius using this method.

  15. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  16. THE SEGUE K GIANT SURVEY. III. QUANTIFYING GALACTIC HALO SUBSTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5–125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position–velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (∼33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  17. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  18. DETECTING HALO SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE GAIA ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mateu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los datos observacionales que ser ́n arrojados por la misi ́n astrom ́trica Gaia, representan una oportunidad a o e sin precedentes para la b ́squeda de corrientes estelares utilizando informaci ́n completa en espacio de fase y u o con una cobertura de todo el cielo, para un millardo de estrellas en nuestra Galaxia. En esta contribuci ́n o describiremos el M ́todo Modificado de Conteos en C ́ e ırculos M ́ximos (mGC3, desarrollado para la detecci ́n a o de corrientes estelares de marea en el halo gal ́ctico. Basado en el m ́todo GC3 originalmente propuesto por a e Johnston, Hernquist, & Bolte (1996, mGC3 incluye informaci ́n de velocidad, con el fin de incrementar el o contraste de las se ̃ales correspondientes a las corrientes estelares con respecto al fondo producido por el halo n gal ́ctico. Presentamos resultados de la eficiencia de mGC3, evaluada utilizando simulaciones de N cuerpos a de corrientes estelares embebidas en un cat ́logo ficticio del fondo gal ́ctico, incluyendo para ́stos realiza- a a e ciones realistas de sus propiedades fotom ́tricas, cinem ́ticas, errores observacionales y l ́ e a ımites de completitud. Caracterizamos la eficiencia de mGC3 como funci ́n de la luminosidad inicial, historia de formaci ́n estelar y o o par ́metros orbitales de los sat ́lites y encontramos que sat ́lites con luminosidades en el intervalo 108 − 109 L⊙ a e e pueden ser recuperados para edades din ́micas tan avanzadas como ∼10 Gyr y hasta distancias galactoc ́ntricas a e de ∼40 kpc. Para algunas combinaciones de edades din ́micas y ́rbitas, es posible recuperar corrientes estelares a o con luminosidades hasta de 4 − 5 × 107 L⊙ .

  19. Modeling Angular-Momentum History in Dark-Matter Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Maller, A H; Somerville, R S; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Dekel, Avishai; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We model the acquisition of spin by dark-matter halos in semi-analytic merger trees. We explore two different algorithms; one in which halo spin is acquired from the orbital angular momentum of merging satellites, and another in which halo spin is gained via tidal torquing on shells of material while still in the linear regime. We find that both scenarios produce the characteristic spin distribution of halos found in N-body simulations, namely, a log-normal distribution with mean ~0.04 and standard deviation ~0.5 in the log. A perfect match requires fine-tuning of two free parameters. Both algorithms also reproduce the general insensitivity of the spin distribution to halo mass, redshift and cosmology seen in N-body simulations. The spin distribution can be made strictly constant by physically motivated scalings of the free parameters. In addition, both schemes predict that halos which have had recent major mergers have systematically larger spin values. These algorithms can be implemented within semi-analyti...

  20. The origin of angular momentum in dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Vitvitska, M; Kravtsov, A V; Bullock, J S; Wechsler, R H; Primack, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new explanation for the origin of angular momentum in galaxies and their dark halos, in which the halos obtain their spin through the cumulative acquisition of angular momentum from satellite accretion. In our model, the build-up of angular momentum is a random walk process associated with the mass assembly history of the halo's major progenitor. We assume no correlation between the angular momenta of accreted objects. Using the extended Press-Schechter approximation, we calculate the growth of mass, angular momentum, and spin parameter $\\lambda$ for many halos. Our random walk model reproduces the key features of the angular momentum of halos found in N-body simulations: a lognormal distribution in $\\lambda$ with an average of $ \\approx 0.04$, independent of mass and redshift. The evolution of the spin parameter in individual halos in this model is quite different from the steady increase with time of angular momentum in the tidal torque picture. We find both in N-body simulations and in our ran...

  1. Corrections to halo model in presence of primordial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varalakshmi, Cheera; Nigam, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    We study the role played by the primordial magnetic field in the process of structure formation in the early universe. We have compared the halo mass abundance in the presence and absence of the magnetic field. We derive a modified Press-Schechter formula in presence of another source for matter perturbation and use it to study how this extra source affects halo count. This other source is the magnetic field with a given power spectrum. We find the ranges for the magnetic field strength over which the field enhances the halo formation for a mass range for spectral index nb = -2.95. We found that for field strength less than or equal to B = 7.0 nG, which we call the cut-off field strength, the presence of magnetic field enhances halo formation at low mass scale while it disrupts for a stronger field. We further investigate the dependence of halo count on the spectral index of the magnetic field power spectrum. We observe that at the cut-off field strength, halo formation is disrupted for a spectral index larger than -2.9. We carry out similar investigation for the more generic ellipsoidal collapse where the mass function is given by the Sheth-Tormen formula. For this case we find the cut-off field strength is 5.5 nG.

  2. A halo bias function measured deeply into voids without stochasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C; Jeong, Donghui; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between dark-matter haloes and matter in the MIP N-body simulation ensemble, which allows precision measurements of this relationship, even deeply into voids. What enables this is a lack of discreteness, stochasticity, and exclusion, achieved by averaging over hundreds of possible sets of initial small-scale modes, while holding fixed large-scale modes that give the cosmic web. We find (i) that dark-matter-halo formation is greatly suppressed in voids; there is an exponential downturn at low densities in the otherwise power-law matter-to-halo density bias function. Thus, the rarity of haloes in voids is akin to the rarity of the largest clusters, and their abundance is quite sensitive to cosmological parameters. The exponential downturn appears both in an excursion-set model, and in a new model in which fluctuations evolve in voids as in an open universe with an effective Omega_m proportional to a large-scale density. We also find that (ii) haloes typically populate the average halo-...

  3. The Halos and Environments of Nearby Galaxies (HERON) Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, R Michael; Bullock, James; Burkert, Andreas; Collins, Michelle; de Groot, Laura; Kennefick, Julia; Koch, Andreas; Longstaff, Francis; Sales, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We have used dedicated 0.7m telescopes in California and Israel to image the halos of ~200 galaxies in the Local Volume to 29 mag/sq arcsec, the sample mainly drawn from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas (LGA). We supplement the LGA sample with dwarf galaxies and more distant giant ellipticals. Low surface brightness halos exceeding 50 kpc in diameter are found only in galaxies more luminous than L* and classic interaction signatures are relatively infrequent. Halo diameter is correlated with total galaxy luminosity. Extended low surface brightness halos are present even in galaxies as faint as M_V=-18. Edge-on galaxies with boxy bulges tend to lack extended spheroidal halos, while those with large classical bulges exhibit extended round halos, supporting the notions that boxy or barlike bulges originate from disks. Most face-on spiral galaxies present features that appear to be irregular extensions of spiral arms, although rare cases show smooth boundaries with no sign of star formation. Although we serendipitous...

  4. The SEGUE K Giant Survey. III. Quantifying Galactic Halo Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Janesh, William; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul; Rockosi, Constance; Starkenburg, Else; Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Beers, Timothy C; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5-125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's SEGUE project. We use a position-velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a smooth stellar halo model to quantify the amount of substructure in the halo. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured, and confirm earlier work using BHB stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius. In addition, we find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity, and that the K giant sample shows significantly stronger substructure than the BHB stars, which only sample the most metal poor stars. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify groups, we find that a large fraction ($\\sim 33\\%$) of the st...

  5. The effects of baryons on the halo mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weiguang; Dolag, Klaus; Murante, Giuseppe; Tornatore, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of baryon physics on the halo mass function. The analysis is based on simulations of a cosmological volume. Besides a Dark Matter (DM) only simulation, we also carry out two other hydrodynamical simulations. We identified halos using a spherical overdensity algorithm and their masses are computed at three different overdensities (with respect to the critical one), $\\Delta_c=200$, 500 and 1500. We find the fractional difference between halo masses in the hydrodynamical and in the DM simulations to be almost constant, at least for halos more massive than $\\log (M_{\\Delta_c} / \\hMsun)\\geq 13.5$. In this range, mass increase in the hydrodynamical simulations is of about 4-5 per cent at $\\Delta_c=500$ and $\\sim 1$ - 2 per cent at $\\Delta_c=200$. Quite interestingly, these differences are nearly the same for both radiative and non-radiative simulations. Such variations of halo masses induce corresponding variations of the halo mass function (HMF). At $z=0$, the HMFs for GH and ...

  6. Anatomy of the Bar Instability in Cuspy Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, John; Shlosman, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    We examine the bar instability in galactic models with an exponential disk and a cuspy dark matter (DM) halo with a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) cosmological density profile. We construct equilibrium models from a 3-integral composite distribution function that are subject to the bar instability. We generate a sequence of models with a range of mass resolution from 1.8K to 18M particles in the disk and 10K to 100M particles in the halo along with a multi-mass model with an effective resolution of ~10^10 particles. We describe how mass resolution affects the bar instability, including its linear growth phase, the buckling instability, pattern speed decay through the resonant transfer of angular momentum to the DM halo, and the possible destruction of the halo cusp. Our higher resolution simulations show a converging spectrum of discrete resonance interactions between the bar and DM halo orbits. As the pattern speed decays, orbital resonances sweep through most of the DM halo phase space and widely distribute angu...

  7. The Milky Way's dark matter halo appears to be lopsided

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kanak; Jog, Chanda J; Blitz, Leo

    2009-01-01

    The atomic hydrogen gas (HI) disk in the outer region (beyond ~10 kpc from the centre) of Milky Way can provide valuable information about the structure of the dark matter halo. The recent 3-D thickness map of the outer HI disk from the all sky 21-cm line LAB survey, gives us a unique opportunity to investigate the structure of the dark matter halo of Milky Way in great detail. A striking feature of this new survey is the North-South asymmetry in the thickness map of the atomic hydrogen gas. Assuming vertical hydrostatic equilibrium under the total potential of the Galaxy, we derive the model thickness map of the HI gas. We show that simple axisymmetric halo models, such as softened isothermal halo (producing a flat rotation curve with V_c ~ 220 km/s) or any halo with density falling faster than the isothermal one, are not able to explain the observed radial variation of the gas thickness. We also show that such axisymmetric halos along with different HI velocity dispersion in the two halves, cannot explain t...

  8. Pairwise velocities in the Halo Model: Luminosity and Scale Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Slosar, A; Tasitsiomi, A; Slosar, Anze; Seljak, Uros; Tasitsiomi, Argyro

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the pairwise velocity dispersion as a function of galaxy luminosity in the context of a halo model. We derive the distribution of velocities of pairs at a given separation taking into account both one-halo and two-halo contributions. We show that pairwise velocity distribution in real space is a complicated mixture of host-satellite, satellite-satellite and two-halo pairs. The peak value is reached at around 1 Mpc/h and does not reflect the velocity dispersion of a typical halo hosting these galaxies, but is instead dominated by the satellite-satellite pairs in high mass clusters. This is true even for cross-correlations between bins separated in luminosity. As a consequence the velocity dispersion at a given separation can decrease with luminosity, even if the underlying typical halo host mass is increasing, in agreement with some recent observations. We compare our findings to numerical simulations and find a good agreement. Numerical simulations also suggest a luminosity de...

  9. What size halos do local LIRGs live in?

    CERN Document Server

    Tekola, Abiy G; Vaisanen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the preferred environment of local Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs) in terms of the host halos that they inhabit, and in comparison to a control galaxy sample. The LIRGs are drawn from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue redshift survey (PSCz), while the control sample is drawn from the 2MASS redshift survey (2MRS). A friends-of-friends algorithm was run on the 2MRS sample to identify galaxies living in the same dark matter halos and the PSCz galaxies were then associated with these identified halos. We show that the relative probability of finding local LIRGs with respect to 2MASS galaxies is largest in approximately group size halos (Mhalo~10^13M_sun), and declines both in the cluster regime and in smaller halos. This confirms, using a different technique than in previous work, that local LIRGs are indeed more abundant in group environments than elsewhere. We also find a trend between the LIR values of LIRGs and their location within their host dark matter halos, such that the average locatio...

  10. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2016-07-01

    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  11. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the Statistical Properties of the Radio Halo Population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Cassano; G. Brunetti; T. Venturi

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the statistical properties of the radio halo population in galaxy clusters. Radio bi-modality is observed in galaxy clusters: a fraction of clusters host giant radio halos while a majority of clusters do not show evidence of diffuse cluster-scale radio emission. The radio bi-modality has a correspondence in terms of dynamical state of the hosting clusters showing that merging clusters host radio halos and follow the well-known radio-X-ray correlation, while more relaxed clusters do not host radio halos and populate a region well separated from that correlation. These evidences can be understood in the framework of a scenario wheremerger-driven turbulence re-accelerate the radio emitting electrons. We discuss the main statistical expectations of this scenario underlining the important role of the upcoming LOFAR surveys to test present models.

  12. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  13. Evidence of Halo Microlensing in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Uglesich, R R; Baltz, E A; De Jong, J T A; Boyle, R P; Corbally, C J; Uglesich, Robert R.; Crotts, Arlin P.S.; Baltz, Edward A.; Jong, Jelte T.A. de; Boyle, Richard P.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    We report results from intensive monitoring of two fields on either side of M31,emphasizing microlensing involving stars and masses in M31. These results stem from the three-year VATT/Columbia survey of variability on 3d to 2m timescales. Observations were conducted intensively from 1997-1999, with baselines 1995-now,at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, MDM 1.3-meter, and Isaac Newton telescopes, totaling about 200 epochs. The two fields cover 560 square arcmin total, along the minor axis on either side of M31. Candidate microlensing events are subject to tests to distinguish microlenses from variable stars. Fourprobable microlensing events total, compared to carefully computed event rate and efficiency models, indicate a marginally significant microlensing activity above expectations for the stellar lenses alone in M31 (and the Galaxy) acting as lenses. Maximum likelihood analyses of the event distribution in timescale and across the face of M31 indicates a microlensing dark matter halo fraction con...

  14. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078842

    2015-01-01

    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  15. The Dark Halo of NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, Y.; Richtler, T.; Hilker, M.

    2006-06-01

    NGC 1399 is the central giant elliptical of the nearby Fornax cluster of galaxies. Our sample now consists of 625 GCs with projected galactocentric distances between 6 and 100 kpc, thus increasing by almost a factor of two the radial range in comparison to the study presented by Richtler et al. 2004). We determine the line-of-sight velocity dispersion as a function of radius and compare it to spherical Jeans-models. We find that a massive dark halo is required in order to explain the dynamics of the metal-poor (red) GCs. At 60 kpc, the dark matter fraction is 60%. In accordance with their shallower radial distribution, the metal-rich (blue) GCs show a higher line-of-sight velocity dispersion. Yet, there is reason to believe that the blue cluster population of NGC 1399 is contaminated by intra-cluster GCs which perhaps have been stripped off neighboring early-type galaxies. The center of the Fornax cluster is a complex environment, and a more detailed analysis of our data will allow us to better understand the GC systems of central giant ellipticals and their connection to the galaxy clusters in which they reside.

  16. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  17. Performance of the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of radiation hard synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes for a direction sensitive measurement. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and received data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed i...

  18. Calcium H & K Induced by Galaxy Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtun

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the mean density profile of Ca II gas around galaxies out to ~ 200 kpc, traced by Fraunhofer's H & K absorption lines. The measurement is based on cross-correlating the positions of about one million foreground galaxies at z ~ 0.1 and the flux decrements induced in the spectra of about 10^5 background quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This technique allows us to trace the total amount of Ca II absorption induced by the circumgalactic medium, including absorbers too weak to be detected in individual spectra. We can statistically measure Ca II rest equivalent widths down to several mA, corresponding to column densities of about 5x10^10 cm^{-2}. We find that the Ca II column density distribution follows N ~ rp^{-1.4} and the mean Ca II mass in the halo within 200 kpc is ~ 5x10^3 Msolar, averaged over the foreground galaxy sample with median mass ~ 10^10.3 Msolar. This is about an order-of-magnitude larger than the Ca II mass in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way, su...

  19. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  20. Halo Velocity Groups in the Pisces Overdensity

    CERN Document Server

    Sesar, Branimir; Duffau, Sonia; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    We report spectroscopic observations with the Gemini South Telescope of 5 faint V~20 RR Lyrae stars associated with the Pisces overdensity. At a heliocentric and galactocentric distance of ~80 kpc, this is the most distant substructure in the Galactic halo known to date. We combined our observations with literature data and confirmed that the substructure is composed of two different kinematic groups. The main group contains 8 stars and has = 50 km/s, while the second group contains four stars at a velocity of = -52 km/s, where V_{gsr} is the radial velocity in the galactocentric standard of rest. The metallicity distribution of RR Lyrae stars in the Pisces overdensity is centered on [Fe/H]=-1.5 dex and has a width of 0.3 dex. The new data allowed us to establish that both groups are spatially extended making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and are more likely to be debris of a tidally disrupted galaxy or galaxies. Due to small sky coverage, it is still unclear whether these groups have the sa...

  1. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 important cosmological information in N-body data, as shown in previous studies, but Camelus constrains cosmology almost exclusively from high significance peaks (S /N >3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  2. Simulating the Carbon Footprint of Galactic Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Suresh, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We use observations of CIV and CII absorption in background quasars to constrain the parameters of supernova feedback models based on the Illustris cosmological simulation. We compare our simulations to two CIV absorber surveys at z=2-4, spanning a column density range $10^{12} - 10^{15}$ cm$^{-2}$, and an equivalent width 0.1 - 2 \\AA, respectively. We find that reproducing results from the first survey requires that the energy per unit mass of the supernova feedback be increased by a factor of two over the Illustris feedback model. We suggest that winds which deposit a fraction of their energy into heating, rather than accelerating, the surrounding gas can achieve this without altering the star formation rate. However, even our most energetic wind models do not produce enough absorbers with a CIV equivalent width greater than 0.6 Angstrom to match the results of the second survey. We connect these absorbers to the most massive haloes present in our simulations, and suggest possible ways to alleviate the disc...

  3. Dark matter halo properties of GAMA galaxy groups from 100 square degrees of KiDS weak lensing data

    CERN Document Server

    Viola, M; Brouwer, M; Kuijken, K; Hoekstra, H; Norberg, P; Robotham, A S G; van Uitert, E; Alpaslan, M; Baldry, I K; Choi, A; de Jong, J T A; Driver, S P; Erben, T; Grado, A; Graham, Alister W; Heymans, C; Hildebrandt, H; Hopkins, A M; Irisarri, N; Joachimi, B; Loveday, J; Miller, L; Nakajima, R; Schneider, P; Sifón, C; Kleijn, G Verdoes

    2015-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) is an optical wide-field survey designed to map the matter distribution in the Universe using weak gravitational lensing. In this paper, we use these data to measure the density profiles and masses of a sample of $\\sim \\mathrm{1400}$ spectroscopically identified galaxy groups and clusters from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We detect a highly significant signal (signal-to-noise-ratio $\\sim$ 120), allowing us to study the properties of dark matter haloes over one and a half order of magnitude in mass, from $M \\sim 10^{13}-10^{14.5} h^{-1}\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$. We interpret the results for various subsamples of groups using a halo model framework which accounts for the mis-centring of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (used as the tracer of the group centre) with respect to the centre of the group's dark matter halo. We find that the density profiles of the haloes are well described by an NFW profile with concentrations that agree with predictions from numerical simulations. ...

  4. Galaxy halo truncation and Giant Arc Surface Brightness Reconstruction in the Cluster MACSJ1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Eichner, Thomas; Suyu, Sherry H; Halkola, Aleksi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Monna, Anna; Rosati, Piero; Grillo, Claudio; Balestra, Italo; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Zheng, Wei; H\\ost, Ole; Lemze, Doron; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Bradley, Larry; Molino, Alberto; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Scodeggio, Marco; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Donahue, Megan; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Kelson, Daniel; Lahav, Ofer; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Merten, Julian; Riess, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this work we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, especially focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has significant amounts of intracluster light which is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at $z=1.033$ into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness distribution (SFB) of the arc which is bent around several cluster members are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a NFW profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed NIR--light. We match the multiple image positions at an r.m.s. level of $0.85\\arcsec$ and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several...

  5. Light versus dark in strong-lens galaxies: dark matter haloes that are rounder than their stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Claudio; Read, Justin I.; Coles, Jonathan P.; Leier, Dominik; Falco, Emilio E.; Ferreras, Ignacio; Saha, Prasenjit

    2016-02-01

    We measure the projected density profile, shape and alignment of the stellar and dark matter mass distribution in 11 strong-lens galaxies. We find that the projected dark matter density profile - under the assumption of a Chabrier stellar initial mass function - shows significant variation from galaxy to galaxy. Those with an outermost image beyond ˜10 kpc are very well fit by a projected Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile; those with images within 10 kpc appear to be more concentrated than NFW, as expected if their dark haloes contract due to baryonic cooling. We find that over several half-light radii, the dark matter haloes of these lenses are rounder than their stellar mass distributions. While the haloes are never more elliptical than edm = 0.2, their stars can extend to e* > 0.2. Galaxies with high dark matter ellipticity and weak external shear show strong alignment between light and dark; those with strong shear (γ ≳ 0.1) can be highly misaligned. This is reassuring since isolated misaligned galaxies are expected to be unstable. Our results provide a new constraint on galaxy formation models. For a given cosmology, these must explain the origin of both very round dark matter haloes and misaligned strong-lens systems.

  6. Mapping stellar content to dark matter halos. II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in SDSS. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum (2015a), we consider two quenching scenarios: 1) a "halo" quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and 2) a "hybrid" quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fit models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above $10^{11} M_\\odot/h^2$. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not ...

  7. The diversity and similarity of simulated cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio F.; Ludlow, Aaron; Springel, Volker; Wang, Jie; Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2010-02-01

    We study the mass, velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) haloes using a suite of N-body simulations of unprecedented numerical resolution. The Aquarius Project follows the formation of six different galaxy-sized haloes simulated several times at varying numerical resolution, allowing numerical convergence to be assessed directly. The highest resolution simulation represents a single dark matter halo using 4.4 billion particles, of which 1.1 billion end up within the virial radius. Our analysis confirms a number of results claimed by earlier work, and clarifies a few issues where conflicting claims may be found in the recent literature. The mass profile of ΛCDM haloes deviates slightly but systematically from the form proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White. The spherically averaged density profile becomes progressively shallower inwards and, at the innermost resolved radius, the logarithmic slope is γ ≡ - d ln ρ/d ln r <~ 1. Asymptotic inner slopes as steep as the recently claimed ρ ~ r-1.2 are clearly ruled out. The radial dependence of γ is well approximated by a power law, γ ~ rα (the Einasto profile). The shape parameter, α, varies slightly but significantly from halo to halo, implying that the mass profiles of ΛCDM haloes are not strictly universal: different haloes cannot, in general, be rescaled to look identical. Departures from similarity are also seen in velocity dispersion profiles and correlate with those in density profiles so as to preserve a power-law form for the spherically averaged pseudo-phase-space density, ρ/σ3 ~ r-1.875. The index here is identical to that of Bertschinger's similarity solution for self-similar infall on to a point mass from an otherwise uniform Einstein-de Sitter universe. The origin of this striking behaviour is unclear, but its robustness suggests that it reflects a fundamental structural property of ΛCDM haloes. Our conclusions are reliable down to radii below 0.4 per cent of

  8. Evolution of the luminosity-to-halo mass relation of LRGs from a combined SDSS-DR10+RCS2 analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van Uitert, Edo; Hoekstra, Henk; Herbonnet, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of the luminosity-to-halo mass relation of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). We select a sample of 52 000 LOWZ and CMASS LRGs from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) SDSS-DR10 in the ~450 deg^2 that overlaps with imaging data from the second Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS2), group them into bins of absolute magnitude and redshift and measure their weak lensing signals. The source redshift distribution has a median of 0.7, which allows us to study the lensing signal as a function of lens redshift. We interpret the lensing signal using a halo model, from which we obtain the halo masses as well as the normalisations of the mass-concentration relations. We find that the concentration of haloes that host LRGs is consistent with dark matter only simulations once we allow for miscentering or satellites in the modelling. The slope of the luminosity-to-halo mass relation has a typical value of 1.4 and does not change with redshift, but we do find evidence for a change in amplitude:...

  9. Parallel HOP: A Scalable Halo Finder for Massive Cosmological Data Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Skory, Stephen; Norman, Michael L; Coil, Alison L

    2010-01-01

    Modern N-body cosmological simulations contain billions ($10^9$) of dark matter particles. These simulations require hundreds to thousands of gigabytes of memory, and employ hundreds to tens of thousands of processing cores on many compute nodes. In order to study the distribution of dark matter in a cosmological simulation, the dark matter halos must be identified using a halo finder, which establishes the halo membership of every particle in the simulation. The resources required for halo finding are similar to the requirements for the simulation itself. In particular, simulations have become too extensive to use commonly-employed halo finders, such that the computational requirements to identify halos must now be spread across multiple nodes and cores. Here we present a scalable-parallel halo finding method called Parallel HOP for large-scale cosmological simulation data. Based on the halo finder HOP, it utilizes MPI and domain decomposition to distribute the halo finding workload across multiple compute n...

  10. Synthesis and Vasorelaxant and Platelet Antiaggregatory Activities of a New Series of 6-Halo-3-phenylcoumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Viña

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 6-halo-3-hydroxyphenylcoumarins (resveratrol-coumarins hybrid derivatives was synthesized in good yields by a Perkin reaction followed by hydrolysis. The new compounds were evaluated for their vasorelaxant activity in intact rat aorta rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE, as well as for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by thrombin in washed human platelets. These compounds concentration-dependently relaxed vascular smooth muscle and some of them showed a platelet antiaggregatory activity that was up to thirty times higher than that shown by trans-resveratrol and some other previously synthesized derivatives.

  11. Ecology of dark matter haloes -II. Effects of interactions on the alignment of halo pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2017-01-01

    We use the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation to study the effects of distant and close interactions on the alignments of the shapes, spins, and orbits of targets haloes with their neighbours, and their dependence on the local density environment and neighbour separation. Interacting targets have a significantly lower spin and higher sphericity and oblateness than all targets. Interacting pairs initially have anti-parallel spins, but the spins develop parallel alignment as time goes on. Neighbours tend to evolve in the plane of rotation of the target, and in the direction of the major axis of prolate haloes. Moreover, interactions are preferentially radial, while pairs with non-radial orbits are preferentially prograde. The alignment signals are stronger at high-mass and for close separations, and independent on the large-scale density. Positive alignment signals are found at redshifts up to 4, and increase with decreasing redshifts. Moreover, the orbits tend to become prograde at low redshift, while no alignment is found at high redshift (z = 4).

  12. Mimicking the LCDM model with stealths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cardenas, Victor H. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2016-12-15

    We present a new cosmological model that mimics the Lambda Cold Dark Matter by using a stealth field. This kind of field is characterized as not coupling directly to gravity; however, it is connected to the underlying matter content of the universe model. As is well known, stealth fields do not back-react on the space-time; however, their mimicry skills show how this field and its self-interaction potential determines the cosmic evolution. We show the study of the simplest model that can be developed with the stealth field. (orig.)

  13. Mimicking the LCDM model with Stealths

    CERN Document Server

    Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Herrera, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    We present a new cosmological model that mimics the Lambda Cold Dark Matter by using a stealth field. This kind of field is characterized as not coupling directly to gravity; however, it is connected to the underlying matter content of the universe model. As is known, stealth fields do not back-react on the space-time; however, their mimicry skills show how this field and its self-interaction potential determines the cosmic evolution. We show the study of the simplest model that can be developed with the stealth field.

  14. Mimicking the LCDM model with stealths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Cárdenas, Víctor H.; Herrera, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    We present a new cosmological model that mimics the Lambda Cold Dark Matter by using a stealth field. This kind of field is characterized as not coupling directly to gravity; however, it is connected to the underlying matter content of the universe model. As is well known, stealth fields do not back-react on the space-time; however, their mimicry skills show how this field and its self-interaction potential determines the cosmic evolution. We show the study of the simplest model that can be developed with the stealth field.

  15. Capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Álvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C

    2015-10-01

    To examine the capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. Prospective study. Straylight, disk halo radius, and high-contrast corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) measurements were compared between patients with age-related cataract and age-matched normal-sighted control subjects by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic. Measurements were made in 53 eyes of 53 patients with a mean age of 67.94 years ± 7.11 (SD) and 31 eyes of 31 controls with a mean age 66.06 ± 5.43 years. Significantly worse (P < .001) mean straylight (1.38 ± 0.24 log[s]), mean disk halo radius (2.40 ± 0.18 log minutes of arc [arcmin]), and mean CDVA (0.17 ± 0.11 logMAR) were recorded in the cataract group than in the control group (1.17 ± 0.11 log[s], 2.10 ± 0.16 log arcmin, and 0.08 ± 0.08 logMAR). Significant differences in AUCs were observed for disk halo radius (0.89 ± 0.04) versus straylight (0.77 ± 0.05) (P = .03) and disk halo radius versus CDVA (0.72 ± 0.05) (P = .001). The comparison of disk halo radius versus the discriminant function with input from CDVA and straylight (0.80 ± 0.05) was at the limit of significance only (0.091 ± 0.05, P = .051). Although all 3 variables discriminated well between normal eyes and eyes with cataract, the disk halo radius showed the best diagnostic capacity. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Halo formation and evolution: unifying physical properties with structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.

    2015-08-01

    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a variety of structures with diverse properties. For example, massive halos of clusters of galaxies have temperatures often an order of magnitude or more higher than the individual galaxy halos within the cluster, or the temperatures of isolated galaxy halos. Giant spiral galaxies contain large quantities of both dark matter and hot gas while other structures like globular clusters appear to have little or no dark matter or gas. Still others, like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies have low gravity and little hot gas, but ironically contain some of the largest fractions of dark matter in the universe. Star forming rates (SFRs) also vary: compare for example the SFRs of giant elliptical galaxies, globular clusters, spiral and starburst galaxies. Furthermore there is evidence that the various structure types have existed over a large fraction of cosmic history. How can this array of variation in properties be reconciled with galaxy halo formation and evolution?We propose a model of halo formation [1] and evolution [2] that is consistent with both primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the isotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The model uses two simple parameters, the total mass and size of a structure, to (1) explain why galaxies have the fractions of dark matter that they do (including why dwarf spheroidals are so dark matter dominated despite their weak gravity), (2) enable an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, (3) explain how fully formed massive galaxies can occur so early in cosmic history, (4) understand the connection between spiral and elliptical galaxies (5) unify the nature of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges and (6) predict the temperatures of hot gas halos and understand how cool galaxy halos can remain stable in the hot environments of cluster-galaxy halos.[1] Ernest, A. D., 2012, in Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory, pp

  17. A NEW MODEL FOR DARK MATTER HALOS HOSTING QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Renyue [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration due to their deficiency in cold gas. We analyze the Millennium Simulation to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at z = 0.5-3.2. The masses of the quasar hosts found decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being [(2-5) × 10{sup 12}, (2-5) × 10{sup 11}, (1-3) × 10{sup 11}] M {sub ☉} for median luminosities of ∼[10{sup 46}, 10{sup 46}, 10{sup 45}] erg s{sup –1} at z = (3.2, 1.4, 0.53), respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model, quasar hosts are primarily massive central halos at z ≥ 2-3 but increasingly dominated by lower mass satellite halos experiencing major interactions toward lower redshift. However, below z = 1, satellite halos in groups more massive than ∼2 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} do not host quasars. Whether for central or satellite halos, imposing the condition of significant interactions substantially boosts the clustering strength compared to the total population with the same mass cut. The inferred lifetimes of quasars at z = 0.5-3.2 of 3-30 Myr are in agreement with observations. Quasars at z ∼ 2 would be hosted by halos of mass ∼5 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} in this model, compared to ∼3 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} previously thought, which would help reconcile with the observed, otherwise puzzling high covering fractions for Lyman limit systems around quasars.

  18. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  19. A look to the inside of haloes: a characterisation of the halo shape as a function of overdensity in the Planck cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Despali, Giulia; Bonamigo, Mario; Limousin, Marceau; Tormen, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the triaxial properties of dark matter haloes of a wide range of masses extracted from a set of cosmological N-body simulations. We measure the shape at different distances from the halo center (characterised by different overdensity thresholds), both in three and in two dimensions, discussing how halo triaxiality increases with (i) mass, (ii) redshift and (iii) overdensity. We also examine how the orientation of the different ellipsoidal shells are aligned with each other and what is the gradient in internal shapes for halos with different virial configurations. Our findings highlight that the internal part of the halo retains memory of the violent formation process keeping the major axis oriented toward the preferential direction of the infalling material while the outer part becomes rounder due to continuous isotropic merging events; this effect is clearly evident in high mass haloes - which formed recently - while it is more blurred in low mass haloes. We present simple distribution...

  20. The NASA Langley High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO) - Advancements in Airborne DIAL Measurements of CH4 and H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Notari, A.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Hare, R. J.; Harper, D. B.; Antill, C.; Cook, A. L.; Young, J.; Chuang, T.; Welch, W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) has the second largest radiative forcing of the long-lived greenhouse gasses (GHG) after carbon dioxide. However, methane's much shorter atmospheric lifetime and much stronger warming potential make its radiative forcing equivalent to that for CO2 over a 20-year time horizon which makes CH4 a particularly attractive target for mitigation strategies. Similar to CH4, water vapor (H2O) is the most dominant of the short-lived GHG in the atmosphere and plays a key role in many atmospheric processes. Atmospheric H2O concentrations span over four orders of magnitude from the planetary boundary layer where high impact weather initiates to lower levels in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where water vapor has significant and long term impacts on the Earth's radiation budget. Active remote sensing employing the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique enables scientific assessments of both natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CH4 with high accuracy and precision as well as and its impacts on the climate. The DIAL technique also allows for profiling of tropospheric water vapor for weather and climate applications with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. NASA Langley is developing the High Altitude Lidar Observatory (HALO) lidar system to address the observational needs of NASA's weather, climate, carbon cycle, and atmospheric composition focus areas. HALO is a multi-function airborne lidar being developed to measure atmospheric H2O and CH4 mixing ratios and aerosol and cloud optical properties using the DIAL and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) techniques, respectively. HALO is designed as an airborne simulator for future space based DIAL missions and will serve as test bed for risk reduction of key technologies required of future space based GHG DIAL missions. A system level overview and up-to-date progress of the HALO lidar will be presented. Simulations on the expected accuracy and precision of HALO CH4

  1. Characterization of geochemical alteration halo associated with gold mineralization at the Buzwagi mine, northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manya, Shukrani

    2017-05-01

    Alteration halo geochemical study was carried out along one transect at the Buzwagi mine which is found in the Neoarchaean Nzega greenstone belt of northern Tanzania. The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization is hosted in quartz veins that are cross-cutting strongly sheared and hydrothermally altered K-granites. Mineralogical studies within the shear zone reveal that sericite, silica and sulphides are the most important hydrothermal mineral assemblages responsible for Au mineralization at the Buzwagi mine. The geochemical alteration halo is characterized by the addition of Au, Cu, Fe, K, Rb, Sn, W and U to wall rocks and simultaneous removal of Na, Sr, Ba, LREE and MREE from the host rocks. The concentrations of Cu (130-870 ppm) which show strong positive correlation with Au (R2 = 0.99) are so high in the alteration halo indicating that Cu is a strong Au pathfinder at the Buzwagi mine. Owing to their immobility during the post-emplacement processes, the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Th, Ta) remained unchanged during the hydrothermal alteration process. The addition of Fe and Cu is attributed to the presence of Fe- and Cu-sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalcocite) whereas the addition of K, Rb, Sn, W and U is a function of both primary concentrations of these elements in the host rocks as well as the subsequent strong hydrothermal alteration evidenced by sericitization and silicification which involved the destruction of feldspars into sericites). The destruction of albite and its replacement by sericite accounts for the depletion of Na, Sr (and Ba). The Buzwagi mine Au mineralization mineral association do not include the more known pathfinders like Ag, As, Sb, Bi, Te and Tl and they seem not to have played a role in the mineralization process. These elements, therefore, should not be considered as pathfinders for Au exploration purposes at a Buzwagi-like deposit.

  2. GALAXY HALO TRUNCATION AND GIANT ARC SURFACE BRIGHTNESS RECONSTRUCTION IN THE CLUSTER MACSJ1206.2-0847

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Monna, Anna [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Suyu, Sherry H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Halkola, Aleksi [Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 23562 Luebeck (Germany); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, Adi [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Rosati, Piero [ESO-European Southern Observatory, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Grillo, Claudio; Host, Ole [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Balestra, Italo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zheng, Wei; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); and others

    2013-09-10

    In this work, we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, particularly focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has a significant amount of intracluster light that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at z = 1.033 into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness (SFB) distribution of the arc, which is bent around several cluster members, are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and the extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed near-infrared light. We match the multiple image positions at an rms level of 0.''85 and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several filters to a remarkable accuracy based on this cluster model. The length scale where the enclosed galaxy halo mass is best constrained is about 5 effective radii-a scale in between those accessible to dynamical and field strong-lensing mass estimates on the one hand and galaxy-galaxy weak-lensing results on the other hand. The velocity dispersion and halo size of a galaxy with m{sub 160W,AB} = 19.2 and M{sub B,Vega} = -20.7 are {sigma} = 150 km s{sup -1} and r Almost-Equal-To 26 {+-} 6 kpc, respectively, indicating that the halos of the cluster galaxies are tidally stripped. We also reconstruct the unlensed source, which is smaller by a factor of {approx}5.8 in area, demonstrating the increase in morphological information due to lensing. We conclude that this galaxy likely has star-forming spiral arms with a red (older) central component.

  3. The outer profile of dark matter haloes: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun

    2016-07-01

    A steepening feature in the outer density profiles of dark matter haloes indicating the splashback radius has drawn much attention recently. Possible observational detections have even been made for galaxy clusters. Theoretically, Adhikari et al. have estimated the location of the splashback radius by computing the secondary infall trajectory of a dark matter shell through a growing dark matter halo with an NFW profile. However, since they imposed a shape of the halo profile rather than computing it consistently from the trajectories of the dark matter shells, they could not provide the full shape of the dark matter profile around the splashback radius. We improve on this by extending the self-similar spherical collapse model of Fillmore & Goldreich to a ΛCDM universe. This allows us to compute the dark matter halo profile and the trajectories simultaneously from the mass accretion history. Our results on the splashback location agree qualitatively with Adhikari et al. but with small quantitative differences at large mass accretion rates. We present new fitting formulae for the splashback radius Rsp in various forms, including the ratios of Rsp/R200c and Rsp/R200m. Numerical simulations have made the puzzling discovery that the splashback radius scales well with R200m but not with R200c. We trace the origin of this to be the correlated increase of Ωm and the average halo mass accretion rate with an increasing redshift.

  4. Lensing Measurements of the Ellipticity of LRG Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Clampitt, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Lensing measurements of the shapes of dark matter halos can provide tests of gravity theories and possible dark matter interactions. We measure the quadrupole weak lensing signal from the elliptical halos of 70,000 SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies. We use a new estimator that nulls the spherical halo lensing signal, isolating the shear due to anisotropy in the dark matter distribution. One of the two Cartesian components of our estimator is insensitive to the primary systematic, a spurious alignment of lens and source ellipticities, allowing us to make robust measurements of halo ellipticity. Our best-fit value for the ellipticity of the surface mass density is 0.24, which translates to an axis ratio of 0.78. We rule out the hypothesis of no ellipticity at the 4-sigma confidence level, and ellipticity 0.89) at the 2-sigma level. We discuss how our measurements of halo ellipticity are revised to higher values using estimates of the misalignment of mass and light from simulations. Finally, we apply the same techniqu...

  5. Subhalo statistics of galactic halos: beyond the resolution limit

    CERN Document Server

    Cautun, Marius; van de Weygaert, Rien; Frenk, Carlos S; Jones, Bernard J T; Sawala, Till

    2014-01-01

    We study the substructure population of Milky Way (MW)-mass halos in the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology using a novel procedure to extrapolate subhalo number statistics beyond the resolution limit of N-body simulations. The technique recovers the mean and the variance of the subhalo abundance, but not its spatial distribution. It extends the dynamic range over which precise statistical predictions can be made by the equivalent of performing a simulation with 50 times higher resolution, at no additional computational cost. We apply this technique to MW-mass halos, but it can easily be applied to halos of any mass. We find up to $20\\%$ more substructures in MW-mass halos than found in previous studies. Our analysis lowers the mass of the MW halo required to accommodate the observation that the MW has only three satellites with a maximum circular velocity $V_{max}\\ge30 km/s$ in the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. The probability of having a subhalo population similar to that in the MW is $20\\%$ for a virial mass, $M_{200}=1\\tim...

  6. X-Ray Emission from the Halo of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); DiStefano, Rosanne

    2004-01-01

    Our goal was to use short (10 ksec) observations of selected fields in the halo of M31, to determine the size and characteristics of its X-ray population and to study the connection between globular clusters and X-ray sources. The program of observations has yet to be successfully completed. We received acceptable data from just 2 of the 5 approved fields. Nevertheless, the results were intriguing and we have submitted a paper based on this data to Nature. We find that the X-ray source density is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of one GC, providing the first observational evidence supporting the ejection hypothesis. We also find additional X-ray sources, including some which are very soft, in large enough numbers to suggest that not all could have been formed in GCs. That is, some must be descended from the same primordial halo population that produced any compact stars comprising part of the halo's dark matter. Extrapolating fiom the X-ray source population, we estimate that stellar remnants and dim old stars in the halo could comprise as much as 25% of the estimated mass (approx. 10(exp 12) Solar Mass) of the halo. These results suggest that the other approved fields should be observed soon and also provide strong motivation for the future XMM-Newton programs.

  7. Radial orbit instability in dwarf dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Wojtak, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the phenomenon of radial orbit instability occurring in dark matter haloes of the size of a dwarf galaxy. We carried out simulations of seven spherical models, with the same standard NFW density profile but different anisotropy profiles of particle orbits. Four of them underwent instability: two with a constant positive anisotropy, one with an anisotropic core and an isotropic envelope and one with a very small isotropic core and an anisotropic envelope. Haloes affected by the instability become approximately axisymmetric and prolate, with the profile of the shortest-to-longest axis ratio increasing with radius. The lower limit for the central value of this axis ratio is 0.3 for an NFW halo. The density profiles of the haloes did not change significantly, whereas the velocity distributions became axisymmetric. The total angular momentum rose due to large-amplitude oscillations of its components perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the halo. We also studied orbits of individu...

  8. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  9. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabra, Bassem M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Notre Dame University-Louaize, P.O. Box 72 Zouk Mikael, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon); Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert, E-mail: bsabra@ndu.edu.lb [Department of Physics, Lebanese University II, Fanar (Lebanon)

    2015-04-10

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe.

  10. The Structure and Evolution of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemand, Jürg; Moore, Ben

    2011-02-01

    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the f ormation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in the literature, galaxy formation and evolution needs to be understood in more detail in order to fully test the CDM paradigm. Whatever the true nature of the dark matter particle is, its clustering properties must not be too different from a cold neutralino like particle to maintain all the successes of the model in matching large scale structure data and the global properties of halos which are mostly in good agreement with observations.

  11. Dark matter scaling relations in intermediate z haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, V F

    2010-01-01

    We investigate scaling relations between the dark matter (DM) halo model parameters for a sample of intermediate redshift early - type galaxies (ETGs) resorting to a combined analysis of Einstein radii and aperture velocity dispersions. Modeling the dark halo with a Navarro - Frenk - White profile and assuming a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) to estimate stellar masses, we find that the column density ${\\cal{S}}$ and the Newtonian acceleration within the halo characteristic radius $r_s$ and effective radius $R_{eff}$ are not universal quantities, but correlate with the luminosity $L_V$, the stellar mass $M_{\\star}$ and the halo mass $M_{200}$, contrary to recent claims in the literature. We finally discuss a tight correlation among the DM mass $M_{DM}(R_{eff})$ within the effective radius $R_{eff}$, the stellar mass $M_{\\star}(R_{eff})$ and $R_{eff}$ itself. The slopes of the scaling relations discussed here strongly depend, however, on the DM halo model and the IMF adopted so that these ingredients hav...

  12. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Metuki, Ofer; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with $R_{vir}$ ($\\Delta_M$), a fixed-aperture ($\\Delta_R$) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V--web algorithm). $\\Delta_M$ is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of $5$\\rvir, where \\rvir\\ is the virial radius. $\\Delta_R$ is the density field Gaussian smoothed with $R=4h^{-1}$Mpc, evaluated at the center of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in ...

  13. Halo Vest treatment of upper cervical vertebral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Karavelioğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate the efficacy, long term result and associated complications of Halo Vest treatment for patients with upper cervical spine fractures.Methods: This study included 13 patients (11 men and 2 women who applied Halo Vest treatment for traumatic upper cervical vertebral fracture between 2006 and 2011. We reviewed the radiological and clinical findings of patients before and after the treatment.Results: Six of 13 patients had odontoid type 3 fracture, 2 patients had odontoid type 2 fracture with C1 type 1 fracture, 2 patients had odontoid type 2 fracture with Jefferson fracture, one patient had type 2 hangman fracture and two patients had unclassified C2 corpus fractures. The mean follow-up time with Halo Vest was 14 weeks (10-21 weeks. Ten patients had bone fusion and the mean time of bone fusion was 12 weeks.Conclusions: Halo Vest treatment for upper cervical spine fracture is a safe and effective method but the patients comfort and satisfaction are low. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (2: 171-174Key words: Atlas fracture, odontoid fracture, halo vest

  14. The very steep spectrum radio halo in Abell 697

    CERN Document Server

    Macario, Giulia; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Dallacasa, Daniele; Giacintucci, Simona; Cassano, Rossella; Bardelli, Sandro; Athreya, Ramana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed study of the giant radio halo in the galaxy cluster Abell 697, with the aim to constrain its origin and connection with the cluster dynamics. We performed high sensitivity GMRT observations at 325 MHz, which showed that the radio halo is much brighter and larger at this frequency, compared to previous 610 MHz observations. In order to derive the integrated spectrum in the frequency range 325 MHz--1.4 GHz, we re--analysed archival VLA data at 1.4 GHz and made use of proprietary GMRT data at 610 MHz. {Our multifrequency analysis shows that the total radio spectrum of the giant radio halo in A\\,697 is very steep, with $\\alpha_{\\rm~325 MHz}^{\\rm~1.4 GHz} \\approx 1.7-1.8$. %\\pm0.1$. Due to energy arguments, a hadronic origin of the halo is disfavoured by such steep spectrum. Very steep spectrum halos in merging clusters are predicted in the case that the emitting electrons are accelerated by turbulence, observations with the upcoming low frequency arrays will be able to test the...

  15. The segregation of baryons and dark matter during halo assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Shihong; Frenk, Carlos S; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The standard galaxy formation theory assumes that baryons and dark matter are initially well-mixed before becoming segregated due to radiative cooling. We use non-radiative hydrodynamical simulations to explicitly examine this assumption and find that baryons and dark matter can also be segregated during the build-up of the halo. As a result, baryons in many haloes do not originate from the same Lagrangian region as the dark matter. When using the fraction of corresponding dark matter and gas particles in the initial conditions (the "paired fraction") as a proxy of the dark matter and gas segregation strength of a halo, on average about $25$ percent of the baryonic and dark matter of the final halo are segregated in the initial conditions. A consequence of this effect is that the baryons and dark matter of the same halo initially experience different tidal torques and thus their angular momentum vectors are often misaligned. This is at odds with the assumption of the standard galaxy formation model, and chall...

  16. Absorption Line Signatures of Gas in Mini Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Kepner, J V; Abel, T; Spergel, D N; Kepner, Jeremy; Tripp, Todd; Abel, Tom; Spergel, David

    1999-01-01

    Recent observations and theoretical calculations suggest that some QSO absorption line systems may be due to gas in small dark matter halos with circular velocities on the order of 30 km/s. Additional observational evidence suggests that, in general, many absorption line systems may also be multi-phase in nature. Thus, computing the absorption lines of mini-halos, in addition to providing signatures of small halos, is a natural way to explore multi-phase behavior. The state of gas in mini-halos is strongly affected by the background UV radiation field. To address this issue a code was developed that includes many of the chemical and radiative processes found in CLOUDY and also incorporates spherically symmetric multi-wavelength radiative transfer of an isotropic field, non-equilibrium chemistry, heating, cooling and self-consistent quasi hydro-static equilibrium gas dynamics. With this code detailed simulations were conducted of gas in mini-halos using different types of background spectra. From these simulat...

  17. The Stellar Density Profile of the Distant Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Colin T; Munn, Jeffrey A; Bell, Eric F; Majewski, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    We use extensive gravity-sensitive DDO 51 photometry over 5100 square degrees, combined with SDSS broadband photometry, to select a catalog of $\\sim 4,000$ giant stars covering a large fraction of the high Galactic latitude sky and reaching out to $\\sim 80$ kpc in the Galactic halo. This sample of bright and unbiased tracers enables us to measure the radial profile and 3D structure of the stellar halo to large distance which had previously only been measured with sparse tracers or small samples. Using population synthesis models to reproduce the observed giant star luminosity function, we find that the halo maintains a $r^{-3.5}$ profile from $30$ to $80$ kpc with no signs of a truncation or sharp break over this range. The radial profile measurement is largely insensitive to individual halo substructure components, but we find that attempting to measure the shape of the halo is overwhelmed by the Sagittarius stream such that no ellipsoidal shape is a satisfactory description in this region. These measurement...

  18. Evolution of Phase-Space Density in Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Yehuda; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2007-01-01

    Evolution of the phase-space density profile in dark matter (DM) halos is investigated by means of constrained simulations, designed to control the merging history of a given DM halo. Halos evolve through a series of quiescent phases of a slow accretion intermitted by violent events of major mergers. In the quiescent phases the density of the halo closely follows the NFW profile and the phase-space density profile, Q(r), is given by the Taylor/Navarro power law, r^{-beta}, where beta ~ 1.9. Expressing the phase-space density by the NFW parameters, Q(r)=Q_s (r/R_s)^{-beta}, the evolution of Q is determined by Q_s. We have found that the effective mass surface density within R_s, Sigma_s = rho_s R_s, remains constant throughout the evolution of a given halo along the main branch of its merging tree. This invariance entails that Q_s ~ R{_s^{-5/2}} and Q(r) ~ Sigma{_s^{-1/2}} R{_s^{-5/2}} (r/R_s)^{-beta}. It follows that the phase-space density remains constant, in the sense of Q_s=const., in the quiescent phases...

  19. The accretion origin of the Milky Way's stellar halo

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric F; Belokurov, Vasily; Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V; Bullock, James S; Hogg, David W; Jahnke, Knud; de Jong, Jelte T A; Beers, Timothy C; Evans, N W; Grebel, Eva K; Ivezic, Zeljko; Koposov, Sergey E; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schneider, Donald P; Steinmetz, Matthias; Zolotov, Adi

    2007-01-01

    We have used data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 to explore the overall structure and substructure of the stellar halo of the Milky Way using about 4 million color-selected main sequence turn-off stars. We fit oblate and triaxial broken power-law models to the data, and found a `best-fit' oblateness of the stellar halo c/a ~ 0.6, and halo stellar masses between Galactocentric radii of 1 and 40kpc of ~4x10^8 M_sun. The density profile of the stellar halo is approximately r^{-3}; it is possible that the power law slope is shallower inside 20kpc and steeper outside that radius. Yet, we found that all smooth and symmetric models were very poor fits to the distribution of stellar halo stars because the data exhibit a great deal of spatial substructure. We quantified deviations from a smooth oblate/triaxial model using the RMS of the data around the model profile on scales >~100pc, after accounting for the (known) contribution of Poisson uncertainties. The fractional RMS deviation of the ac...

  20. A New Model for Dark Matter Halos Hosting Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-01-01

    A new model for quasar-hosting dark matter halos, meeting two physical conditions, is put forth. First, significant interactions are taken into consideration to trigger quasar activities. Second, satellites in very massive halos at low redshift are removed from consideration, due to their deficiency of cold gas. We analyze the {\\em Millennium Simulation} to find halos that meet these two conditions and simultaneously match two-point auto-correlation functions of quasars and cross-correlation functions between quasars and galaxies at $z=0.5-3.2$. %The found halos have some distinct properties worth noting. The masses of found quasar hosts decrease with decreasing redshift, with the mass thresholds being $[(2-5)\\times 10^{12}, (2-5)\\times 10^{11}, (1-3)\\times 10^{11}]\\msun$ for median luminosities of $\\sim[10^{46}, 10^{46}, 10^{45}]$erg/s at $z=(3.2, 1.4, 0.53)$, respectively, an order of magnitude lower than those inferred based on halo occupation distribution modeling. In this model quasar hosts are primarily...