WorldWideScience

Sample records for lca-based environmental impact

  1. Life Cycle Assesment (LCA Based Environmental Impact Minimization of Solid Fuel Boilers in Lithuanian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Šulga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today Europe is facing unprecedented energy problems related to the EU dependence on energy imports, concerns about global supplies of fossil fuel and obvious climate change. However, despite all these problems Europe wastes at least 20 percent of energy due to its inefficient use.The EU energy efficiency policy states that one of the biggest saving potentials lies in heating of the buildings whose current consumption is ~ 1725 Mt. The EU building sector is the largest final energy consumer.This research deals with domestic solid fuel boilers that are used in buildings and their efficiency increase by applying life-cycle tools. This article analyzes the situation of manufacturing solid fuel boilers in Lithuania, the EU EuP policy, the main environmental issues of boilers production (their production and use phases. The impact of two different fuels (wood and coal on the environment is also estimated, propositions of an ecological design of boilers are presented and a new solid fuel boiler is described.

  2. METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSION AND PILOTING OF LCA-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR PRODUCT STAGE ASSESSMENT OF BRAZILIAN BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Ruschi Mendes Saade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Energy Agency (IEA’s Annex 57 was established to advance on evaluation of embodied energy and GHG emissions for building construction. Its activities include recommendation of common calculation methods and disclosure of regional benchmarks. Process-based, input-output or hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA can support such calculations. Identification of the major products that describe key building typologies plays a strategic role in the tasks of streamlining indicators’ monitoring scope and LCI data gathering in contexts with little LCA practice consolidation. Given these motivations and backdrops, our main goals are (i to calculate a selected set of LCA-based indicators to synthetically describe environmental performance of construction products for three functionally equivalent case studies; (ii to detect the major contributors to embodied energy (EE and emissions (EGWP; and (iii to examine the implications of considering embodied CO2 versus total GHG emissions. The selected metrics include – besides EE and EGWP targeted by Annex 57 – the blue water footprint (bWF, non-renewable primary material consumption (NRc and volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions. Production cycle modeling used previously collected national data, as well as secondary data extracted from national and international literature or adapted from international databases whenever considered as reasonably similar to Brazilian processes. EE and EGWP results were calculated using the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED method and the CML 2001 baseline v. 2.05 method, respectively, and are presented for the top contributing products. NRc, bWF and VOC calculations were directly derived from the inventories and discussed in more detail for cement and concrete. Around 80% of the total embodied energy was related to seven construction products, while four of them also responded for around 80% of embodied GWP. Enlarging the database to encompass ten core

  3. A LCA Based Biofuel Supply Chain Analysis Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喆轩; 邱彤; 陈丙珍

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) based biofuel supply chain (SC) analysis framework which enables the study of economic, energy and environmental (3E) performances by using multi-objective opti-mization. The economic objective is measured by the total annual profit, the energy objective is measured by the average fossil energy (FE) inputs per MJ biofuel and the environmental objective is measured by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per MJ biofuel. A multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) model with multi-conversion pathways is formulated based on the framework and is solved by using theε-constraint method. The MOLFP prob-lem is turned into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem by setting up the total annual profit as the optimization objective and the average FE inputs per MJ biofuel and GHG emissions per MJ biofuel as constraints. In the case study, this model is used to design an experimental biofuel supply chain in China. A set of the weekly Pareto optimal solutions is obtained. Each non-inferior solution indicates the optimal locations and the amount of biomass produced, locations and capacities of conversion factories, locations and amount of biofuel being supplied in final markets and the flow of mass through the supply chain network (SCN). As the model reveals trade-offs among 3E criteria, we think the framework can be a good support tool of decision for the design of biofuel SC.

  4. Regionalized LCA-based optimization of building energy supply: method and case study for a Swiss municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Vadenbo, Carl; Steubing, Bernhard; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. The results show that the environmental improvement potential is very large: in the optimal case, greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply could be reduced by more than 75% and particulate emissions by over 50% in the municipality. This scenario supposes a drastic shift of heat supply systems from a fossil fuel dominated portfolio to a portfolio consisting of mainly heat pump and woodchip incineration systems. In addition to a change in heat supply technologies, roofs, windows and walls would need to be refurbished in more than 65% of the municipality's buildings. The full potential of the environmental impact reductions will hardly be achieved in reality, particularly in the short term, for example, because of financial constraints and social acceptance, which were not taken into account in this study. Nevertheless, the results of the optimization model can help policy makers to identify the most effective measures for improvement at the decision making level, for example, at the building level for refurbishment and selection of heating systems or at the municipal level for designing district heating networks. Therefore, this work represents a starting point for designing effective incentives to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. While the results of the optimization model are specific to the municipality studied, the model could readily be adapted to other regions.

  5. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Because of climatic changes, large investments are needed to keep flood risk at an acceptable level in urban areas. Increasing dimensions of underground sewer systems and retention basins are increasingly supplemented with multi-functional approaches, aimed at managing water locally and/or route...... it on the surface without harming assets. When evaluating different adaptation approaches, a cost assessment is typically carried out, while environmental impacts usually are not considered. To close this gap, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based method is developed, which allows to quantify environmental impacts...... (SSA), which uses only pipes and underground retention basins. To ensure comparability, flood safety levels for different rain events are defined, which have to be met in both scenarios. The environmental impacts are calculated for eight different categories, including climate change, resource...

  6. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    PE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due......A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...

  7. Environmental impact report (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The three projects as proposed by Pacific Gas and Electric Company and the environmental analysis of the projects are discussed. Sections on the natural and social environments of the proposed projects and their surrounding areas consist of descriptions of the setting, discussions of the adverse and beneficial consequences of the project, and potential mitigation measures to reduce the effects of adverse impacts. The Environmental Impact Report includes discussions of unavoidable adverse effects, irreversible changes, long-term and cumulative impacts, growth-inducing effects, and feasible alternatives to the project. (MHR)

  8. 76 FR 62442 - Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for Upper Truckee.... ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact... publication of the final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. ADDRESSES: The...

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  10. Environment and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.

  11. The Use of Facade Mockups in in LCA Based Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is increasingly becoming important in façade architectural design. The presented research aims to describe an LCA architectural design approach based on the use of a Façade Mockup. The approach is applied and tested for the design Telecom Sustainable Campus’ façade, in Rome....... It is studied how a mockup could facilitate a more thorough LCA-based design processes, and how it could be the medium between design domains and the various stakeholders....

  12. An environmental impact calculator for greenhouse production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrellas, Marta; Antón, Assumpció; Montero, Juan Ignacio

    2013-03-30

    Multiple web-based calculators have come on the market as tools to support sustainable decision making, but few are available to agriculture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has proved to be an objective, transparent tool for calculating environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products and services, but can often be too complex for non-specialists. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an environmental support tool to determine the environmental impacts of protected crops. An effort was made to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to reach a wide audience and help horticulture stakeholders choose efficient options to mitigate the environmental impacts of protected crops. Users can estimate the environmental performance of their crops by entering a limited amount of data and following a few easy steps. A questionnaire must be answered with data on the crop, greenhouse dimensions, substrate, waste management, and the consumption of water, energy, fertilisers and pesticides. The calculator was designed as a simplified LCA, based on two scenarios analysed in detail in previous tasks of the EUPHOROS project and used as reference systems in this study. Two spreadsheets were provided based on these reference scenarios: one for a tomato crop in a multi-tunnel greenhouse under Southern European climate conditions and the other for a tomato crop in a Venlo glass greenhouse under Central European climate conditions. The selected functional unit was one tonne of tomatoes. Default data were given for each reference system for users who did not have complete specific data and to provide results for comparison with users' own results. The results were presented for water use as an inventory indicator and for the impact categories abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, photochemical oxidation and cumulative energy demand. In the multi-tunnel greenhouse, the main contributors based on the default data were the structure, fertilisers

  13. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly.

  14. Environmental Impact Statement Filing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how to submit an environmental impact statement through the e-NEPA electronic submission system. Describes how EPA submits a notice of availability in to the Federal Register and how the comment time period if set forth.

  15. 78 FR 54906 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement... Coachella Valley Conservation Commission (CVCC), has prepared a joint draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (draft Supplemental EIR/EIS) under the...

  16. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  17. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...

  18. 78 FR 14117 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass... Water Resources intend to prepare an environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report (EIS... addressed in the environmental impact statement/ environmental impact report: 1. March 14, 2013, 1:30-3:30...

  19. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  20. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  1. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation.

  2. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system.

  3. Nearshore Berm Discussion Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    straight lines through the sample* *Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater BUILDING STRONG® Definitions • Traditional Placement...drift algae that covers 10 to 100 percent of a substrate* * http://myfwc.com BUILDING STRONG® Definition of Placement Operations Hopper or Split...National Audubon Society, Inc. BUILDING STRONG® Potential Environmental Impacts Nearshore Hardbottom  Support diverse assemblages of algae

  4. DEVELOPING A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    Science.gov (United States)

    LCA-based guidance was developed by EPA under the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision Making (FRED) effort to demonstrate how to conduct a relative comparison between product types to determine environmental preferability. It identifies data collection needs and iss...

  5. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  6. 78 FR 5837 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the Sacramento...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report on the... plans to continue work on a joint environmental impact statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR... (68 FR 44811). Dated: December 11, 2012. Anastasia T. Leigh, Regional Environmental Officer,...

  7. 77 FR 45652 - Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the... prepared a joint Final Program Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Final PEIS/R...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and the...

  8. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources Development: ... the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water ... In the arena of Integrated Water Resources Management, the environment ...

  9. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  10. 78 FR 32269 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Klamath Facilities Removal AGENCY: Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance... Department of Fish and Wildlife have prepared a final environmental impact statement and environmental...

  11. Environmental Impact of Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Brînzã Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    In this research we create a method to transform the savings/ decrease in CO2 into quality increase in physical distribution. And the method consists in finding the right allocation of environmental impact (in terms of CO2 amount) from the distribution activity to every end product. We need to observe and calculate the amount of CO2 in order to know how much CO2 needs to be allocated to every product. The mechanism consists in offering to end-customers the possibility of selecting the distrib...

  12. 76 FR 80346 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Proposed Berths 302-306 American President Lines (APL) Container... of Los Angeles, has completed a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

  13. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  14. 75 FR 8988 - Environmental Impact Statements; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Environmental Impact Statements; Availability AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Notice of availability for the Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, disposition of Bureau of Mines... 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(C)), the National Park...

  15. 76 FR 21345 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 04/04/2011 Through 04/08/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  16. 78 FR 48672 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/29/2013 Through 08/02/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  17. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  18. 10 CFR 51.29 - Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping-environmental impact statement and supplement to environmental impact statement. 51.29 Section 51.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Scoping § 51.29 Scoping-environmental impact...

  19. 78 FR 68860 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Stateline Solar Farm and Proposed California Desert Conservation... Impact Statement (EIS) and Draft Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Stateline Solar Farm...

  20. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  1. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot S

    2010-05-03

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental effects of a proposal and provide a basis for the developer and other .... incorporation of environmental considerations in business practice.49. Generally, the ... A scoping report is written based on issues and concerns raised.

  3. 75 FR 47796 - Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Availability of the Draft Joint Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study in San Clemente, CA AGENCY... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (Draft EIS/EIR) for the San Clemente Shoreline Feasibility Study....

  4. Environmental impact prediction using remote sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pezhman ROUDGARMI; Masoud MONAVARI; Jahangir FEGHHI; Jafar NOURI; Nematollah KHORASANI

    2008-01-01

    Environmental impact prediction is an important step in many environmental studies. Awide variety of methods have been developed in this concern. During this study, remote sensing images were used for environmental impact prediction in Robatkarim area, Iran, during the years of 2005~2007. It was assumed that environmental impact could be predicted using time series satellite imageries. Natural vegetation cover was chosen as a main environmental element and a case study. Environmental impacts of the regional development on natural vegetation of the area were investigated considering the changes occurred on the extent of natural vegetation cover and the amount of biomass. Vegetation data, land use and land cover classes (as activity factors) within several years were prepared using satellite images. The amount ofbiomass was measured by Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on satellite images. The resulted biomass estimates were tested by the paired samples t-test method. No significant difference was observed between the average biomass of estimated and control samples at the 5% significance level. Finally, regression models were used for the environmental impacts prediction. All obtained regression models for prediction of impacts on natural vegetation cover show values over 0.9 for both correlation coefficient and R-squared. According to the resulted methodology, the prediction models of projects and plans impacts can also be developed for other environmental elements which may be derived using time series remote sensing images.

  5. Cost optimisation and minimisation of the environmental impact through life cycle analysis of the waste water treatment plant of Bree (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gussem, K; Wambecq, T; Roels, J; Fenu, A; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2011-01-01

    An ASM2da model of the full-scale waste water plant of Bree (Belgium) has been made. It showed very good correlation with reference operational data. This basic model has been extended to include an accurate calculation of environmental footprint and operational costs (energy consumption, dosing of chemicals and sludge treatment). Two optimisation strategies were compared: lowest cost meeting the effluent consent versus lowest environmental footprint. Six optimisation scenarios have been studied, namely (i) implementation of an online control system based on ammonium and nitrate sensors, (ii) implementation of a control on MLSS concentration, (iii) evaluation of internal recirculation flow, (iv) oxygen set point, (v) installation of mixing in the aeration tank, and (vi) evaluation of nitrate setpoint for post denitrification. Both an environmental impact or Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based approach for optimisation are able to significantly lower the cost and environmental footprint. However, the LCA approach has some advantages over cost minimisation of an existing full-scale plant. LCA tends to chose control settings that are more logic: it results in a safer operation of the plant with less risks regarding the consents. It results in a better effluent at a slightly increased cost.

  6. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics.

  7. 46 CFR 504.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements. 504.7 Section 504.7... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.7 Environmental impact statements. (a) General. (1) An environmental impact... environmental impact statements. (1) A draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) will initially be prepared in...

  8. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  9. 78 FR 23953 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass Salmonid Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for Yolo Bypass.... We published the notice of intent in the Federal Register on March 4, 2013 (78 FR 14117). The public.... Dated: March 29, 2013. Russell W. Grimes, Chief, Environmental Compliance and Conservation Branch,...

  10. 77 FR 46427 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for Proposed Aggregate Terminal Project on Pier D in the... Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the Port will serve as the Lead Agency for the preparation of an EIR for...

  11. Environmental Impact of Fuel Cell Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, N.T.; Day, M.J. [Rolls-Royce Strategic Research Centre, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Brandon, N.P. [T.H.Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Shemilt, J.E. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Fuel Cells potentially offer environmental benefits when compared to conventional technology but it is important to consider the full environmental impact including the manufacturing and disposal steps. This paper describes a case study that compares the energy requirements for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fabrication routes. The results show that that, when compared to the benefits during use, the associated environmental impact is relatively small. Therefore the choice of manufacturing routes will have little effect on the overall advantage of implementing Fuel Cell systems. The total environmental impact of fuel cell fabrication will also include the production of materials. This could contribute a large share of the total environmental burden, however it could be minimised by adopting a design that allows the materials to be recycled in an efficient manner. (author)

  12. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  13. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  14. Low-Environmental Impact Tram Vehicle Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides an assessment of the range of low-environmental impact tram vehicles that could be used at National Wildlife Refuges and public lands throughout...

  15. 78 FR 46677 - Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Calcasieu Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal... is issuing this notice to advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be... the potential for impacts and issues associated with various socioeconomic and environmental resources...

  16. 78 FR 57447 - Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Environmental Impact Statement for the ACEforward Program From.... Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement... Joaquin Regional Rail Commission (SJRRC) will jointly prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and...

  17. 75 FR 52804 - Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Stanislaus County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Stanislaus County... subsequent environmental documentation for project-specific impacts. Letters describing the proposed action...

  18. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... Technology. Review. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws ... the relationship between environmental degradation/pollution and project developments. Though, there .... the convention on climate change and a statement of ..... Delta which states “Apart from air pollution from the oil.

  19. 21 CFR 25.42 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.42 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Preparation of Environmental Documents § 25.42 Environmental impact... be a clear, concise, and detailed written statement describing: (1) The environmental impacts of a...

  20. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared......This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...

  1. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared......This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...

  2. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed......One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... adaptation is absent. Also, the results show an emphasis on positive impacts in the reports, and in a few cases discussions of enhancements. Identification and assessment of negative climate change impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  3. 23 CFR 771.125 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 771.125 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.125 Final environmental impact statements. (a)(1..., economic, or environmental impacts of the action may need to be more fully explored; (iii) the impacts of...

  4. Designing environmental research for impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations.

  5. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  6. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlson, Mårten, E-mail: mkarlso@kth.se; Mörtberg, Ulla, E-mail: mortberg@kth.se; Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  7. The unequal exchange of Dutch cheese and Kenyan roses: Introducing and testing an LCA-based methodology for estimating ecologically unequal exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Oulu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The theory of ecologically unequal exchange (EUE) posits that international trade is structurally organized in a manner that allows a net transfer of resources from peripheral developing to core industrialized countries. The consequence, it is argued, is under-development in the periphery and augmented productive capacity in the core. EUE thus challenges the neoliberal free-market argument that exchange at market prices is symmetric and fair. An LCA-based methodology for estimating EUE that h...

  8. 78 FR 13082 - Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... channel length, and decreasing channel capacity. A key element of this restoration would be the excavation... channel to historical channels in the center of the study area, but no construction would occur in the... short-term project and cumulative construction impacts to sensitive communities (jurisdictional wetlands...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1314 - Environmental impact statements (EISs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statements (EISs). 1.1314... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1314 Environmental impact statements (EISs). (a) Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEISs) (§ 1.1315) and Final Environmental...

  10. 32 CFR 651.23 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact statement. 651.23 Section...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.23 Environmental impact statement. An Environmental Impact statement (EIS) is a detailed written statement required...

  11. Environmental impact of Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about 10^51 ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  12. 23 CFR 771.130 - Supplemental environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts would result in... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental environmental impact statements. 771.130... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.130 Supplemental environmental impact...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  14. 22 CFR 216.7 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 216.7 Section... Environmental impact statements. (a) Applicability. An Environmental Impact Statement shall be prepared when... Environmental Impact Statement relating to paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall comply with the CEQ...

  15. 32 CFR 989.16 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 989.16 Section... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.16 Environmental impact statement. (a) Certain classes of environmental impacts normally require preparation of an EIS (40 CFR 1501.4). These include...

  16. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  17. 76 FR 49526 - Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Saint Louis County, MN AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared to respond to the terms... INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip Forst, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 380 Jackson...

  18. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... in projects with inherent positive effects on climate change? This paper reviews practice, and takes up these questions based on a document study of 19 EIA reports of renewable energy projects in Denmark. The results show that climate change mitigation is included in 18 of the EIA reports reviewed, while...... fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  19. 76 FR 53423 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Section 408 Permission for the Southport Sacramento River Early... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) under Section...

  20. 77 FR 54904 - Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Ballona Wetlands Restoration Project at Ballona Creek Within the... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (DEIS/EIR) for the...

  1. 77 FR 23670 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Los Angeles District intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Encinitas and Solana Beach Shoreline Protection Project, San Diego County,...

  2. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.93 Distribution of final environmental impact...

  3. The environmental impact of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Barlow, C. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The first generation of wind turbine (WT) blades are now reaching their end of life, signalling the beginning of a large problem for the future. Currently most waste is sent to landfill, which is not an environmentally desirable solution. Awareness of this issue is rising, but no studies have fully assessed the eco impact of WT blades. The present study aims to provide a macroscopic quantitative assessment of the lifetime environmental impact of WT blades. The first stage has been to analyse global data to calculate the amount of WT blade materials consumed in the past. The life cycle environmental impact of a single WT blade has then been estimated using eco data for raw materials, manufacturing processes, transportation, and operation and maintenance processes. For a typical 45.2 meter 1.5 MW blade this is 795 GJ (CO2 footprint 42.1 tonnes), dominated by manufacturing processes and raw materials (96% of the total. Based on the 2014 installed capacity, the total mass of WTB is 78 kt, their energy consumption is 82 TJ and the carbon dioxide footprint is 4.35 Mt. These figures will provide a basis for suggesting possible solutions to reduce WTB environmental impact.

  4. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  5. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  6. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  7. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential

  8. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential deprivatio

  9. World aquaculture: environmental impacts and troubleshooting alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Implicit Environmental Impacts of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI Xiao-gen; LI Hui-qiang; TANG Li

    2009-01-01

    Assessment system of implicit environmental impacts was established including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantification of environmental impact indicators is based on the life cycle assessment system of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the evaluation software BEES. Normalization reference values and weights of 12 categories of environmental impacts were identified, and the environmental impact indicators in the phases of raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use and end of life were analyzed. By analyzing the environmental performance of a university refectory as a case study, it is demonstrated that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The total implicit environmental impact load per square meter of this project is 18.448×10~(-2) standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3% of total environmental impacts occur in the phase of raw material extraction.

  11. 21 CFR 25.52 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statements. 25.52 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Public Participation and Notification of Environmental Documents § 25.52 Environmental impact statements. (a) If FDA determines that an EIS is necessary for an action involving...

  12. 7 CFR 1948.62 - Environmental impact requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental impact requirements. 1948.62 Section... Development Assistance Program § 1948.62 Environmental impact requirements. (a) The policies and regulations... studied for environmental impacts. (c) Boundaries shall define the area within which the environmental...

  13. 78 FR 8964 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...-AB03 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Federal... environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement. DATES: Effective on February 7, 2013. FOR FURTHER... the list of project types that normally result in the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement...

  14. 28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63 Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (a) Initial determination. OJP will determine...

  15. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  16. 7 CFR 1794.61 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1794.61 Section 1794..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Impact Statements § 1794.61 Environmental impact statement. An EIS shall be prepared in accordance with...

  17. 77 FR 15310 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... analysis and documentation associated with an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement... environmental impact statement is required.'' CEQ guidance on establishing CEs, issued in November 2010... through a new paragraph, (i)(4), to encourage the posting of all environmental impact statements (EIS...

  18. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Daeyoung

    Increasing concern of environmental sustainability regarding depletion of natural resources and resulting negative environmental impact has triggered various movements to address these issues. Various regulations about product life cycle have been made and applied to industries. As a result, how to evaluate the environmental impact and how to improve current technologies has become an important issue to product developers. Molds and dies are very generally used manufacturing tools and indispensible parts to the production of many products. However, evaluating environmental impact in mold and die manufacturing is not well understood and not much accepted yet. The objective of this thesis is to provide an effective and straightforward way of environmental analysis for mold and die manufacturing practice. For this, current limitations of existing tools were identified. While conventional life cycle assessment tools provide a lot of life cycle inventories, reliable data is not sufficient for the mold and die manufacturer. Even with comprehensive data input, current LCA tools only provide another comprehensive result which is not directly applicable to problem solving. These issues are critical especially to the mold and die manufacturer with limited resource and time. This thesis addresses the issues based on understanding the needs of mold and die manufacturers. Computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the most frequently used software tool and includes most manufacturing information including the process definition and sometimes geometric modeling. Another important usage of CAM software tools is problem identification by process simulation. Under the virtual environment, possible problems are detected and solved. Environmental impact can be handled in the same manner. To manufacture molds and dies with minimizing the associated environmental impact, possible environmental impact sources must be minimized before the execution in the virtual environment. Molds and dies

  19. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaizhi Tang,1 Xiong Liu,1 Stacey L Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA Abstract: As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake, and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity. To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI. NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS, Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. Keywords: nanomaterial environmental impact, data integration, data management

  20. 23 CFR 771.123 - Draft environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Draft environmental impact statements. 771.123 Section... ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.123 Draft environmental impact statements. (a) A... significant impacts on the environment. When the applicant, after consultation with any project sponsor that...

  1. Environmental Radioactive Impact Associated to Uranium Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One century of uranium mining in Europe and North-America created a legacy of ore mining and milling sites needing rehabilitation for environmental and human safety. In the last decades developments of uranium mining displaced the core of this activity to Australia, Canada and African countries. In the coming years, uranium mining is expected to grow further, in those countries and elsewhere, due to the possible increase of nuclear power production and thus the amount of radioactive and toxic tailing materials will grow. Approach: International radiation protection guidelines and legislation have known recent developments and set the radiation dose limit applied to members of the public at 1 mSv y-1. Taking into account past and present uranium waste management and environmental remediation measures adopted already in some countries, we assessed the implications of enforcing this new dose limit in uranium milling and mining areas. Results: The radioactive impact of uranium mining and milling was illustrated through case studies. Environmental radioactivity monitoring and surveillance carried out in areas impacted by uranium mining and milling industry showed generally that dose limit for members of the public was exceeded. The compliance with this dose limit is nowadays the main goal for environmental remediation programs of legacy sites implemented in European Union countries. Taking into account the new radiation protection regulations, a change is required in mining practices from traditionally reactionary (problem solving to proactive (integrated management and life-cycle approach. Conclusion: A new paradigm in uranium mining should be implemented worldwide to ensure reduced environmental radioactivity impact current and future reduced radiation risk exposure of population.

  2. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... Impact Statements § 51.74 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft...

  3. Environmental Impact of Buildings--What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Niko; Mutel, Christopher L; Steubing, Bernhard; Ostermeyer, York; Wallbaum, Holger; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    The goal of this study was to identify drivers of environmental impact and quantify their influence on the environmental performance of wooden and massive residential and office buildings. We performed a life cycle assessment and used thermal simulation to quantify operational energy demand and to account for differences in thermal inertia of building mass. Twenty-eight input parameters, affecting operation, design, material, and exogenic building properties were sampled in a Monte Carlo analysis. To determine sensitivity, we calculated the correlation between each parameter and the resulting life cycle inventory and impact assessment scores. Parameters affecting operational energy demand and energy conversion are the most influential for the building's total environmental performance. For climate change, electricity mix, ventilation rate, heating system, and construction material rank the highest. Thermal inertia results in an average 2-6% difference in heat demand. Nonrenewable cumulative energy demand of wooden buildings is 18% lower, compared to a massive variant. Total cumulative energy demand is comparable. The median climate change impact is 25% lower, including end-of-life material credits and 22% lower, when credits are excluded. The findings are valid for small offices and residential buildings in Switzerland and regions with similar building culture, construction material production, and climate.

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  5. 75 FR 26272 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Environmental Education Center, Yosemite... Environmental Impact Statement for development of a new environmental education center in Yosemite National Park... practical the NPS will begin to implement development of a new environmental education center at...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be...

  7. Environmental impact assessment: An international evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollick, Malcolm

    1986-03-01

    Experiences with environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a number of countries are discussed in the light of both explicit and implicit goals and objectives. Adequate environmental information is not always available to decision makers because of failure to apply EIA to all relevant decisions, the continuing inadequacies of prediction and evaluation techniques, the failure to consider alternatives adequately, and the bias of some EISs. EIA frequently results in changes to proposals and may result in stricter environmental management conditions in some cases, but some people regard it as a failure because it has not stopped development. Generally, EIA leads to better integration of environmental factors into project planning. Open procedures and freedom of information encourage responsiveness to EIA procedures, which can be weakened by discretionary powers and lack of access to the courts by public interest groups. However, legal standing may have side effects that offset its advantages. EIA can encourage cooperation and coordination between agencies but does not ensure them. Similarly, it can have a limited role in coordinating interstate and international policies. In the long term, the success of EIA depends on adequate monitoring, reassessment, and enforcement over the life of the project. EIA has generally opened up new opportunities for public participation, and may help to reduce conflict. EIA procedures need to be integrated with other environmental protection and development control programs, and various means exist for reducing its cost to developers and the public.

  8. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical...

  9. 77 FR 46790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Dane County, WI AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY:...

  10. Regional analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzyck, D.C.; Brocksen, R.W.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a number of techniques that can be used to assess environmental impacts on a regional scale. Regional methodologies have been developed which examine impacts upon aquatic and terrestrial biota in regions through consideration of changes in land use, land cover, air quality, water resource use, and water quality. Techniques used to assess long-range atmospheric transport, water resources, effects on sensitive forest and animal species, and impacts on man are presented in this paper, along with an optimization approach which serves to integrate the analytical techniques in an overall assessment framework. A brief review of the research approach and certain modeling techniques used within one regional studies program is provided. While it is not an all inclusive report on regional analyses, it does present an illustration of the types of analyses that can be performed on a regional scale.

  11. Lifetimes of atmospheric species: Integrating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Michael J.

    2002-11-01

    The environmental damage caused by atmospheric pollutants is proportional to the duration of their effects. The global impacts of greenhouse gases (as measured by global warming potential) and ozone depleting substances (as measured by ozone depletion potential) have traditionally been calculated using the atmospheric lifetime of the source gas as a quantitative measure of the impact's duration, assuming that the gas quickly reaches a steady-state pattern which decays exponentially according to the lifetime. This assumed behavior obviously does not match the true rise and fall of impacts, particularly secondary ones like ozone depletion, that can be seen in numerical integrations or chemical mode decomposition. Here, the modes decomposition is used to prove that: (a) the steady-state pattern of impacts caused by specified emissions, multiplied by (b) the steady-state lifetime of the source gas for that emission pattern, is exactly equal to (c) the integral of all impacts - independent of the number and atmospheric residence times of secondary impacts.

  12. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and ... and legal instruments and consultation with concerned stakeholders by emphasizing the ...

  13. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  14. 14 CFR 1216.315 - Processing legislative environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legislative environmental impact... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Agency Procedures § 1216.315 Processing legislative environmental impact statements. (a) Preparation of a...

  15. 7 CFR 3407.11 - Preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CSREES official specified in § 3407.4(b) that the changes are pertinent to environmental concerns, a... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of environmental impact statements. 3407... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.11 Preparation of environmental impact statements. (a) Actions involving...

  16. 16 CFR 1021.14 - Environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1021.14 Section 1021.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.14 Environmental impact statement. (a) Draft and final...

  17. 24 CFR 58.37 - Environmental impact statement determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental impact statement... Classification § 58.37 Environmental impact statement determinations. (a) An EIS is required when the project is... and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD ENVIRONMENTAL...

  18. Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment, Mining and Genuine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Ingelson, William Holden & Meriam Bravante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Genuine development reflects sustainability. To promote genuine development in the context of mining, the environmental impact assessment process in the Philippines needs to be changed to respect ecological integrity, mitigate cumulative environmental effects, provide more information on environmental impacts to residents affected by a proposed mine and facilitate meaningful public participation in the impact assessment process.

  19. 16 CFR 1.85 - Final environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statements. 1.85... Final environmental impact statements. (a) After the close of the comment period, the Bureau responsible for the matter will consider the comments received on the draft environmental impact statement and...

  20. 77 FR 25781 - Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Washington, DC AGENCY: U.S. Federal Highway... of Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). SUMMARY: The U.S. Federal Highway... Washington, DC is issuing this notice to advise agencies and the public that a Draft Environmental Impact...

  1. 77 FR 25782 - Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Madison County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed transportation... Transportation (IDOT) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a project that involves improved...

  2. 40 CFR 124.61 - Final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. No final NPDES permit for a new source shall be issued until at least 30 days after the date of issuance of a final environmental impact statement if one is required under 40 CFR 6...

  3. 77 FR 6622 - Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Caddo Parish, LA AGENCY: Federal Highway... public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Caddo... Council of Governments (NLCOG), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposal to...

  4. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  5. 76 FR 6461 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 01/24/2011 through 01/28/2011 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In..., Evaluates Environmental Impacts of Stationing Army Combat Aviation Brigade at Fort Carson, CO and Joint Base...

  6. 78 FR 20714 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, Illinois AGENCY: Federal... revised notice of intent to advise the public that an environmental impact statement is being prepared for... Transportation, is preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposal to improve Interstate 290 (I...

  7. 75 FR 10254 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Doc No: 2010-4699] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-8988-6] Environmental Impact Statements...-1399 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02... Impacts, Oakland City to Washington, (IN-64 to US 50), Gibson, Pike and Daviess Counties, IN, Wait Period...

  8. 76 FR 13017 - Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement will be prepared for a proposed highway project in Los Angeles County, California... Environmental Impact Statement on a proposal for the State Route 710 Gap North Closure project in Los Angeles...

  9. 75 FR 69154 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kern County, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed 24th Street Improvement Project in Kern...

  10. 77 FR 59875 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Part 622 FTA RIN 2132-AB04 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures AGENCY: Federal Highway... repair project that do not typically involve significant environmental impacts. Specifically, the FHWA... damaged facility to address concerns such as safety and environmental impacts. The agencies also seek...

  11. 76 FR 53531 - Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Hancock County, MS AGENCY: Federal Highway... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared for a proposed... Transportation (MDOT), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed widening and/or...

  12. 78 FR 75919 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/02/2013 through 12/06/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section..., Interstate 66 Corridor Tier 1 Final Environmental Impact Statement and Tier 1 Record of Decision, Contact...

  13. 39 CFR 775.11 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statements. 775.11 Section... POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.11 Environmental impact statements. (a) Determining scope. Before an environmental impact statement is prepared, the following procedures must be followed to determine what issues...

  14. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion and...

  15. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  16. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/.

  17. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice.

  18. NEIMiner: nanomaterial environmental impact data miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xiong; Harper, Stacey L; Steevens, Jeffery A; Xu, Roger

    2013-01-01

    As more engineered nanomaterials (eNM) are developed for a wide range of applications, it is crucial to minimize any unintended environmental impacts resulting from the application of eNM. To realize this vision, industry and policymakers must base risk management decisions on sound scientific information about the environmental fate of eNM, their availability to receptor organisms (eg, uptake), and any resultant biological effects (eg, toxicity). To address this critical need, we developed a model-driven, data mining system called NEIMiner, to study nanomaterial environmental impact (NEI). NEIMiner consists of four components: NEI modeling framework, data integration, data management and access, and model building. The NEI modeling framework defines the scope of NEI modeling and the strategy of integrating NEI models to form a layered, comprehensive predictability. The data integration layer brings together heterogeneous data sources related to NEI via automatic web services and web scraping technologies. The data management and access layer reuses and extends a popular content management system (CMS), Drupal, and consists of modules that model the complex data structure for NEI-related bibliography and characterization data. The model building layer provides an advanced analysis capability for NEI data. Together, these components provide significant value to the process of aggregating and analyzing large-scale distributed NEI data. A prototype of the NEIMiner system is available at http://neiminer.i-a-i.com/. PMID:24098076

  19. Environmental impact and management of phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayibi, Hanan; Choura, Mohamed; López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2009-06-01

    The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum (PG). About 5 tons of PG are generated per ton of phosphoric acid production, and worldwide PG generation is estimated to be around 100-280 Mt per year. This by-product is mostly disposed of without any treatment, usually by dumping in large stockpiles. These are generally located in coastal areas close to phosphoric acid plants, where they occupy large land areas and cause serious environmental damage. PG is mainly composed of gypsum but also contains a high level of impurities such as phosphates, fluorides and sulphates, naturally occurring radionuclides, heavy metals, and other trace elements. All of this adds up to a negative environmental impact and many restrictions on PG applications. Up to 15% of world PG production is used to make building materials, as a soil amendment and as a set controller in the manufacture of Portland cement; uses that have been banned in most countries. The USEPA has classified PG as a "Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material" (TENORM). This work reviews the different environmental impacts associated with PG storage and disposal. The methods described in the literature to minimise the negative effects of this waste are classified by treatment type, i.e. physical, chemical, thermal, etc., and different suggested applications for PG are detailed.

  20. World Aquaculture: Environmental Impacts and Troubleshooting Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Martinez-Cordova, Luis R.

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture has been considered as an option to cope with the world food demand. However, criticisms have arisen around aquaculture, most of them related to the destruction of ecosystems such as mangrove forest to construct aquaculture farms, as well as the environmental impacts of the effluents on the receiving ecosystems. The inherent benefits of aquaculture such as massive food production and economical profits have led the scientific community to seek for diverse strategies to minimize the negative impacts, rather than just prohibiting the activity. Aquaculture is a possible panacea, but at present is also responsible for diverse problems related with the environmental health; however the new strategies proposed during the last decade have proven that it is possible to achieve a sustainable aquaculture, but such strategies should be supported and proclaimed by the different federal environmental agencies from all countries. Additionally there is an urgent need to improve legislation and regulation for aquaculture. Only under such scenario, aquaculture will be a sustainable practice. PMID:22649291

  1. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession......Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era......, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach...

  2. Environmental impact of used motor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.

    1989-02-01

    The information concerning the effects of used motor oil on the environment is reviewed. The production and fate of used motor oil are analyzed and the effects on soil and aquatic organisms are described. The combustion of waste crankcase oil, with particular reference to environmental impact, is discussed. The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of used motor oil are described. Information on the biodegradation of lubricating motor oil is also reviewed. The available information shows that used motor oil is a very dangerous polluting product. As a consequence of its chemical composition, world-wide dispersion and effects on the environment, used motor oil must be considered a serious environmental problem. 3 tabs., 114 refs.

  3. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report (Final EIS/EIR) has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). The Proposed Action includes the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a 48 megawatt (gross) geothermal power plant with ancillary facilities (10-12 production well pads and 3-5 injection well pads, production and injection pipelines), access roads, and a 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Modoc National Forest in Siskiyou County, California. Alternative locations for the power plant site within a reasonable distance of the middle of the wellfield were determined to be technically feasible. Three power plant site alternatives are evaluated in the Final EIS/EIR.

  4. 75 FR 21252 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Department of the Army; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17 100-Year Levee Seepage... statement/environmental impact report (EIS/EIR) for Phase 3 of Reclamation District No. 17's (RD 17)...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATE PROVIDING WITH MANAGERIAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri, A. H. Mahvi, M. Younesian, R. Nabizadeh, I. Hashemi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available At this study, an environmental impact assessment establishment of Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulted from establishment of the industrial estate were investigated, using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the environmental harmful impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done regarding to the amount and kind of predicted pollutions for industrial estate at the construction and operational phases. The environmental impact assessment of the investigated estate was studied at the three terms of immediate, direct and indirect impacts at the short, medium and long term. By expanding of Leopold Matrix to four parted matrix, in addition to amount, importance and extend of the impacts, the remaining duration of impact in the environment were assessed as a separate factor in environmental impact assessment. The results of the study with two alternatives, such as; No (performance of the project with no concern for environmental issue and as yes (performance of the project with application of the environmental harmful impacts were studied in construction and operation phases. The impact assessment of "NO" property resulted (-1065, therefore the execution of project was rejected, but after reducing the harmful impact performance which were resulted (+1095 has been accepted. Therefore, method of reducing harmful environmental impacts along with environmental management programs introduced and accepted in this study.

  6. Final Range Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fish and Game. The Rincon Indian Reservation also commented. Agencies expressed concern for biological, cultural, and water resources...Environmental Impact Statement 49 Figure 12. Vegetative Provinces of the Sonoran Desert. SO U RC E : Shreve & W igg ins, 1964 Needles Yum a San Luis ...County 76,205 106,895 119,650 Major Communities San Luis 1,946 4,212 7,910 Somerton 3,969 5,282 5,970 Wellton 911 1,066 1,075 Yuma 42,481 54,923 60,150

  7. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and... DEVELOPMENT BANDS (MDBs) § 26.3 Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and...

  8. Use of environmental impacts in sensor scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Peter J.; Gioioso, Marisa; Snell, Hilary E.

    2010-04-01

    Current surveillance systems operate in a highly dynamic environment in which large numbers of sensors on board multiple platforms must cooperate in order to achieve overall mission success. In an attempt to maximize sensor performance, today's sensors employ rudimentary or, in some cases, inflexible sensor tasking schemes. These approaches are highly tuned to a specific scenario and geometry and are inflexible to changes in the mission, environmental conditions, heterogeneous sensors, and different system architectures. As the complexity of the problem space increases and new sensors become available, it is critical to have a sensor management scheme that is capable of incorporating new environmental knowledge, new sensors and different systems approaches with minimal computational impact on the overall system. Each system should develop an autonomous sensor tasking capability which factors in global concerns within the complete distributed network of platforms and sensors. Moreover, tasking efficiency can be improved by a highly developed understanding of sensor performance at each point in time. This can be achieved by incorporating the impact of problem geometry - sensor location, track object type and view angle - and weather phenomena, such as clouds, aerosols, turbulence and sun glint. This paper describes our approach for simultaneously optimizing sensor resource management, surveillance objectives, and atmospheric transmission of signals while minimizing sensor and environmental noise. Our approach uses a genetic algorithm to evolve a population of sensor tasking assignments through constantly-updating track locations, weather conditions, and lighting conditions. Preliminary studies demonstrate encouraging improvements in sensor management performance. We will present results from our preliminary studies and discuss a path forward for our technology.

  9. 76 FR 41817 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Alta East Wind Project, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Kern... comments on issues and alternatives related to the Alta East Wind Project Draft EIS/EIR and CDCA Plan...), which may include an amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan (1980 as...

  10. 75 FR 28612 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 05/10/2010 Through 05/14/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  11. 78 FR 78955 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements filed 12/16/2013 through 12/20/2013 pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  12. 78 FR 4586 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Kake Access, AK ACTION: Notice of intent... issuing this notice to advise the public that FHWA will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS... Meetings will be held in the early Spring of 2013 to receive oral and written comments on environmental...

  13. 76 FR 13401 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/28/2011 Through 03/04/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice: In...

  14. 77 FR 793 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/27/2011 through 12/30/2011 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  15. 76 FR 65775 - Environmental Impact Statement: Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Harris County, Texas AGENCY: Federal... this notice to advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared for the... Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FOR FURTHER...

  16. 78 FR 4143 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/07/2013 Through 01/11/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  17. 76 FR 36613 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared for the proposed United... (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory...

  18. 75 FR 25309 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the 75th Street... comprises several elements of the overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program...

  19. 77 FR 5513 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/23/2012 Through 01/27/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section 309...

  20. 78 FR 2397 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/31/2012 Through 01/04/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  1. 75 FR 38517 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements. Filed 06/21/2010 through 06/25/210. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  2. 77 FR 74479 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 12/03/2012 Through 12/07/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  3. 77 FR 2979 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/09/2012 Through 01/13/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  4. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the...

  5. 77 FR 62235 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 198 (Friday, October 12, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 62235] [FR Doc No: 2012-25154] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [ER-FRL-9005-5] Environmental Impacts Statements...-7146 or http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/ . Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed...

  6. 78 FR 5439 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/14/2013 Through 01/18/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9 Notice Section 309...

  7. 76 FR 17185 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for the Grand Crossing... overall Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program (CREATE), a joint effort of the...

  8. 75 FR 65320 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10/11/2010 Through 10/15/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  9. 78 FR 43200 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 07/08/2013 Through 07/12/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  10. 75 FR 72823 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements ] Filed 11/15/2010 Through 11/19/2010. Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice In...

  11. 77 FR 2060 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 01/03/2012 Through 01/06/2012 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. NOTICE: Section...

  12. 10 CFR 1021.310 - Environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact statements. 1021.310 Section 1021.310 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.310 Environmental impact statements. DOE shall prepare and...

  13. 78 FR 20632 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 03/25/2013 Through 03/29/2013 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. Notice Section...

  14. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Environmental risk assessment of registered insecticides in Iran using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moinoddini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, pesticides have been used extensively, in order to control pests and plant diseases, but negative impacts of pesticides caused several environmental problems and put human health in danger. In order to decrease environmental hazards of pesticide, risk of pesticide application should be measured briefly and precisely. In this study environmental impacts of registered insecticides in Iran which applied in 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, are considered using environmental impact quotient (EIQ index. Results showed that among considered insecticides, Imidacloprid, Fipronil and Tiodicarb, potentially (EIQ were the most hazardous insecticides, respectively. Taking rate of application and active ingredient of insecticide in to account, environmental impact (practical toxicity per cultivated hectare (EIQ Field of each provinces were investigated. In this regard, among different province of Iran, Kerman, Mazandaran and Golestan were in danger more than the others, respectively. Besides, considering the amount of agricultural production in provinces, environmental impact per ton of production were calculated for each provinces which three northern provinces of Mazandaran, Golestan and Guilan, respectively endure the most environmental impact per ton of production. Eventually based on environmental impact quotient, results demonstrated that majority of environmental impacts of insecticide in Iran were due to inadequate knowledge and also overuse of a few number of insecticides. Therefore, by improving knowledge about environmental impact of pesticides and also developing environmental friendly and ecological based methods, negative environmental impacts of insecticides will be reduced significantly.

  16. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  17. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of

  18. Spatial information in public consultation within environmental impact assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwenda, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis Summary Spatial information in public consultation within Environmental Impact Assessments Angela N. Mwenda Established in the United States of America in 1970, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an interdisciplinary approach that considers the anticipated impacts of de

  19. 33 CFR 230.13 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Impact Statement..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.13 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). An EIS... issues and impacts. The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the...

  20. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. An applicant shall include with its application its assessment of the impact of the proposed construction on...

  1. Ecological risk assessment as a framework for environmental impact assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments in South Africa are usually conducted according to the integrated environmental management (IEM) procedure. The preliminary investigation reported here, indicated that most of the ecological requirements specified...

  2. 77 FR 20690 - Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Albuquerque, New Mexico AGENCY... the Interstate 25 and Paseo del Norte Interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Heitmann, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, New Mexico...

  3. 75 FR 36386 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Extension, Address Transportation Problems and Deficiencies, Cities of Pasadena, Arcadia, Monrovia, Durate... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal...

  4. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  5. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(2), pp. ... include sociological and psychological factors, that influences accountability actions by environmental agencies ... Key words: Accountability, governance, effectiveness awareness, courage. ... only professional ethics for environmental assessments.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  7. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  9. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  10. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  11. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria and ... to fully inform communities and other relevant stakeholders of the project; Selection of consultants for the impact assessment on the natural, social and health ...

  12. Visitors' perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visitors' perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Comparisons ... The visitors comprised both domestic and foreign tourists. ... Many of the negative adverse impacts associated with the events included high levels of ...

  13. Stakeholder Pressures, Environmental Impact and Managerial Initiatives of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    impact was available in Denmark. Consequently, a longitudinal research project was initiated to enlighten the situation. This study investigates environmentally related initiatives taken in response to the perception of stakeholder pressures and the perceived corporate environmental impact. The empirical......Environmental sustainability has become an issue of uttermost importance for business organisations. Therefore, the implementation of corporate environmental initiatives has been vigorously embraced by industry. Two decades ago, no clear picture of industry initiatives to reduce their environmental...... popularity of self-regulation, voluntary initiatives do not tend to be widely adopted by SMEs, stressing a need for a continuing regulation of industry’s behaviour in relation to environmental issues....

  14. Environmental information system for visualizing environmental impact assessment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserny, Angelika; Kovács, Zsófia; Domokos, Endre; Rédey, Akos

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Engineering at the University of Pannonia has undertaken the challenge to develop an online environmental information system. This system is able to receive and process the collected environmental data via Internet. The authors have attached importance to the presentation of the data and have included other comprehensible information for laymen as well in order to work out visualisation techniques that are expressive and attract attention for environmental questions through the developed information system. The ways of visualizing physical and chemical parameters of surface water and the effects of motorway construction were examined.

  15. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  16. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  17. Notification: National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    October 29, 2012. The EPA's OIG plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s reviews of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental impact statements (EIS) as submitted to EPA under Section 309 of the Clean Air Act.

  18. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  19. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  20. Traffic Infrastructure, Environmental Impact and Urban Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilabild Premzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the twentieth centwy motor and railway transport has increasedthe accessibility to goods and people through mobility,flexibility and comfort they provide. The result is generally theimprovement of living standards and beller opportunity forcommercial development of towns and regions as a whole. Theincreased number of vehicles in everyday traffic have increasedthe demand for new traffic infrastructures. A lot has alreadybeen built in open spaces as welt as in urban environment withbad impact on urban shape.Planning and construction of traffic infrastructurethroughout the urban structure is neither merely a11 engineeringnor just an aesthetic issue when integrating a new highway, freewayor railway into an urban environment. It is especially, if notprimarily, an issue of urban design. This means joint efforts ofengineering design and both urban and landscape architecturewith focusing sufficient alfention on possible multiple uses ofcommon urban space in good environmental conditions. TheSlovene Long Term Regional Plan, planning and constructionof highways in Slovenia initiated consideration and search foramethodology appropriate for the assessment of suitable layouts,especially in the complex cases of traffic infrastructure passingby or through urban areas. New findings described in this papersupplement the methodological approaches used so far.

  1. Reduction of the environmental impacts in crystalline silicon module manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; de Wild-Schoten, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we review the most important options to reduce environmental impacts of crystalline silicon modules. We investigate which are the main barriers for implementation of the measure. Finally we review which measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction. Reduc

  2. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivningar i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir rikisins (Iceland); Poroddsson, P. [Skipulagsstofnun (Iceland)

    2000-12-01

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  3. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  4. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  5. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  6. 75 FR 71179 - Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Federal... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared ] for a proposed highway project in San Diego County... Community Center, 2258 Island Avenue, San Diego, California 92102. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin...

  7. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  8. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  9. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  10. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) to implement enhanced environmental protection measures, as necessary, for... potential environmental impacts of specific Coast Guard vessel and aircraft operations on MPS and MPAs...

  11. Oceanic Impact: Mechanisms and Environmental Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersonde, Rainer (Editor); Deutsch, Alex (Editor); Ivanov, Boris A. (Editor); Kyte, Frank T. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The contents include the following: Oceanic impacts-a growing field of fundamental geoscience. Shock metamorphism on the ocean floor (numerical simulations). Numerical modeling of impact-induced modifications of the deep-sea floor. Computer modelling of the water resurge at a marine impact: the Lockne crater, Sweden. Experimental investigation of the role of water in impact vaporization chemistry. Calcareous plankton stratigraphy around the Pliocene Eltanin asteroid impact area (SE Pacific): documentation and application for geological and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Composition of impact melt debris from the Eltanin impact strewn field, Bellingshausen Sea. Iridium concentrations and abundances of meteoritic ejecta from the Eltanin impact in sediment cores from Polarstern expedition ANT XII/4. Unmelted meteoritic debris collected from Eltanin ejecta in Polarstern cores from expedition ANT XII/4. Impact tsunami-Eltanin. Ancient impact structures on modern continental shelves: The Chesapeake Bay, Montagnais, and Toms Canyon craters, Atlantic margin of North America. The Mjolnir marine impact crater porosity anomaly. Kardla (Hiiu-maa Island, Estonia) - the buried and well-preserved Ordovician marine impact structure. Long-term effect of the Kardla crater (Hiiu-maa, Estonia) on Late Ordovician carbonate sedimentation. The middle Devonian Kaluga impact crater (Russia): new interpretation of marine setting.

  12. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Railsback, S. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrich, C. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaakir-Ali, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-04-01

    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  13. Environmental impacts on reproductive health and fertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodruff, T. J

    2010-01-01

    .... Focusing on exposures to environmental contaminants, particularly during critical periods in development and their potential effects on all aspects of future reproductive life-course, this book...

  14. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) is undergoing a period of rapid change as it strives to become more policy-relevant. Attributional LCA, the traditional LCA category, is beginning to be seen as particularly ill-equipped to assess the consequences of a policy. This has given birth to a new category of LCA known as Consequential LCA that is designed for use in LCA-based policies but is still largely unknown, even to LCA experts, and suffers from a lack of well developed methods. As a result, many LCA-based policies, like the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), use poor LCA methods that are both scientifically suspect and unable to model many biofuels, especially ones manufactured from byproduct feedstocks. Biofuels made from byproduct feedstocks, primarily molasses ethanol from Asia and the Caribbean, can contribute significantly to LCFS' carbon intensity targets in the near-term at low costs, a desperate need for the policy ever since US corn ethanol was rated as having a worse global warming impact than gasoline. In this dissertation, I develop the first fully consequential lifecycle assessment of a byproduct-based biofuel using a partial equilibrium foundation. I find that the lifecycle carbon content of Indian molasses ethanol is just 5 gCO2/MJ using this method, making it one of the cleanest first generation biofuels in the LCFS. I also show that Indian molasses ethanol remains one of the cleanest first-generation biofuels even when using the flawed methodology ratified for the LCFS, with a lifecycle carbon content of 24 gCO2/MJ. My fully consequential LCA model also shows that India's Ethanol Blending program, which currently subsidizes blending of molasses ethanol and gasoline for domestic consumption, can meet its objective of supporting domestic agriculture more cost-effectively by helping producers export their molasses ethanol to fuel markets that value carbon. However, this objective will be achieved at a significant cost to the poor who will face a 39

  15. Proposal for a new normalization reference in LCA based on “safe operating space”: presentation of framework and global factors at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    normalization factors were compared with existing normalization factors that are based on global impacts currently taking place. The impact categories climate change, land use and terrestrial acidification were found to have their safe operating space exceeded on average globally, while the opposite was true......Planetary boundaries have been suggested for a range of environmental impacts,such as climate change, eutrophying nutrients and land use. The boundaries demarcate the safe operating space of humanity: Staying within the space ensures environmental sustainability, while exceeding it risks pushing...... ecosystems into alternative regimes, leading to adverse effects for humanity. Planetary boundaries can be applied as policy targets. To promote a societal development in the direction of these targets, an indicator system is needed that measures the fraction of the safe operating space that a given activity...

  16. Environmental impact assessment of fish farm hatcheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality parameters were measured from site to site where alkalinity and ... noise, had insignificant impact (p > 0.05), while water pollution, insecurity as a ... impacts of pollution, erosion and degradation of farm lands and environment.

  17. Environmental Impact Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Slab Frame Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavari, Majid Solat; Du, Guangli; Pacoste, Costin

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to integrate environmental impact optimization in the structural design of reinforced concrete slab frame bridges in order to determine the most environmental-friendly design. The case study bridge used in this work was also investigated in a previous paper...... focusing on the optimization of the investment cost, while the present study focuses on environmental impact optimization and comparing the results of both of these studies. Optimization technique based on the pattern search method was implemented. Moreover, a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA......) methodology of ReCiPe and two monetary weighting systems were used to convert environmental impacts into monetary costs. The analysis showed that both monetary weighting systems led to the same results. Furthermore, optimization based on environmental impact generated models with thinner construction elements...

  18. Environmental impacts assessment of industrial estate providing with managerial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A.H.; Younesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Hashemi, I. [Univ. of Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-01

    The existence of balance, coordination and required order among natural elements is one of the key factors in the ecosystem. If this balance is disturbed under certain circumstances, it will damage the structure of living existences and more specifically human beings. Since a half century ago, factors such as important economical and industrial activites, advanced technologies together with growing population and lack of concordance among different couhntries to take optimal advantage of the existing natural resources have distrubed the balance in the ecosystem. As a result, man has caused many problems such as high death tolls and arduous diseases due to the different pollutions in water, air, land, sound, temperature, etc and factors such as erosion, desert, expansion, floods, extinction of plant and animal species, ozone layer destruction, global warming, sea level rise and greenhouse gases increase. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to recognize and assess systematic consequences of projects and programs on elements like physicochemical, biological, cultural, economical and social phenomena in th environment; in other words it is a way or method to determine the direction of predication and assessment of environmental impacts of activities on the environmental health of the ecosystem affecting human lives. In this study, and environmental impact assessment of the establishment of the Shahzand Industrial Estate in Arak at the central part of Iran was investigated. After collection of data and analysis of the findings, the positive and negative impacts resulting from establishment of the indutrial estate were investigated using the Leopold Matrix and Scaling checklist methods providing the managerial solutions in order to minimize the harmful environmental impacts. The existing environmental situation was investigated and then environmental impact alternatives were determined. This was done in regard to the amount and kind of predicted pollution for the

  19. 49 CFR 266.19 - Environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicant seek the Administrator's advice as to form and substance of the assessment for the... environmental effects. The environmental assessment and all documents used as a basis for the assessment shall... and prudent alternative to the use of such land; and (ii) The project includes all planning...

  20. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... on the product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline....

  1. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  2. Environmental and economic impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Vaes-Petignat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades abundance and importance of invasive alien species has grown continuously due to the undiminished growth of global trade. In most cases, arthropod introductions were unintended and occurred as hitchhikers or contaminants. Alien arthropods can have significant environmental impacts and can be economically costly. To measure these impacts, we expand the generic impact scoring system initially developed for mammals and birds, and applied it to terrestrial arthropods. The scoring of the 77 most widely distributed arthropod species alien to Europe revealed the mite Varroa destructor as the most harmful species, followed by the Chinese longhorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. The highest environmental impact is through herbivory, disease transmission, and ecosystem impacts. The highest economic impact is on agriculture and human infrastructure. The generic impact scoring system allows comparing impact scores of vertebrates and arthropods, thus serving as a background for decision making processes of policies and stakeholders.

  3. An environmental impact causal model for improving the environmental performance of construction processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fuertes Casals, Alba; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel; Roca Ramon, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing efforts made by the construction sector to reduce the environmental impact of their processes, construction sites are still a major source of pollution and adverse impacts on the environment. This paper aims to improve the understanding of construction-related environmental impacts by identifying on-site causal factors and associated immediate circumstances during construc- tion processes for residential building projects. Based on the literature and focus g...

  4. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  5. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    OpenAIRE

    GRAY, NICHOLAS FREDERICK; Sullivan, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This review examine the action of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is a multifactor pollutant, on surface waters. It affects aquatic ecosystems via a number of direct and indirect pathways. Major impact areas are coastal waters, rivers, lakes and estuaries, with AMD affecting ecosystems in different ways. Ground waters can also be severely impacted. Due to its complexity, the impact of AMD is particularly difficult to quantify and predict in lotic systems. Acid mine drainage pollut...

  6. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impact...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  7. Environmental Impact of Teleworking and Teleshopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    This paper analyses the impact of two ICT applications on the total demand for transport (telework and teleshopping). These applications are selected as they were expected to be among the applications with the highest potential for savings in transport. The analysis indicates that the total impact...... is limited and might be even negative if rebound effects are included, and that the promotion of ICT applications must be accommodated by other measures before a noticeable positive impact on transport behaviour can be achieved....

  8. Public participation in Malawi's environmental impact assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the adoption of the Environmental Management Act of 1996, Malawi has ... This study assessed the extent of public participation in Malawi's EIA process. ... of the EIA process in Malawi which puts the human and ecosystem health at risk.

  9. The innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations on maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Repka, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Maritime transport is facing wide-ranking challenges due to stricter environmental regulations. It has been positioned that these stricter environmental regulations will significantly hamper the competitiveness of the shipping industry and other export/import oriented industries. However......, contrasting views, arguing that environmental regulations will, in fact, enhance firms’ competitiveness by inducing innovation, have also been voiced. Here this issue is examined through a literature review on the innovation inducement impact of environmental regulations (i.e. the Porter Hypothesis......), in general, and the economic impacts of environmental regulations (here Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention) as it applies to shipping in Northern Europe, in particular. According to the review, the literature is still inconclusive and lacks a clear consensus on the economic and innovation inducement impacts...

  10. 78 FR 11593 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...)). Examples of unusual circumstances include significant environmental impacts, substantial controversy on... is not a term of art that is used in the FTA Emergency Relief Program. The Agencies agree that...

  11. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    , or material flows induced by these products. Due to the great variation in applied methods and scopes, the results show a complex picture at the detailed level. However, at the more general level the studies reinforce each other in pointing to housing (construction and temperature regulation), transportation...... Deliverable No. 9. Groningen: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen. The objectives of the present study were to analyse and evaluate this existing body of research with a view to identifying those materials and resources whose use has the greatest environmental impacts...... be required to explore such links. Types of environmental impacts considered Environmental impacts are typically classified in a number of impact categories of which the following are covered by most of the considered studies: * Acidification * Climate change (global warming) * Ecotoxicity * Human toxicity...

  12. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however ... Natural resources particularly, land, water quality and quantity, air quality, ...

  13. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  14. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2005-01-01

    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... is focused on the product system which comprises all the processes which the product and its components meet throughout their lives- from the extraction of raw materials via manufacture, use and waste management to final disposal, or in short from the cradle to the grave (see Figure 1). The focus...

  15. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  16. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  17. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  18. 75 FR 62627 - Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Davis County, UT AGENCY: Federal Highway... Department of Transportation, Region One Office, 166 West Southwell Street, Ogden, UT 84404-4194,...

  19. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental impact statement identifies the purpose and need for a management plan; outlines the legal foundation for management of the Rocky Mountain...

  1. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  2. Reliance on Pumped Mother's Milk Has an Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Genevieve; Ryan-Fogarty, Yvonne

    2016-09-10

    Breastfeeding is an environmentally friendly process; however when feeding relies on pumped mother's milk, the environmental picture changes. Waste plastics and heavy metals raise concerns regarding resource efficiency, waste treatment, and detrimental effects on health. Reliance on pumped milk rather than breastfeeding may also effect obesity and family size, which in turn have further environmental impacts. Information on pump equipment rarely includes environmental information and may focus on marketing the product for maximum profit. In order for parents, health workers, and health policy makers to make informed decisions about the reliance on pumped mother's milk, they need information on the broad and far reaching environmental aspects. There was no published research found that examined the environmental impact of using pumped mother's milk. A project is ongoing to examine this issue.

  3. 75 FR 27579 - Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... National Park Service Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Bison Brucellosis Remote Vaccination Program... Vaccination Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Yellowstone National Park. This planning...

  4. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  5. 75 FR 13138 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... National Park Service Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National...), the National Park Service is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement for the Grand Ditch...

  6. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  7. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such devel

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  9. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AJ20 Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental... Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement,'' that forms the regulatory basis for the proposed... Confidence rule). The NRC staff plans to hold 12 public meetings during the public comment period to present...

  10. Small Manufacturing Industries: The Impact of Environmental Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Clare M D'Souza; Roman Peretiatko

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of environmental issues on small Indian enterprises. Due to India's rapid industrialization the environment is now becoming more of a major business concern. This paper compares small with large enterprises to see of there are any differences in the way they approach environmental issues. Small firms in particular, have been encouraged and given due assistance by the Indian government but this policy now conflicts with India's environmental responsibilities as f...

  11. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  12. 76 FR 39436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) and Notice of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Trust Assets (if any), air quality/climate change, socioeconomics including impacts to agricultural production, and environmental justice. Special Assistance for Public Meetings If special assistance is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I...

  14. Aiding eco-labelling process and its implementation: Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology to define Product Category Rules for canned anchovies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Fullana, Pére; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    To be able to fulfil high market expectations for a number of practical applications, Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) have to meet and comply with specific and strict methodological prerequisites. These expectations include the possibility to add up Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-based information in the supply chain and to compare different EPDs. To achieve this goal, common and harmonized calculation rules have to be established, the so-called Product Category Rules (PCRs), which set the overall LCA calculation rules to create EPDs. This document provides PCRs for the assessment of the environmental performance of canned anchovies in Cantabria Region based on an Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA) method. This method uses two main variables: the natural resources sustainability (NRS) and the environmental burdens sustainability (EBS). To reduce the complexity of ESA and facilitate the decision-making process, all variables are normalized and weighted to obtain two global dimensionless indexes: resource consumption (X1) and environmental burdens (X2). •This paper sets the PCRs adapted to the Cantabrian canned anchovies.•ESA method facilitates the product comparison and the decision-making process.•This paper stablishes all the steps that an EPD should include within the PCRs of Cantabrian canned anchovies.

  15. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  16. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new gener

  17. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  18. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  19. Environmental impacts of products: A detailed review of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.; Jansen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects of economic activities are ultimately driven by consumption, via impacts of the production, use, and waste management phases of products and services ultimately consumed. Integrated product policy (IPP) addressing the life-cycle impacts of products forms an innovative new

  20. Environmental Effects of Large Impacts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Teresa L.; Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Zahnle, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    The martian valley networks formed near the end of the period of heavy bombardment of the inner solar system, about 3.5 billion years ago. The largest impacts produced global blankets of very hot ejecta, ranging in thickness from meters to hundreds of meters. Our simulations indicated that the ejecta warmed the surface, keeping it above the freezing point of water for periods ranging from decades to millennia, depending on impactor size, and caused shallow subsurface or polar ice to evaporate or melt. Large impacts also injected steam into the atmosphere from the craters or from water innate to the impactors. From all sources, a typical 100-, 200-, or 250-kilometers asteroid injected about 2, 9, or 16 meters, respectively, of precipitable water into the atmosphere, which eventually rained out at a rate of about 2 meters per year. The rains from a large impact formed rivers and contributed to recharging aquifers.

  1. Carbon Capture and Sequestration. Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, P.; Santillo, D. [Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    Over the last few years, understanding of the profound implications of anthropogenically driven climate change has grown. In turn, this has fuelled research into options to mitigate likely impacts. Approaches involving the capture of carbon dioxide and its storage in geological formations, or in marine waters, have generated a raft of proposed solutions. The scale of some of these proposals is such that they will exert impacts of global significance in their own right. Proposals fall into two broad categories: (1) storage of liquid CO2 or products of reacted CO2 into intermediate/deep oceanic waters. and (2) storage of liquid CO2 into sub-seabed or terrestrial geological formations. For the most part, while the technical feasibility of these schemata has been widely explored, the same is not true of their ecological implications. In the case of deep/intermediate oceanic waters, poor baseline understanding of the associated ecosystems is a considerable impediment to any reliable predictive assessment of likely impacts of carbon dioxide storage in these systems. Disruption of marine microbiological processes and degradation of benthic ecosystems, including those with high levels of endemicity, have been identified as potentially serious impacts. Similarly, the physiology, ecology and likely responses of micro-organisms present in targeted geological formations require evaluation prior to any consideration of the use of such formations for storage of CO2. In addition, the impacts of any leakage to surface need also to be considered. Accordingly this paper explores current uncertainties and detailed informational needs related to ocean and geological storage of fossil fuel-derived CO2. Particular emphasis is placed upon the ecological impacts of these proposals in relation to existing and emergent understanding of deep water/soil ecosystems and the indeterminacies attached to this understanding.

  2. (Environmental impact statement on the US Antarctic program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, R.M.; Railsback, S.F.; McLean, R.B.

    1989-12-22

    Three staff members from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in a site visit to US Antarctic Program (USAP) facilities at McMurdo Station, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and remote field and support sites. Interviews were conducted with National Science Foundation, Navy, and ITT/Antarctic Services staff responsible for environmental management functions. The ORNL team visited all facilities at McMurdo Station, three remote field camps, a Navy refueling facility, South Pole Station, and Scott Base (a New Zealand installation). In general, the team found that environmental impacts of the USAP are minor for the Antarctic continent as a whole. Improvements for the handling and disposal of solid wastes and the discharge of wastewaters that have been initiated should help minimize environmental impacts of USAP activities. The information collected during the site visit will be used in a draft supplemental environmental impact statement on the USAP to be published for public review in June 1990.

  3. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  4. Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    the finback whale (Balaenoptera physalus), humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), sei whale (B. borealis), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas...Environmental Policy Act, as amended, 42 USC 4321, et seq. Rivers and Harbors Act, 33 USC 401 et seq. Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act, 16...USC 1001, et seq. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, as amended, 16 USC 1271, et seq. Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act

  5. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture.

  6. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hayati; M.H. Sayadi

    2012-01-01

    Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban...

  7. Integration of Environmental Impact Assesment in Healthy Trolley Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of green customer in the last few periods, indicate that the environmental performance of a product has become the main attributes, not just as a complement attributes to the customers. This condition encourages every industry to assess the environmental impact of the products that being marketed. Healthy trolley is a product innovation of shopping trolley that being developed using reverse engineering methods. This study aims to analyze the environmental impact of Healthy Trolley to provide an alternative product design improvements based on sustainable products concept. The method used is life cycle assessment that consist of several stages i.e., goals and scoping, inventory analysis, impact assessment and improvement analysis. Based on the results, products waste in the end of use gives the biggest negative impact on the environment and humans. The environmental impact of products derived from the constituent materials such as iron (Fe, lead (Pb and sulfuric acid (SO4. So the alternative Healthy Trolley design improvements are replacing the drive system into manual in order to eliminate the environmental impact from waste of material lead (Pb and sulfuric acid (SO4.

  8. Construction site environmental impact in civil engineering education

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their operational stage. The impact of construction sites of smaller projects in urban areas tends to merit less attention, despite their importance for cit...

  9. New technology in everyday life - social processes and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    In the environmental debate it is increasingly acknowledged that our way of life has profound environmental consequences. Therefore, it becomes ever more important to focus on and to understand how everyday life is formed and how it changes over time. Changing technology constitutes an important...... aspect both of changes in everyday life and of the environmental impact of everyday-life activities. Technological change is often seen as an important part of the solutions to environmental problems, however, when technological change is seen from the perspective of everyday life, this image becomes...... more complex. In this paper technological changes are explored from the perspective of consumption and everyday life, and it is argued that environmental impacts arise through the interplay of technology, consumption and everyday life. Firstly, because technological renewals form integral parts...

  10. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  11. A Maintainability Prediction Method Considering Environmental Impacts and Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintainability prediction is one kind of primary maintainability action. Design deficiency would be found through predicting maintainability parameters under certain conditions. Now a maintainability prediction method that mainly considers maintenance time or maintenance man-hour is a kind of prediction method with a single index. With increasing product complexity and people's environmental consciousness, more attention is paid to environment impacts and maintenance cost or resource consumption in the maintenance process. It is necessary for a maintainability prediction method that can predict maintenance cost and maintenance environmental impacts. A new maintainability prediction method is presented in this paper based on analyzing existing maintainability prediction methods.The method is MABTCE (maintenance activity based timing/costing/environment impact assessment )and can predict maintenance time, maintenance costing and maintenance environmental impacts andthen improve maintainability design with prediction results.

  12. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing...

  13. Environmental impact analysis of mine tailing reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Under certain conditions landscape topography which utilizes mine tailing reservoir construction using is likely to increase lateral recharge source regions, resulting in dramatic changes to the local hydrological dynamic field and recharge of downstream areas initiated by runoff, excretion state, elevated groundwater depth, shallow groundwater, rainfall direct communication, and thinning of the vadose zone. Corrosive leaching of topsoil over many years of exposure to chemical fertilizers and pesticides may result in their dissolution into the groundwater system, which may lead to excessive amounts of many harmful chemicals, therby affecting the physical and mental health of human residents and increase environmental vulnerability and risk associated with the water and soil. According to field survey data from Yujiakan, Qian'an City, and Hebei provinces, this paper analyzes the hydrogeological environmental mechanisms of areas adjacent to mine tailing reservoirs and establishes a conceptual model of the local groundwater system and the concentration-response function between NO3 - content in groundwater and the incidence of cancer in local residents.

  14. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  15. Nai Kun wind farm environmental impact assessment study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, S.; Shum, M.; Embley, E. [Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    Uniterre Resources Ltd., ABB New Ventures and ABB Inc. propose the Nai Kun Wind Farm project, and the firm Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants LTD. (PGL) was commissioned to conduct an environmental impact assessment for the project. A description of the studies considered as a requirement for the environmental impacts assessment of the project is included in this draft report. Before proceeding with the detailed studies, it was decided to present this draft report to the stakeholders and regulatory authorities to obtain feedback and a review. Nowadays in electricity markets, wind energy is becoming a differentiated and highly valued product. The Nai Kun Wind Farm project, as proposed, would entail the development, construction and operation of a 700 megawatt (MW) wind generation facility located off the northeast coast of Graham Island (Haida Gwaii) in Hecate Strait in British Columbia. It is expected that the project will generate greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. The information about the site and the project, as was known on May 24, 2002, was used for the preparation of this draft report. The present document includes an introduction in Chapter 1, followed by background information in Chapter 2. The Environmental impact assessment framework was reviewed in Chapter 3, and the public consultation plan was described in Chapter 4. The environmental impact assessment designs are discussed in Chapter 5 and a schedule for environmental studies provided in Chapter 6. The next steps are detailed in Chapter 7 of the document. 10 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  17. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh.

  18. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts......Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  19. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  20. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    products for the federal product and environment policy. Final report. Institut Wallon de développement économique et social et d'aménagement du territoire ASBL and Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) for the Belgian Federal Services of Environment, Department on Product Policy. * Dall O...... in the present study to what extent the results of the studies can be applied in the EU's resources strategy. It turns out that all of the considered studies do contribute to our understanding of what are the environmentally most relevant types of resource use, through identifying relationships between...... be required to explore such links. Types of environmental impacts considered Environmental impacts are typically classified in a number of impact categories of which the following are covered by most of the considered studies: * Acidification * Climate change (global warming) * Ecotoxicity * Human toxicity...

  1. [Environmental impact assessment based on planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan

    2011-02-01

    How to assess environmental impact is one of the keys in land use planning. This article described in detail the concepts of activities, impact zones, functions, and sensitivities, as well as the development of STEPP (strategic tool for integrating environmental aspects in planning procedures) based on Avenue, the secondary developing language of ArcView GIS. The system makes it convenient for planning practitioners exchanging information, and can spatially, visually and quantitatively describe environmental impact and its change. In this study, the urban-rural combination area located between EDE and Veenendaal of The Netherlands was taken as case, and the results indicated that the environment was incorporated well in the planning procedure based on the concepts, and could also demonstrate the effects of planning measures on environment spatially, explicitly, and in real-time, facilitating the participation of planning practitioners and decision-making. Some proposals of how to promote STEEP application in China were suggested.

  2. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts. (a) The operator shall conduct appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators as...

  3. 10 CFR 51.91 - Final environmental impact statement-contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-contents. 51.91... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.91 Final environmental impact statement—contents. (a)(1) The final environmental impact statement will include responses...

  4. 10 CFR 51.81 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.81 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and...

  5. 10 CFR 51.85 - Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-rulemaking. 51.85... Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.85 Draft environmental impact... Commission has determined to prepare an environmental impact statement. ...

  6. 10 CFR 51.86 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Rulemaking § 51.86 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. Copies of the draft environmental impact statement and any...

  7. 10 CFR 51.117 - Draft environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a draft environmental impact statement or any supplement to a draft environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff director...

  8. 10 CFR 51.72 - Supplement to draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. 51.72... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.72 Supplement to draft environmental impact statement. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a supplement to a draft environmental impact statement for which a...

  9. 10 CFR 51.71 - Draft environmental impact statement-contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-contents. 51.71... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.71 Draft environmental impact statement—contents. (a) Scope. The draft environmental impact statement will be prepared in accordance with the scope...

  10. 10 CFR 51.118 - Final environmental impact statement-notice of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-notice of... environmental impact statement—notice of availability. (a) Upon completion of a final environmental impact statement or any supplement to a final environmental impact statement, the appropriate NRC staff director...

  11. 10 CFR 51.70 - Draft environmental impact statement-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-general. 51.70... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.70 Draft environmental impact statement—general. (a) The NRC staff will prepare a draft environmental impact statement as soon as practicable...

  12. 10 CFR 51.73 - Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for comments on draft environmental impact...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Impact Statements § 51.73 Request for comments on draft environmental impact statement. Each draft environmental impact statement and each supplement to a draft...

  13. 10 CFR 51.94 - Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to consider final environmental impact...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.94 Requirement to consider final environmental impact statement. The final environmental impact statement...

  14. 40 CFR 1502.19 - Circulation of the environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1502.19 Section 1502.19 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.19 Circulation of the environmental impact statement. Agencies shall circulate the entire draft and final environmental impact statements except for certain appendices as...

  15. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  16. Envirotyping for deciphering environmental impacts on crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change imposes increasing impacts on our environments and crop production. To decipher environmental impacts on crop plants, the concept "envirotyping" is proposed, as a third "typing" technology, complementing with genotyping and phenotyping. Environmental factors can be collected through multiple environmental trials, geographic and soil information systems, measurement of soil and canopy properties, and evaluation of companion organisms. Envirotyping contributes to crop modeling and phenotype prediction through its functional components, including genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), genes responsive to environmental signals, biotic and abiotic stresses, and integrative phenotyping. Envirotyping, driven by information and support systems, has a wide range of applications, including environmental characterization, GEI analysis, phenotype prediction, near-iso-environment construction, agronomic genomics, precision agriculture and breeding, and development of a four-dimensional profile of crop science involving genotype (G), phenotype (P), envirotype (E) and time (T) (developmental stage). In the future, envirotyping needs to zoom into specific experimental plots and individual plants, along with the development of high-throughput and precision envirotyping platforms, to integrate genotypic, phenotypic and envirotypic information for establishing a high-efficient precision breeding and sustainable crop production system based on deciphered environmental impacts.

  17. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  18. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption.......This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  19. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  20. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  1. 75 FR 25217 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Northwest Aggregates' Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Northwest... (Corps) Seattle District is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze the... Aggregates dock replacement project and potential environmental issues including completed construction...

  2. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  3. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. ECOLOGICAL IDEAS IN POLISH ARCHITECTURE - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena SZPYTMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solutions in the field of ecological architecture appear more and more often in Poland. There are two approaches to eco-design: high-tech and low-tech. High-tech focuses on the use of the latest technological solvings. These means are often used in newly designed commercial buildings, such as the first Polish office building which uses passive technology, built in Katowice, in Euro-Centrum Science and Technology Park. It is intended especially for companies focusing on energy observance issues. Low-tech is usually used in small-scale buildings (for example a cottage in Jartypory village, and is focused on the use of inexpensive, traditional technologies and the daily conscious management of natural resources. Thinking about the impact on the environment and principles of sustainable development is also present in urban planning. In Siewierz, near Katowice, Poland’s first eco-village is being built, with full infrastructure, high-quality residential buildings, shops, offices and hotels. The range of applied solutions will allow residents for the economical exploitation of these buildings.

  5. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  6. A Study on Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJing

    2005-01-01

    China's legislature on the environmental impact assessments contains related provisions on public participation as an important element of institutions in this field. So far, however, the stipulation remains at the level of a plain statement of principle both substantially and procedurally. The newly enacted Law on the Assessment of the Environment Impact has seen great progress in provisions for public participation if compared with similar statutes enacted in the past legislation. However, there is a gap in the procedures,

  7. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  8. Yakima Fisheries Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State). Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington.

    1996-01-01

    BPA proposes to fund several fishery-related activities in the Yakima River Basin. These activities, known as the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP), would be jointly managed by the State of Washington and the Yakima Indian Nation. The YFP is included in the Northwest Power Planning Council`s (Council`s) fish and wildlife program. The Council selected the Yakima River system for attention because fisheries resources are severely reduced from historical levels and because there is a significant potential for enhancement of these resources. BPA`s proposed action is to fund (1) information gathering on the implementation of supplementation techniques and on feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon in an environment where native populations have become extinct; (2) research activities based on continuous assessment, feedback and improvement of research design and activities ({open_quotes}adaptive management{close_quotes}); and (3) die construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities for supplementing populations of upper Yakima spring chinook salmon. Examined in addition to No Action are two alternatives for action: (1) supplementation of depressed natural populations of upper Yakima spring chinook and (2) that same supplementation plus a study to determine the feasibility of reestablishing naturally spawning population and a significant fall fishery for coho in the Yakima Basin. Alternative 2 is the preferred action. A central hatchery would be built for either alternative, as well as three sites with six raceways each for acclimation and release of spring chinook smolts. Major issues examined in the Revised Draft EIS include potential impacts of the project on genetic and ecological resources of existing fish populations, on water quality and quantity, on threatened and endangered species listed under the Endangered Species Act, and on the recreational fishery.

  9. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  10. Environmental impacts of open loop geothermal system on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Koo-Sang; Park, Youngyun; Yun, Sang Woong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-04-01

    Application of renewable energies such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat has gradually increased to reduce emission of CO2 which is supplied from combustion of fossil fuel. The geothermal energy of various renewable energies has benefit to be used to cooling and heating systems and has good energy efficiency compared with other renewable energies. However, open loop system of geothermal heat pump system has possibility that various environmental problems are induced because the system directly uses groundwater to exchange heat. This study was performed to collect data from many documents such as papers and reports and to summarize environmental impacts for application of open loop system. The environmental impacts are classified into change of hydrogeological factors such as water temperature, redox condition, EC, change of microbial species, well contamination and depletion of groundwater. The change of hydrogeological factors can induce new geological processes such as dissolution and precipitation of some minerals. For examples, increase of water temperature can change pH and Eh. These variations can change saturation index of some minerals. Therefore, dissolution and precipitation of some minerals such as quartz and carbonate species and compounds including Fe and Mn can induce a collapse and a clogging of well. The well contamination and depletion of groundwater can reduce available groundwater resources. These environmental impacts will be different in each region because hydrogeological properties and scale, operation period and kind of the system. Therefore, appropriate responses will be considered for each environmental impact. Also, sufficient study will be conducted to reduce the environmental impacts and to improve geothermal energy efficiency during the period that a open loop system is operated. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning

  11. Alternatives and implication in process of environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauš Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EIA is an interactive, rule-based expert system for the environmental impact assessment. It is designed for a screening level assessment of development projects at a pre-feasibility stage. Typical problems for the evaluation include: resettlement; watershed degradation; encroachment upon precious ecosystems; encroachment on historical/cultural values; watershed erosion; reservoir siltation; impairment of navigation; changes in groundwater hydrology, waterlogging; seepage and evaporation losses; migration of valuable fish species; inundation of mineral resources/forests; other inundation losses and adverse effects. It is important to prevent environmental pollution when carrying out large-scale development projects, such as artificial change of landscapes and building of certain structures that may cause a tremendous impact on the environment. In accordance with Cities Environmental Impact Assessment Departments it is necessary to provide project organisers with a necessary advice and instructions concerning the environmental impact assessment a survey to predict and evaluate environmental impact to be conducted by project organisers. Prior to offering the advice and instructions, cities need to hear the opinions of residents of the areas concerned, mayors of related municipalities and other opinion leaders, including specialists, to reflect their views in the environmental preservation. The first aspect in any quality assessment is to determine the representativeness of data both in terms of physical siting and data collected. It must be recognised the environment is a dynamic fluid; quality therefore varies over space and time. There will be locations in any community that experience poorer quality than recorded at a monitoring station. Likewise other sites will have a better quality. Most communities have only a single monitoring site. Therefore, the air quality monitors are sited to provide a representative estimate of the community exposure

  12. Dynamic simulation of traffic and its environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissfeldt, N.; Metzler, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). ZAIK; Wagner, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper demonstrates a model-chain that is able to determine environmental impacts of traffic. The dynamic microsimulation models described cover the problems of traffic assignment and calculation of emissions by microscopic vehicle states. Due to their computational efficiency the model-chain promises to be applicable even for large networks with millions of drivers. First results will be presented. (orig.)

  13. Public participation in environmental impact assessment: why, who and how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glucker, A.N.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Kolhoff, A.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective.

  14. The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of agriculture on environmental health in Nigeria. ... for high incidences of food poisoning and deaths of unsuspecting consumers ... This is particularly common in aquaculture where such chemicals have been used extensively to catch fish. ... Land denudation, aquatic toxicity; leaching, run off and lifetime health ...

  15. The environmental impact of fibre crops in industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Bos, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    A short literature survey is presented on health and environmental issues in relation to the production and use of fibre crops. Next a short introduction to Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is given and the various commonly applied methods for quantifying ecological impacts are discussed in short. The avai

  16. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air q...

  17. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the geography of conflict, to assess the environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in .... at hindering births or the transfer of children of one group to another, and attacks on the ..... Gender, armed conflicts and political violence. London ...

  18. Review on Chlorobenzoic Acids Biodegradation and Their Environmental Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuWenming; QiYun; ZhaoLin; TanXin

    2005-01-01

    Chlorobenzoic Acids are toxic organic compounds largely distributed in soils and sediments. They can be degraded to various products by microorgans. This paper is a review of the literature on biodegradability of the chlorobenzoic acids. The degradation pathways, degradation genes, role of transposable elements, and construction of strains are discussed. A brief introduction is given on the environmental impacts and the pollution control.

  19. 75 FR 67806 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... proposed improvements to United States Highway 181/State Highway 286 (Crosstown Expressway), in Nueces... Nueces County, Texas. The project limits were defined as the limits of the schematic design. The...

  20. 75 FR 63533 - Environmental Impact Statement: Cameron County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Cameron County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Rescind Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS. SUMMARY: FHWA is issuing...

  1. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  3. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Peacekeeper Rail Garrison Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    advanced culture characterized by an extensive trade network and a series of traits such as ceremonial architecture and maize (corn) agriculture...Statement, Pantex Plant Site, Amarillo , Texas (U.S. Department of Energy 1983), which covers nuclear weapons assembly, stockpile monitoring, maintenance...1983 Final Environmental Impact Statement, Pantex Plant Site, Amarillo ,_ Texas (DOE/EIS-0098). National Technical Information Service, Washington

  4. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  5. 75 FR 63469 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ..., Proposed Changes to the National Forest Transportation System, Implementation, Nevada, Placer, Plumas... Sea Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 193, Analyzing the Environmental Impact of Natural Gas... Center, Supplement 42 to NUREG-1437, near the Town of Palo, Linn County, IA, Wait Period Ends: 11/15/2010...

  6. Environmental impact assessment of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Man-made cellulose fibres have played an important role in the production of textile products for more than 70 years. The purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact of man-made cellulose fibres. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for three types of fibres (i.e. Viscose, Modal

  7. Reducing the environmental impact of a gas operated cogeneration installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimie Sabin Ioan

    2017-01-01

    The amount of energy saved yearly, the specific fuel consumption and the environmental impact were determined by the comparative study. The diagrams representing the variation of the performance indicators according to the operation period were also created. The usefulness of the paper consists in the creation of the yearly optimum installation operation time chart.

  8. Environmental Impact of ICT on the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This section analyses the environmental impact of ICT. This is done through an analysis on how two specific applications (tele-work and teleshopping) affect transport behavior. These two applications are considered to have a large potential with regard to savings in energy consumption....

  9. The Aswan Dam: A Lesson on Man's Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Burnell

    This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires…

  10. Schools That Sustain: Lessening the Environmental Impact of New Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, Katherine N.; Malone, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Discusses sustainable school design and its benefits to the environment, offering examples of illustrative schools. Provides suggestions on site selection (such as using smaller sites and recycling existing buildings), sharing facilities with the community, and construction elements that improve environmental impact (such as flexibility,…

  11. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  12. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  13. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal..., UT 84118, telephone (801) 963-0182, e-mail Edward.Woolford@dot.gov . The Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) contact is Brandon Weston, Project Manager, 2010 South 2760 West, Salt Lake City, UT...

  14. 78 FR 15925 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction In proposed rule...

  15. 78 FR 20074 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 771 Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 622 FHWA RIN 2125-AF48 FTA RIN 2132-AB05 Environmental Impact and Related Procedures Correction The correction that...

  16. 75 FR 41163 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Overseas Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as implemented by the Council on Environmental Quality... area does not include the Arctic. This EIS and OEIS is being prepared to renew and combine current... responsibility (except for the Arctic). The AFTT study area covers approximately 2.6 million square...

  17. Environmental Assessment: General Plan-Based Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Laughlin Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    BASED ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS LAUGHLIN AIR FORCE BASE, TEXAS AGENCY: 47th Flying Training Wing (FTW), Laughlin Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...in their decision-making process. The President’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has issued regulations to implement NEPA that include...Order (EO) 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, was issued by the President on

  18. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products:hot spots and environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials ...

  19. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system.

  20. Environmental Impacts Assessment of Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania

    to potential adverse impacts, especially related to the water-borne emission of pollutants, which need to be avoided. This requires first of all an estimation of their magnitude, and so the goal of this PhD is to provide an assessment of potential environmental impacts related to C&DW utilisation. C...... their ubiquitous environmental presence. Several methods may be used to investigate leaching from granular C&DW, one of which is percolation tests. Compared to down-flow lysimeters with uncrushed C&DW, this study found that the use of standard up-flow columns, with materials below 4mm in particle size, may...... case applies in situations characterised by high infiltration rates, such as unpaved roads, cracked asphalt cover or heavy rain events. By using holistic tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) a general evaluation of the environmental consequences of C&DW utilisation system was provided. Although...

  1. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption: outcome of the expert workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential de...

  2. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption: outcome of the expert workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential de...

  3. Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum vs. borrow pits in roadfill construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D F; Dooris, P M; Sumpter, D

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the environmental impacts of using phosphogypsum versus conventional fill materials (e.g., from borrow pits) for road construction. The study compared a hypothetical roadway with an actual roadway in Florida; the two facilities differed only in that phosphogypsum was employed as fill material instead of conventional materials. The effect of the two construction approaches on the plant and animal communities was considered, as was the impact on the surface and ground water. A summary was made of the comparative impacts, and a comparison matrix was constructed using integral numbers to depict impacts ranging from -5 (most impact) to 0 (none) to + 5, showing most benefit of the part of the project on a given resource. Values were subjective, based upon investigators' experience. Four categories (plant and animal communities, water quality, water resources, and air quality) were considered. The cumulative total was +12 for phosphogypsum and -6 for conventional fill material.

  4. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  5. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  6. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  7. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  8. The environmental impact of micro/nanomachines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-22

    Environmental sustainability represents a major challenge facing our world. Recent advances in synthetic micro/nanomachines have opened new horizons for addressing environmental problems. This review article highlights the opportunities and challenges in translating the remarkable progresses in nanomotor technology toward practical environmental applications. It covers various environmental areas that would benefit from these developments, including nanomachine-enabled degradation and removal of major contaminants or nanomotor-based water quality monitoring. Future operations of autonomous intelligent multifunctional nanomachines, monitoring and responding to hazardous chemicals (in a "sense and destroy" mode) and using bioinspired chemotactic search strategies to trace chemical plumes to their source, are discussed, along with the challenges of moving these exciting research efforts to larger-scale pilot studies and eventually to field applications. With continuous innovations, we expect that man-made nano/microscale motors will have profound impact upon the environment.

  9. Planning Environmental Impact Assessment Orienting Sustainable Development:Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjun; Chen Xingeng; Bao Yun; Peng Xiaochun; Gao Changbo

    2005-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment is a frontier subject in the field of Environmental Impact Assessment. In the past two decades, especially in recent years, much more importance has been attached to Strategic Environmental Assessment. The Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the P.R.China which was promulgated provides a great opportunity for the development of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment and brings great challenges for the development of traditional Project Environmental Impact Assessment and Planning Environmental Impact Assessment at the same time.In order to promote the implementation of"The EIA Law", the inherent limitations of Project Environmental Impact Assessment must be identified sufficiendy and the theory research and practice of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment should be strengthened as well. Measures should be taken currendy to enforce the operation system. The authors wish to offer a few references to the progress and implementation of Planning Environmental Impact Assessment in China.

  10. 24 CFR 58.60 - Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statements. 58.60 Section 58.60 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD... Environmental Impact Statements § 58.60 Preparation and filing of environmental impact statements. (a)...

  11. 24 CFR 58.53 - Use of prior environmental impact statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of prior environmental impact... RESPONSIBILITIES Environmental Review Process: Environmental Impact Statement Determinations § 58.53 Use of prior environmental impact statements. Where any final EIS has been listed in the Federal Register for a...

  12. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  13. 43 CFR 46.445 - Preparing a legislative environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.445 Preparing a legislative environmental impact statement. When required under 40 CFR 1506.8, the Department must ensure that a legislative environmental impact statement is included as a part of the formal...

  14. 43 CFR 46.420 - Terms used in an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms used in an environmental impact... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Impact Statements § 46.420 Terms used in an environmental impact statement. The following terms are commonly used to describe concepts...

  15. 36 CFR 220.5 - Environmental impact statement and record of decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE § 220.5 Environmental impact statement and record of decision. (a) Classes of actions normally requiring environmental impact statements...

  16. 21 CFR 25.22 - Actions requiring the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 25.22 Section 25.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.22 Actions requiring the preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a...

  17. 18 CFR 380.7 - Format of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 380.7 Section 380.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.7 Format of an environmental impact statement. In addition to the requirements for an environmental impact statement prescribed in 40 CFR 1502.10 of the regulations of the Council...

  18. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need for...

  19. 10 CFR 51.80 - Draft environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.80 Draft environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) The NRC staff will either prepare a draft environmental...

  20. 16 CFR 1.84 - Draft environmental impact statements: Availability and comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statements... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.84 Draft environmental impact statements: Availability and comment. Except for proposals for legislation, environmental impact statements shall be prepared in two stages: Draft...

  1. 18 CFR 380.6 - Actions that require an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 380.6 Section 380.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.6 Actions that require an environmental impact statement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an environmental impact statement will normally be prepared first...

  2. Quantitative Assessment on the Embodied Environmental Impact of Concrete with or without Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sitang; LI Huiqiang

    2005-01-01

    According to the life cycle assessment and the environmental design method of industry production, a quantitative assessment model for the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash was proposed. The environmental burden impact indicator (EBII), the resources depletion impact indicator (RDII), and the environmental impact comprehensive indicator (EICI) are defined. The specific environmental impact values of different grade concretes with or without fly ash were presented. In the embodied process of concrete with or without fly ash, the key potential environmental impact categories are global warming and dust emission, and it is an effective way for reducing the embodied environmental impact of concrete to mix fly ash and lower grade cement. The method presented in this paper makes it possible to quantitatively assess the embodied environmental impact of concrete with or without fly ash. The results calculated in this paper can be used to quantitatively assess the life cycle environmental impact of construction materials and buildings.

  3. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a new... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.314 - Criteria for determining a significant environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 1940.314 Criteria for determining a significant environmental impact. (a) EISs will be done for... proposal's area of environmental impact, other related or similarly located Federal actions, and non... relatively few environmental impacts but create a potential for significantly impacts on a cumulative basis...

  5. 43 CFR 46.415 - Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental impact statement content... Impact Statements § 46.415 Environmental impact statement content, alternatives, circulation and filing requirements. The Responsible Official may use any environmental impact statement format and design as long as...

  6. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  7. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can......Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so...

  8. Supplement to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-14

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS)''. ''The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Draft Environmental Impact Statement'' (SPD Draft EIS) (DOWEIS-0283-D) was prepared in accordance with NEPA and issued in July 1998. It identified the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three facilities for plutonium disposition. These three facilities would accomplish pit disassembly and conversion, immobilization, and MOX fuel fabrication. For the alternatives that included MOX fuel fabrication, the draft also described the potential environmental impacts of using from three to eight commercial nuclear reactors to irradiate MOX fuel. The potential impacts were based on a generic reactor analysis that used actual reactor data and a range of potential site conditions. In May 1998, DCE initiated a procurement process to obtain MOX fuel fabrication and reactor irradiation services. The request for proposals defined limited activities that may be performed prior to issuance of the SPD EIS Record of Decision (ROD) including non-site-specific work associated with the development of the initial design for the MOX fuel fabrication facility, and plans (paper studies) for outreach, long lead-time procurements, regulatory management, facility quality assurance, safeguards, security, fuel qualification, and deactivation. No construction on the proposed MOX facility would begin before an SPD EIS ROD is issued. In March 1999, DOE awarded a contract to Duke Engineering & Services; COGEMA, Inc.; and Stone & Webster (known as DCS) to provide the requested

  9. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  12. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six larger producers of cow milk in the world. In 2010, the national milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE. Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for 71% production increase between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. Thus, this paper aims at assessing the adoption of good environmental practices in milk production, towards sustainable production. Practices included: plot rotation system; no-tillage technique; agroecology system; and practices for reducing water and energetic consumptions in milk cattle system. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, we could find that 95% of producers adopted at least one of those good environmental practices considered, mostly plot rotation system and no-tillage technique. According to literature, plot rotation favors soils quality and consequently increases forage availability, resulting in positive impact on natural resources. No-tillage agriculture, on its turn, causes less damage on

  13. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure of Mather Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    the California Health and Safety Code). The Department would like to be informed of future activities and use plans associated with the Muther AFB...Page 2 cc: Lt. Col Richard Blank Chief, Environmental Management 323rd Flying Training Wing Mather Air Force Base, CA 95655-5000 Lt. Col. Jose Saenz

  14. 76 FR 34066 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Legislative Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) and training missions at NAWSCL, in addition to other... defense-related purposes. The environmental analysis in the EIS/LEIS will be incorporated in an update to...., Trona Community Senior Center, 13187 Market Street, Trona, California 93562. Additional...

  15. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption......How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... to decoupling argue that with increasing income the composition of consumption changes in the direction of more environment-friendly goods and services. This paper discusses this hypothesis critically on the basis of several studies dealing with historical experience. First, it is argued that an overall...

  16. Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James D; Sutton, Paul C; Werner, Adrian D; Costanza, Robert; Mohr, Steve H; Simmons, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    The argument that human society can decouple economic growth-defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)-from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing.

  17. Environmental impact assessment with multimedia spatial information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, A.; Gouveia, C.; A Câmara; J.P. Silva

    1995-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment (ETA) process involves the consideration of large amounts of data comprising several variables and phenomena, with complex interrelationships varying in space and time. The potential of spatial information systems (SIS) has been increasingly realized for use in ETA, although they are used only for the production and presentation of maps, without the exploration of their ability to analyze spatial data. The integration of multimedia with SIS may contribute t...

  18. Proposed Owyhee Resource Management Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Five alternatives are described and analyzed i9n the final Environmental Impact Statement. Alternative A is a continuation of current management. Alternative B was developed through BLM staff interpretation and analysis of information submitted by the Owyhee Country Commissioners with the assistance of the Owyhee County Natural Resources Committee. Alternative C was developed by the BLM lower Snake River District interdisciplinary planning team. Alternative D was developed through BLM staff i...

  19. Environmental impacts assessment for hydropower development planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Hongbin; Yu Weiqi; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    This article briefly introduced China's law framework and technical standards related to environmental im-pacts assessment(EIA) for hydropower development, and the EIA developing process for hydropower development plan-ning. Authors summarized the working experiences about hydropower development planning EIA done in the recent years in China, discussed the considerations and methods of hydropower development planning EIA, and put forward the index system for hydropower development planning EIA initially.

  20. Environmental impact of heavy metal pollution in natural aquatic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tayab, Muhammad Rehan

    1991-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The distribution of heavy metals between soil and soil solutions is a key issue in evaluating the environmental impact of long term applications of heavy metals to land. Contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported by many workers. Metal adsorption is affected by many factors, including soil pH, clay mineralogy, abundance of oxides and organic matter, soil composition and solution...

  1. 76 FR 68741 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report (DEIS/DEIR) for a... wetlands, streams, rivers, and other waters of the U.S. and the potential impacts on the human...

  2. Impact of Electronic Wastes Recycling on Environmental Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental quality of Guiyu, Guangdong impacted by the electronic waste recycling industry. Methods The surface water, ground water and sediment samples taken separately from two sites that recycle E-wastes and other rubbish relevant to the E-waste recycling, and an agricultural area, were analyzed, and the data were used to evaluate the impact of E-waste recycling on the environmental quality of Guiyu based on environmental quality standards in China. Results The concentrations of lead and iron in the surface water samples significantly different in the three locations. The maximum value of lead in the first site was 8 times higher than the threshold of environmental quality standards for surface water. The concentration of iron in polluted sample was 22 times that of the background sample. Manganese and iron also showed a significant difference in ground water samples between the three sites. The amount of iron was 22 times that of the threshold of the quality standard for ground water, and 120 times that of the background sample. Moreover, the results of all the eight heavy metals showed significant differences among the sediment samples. The concentrations of copper, cadmium,nickel, and lead in the polluted samples were above the median benchmarks of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The copper concentration of 2670 mg/kg was 10 times that of the median benchmark. ConclusionE-waste recycling has led to the severe pollution Guiyu.

  3. Environmental Intelligence and its Impact on Collaborative Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Trivedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green IT can be defined as the conscious implementation of technologies, techniques and policies designed to reduce the carbon footprint of the IT function within the organization and the use of IT to reduce the carbon footprint of the whole organization. By adopting Green IT practices, business enterprises can contribute positively to environmental stewardship and protect the environment while reducing the energy costs. The holistic approach to environmental sustainability making the best use of IT resources available to the organization is termed as environmental intelligence (EI in this paper. This paper explores creative ways of looking at the environmental challenge, opens up opportunities to examine processes for collaboration, take stock of the inventory and infrastructure for optimization, and explore the possibilities of new business streams. This research paper aims to find out the impact of technologies such as server virtualization, cloud computing, anytime anywhere technologies and right network (as a specialist domain of Green ICT on EI of different business organizations of Vadodara. This study employed the ordinal logistic regression to understand the impact of green ICT on the manufacturing business.

  4. MAPPING OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nokelaynen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more attention is paid to climate change policy and sustainable development, for which transport still presents a major challenge. Railway transport plays an important role in the pollution of the natural environment. Therefore, it is highly important to monitor and analyse the environmental impacts of railway transport at the county scale. For this purpose, the thematic ecological database was developed for the territory of Russia and the digital map of the environmental impacts of railway transport was created at a scale of 1:20 000 000. The map is representing linear pollution connected with railway transportation systems, which is accessed according to the traffic intensity and types of freight transported on the routes. The major criteria of evaluation are freight volumes, the presence of polluting cargos and passenger train frequency. Conducted research aims to support decision makers with comprehensive data on the environmental impact of railway transport and helps to define the priority regions of Russia requiring measures of improvement of transport and ecological conditions.

  5. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  6. Life cycle environmental impacts of saffron production in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Majid; Shahvarooghi Farahani, Saeid; Shojaei, Hamidreza; Elhami, Behzad

    2017-02-01

    Saffron is regarded as an important crop in Iranian agricultural economics that needs to be investigated to produce the environmentally friendlier product. In the present study, saffron production as an important agricultural production system in Iran was evaluated thoroughly from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from saffron farmers in Southern Khorasan province of the country with face-to-face questionnaire method during cropping period of 2013-2014. The system boundary was considered from the production of raw input materials to the harvested saffron. In order to identify the main hotspot during cultivation, impact categories were considered using CML methodology and cumulative exergy demand (CExD) indicator. Based on the results, chemical fertilizers N and P were the main hotspots in abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), global warming (GWP), and photochemical oxidation (PO) impact categories, while diesel fuel was the main hotspot in fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), and terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE). Direct emission from diesel fuel combustion (saffron) was the main hotspot only in human toxicity (HT). The small farms had the highest amounts of AD, AC, EP, GWP, and PO indicators in comparison with the medium and large farms. Total CExD indicator for production of 1 kg saffron was 1894.23 MJ eq. Totally, large farms (bigger than 1 ha) had better environmental performance considering all the impact categories.

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Otto Schwake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.

  8. Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, Gregory S

    2017-01-01

    In the US, there are more than 163 million dogs and cats that consume, as a significant portion of their diet, animal products and therefore potentially constitute a considerable dietary footprint. Here, the energy and animal-derived product consumption of these pets in the US is evaluated for the first time, as are the environmental impacts from the animal products fed to them, including feces production. In the US, dogs and cats consume about 19% ± 2% of the amount of dietary energy that humans do (203 ± 15 PJ yr-1 vs. 1051 ± 9 PJ yr-1) and 33% ± 9% of the animal-derived energy (67 ± 17 PJ yr-1 vs. 206 ± 2 PJ yr-1). They produce about 30% ± 13%, by mass, as much feces as Americans (5.1 ± Tg yr-1 vs. 17.2 Tg yr-1), and through their diet, constitute about 25-30% of the environmental impacts from animal production in terms of the use of land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate, and biocides. Dog and cat animal product consumption is responsible for release of up to 64 ± 16 million tons CO2-equivalent methane and nitrous oxide, two powerful greenhouse gasses (GHGs). Americans are the largest pet owners in the world, but the tradition of pet ownership in the US has considerable costs. As pet ownership increases in some developing countries, especially China, and trends continue in pet food toward higher content and quality of meat, globally, pet ownership will compound the environmental impacts of human dietary choices. Reducing the rate of dog and cat ownership, perhaps in favor of other pets that offer similar health and emotional benefits would considerably reduce these impacts. Simultaneous industry-wide efforts to reduce overfeeding, reduce waste, and find alternative sources of protein will also reduce these impacts.

  9. Environmental impacts of consumers' choice of food products and housing. Final report of the ConsEnv project; Aterioiden ja asumisen valinnat kulutuksen ympaeristoevaikutusten ytimessae. ConsEnv-hankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, M.; Kurppa, S.; Nissinen, A.; Maekelae, J. (eds.)

    2011-06-15

    In the ConsEnv project, climate and eutrophication impacts of food consumption were assessed, and different everyday means of mitigating climate impacts of housing were studied. The life-cycle models that were used for the production of primary raw materials corresponded to average Finnish production, with the exception of imported food products, for which LCA-based specific data from the literature were used. When assessing environmental impacts of the food industry and food commerce, the study evaluated data received from specific companies (Saarioinen, HK Ruokatalo, Fazer Bakeries, Raisio and Ruokakesko). The models used for school meals were based on data received from the kitchen supplying food to the school involved in the study (Kauriala, Haemeenlinna). The impact assessments of consumers' own behaviour, that is, purchasing of food, and food storage and preparation were based on previously published data. When estimating electricity and heat consumption in the food chain, the average profile of Finnish energy production was used. According to the results, animal-based meals have a two- to three-fold climate change impact and a four- to fivefold eutrophication impact, compared to vegetarian dishes. The results also show differences between different meat and vegetable meals. In most cases, the main food ingredient of the meal has the greatest environmental impact. For some meals, the proportion of the impact of salad can be as high as one-third of the total. The relatively higher impact of rice in comparison with that of pasta is not decisive, when the total impact of the meal is taken into account. The differences between home-cooked and convenience food are mainly due to different types of raw materials used. The way of cooking and the anticipated benefits of central kitchens are not as dominant as expected in regard to climate change. The main conclusion from the study is that the greatest source of impacts of different types of meals is the

  10. 76 FR 49786 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Reclamation (Reclamation), the lead Federal agency, and the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the lead State agency, have prepared a joint Final EIS/EIR for the proposed Nimbus Fish Hatchery Weir... Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Nimbus Hatchery Fish Passage Project, Lower American River,...

  11. 76 FR 381 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ....blm.gov/elcentro and also from the CPUC and the CDDO at the above addresses and in the BLM El Centro ] Field Office, 1661 S. 4th Street, El Centro, California 92243. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Tule and ECO Projects' impacts on air quality, biological resources, cultural resources, water...

  12. 76 FR 29786 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Big Cypress National Preserve Addition, Florida. On February 4, 2011, the Regional Director, Southeast... National Park Service Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition... Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for the Big Cypress National Preserve Addition....

  13. 76 FR 40354 - Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Crowned Ridge Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Area Power Administration Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Crowned Ridge Wind Energy Center Project, Codington and Grant Counties, SD AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 76 FR 23335 - Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... proper food storage; party size; camping and campsites; human waste management; stock use; meadow... National Park Service Wilderness Stewardship Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoia and Kings Canyon... Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for Wilderness Stewardship Plan, Sequoia and...

  15. Meat (substitutes) comparing environmental impacts. A Case study comparing Quorn and pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, Joep

    2007-01-01

    The production of food by humans is said to contribute significantly to environmental impacts. Especially meat is seen as part of the diet with a high environmental impact. Replacing this meat with meat substitutes could potentially change this environmen

  16. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances; Technical... considerations, food additives, and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances to correct minor errors in the... affecting certain regulations regarding environmental impact considerations (part 25), food additives...

  17. 78 FR 7450 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems... a Final Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing... a manner that supports long-term ecosystem protection, supports natural ecosystem recovery and...

  18. 77 FR 56835 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project, Request for Comments on... environmental impacts of the proposed Constitution Pipeline Project (Project) involving construction...

  19. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  20. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  1. Atmospheric and environmental impacts of volcanic ash particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Globally, at any one time, there may be 20 volcanoes erupting that collectively emit a constant flux of gases and aerosol, including silicate particles (tephra), to the atmosphere which influences processes including cloud microphysics, heterogeneous chemistry and radiative balance. The nature and impact of atmospheric volcanic particle fluxes depend on total mass erupted, emission rate, emission source location, physical and chemical properties of the particles, and the location and residence time of the particles in the atmosphere. Removal of ash particles from the atmosphere through sedimentation is strongly influenced by particle aggregation through hydrometeor formation, and convective instabilities such as mammatus. I will address the following questions: What are the atmospheric impacts of volcanic ash emissions? What controls the residence time of volcanic particles in the atmosphere? What affects particle accumulation at the surface? And what are the human and environmental impacts of ash fallout?

  2. Changes in environmental impacts of major crops in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Suh, Sangwon

    2015-09-01

    As with life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in general, agricultural LCAs often rely on static and outdated inventory data, but literature suggests that agricultural systems may be highly dynamic. Here, we applied life cycle impact assessment methods to investigate the trends and underlying drivers of changes in non-global environmental impacts of major crops in the US. The results show that the impact per hectare corn and cotton generated on the ecological health of freshwater systems decreased by about 50% in the last decade. This change is mainly due to the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, which has reduced the application of insecticides and relatively toxic herbicides such as atrazine. However, the freshwater ecotoxicity impact per hectare soybean production increased by 3-fold, mainly because the spread of an invasive species, soybean aphid, has resulted in an increasing use of insecticides. In comparison, other impact categories remained relatively stable. By evaluating the relative ecotoxicity potential of a large number of pesticides, our analysis offers new insight into the benefits associated with GM crops. Our study also implies that because different impact categories show different degrees of changes, it is worthwhile focusing on the rapidly changing categories when updating agricultural LCA databases under time and resource constraints.

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman AFB, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    information 36. Year Month dayt 19 Cc. Returned for c. State f ~~(Name and telephone number Ending amendment -0 e____date_19 = d Deferred d. Local M___ 0...retail sales...the assessed evaluation of taxed property has increased very 3 Istronglyu. In its summary of its findings in the 4 active MOAs, this. I...upon the information presented and isinformation presented, omitted or misstated in this environmental mpact statement. In many ways this impact

  4. Life cycle assessment for the "implicit" environmental impact of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper has established an assessment system and a quantitative calculation method of the "implicit" environmental impact including environmental impact indicator,resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantitative calculation of the environmental impact indicator is based on the life cycle assessment system and the evaluation software BEES. The paper identifies normalization reference values and weights for 12 categories of the environmental impact. It also analyzes the env...

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment in Norway--Understanding Implementation as a Function of Professional Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Describes the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Norway using a survey of the paradigm of environmental management carried out in the central and regional Norwegian environmental administrations. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałaś, Slávka, E-mail: sgalas@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Gałaś, Andrzej, E-mail: pollux@geol.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Department of Environmental Analysis, Cartography and Economic Geology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 059 Krakow (Poland); Zeleňáková, Martina, E-mail: martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Zvijáková, Lenka, E-mail: lenkazvijakova@gmail.com [Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Fialová, Jitka, E-mail: jitka.fialova@mendelu.cz [Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Landscape Management, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  7. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan for Biscayne National Park, Florida...

  8. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed s

  9. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  10. 77 FR 39503 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Proposed Rawlins Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Madre (CCSM) Wind Energy Project (Volume II) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and by this... direct, indirect and cumulative environmental impacts of constructing and operating the CCSM wind... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement,...

  11. 78 FR 57624 - Availability of a Draft Integrated Feasibility Report (Feasibility Study/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Study/Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report), Los Angeles River Ecosystem Restoration Study, City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps... Feasibility Report (IFR), which includes a Draft Feasibility Study (FS) and Environmental Impact...

  12. 75 FR 17133 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for Training Range and Garrison Support Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... environmental and socioeconomic impacts resulting from the proposed construction of 12 range projects and 2... DEIS examines the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation... Department of the Army Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for Training Range and Garrison...

  13. 76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... significant environmental impacts are anticipated from the issuance of the 2012 Construction General Permit... significant environmental impacts are anticipated from the issuance of the 2012 Construction General Permit... that no significant environmental impacts are anticipated from the issuance of the 2012...

  14. 76 FR 64893 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rosemont Copper Project on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Coronado National Forest announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for public review. The DEIS discloses the potential environmental impacts of the construction, operation and... Forest Service Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rosemont Copper Project...

  15. 77 FR 47876 - Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statements: Potential Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... construction and operations plan (COP), BOEM intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statements: Potential Commercial... the Atlantic OCS, by preparing an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzes the potential impacts...

  16. 78 FR 40488 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of... Guard announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) and announces a public... Environmental Impact Statement. The Coast Guard will hold a public meeting on the DEIS on Wednesday, August...

  17. 75 FR 1359 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for...: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The comment period for the Final Environmental Impact... Web version of the Final Environmental Impact Statement had problems with the Web links. The...

  18. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Palm Beach, Florida. A Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for South... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan....

  19. 10 CFR 51.76 - Draft environmental impact statement-limited work authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-limited work...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.76 Draft environmental impact statement—limited work authorization. The NRC will prepare a...

  20. 10 CFR 51.90 - Final environmental impact statement-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-general. 51.90... Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.90 Final environmental impact statement—general. After receipt and consideration of comments requested pursuant to §§ 51...

  1. 40 CFR 1501.4 - Whether to prepare an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact statement. 1501.4 Section 1501.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.4 Whether to prepare an environmental impact statement. In determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement the Federal agency shall: (a) Determine under its...

  2. 10 CFR 51.92 - Supplement to the final environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement to the final environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-General Requirements § 51.92 Supplement to the final environmental impact statement. (a) If the proposed action has not been taken, the...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 651 - Content of the Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Content of the Environmental Impact Statement E...—Content of the Environmental Impact Statement (a) EISs will: (1) Be analytic rather than encyclopedic... assess environmental impacts of proposed military actions, rather than justifying decisions. (b) The EIS...

  4. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.97 Final environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) Independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI...

  5. 10 CFR 63.24 - Updating of application and environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updating of application and environmental impact statement... Updating of application and environmental impact statement. (a) The application must be as complete as... the time a construction authorization was issued. (c) DOE shall supplement its environmental impact...

  6. 10 CFR 60.24 - Updating of application and environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updating of application and environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement. (a) The application shall be as complete as possible in the light of information... was issued. (c) The DOE shall supplement its environmental impact statement in a timely manner so as...

  7. 10 CFR 51.77 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.77 Distribution of draft environmental impact statement. (a) In addition to the distribution...

  8. 10 CFR 51.104 - NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental impact statement. 51.104 Section 51.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED....104 NRC proceeding using public hearings; consideration of environmental impact statement. (a)(1) In... scope of NEPA and this subpart are in issue, the NRC staff may not offer the final environmental impact...

  9. A Model for Environmental Impact Assessment of Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Shu-heng; MAO Liang; YIN Yong; ZHU Da-kui

    2007-01-01

    Land reclamation is a complex marine environmental engineering and has a huge impact on social, economic, and physical environment. Reclamation environmental impact assessment (REIA) is also a complicated project, including the assessment of social economic background, ocean engineering, coastal geomorphology, sediment transportation, marine hydrodynamics and marine ecosystem and so on. Nowadays, a large number of land reclaimed projects have been carried out or in the process of construction along the coastal zone, thus, it is necessary to build up a framework on REIA to evaluate and quantify the environmental changes, to contribute to reclamation program, to reduce marine environmental disasters, and to sustain development of coastal zone. This article focuses on the research of REIA framework theory and puts forward a REIA model on land reclaimed evaluation, at the same time, applies this assessment system in Shenzhen City, which is a highly developed coastal city with an expectation of land reclamation. By use of the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, along with the topographic map and in situ survey in reclamation area, it concludes that the area of 2680 hectares in total has been reclaimed in Shenzhen city by the end of the year 2000. Thus, reclamation is usually applied to meet the needs for infrastructure, such as harbors, industries and highways in Shenzhen City. However, some serious negative impacts have been created to the coastal environment shown clearly in the following aspects. Firstly, it caused the dramatic changes of tidal flat and channels along the western coast, made this area more unstable, which is threatening the function of the harbor in this area. Secondly, Tidal prism has decreased rapidly. During the 20 years of reclamation, the tidal prism has been reduced by 20%~30% along the western coast in the Lingdingyang Estuary, and 15.6% in the Shenzhen Bay. As a result, the velocity of the tidal current

  10. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  11. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  12. A general exergy-based environmental impact index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Mendez, Sosimo E. [Autonomous University of Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, Jose Maria [National Center for Research and Technical Development, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel [Guanajuato University, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    An ecosystem is a complex system in which biotic and abiotic factors interact and influence each other both directly and indirectly. Each of these factors has to comply with a specific function in the different processes that occur inside the ecosystem, whether transporting or transforming energy or both. When anthropogenic emissions are produced, part of the useful energy of the ecosystem is used to assimilate or absorb those emissions, and the energy spent, loses its function and becomes lost work in accordance with the Gouy-Stodola theorem. Thus, the work that an ecosystem can carry out varies as a function of the lost work produced by anthropogenic sources. The permanency or loss of the ecosystem depends on how many irreversibilities it can support. The second law of thermodynamics through a systematic use of the exergy and lost work is the basis of this paper where a general environmental impact index, based on exergy, is proposed. For the purpose of this work, the ecosystem is divided in subsystems--water, soil, atmosphere, organisms and society- -all of them inter-related. The ideal work variation can be obtained from each subsystem within the selected ecosystem, and a global index can be determined by adding the partial lost work of each subsystem. This global index is then used to determine the trend followed by the ecosystem from its pristine, original or environmental line base state. This environmental impact index applicability is presented for a simple combustion example.

  13. Environmental and health impacts of artificial turf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Reinhard, Martin

    2014-02-18

    With significant water savings and low maintenance requirements, artificial turf is increasingly promoted as a replacement for natural grass on athletic fields and lawns. However, there remains the question of whether it is an environmentally friendly alternative to natural grass. The major concerns stem from the infill material that is typically derived from scrap tires. Tire rubber crumb contains a range of organic contaminants and heavy metals that can volatilize into the air and/or leach into the percolating rainwater, thereby posing a potential risk to the environment and human health. A limited number of studies have shown that the concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the air above artificial turf fields were typically not higher than the local background, while the concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants in the field drainages were generally below the respective regulatory limits. Health risk assessment studies suggested that users of artificial turf fields, even professional athletes, were not exposed to elevated risks. Preliminary life cycle assessment suggested that the environmental impacts of artificial turf fields were lower than equivalent grass fields. Areas that need further research to better understand and mitigate the potential negative environmental impacts of artificial turf are identified.

  14. AMESCO General Study Environmental Impacts CO2-storage. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The AMESCO study aims to supply environmental background information on CO2-storage in the Netherlands for the broad group of initiators and other stakeholders. By bringing together the information from the scientific world, companies and authorities and by analysing relevant policies it is intended to eludicate: which are the possible environmental effects of CO2-injection and storage; which are the possibilities for risk reduction or mitigation; which existing legislation is of relevance for CO2-storage in the deep surface; where are the gaps in knowledge and legislation with regard to CO2-storage. The report produced during the AMESCO study should be seen as a broad answer to the four questions mentioned above. In specific projects the report can be used as a background document during permitting procedures. This background information has to be supplemented with location specific information. The report can also be used as input for an environmental impact assessment (EIA). For practical reasons the AMESCO study was performed with the following scope limitations: (1) Focus on potential impacts and risks resulting from the storage of CO2; (2) Only consider CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; (3) Only consider onshore projects; (4) Only consider permanent storage; (5) Consider alternative options for CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; but not other forms of CO2-emission reduction. The scope is limited to depleted gas fields, from which the economically recoverable resources have already been taken.

  15. Constructing Environmental Impact Statements. An Organizational Focus for Teaching Analytical Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libes, Susan M.

    1999-12-01

    Preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is the organizational focus for an undergraduate lab course in environmental chemistry. Students work collaboratively through the semester to prepare an EIS following National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) guidelines. This involves several stages of activity including a scoping process, field sampling, and laboratory analyses, modeling of the results to predict impacts, and report writing. To maximize student interest and make sampling practical, the proposed activity for which the EIS is prepared is locally based. Laboratory analyses are performed using the U.S. EPA's standard methods for turbidity, color, coliforms, nutrients, trace metals, alkalinity, petroleum hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. The completed EIS is defended in a mock public hearing at which students play assigned roles. In addition to requiring a high degree of group work, this approach emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of environmental chemistry and the difficulty of using scientific data to perform risk assessments. Preparation of an EIS is a federal or state requirement for many construction projects and hence students get a chance to experience a potential career area as well as acquire a marketable skill.

  16. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  17. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  18. Use of Animal Species Data in Environmental Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J. Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J.; Uiterkamp, Anton J. M. Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people’s preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity.

  19. HYDROLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY DEFORESTATION UNDERGROUND: PETROPOLIS, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Magalhães da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion in Petropolis region is due to massive deforestation for housing and other human activities. Deforestation is the main cause ecological imbalances, resulting in: flooding, decrease in porosity and desertification of soil. By AIA semi-qualitative technique analysis it studied possible losses and benefits of urban expansion in the locality, if changes were likely or not of occurrence and their level of impaction. It was observed that the probability of occurrence of damage was much higher than that of benefits. The result corroborates the literature, therefore, has been seen that vegetation plays an important role in water control of the town, and also in the physical and chemical soil. The probability of catastrophic consequences, due to deforestation, is extremely high, and even mid-sized consequences have capacity of environmental impacts that are likely to be irreversible. Deforestation intensifies the consequences of major frequent rainfall in the summer of the State of Rio de Janeiro, so the higher the deforestation, the greater the likelihood of recurrent and intense rainfall events resulting from large. Therefore, it is necessary to control urban sprawl in the region to reduce water environmental impact in the region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.17327

  20. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  1. Analysis of environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Aynur Aydın; Turker, Ozhan

    2011-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System, which embodies the "prevention principle" of the environmental law, is an important tool for environmental protection. This tool has a private importance for Turkey since it is a developing country, and it entered the Turkish law in 1983 with the Environmental Law. Besides, the EIA Regulation, which shows the application principles, became effective in 1993. Because Turkey is a candidate for European Union (EU), the EIA Regulation has been changed due to the EU compliance procedure, and its latest version became valid in 2008. This study aims to emphasize The EIA system in Turkey to supervise the efficiency of this procedure and point the success level. In the introduction part, general EIA concept, its importance, and some notations are mentioned. Following that, the legislation, which builds the EIA system, has been analyzed starting from the 1982 Turkish Constitution. Then, the legislation rules are explained due to the basic steps of the EIA procedure. In order to shed light upon the application, the EIA final decisions given until today, the results, and their distributions to the industries are assessed. In the final part of the study, a SWOT analysis is made to mention the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of the EIA system in Turkey.

  2. 76 FR 45780 - Notice of Availability for a Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Emergency Restoration of Seagrass Impacts From the... Administrative Trustee (LAT) for this emergency seagrass restoration. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, an Environmental Assessment for Emergency Restoration of Seagrass Impacts from the Deepwater...

  3. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Brenner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame-retardants (FR are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs. Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  4. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  5. Investigation of the environmental impacts of sedimentation in Anzali Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmal, Milad; Neshaei, Seyed Ahmad; Farzan, Niloofar

    2016-04-01

    Anzali harbor is the most essential transportation pole between Iran and other countries of the Caspian Sea basin. Anzali pond is an important ecosystem in the region due to its unique plant and animal species. In order to determine the effects of interaction between pond and sea, a series of in-depth studies and analysis on the pattern of sedimentation in Anzali harbor and pond were performed. The study area is Anzali harbor and pond which is located in southwest of the Caspian Sea in Iran. In recent years the economical importance and improvement program of this region has devoted many scientists and authorities attention to itself. In this paper, researches on environmental impact by sediment and pollution in this zone are performed. Analysis indicates that by disposal of sediment and pollution in this area, the physical and chemical quality of water has declined. Some practical suggestions are made to improve the quality of the studied region in terms of environmental aspects.

  6. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...... a population-based cohort of 2,486,646million persons born in Denmark between 1 January 1955 and 31 December 1993 using Danish registers. We found that PAR associated with urban birth was 11.73%; PAR associated with one, respectively 2, parent(s) with schizophrenia was 2.67% and 0.12%. PAR associated...

  7. Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols For Tidal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Michael Leroy [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Xue, Huijie [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME; Johnson, Teresa R. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME

    2014-02-02

    The Maine Tidal Power Initiative (MTPI), an interdisciplinary group of engineers, biologists, oceanographers, and social scientists, has been conducting research to evaluate tidal energy resources and better understand the potential effects and impacts of marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) development on the environment and local community. Project efforts include: 1) resource assessment, 2) development of initial device design parameters using scale model tests, 3) baseline environmental studies and monitoring, and 4) human and community responses. This work included in-situ measurement of the environmental and social response to the pre-commercial Turbine Generator Unit (TGU®) developed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) as well as considering the path forward for smaller community scale projects.

  8. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 29, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  9. New-sandwiched hydrogen separation membranes with low environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Komaki, M.; Nishimura, C. [Eco-Energy Materials Group, Ecomaterials Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    There is a strong interest in economical methods for hydrogen separation. In this work, we have developed sandwiched membranes, Pd-Ag/V-15Ni/Pd-Ag, which had much lower environmental impact than palladium-based membranes, which are the most commonly used membrane for the current production of highly pure hydrogen. The Pd-Ag overlayer was prepared on V-15Ni substrates (thickness 40 {mu}m) using multi-target sputtering. The hydrogen permeation of the Pd-Ag/V-15Ni/Pd-Ag sandwiched membranes was examined using gas permeation technology. (orig.)

  10. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  11. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF TAX ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Tsakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the performance of tax organizations in Greece, based on data obtained from a sample of 35 tax offices. Performance evaluation was conducted using DEA with bootstrap methods. In addition, Tobit regression analysis was employed to examine the environmental variables that impact on the efficiency performance of these tax offices. From the analysis, weaknesses, and management issues are derived from the tax offices inefficiency. The general conclusion is that a robust governance structure within the tax office operational framework is needed in order to improve organisational efficiency.

  12. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Linzalone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs. However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.

  13. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  14. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  15. Synthetic fuels technology overview with health and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, E. J., Jr.; Salmon, E. J.

    1981-06-01

    An introduction is presented to the following synthetic fuels technologies: (1) the Lurgi gasification of coal; (2) the Fischer-Tropsch liquefaction of coal; (3) coal-methanol conversion; (4) donor solvent gas liquefaction; (5) Tosco surface shale retorting; ethanol production from coal; and (6) the coal-methanol-gasoline conversion process. After establishing the system characteristics of these six technologies, consideration is given to their potential major health, safety, environmental and socio-economic impacts at the global, regional and local levels. It is determined that the main global consequence of synfuels development is climate modification, to which may be added the regional impact of dry and wet deposition of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and land and water quality deterioration due to soil erosion at the local level.

  16. Genetic and environmental impacts on DNA methylation levels in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yet, Idil; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics describes the study of cellular modifications that can modify the expression of genes without changing the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one of the most stable and prevalent epigenetic mechanisms. Twin studies have been a valuable model for unraveling the genetic and epigenetic epidemiology of complex traits, and now offer a potential to dissect the factors that impact DNA methylation variability and its biomedical significance. The twin design specifically allows for the study of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors, and their potential interactions, on epigenetic profiles. Furthermore, genetically identical twins offer a unique opportunity to assess nongenetic impacts on epigenetic profiles. Here, we summarize recent findings from twin studies of DNA methylation profiles across tissues, to define current knowledge regarding the genetic and nongenetic factors that influence epigenetic variation.

  17. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Voisin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before a comprehensive, accurate model of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  18. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced ~10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 Ga and 3.5 Ga, the biggest of which were ~30-100X more energetic than Chicxulub. To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid under the circumstances). (iv) The surface temperature of dry land is presumed to be the same as the lower atmosphere. A

  19. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  20. Modeling Of Construction Noise For Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Hamoda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the noise levels generated at different construction sites in reference to the stage of construction and the equipment used, and examined the methods to predict such noise in order to assess the environmental impact of noise. It included 33 construction sites in Kuwait and used artificial neural networks (ANNs for the prediction of noise. A back-propagation neural network (BPNN model was compared with a general regression neural network (GRNN model. The results obtained indicated that the mean equivalent noise level was 78.7 dBA which exceeds the threshold limit. The GRNN model was superior to the BPNN model in its accuracy of predicting construction noise due to its ability to train quickly on sparse data sets. Over 93% of the predictions were within 5% of the observed values. The mean absolute error between the predicted and observed data was only 2 dBA. The ANN modeling proved to be a useful technique for noise predictions required in the assessment of environmental impact of construction activities.

  1. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  2. Environmental impact assessment in the Alberta oil sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, I.B.; Herasymuik, G.; Schmidt, N.; Kovats, Z.; Clipperton, K. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the activities associated with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in oil sands operations in Alberta were reviewed with particular reference to key regional issues such as instream flow needs (IFN), basal water management, lake acidification potential, and climate change. The proven approaches to maintain timelines and maximize success were also discussed with reference to the factors that can be managed to promote an efficient application, review and approval process. It was noted that although the EIA process is well-defined and robust, it is evolving due to new challenges such as increasingly complex tools and new regulations. Alberta's Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) continuously refines environmental objectives for NOx, SOx, surface water, and the Muskeg River and the Athabasca River watersheds. In particular, much effort has gone into determining the water withdrawals from the Athabasca River during the winter months and its effect on resident fish populations. Operators must determine the viability of a project if studies of IFN indicate that there is limited river flow available for abstraction. This paper identified several factors that can be addressed to keep the process on schedule. These include planning, understanding issues, completing baseline surveys, and commanding the attention of regulators. 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  3. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  4. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  5. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  6. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  7. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. The scope of environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden and its environmental relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn-Tysk, S.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate how the Swedish environmental impact assessment (EIA) system works in practice and to analyse the environmental relevance of the scoping process during the ElA process. As a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for bio fuelled energy plants have been reviewed in order to illustrate the scope of the statements and hence evaluate how the ElA system works and analyses what environmental aspects that are prioritised by ElA actors. Based on the review results, the scope of the EISs indicates that the Swedish ElA system did not work as intended during the studied period since not even the legal requirements were fulfilled in many of the EISs. In addition, international EIA practice does not seem to have influenced the Swedish practice of ElA at that time. The EISs also show that EIA actors apply narrow system boundaries, i.e. they focus only on the activities of the energy plant that are explicitly linked to the energy plant location and its immediate vicinity. Moreover, these narrow system boundaries exclude important aspects of an energy plant, like resource extraction and global and long-term effects. Many of the energy plants have been planned and developed partly due to a Government Bill, in which a development of the Swedish energy system was proposed in order to achieve a sustainable development of Sweden. However, a sustainable development requires that effects on present as well as future generations are focused on as well. Therefore, an ElA process and a decision-making process, which prioritises local and short-term effects, often do not promote the societal goals of sustainable development. In order to promote the goals of sustainable development, the perspectives of ElA actors have to widen to include global and future, long-term effects.

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  11. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  12. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates.

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN SPRAWL IN LONDRINA, PARANÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public policies encouraging the insertion of large industrial and commercial developments near highways, associated to exclusionary housing policies, have shaped over the past decades a new urbanization phenomenon; the sprawl. This is largely characterized by discontinuous and fragmented occupation, with random population densities. This phenomenon brings environmental and social impacts to the urban and rural population, in addition to a great burden for the Government. In line with this and considering the lack of discussion about the topic, this paper discusses some of those impacts observed in Londrina - PR, Brazil. The influence of urban sprawl in this city has shown to impact traffic, waterproofing rates and green areas, in addition to underutilizing the infrastructure due to large urban voids and vacant lots. With the data presented here, it is hoped that debates emerge on the importance of rethinking the plan, so that everyone can have legal access to the city (endowed with infrastructure, as well as the importance of developing strategies to contain urban sprawl.

  15. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  16. Poverty and environmental impacts of electricity price reforms in Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia [Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Studiestraede 6, DK-1455 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Klytchnikova, Irina [The World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department (ECSPE) (United States); Radevic, Dragana [Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (ME)

    2009-03-15

    The creation of the Energy Community of South Eastern Europe in 2005 committed countries in South Eastern Europe to liberalize their energy markets in accordance to EU regulations. The Government of Montenegro is thus in the process of reforming its energy sector, which includes an electricity tariff reform. This paper analyzes the environmental and social impacts of an increase in residential electricity tariffs contemplated - which is expected to range anywhere from 40 to over 100% increase. As this analysis shows, such a significant price rise will impose a heavy burden on the poor households and it may adversely affect the environment. In an ex ante investigation of the welfare impact of this price increase on households in Montenegro, we show that the anticipated price increase will result in a very significant increase in households' energy expenditures. A simulation of alternative policy measures analyzes the impact of different tariff levels and structures, focusing on the poor and vulnerable households. Higher electricity prices could also significantly increase the proportion of households using fuelwood for space heating. Thus the level of fuelwood consumption should be carefully monitored under the electricity tariff reforms and the Government of Montenegro should combine the tariff reforms with a carefully evaluated set of policy measures to mitigate the effect of the electricity price increase on the poor. (author)

  17. Development of Reaction Process with the Consideration of Environmental Impact Minimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启石; 冯霄

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is presented to identify environmental impact minimization alternative for reaction processes and assess their environmental performance.The potential environmental impact (PEI) scheme can be used to visibly display the transformation relationships among different types of PEI,identify the sources of environmental impacts,and propose alternatives for eliminating of minimizing the impacts.To evaluate the environmental performance of the alternatives effectively,some new indices,such as PEI input rate of non-products,PEI output rate of non-products per profit and the PEI conversion efficiency are proposed.Finally,the application of the methodology is illustrated using an industrial case study.

  18. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) which examines the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

  19. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...

  20. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a... advising the public of its intent to prepare an EIS evaluating potential environmental impacts associated...: Cancellation of Pan-STARRS EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969,...

  1. 78 FR 44137 - Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of..., ``Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Construction of a Highway Bridge Across...; correction. SUMMARY: The comment period end date listed for the Manatee River Draft Environmental...

  2. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...: Notice of availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption... Environmental Assessment Background The commencement of construction provisions of 10 CFR 30.33, 40.32(e),...

  3. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be demonstrat

  4. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Commission 10 CFR Part 51 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI47 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent... environmental considerations; it was based on finding that 30 years beyond the licensed life for operation...

  5. 38 CFR Appendix C to Part 200 - Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement C Appendix C to Part 200 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 200, App. C Appendix C to Part 200—Actions Requiring Environmental Impact Statement The following actions are considered to be major Federal...

  6. 7 CFR 3407.8 - Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. 3407.8 Section 3407.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 3407.8 Actions normally requiring an environmental impact statement. An...

  7. 45 CFR 640.5 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental impact statement. 640.5 Section 640.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 640.5 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a) If...

  8. Life cycle assessment for the "implicit" environmental impact of construction projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gen Shuai; Hui-qiang Li; Li Tang

    2009-01-01

    The paper has established an assessment system and a quantitative calculation method of the "implicit" environmental impact including environmental impact indicator, resources consumption indicator and energy consumption indicator. The quantitative calculation of the environmental impact indicator is based on the life cycle assessment system and the evaluation software BEES. The paper identifies normalization reference values and weights for 12 categories of the environmental impact. It also analyzes the environmental impact indicator in life cycle stages, raw materials, transportation, manufacturing, utilization, and end of life. A university refectory project is studied. The result has shown that human health, global warming and acidification are the first three environmental impacts in 12 categories. The environmental impact indicator per m2 of this project is 18.448×10-2 standard human equivalent weight. Moreover, 97.3 % of the total environmental impact occurs at the raw material stage, in which the most severe environmental impact is cancerous health effect; the global warming is the main impact at the transportation and manufacturing stages; the indoor air quality impact is at the usage stage.

  9. Environmental indicators for communication of life cycle impact assessment results and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Park, Jong Moon

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed to quantitatively evaluate all environmental impacts from products, systems, processes and services. However, LCIA does not always provide valuable information for choosing among alternatives with different specifications, functionalities and lifetimes. The objectives of this study are (1) to propose environmental indicators to evaluate environmental efficiency and value qualitatively and quantitatively on the basis of analogies to financial and economic indicators, and (2) to present the application of the indicators. Incremental evaluation using a reference is employed to obtain the environmental indicators. The environmental efficiency indicators are conceptually based on the ratios of reduced environmental burdens returned to environmental burdens required: environmental return on investment, environmental payback period and environmental internal rate of return. The environmental value indicator is the sum of all reduced and required environmental burdens: i.e., environmental net present value. All the environmental indicators can be used to compare and rank the environmental efficiencies or values of alternatives. The environmental efficiency indicators can be applied to a new environmental labeling. The concept of eco-efficiency labeling is developed by combining the environmental efficiency indicators with financial indicators. A case study is performed to illustrate the necessity and importance of the environmental indicators. These environmental indicators can help easily communicate LCIA results in the field of environmental management.

  10. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  11. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is

  12. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... significant impact on the quality of the human environment. The environmental assessment and finding of no... the quality of the human environment. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and... prepared. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact...

  13. 76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement... Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National... Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan/FEIS) for Biscayne National Park, Florida. The...

  14. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... occupational health and safety; and waste management. The environmental impacts on these resource areas were... impacts on land use, noise, historic and cultural, scenic and visual, or ecological resources. The... the quality of the human environment. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement...

  15. Environmental impact assessment of combustible wastes utilization in rotary cement kilns

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental impact assessment of the coal combustion and its substitution by alternative fuels from combustible wastes during Portland cement clinker sinterization in rotary cement kiln. Environmental impact assessment was carried out based on the fuels chemical composition and operating parameters of a rotary cement kiln in accordance with EURITS and IMPACT 2002+ methods.

  16. 75 FR 41452 - Withdrawal of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Development Process for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to address the potential impacts associated with the construction of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Withdrawal of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)...

  17. 78 FR 50049 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Activities and Operations at Yuma Proving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Department of the Army Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Activities and Operations at...). This document ] analyzes and evaluates potential environmental impacts associated with short-term and... impacts from new construction, changes in testing and training, and activities conducted under...

  18. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone ] National Park, located in...

  19. Helicopter noise exposure curves for use in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Bland, T. L.

    1982-11-01

    This report establishes the current (1982) FAA helicopter noise data base for use in environmental impact assessment. The report sets out assumptions, methodologies, and techniques used in arriving at noise-exposure-versus-distance relationships. Noise data are provided for 15 helicopters, including five flight regimes each: takeoff, approach, level flyover, hover in-ground-effect (HIGE) and hover out-of-ground effect (HOGE). When possible, level flyover data are presented for a variety of airspeeds. Sound exposure level (SEL) is provided for all operational modes except hover. In the case of hover operations (both HOGE and HIGE), the maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (LAM) is identified as a function of distance. The report also includes a discussion of helicopter performance characteristics required for full computer modeling of helicopter/heliport noise exposure.

  20. The Environmental Impact of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies: Examples from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Szalavetz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the beneficial impact of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT on firms’ environmental performance. Drawing on interviews conducted with 16 Hungarian manufacturing subsidiaries on their experience with AMT, we find three functional areas, where industry 4.0 solutions can not only enhance operational excellence and cost-efficiency, but they can also improve eco-efficiency, but they can also improve eco-efficiency, namely in the field of quality management (through smart production control, data analytics and predictive modelling solutions; process optimization (through capacity planning and production scheduling solutions; and product and process engineering (through advanced virtual technologies. We also find that AMT adoption facilitated subsidiary upgrading along various dimensions. The main managerial implication is that subsidiaries need to be proactive, and emphasize also the benefits stemming from energy and resource efficiency improvement when lobbying for investment in AMT.