WorldWideScience

Sample records for lca ethanol biofuel

  1. Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects Using LCA: Ethanol Biofuel as a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courchesne, Alexandre; Becaert, Valerie; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2010-01-01

    and comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g. biofuel use, sequestering plant, afforestation project, etc.). The Lashof accounting methodology is chosen amid other methods of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characterization for its relative simplicity and capability of characterizing all types...... of carbon mitigation projects. It calculates the cumulative radiative forcing caused by GHG emission within a predetermined time frame. Basically, the developed framework uses the Mg-year as a functional unit and isolates impacts related to the climate mitigation function with system expansion. The proposed...... framework is demonstrated with a case study of tree ethanol pathways (maize, sugarcane and willow). Study shows that carbon mitigation assessment through LCA is possible and that it could be a useful tool for decision makers as it can compare different projects regardless of their original context. Case...

  2. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan; Guo, Qingfang [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and

  3. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan; Guo Qingfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and GHG

  4. Life of Sugar: Developing Lifecycle Methods to Evaluate the Energy and Environmental Impacts of Sugarcane Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Anand Raja

    Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) is undergoing a period of rapid change as it strives to become more policy-relevant. Attributional LCA, the traditional LCA category, is beginning to be seen as particularly ill-equipped to assess the consequences of a policy. This has given birth to a new category of LCA known as Consequential LCA that is designed for use in LCA-based policies but is still largely unknown, even to LCA experts, and suffers from a lack of well developed methods. As a result, many LCA-based policies, like the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS), use poor LCA methods that are both scientifically suspect and unable to model many biofuels, especially ones manufactured from byproduct feedstocks. Biofuels made from byproduct feedstocks, primarily molasses ethanol from Asia and the Caribbean, can contribute significantly to LCFS' carbon intensity targets in the near-term at low costs, a desperate need for the policy ever since US corn ethanol was rated as having a worse global warming impact than gasoline. In this dissertation, I develop the first fully consequential lifecycle assessment of a byproduct-based biofuel using a partial equilibrium foundation. I find that the lifecycle carbon content of Indian molasses ethanol is just 5 gCO2/MJ using this method, making it one of the cleanest first generation biofuels in the LCFS. I also show that Indian molasses ethanol remains one of the cleanest first-generation biofuels even when using the flawed methodology ratified for the LCFS, with a lifecycle carbon content of 24 gCO2/MJ. My fully consequential LCA model also shows that India's Ethanol Blending program, which currently subsidizes blending of molasses ethanol and gasoline for domestic consumption, can meet its objective of supporting domestic agriculture more cost-effectively by helping producers export their molasses ethanol to fuel markets that value carbon. However, this objective will be achieved at a significant cost to the poor who will face a 39

  5. A study of the LCA based biofuel supply chain multi-objective optimization model with multi-conversion paths in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhexuan; Qiu, Tong; Chen, Bingzhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A LCA based biofuel supply chain model considering 3E criteria was proposed. • The model was used to design a supply chain considering three conversion pathways. • An experimental biofuel supply chain for China was designed. • A Pareto-optimal solution surface of this multi-objective problem was obtained. • The designed supply chain was rather robust to price variation. - Abstract: In this paper we present a life cycle assessment (LCA) based biofuel supply chain model with multi-conversion pathways. This model was formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem which took economic, energy, and environmental criteria (3E) into consideration. The economic objective was measured by the total annual profit. The energy objective was measured by using the average fossil energy input per megajoule (MJ) of biofuel. The environmental objective was measured by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per MJ of biofuel. After carefully consideration of the current situation in China, we chose to examine three conversion pathways: bio-ethanol (BE), bio-methanol (BM) and bio-diesel (BD). LCA was integrated to a multi-objective supply chain model by dividing each pathway into several individual parts and analyzing each part. The multi-objective MILP problem was solved using a ε-constraint method by defining the total annual profit as the optimization objective and assigning the average fossil energy input per MJ biofuel and GHG emissions per MJ biofuel as constraints. This model was then used to design an experimental biofuel supply chain for China. A surface of the Pareto optimal solutions was obtained by linear interpolation of the non-inferior solutions. The optimal results included the choice of optimal conversion pathway, biomass type, biomass locations, facility locations, and network topology structure in the biofuel supply chain. Distributed and centralized systems were also factored into our experimental system design. In addition, the

  6. The use of Meta-Regression Analysis to harmonize LCA literature: an application to GHG emissions of 2. and 3. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, Fabio; Cheze, Benoit; Patouillard, Laure; Bouvart, Frederique

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a literature review performs with a meta-regression analysis (MRA) that focuses on the estimates of advanced biofuel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions assessed with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The mean GHG emissions of both second (G2) and third generation (G3) biofuels and the effects of factors influencing these estimates are identified and quantified by means of specific statistical methods. 47 LCA studies are included in the database, providing 593 estimates. Each study estimate of the database is characterized by i) technical data/characteristics, ii) author's methodological choices and iii) typology of the study under consideration. The database is composed of both the vector of these estimates - expressed in grams of CO 2 equivalent per MJ of biofuel (g CO 2 eq/MJ) - and a matrix containing vectors of predictor variables which can be continuous or dummy variables. The former is the dependent variable while the latter corresponds to the explanatory variables of the meta-regression model. Parameters are estimated by mean of econometrics methods. Our results clearly highlight a hierarchy between G3 and G2 biofuels: life cycle GHG emissions of G3 biofuels are statistically higher than those of Ethanol which, in turn, are superior to those of BtL. Moreover, this article finds empirical support for many of the hypotheses formulated in narrative literature surveys concerning potential factors which may explain estimates variations. Finally, the MRA results are used to address the harmonization issue in the field of advanced biofuels GHG emissions thanks to the technique of benefits transfer using meta-regression models. The range of values hence obtained appears to be lower than the fossil fuel reference (about 83.8 in g CO 2 eq/ MJ). However, only Ethanol and BtL do comply with the GHG emission reduction thresholds for biofuels defined in both the American and European directives. (authors)

  7. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  8. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  9. Greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn: Life cycle assessment versus system wide approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, the need for the appropriate use of LCA in policy contexts is highlighted by recent findings that corn-based ethanol may actually increase GHG emissions. This is in contrary to most existing LCA results. LCA estimates can vary across studies due to heterogeneities in inputs and production technology. Whether marginal or average impacts are considered can matter as well. Most important of all, LCA is product-centered. The determination of the impact of biofuels expansion requires a system wide approach (SWA) that accounts for impacts on all affected products and processes. This paper presents both LCA and SWA for ethanol based on Iowa corn. LCA was conducted in several different ways. Growing corn in rotation with soybean generates 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production, ethanol's GHG benefits were lower in 2007 than in 2006 because of an increase in continuous corn in 2007. When only additional corn was considered, ethanol emitted about 22% less GHGs than gasoline. SWA was applied to two simple cases. Using 2006 as a baseline and 2007 as a scenario, corn ethanol's benefits were about 20% of the emissions of gasoline. If geographical limits are expanded beyond Iowa, then corn ethanol could generate more GHG emissions than gasoline. These results highlight the importance of boundary definition for both LCA and SWA.

  10. Greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn: Life cycle assessment versus system wide approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hongli [Department of Economics, 377 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Rubin, Ofir D. [Department of Economics, 573 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Babcock, Bruce A. [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD), Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Department of Economics, 578F Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, the need for the appropriate use of LCA in policy contexts is highlighted by recent findings that corn-based ethanol may actually increase GHG emissions. This is in contrary to most existing LCA results. LCA estimates can vary across studies due to heterogeneities in inputs and production technology. Whether marginal or average impacts are considered can matter as well. Most important of all, LCA is product-centered. The determination of the impact of biofuels expansion requires a system wide approach (SWA) that accounts for impacts on all affected products and processes. This paper presents both LCA and SWA for ethanol based on Iowa corn. LCA was conducted in several different ways. Growing corn in rotation with soybean generates 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production, ethanol's GHG benefits were lower in 2007 than in 2006 because of an increase in continuous corn in 2007. When only additional corn was considered, ethanol emitted about 22% less GHGs than gasoline. SWA was applied to two simple cases. Using 2006 as a baseline and 2007 as a scenario, corn ethanol's benefits were about 20% of the emissions of gasoline. If geographical limits are expanded beyond Iowa, then corn ethanol could generate more GHG emissions than gasoline. These results highlight the importance of boundary definition for both LCA and SWA. (author)

  11. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  12. Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies using Eco-LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the contributions of natural resources and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA) of cellulosic ethanol, an in-depth analysis of the contribution of natural resources in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five differen...

  13. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Huo Hong; Arora, Salil

    2011-01-01

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  14. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael, E-mail: mqwang@anl.gov [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Huo Hong [Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Arora, Salil [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  15. Main Characteristics of LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has a number of defining characteristics that enables it to address questions that no other assessment tools can address. This chapter begins by demonstrating how the use of LCA in the late 2000s led to a drastic shift in the dominant perception that biofuels were “green......”, “sustainable” or “carbon neutral”, which led to a change in biofuel policies . This is followed by a grouping of the LCA characteristics into four headlines and an explanation of these: (1) takes a life cycle perspective , (2) covers a broad range of environmental issues, (3) is quantitative, (4) is based...... on science. From the insights of the LCA characteristics we then consider the strengths and limitations of LCA and end the chapter by listing 10 questions that LCA can answer and 3 that it cannot....

  16. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, J.L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has generated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel market, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  17. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  18. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, J. L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel mar-ket, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  19. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation's fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US martket, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  20. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to evaluate French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2006-10-01

    In order to comply with European objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated considering two criteria: tax exemption need and GHG emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and a refining optimization model. Thus, we are able to determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducing the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production to the biofuel refining long-run marginal revenue. In parallel, a biofuels LCA is carried out using model outputs. Such a method avoid common allocation problems between joint products. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and petroleum products demands. Consequently, biofuel tax exemption does not always appear to be necessary. LCA results show that biofuels production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's to compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010. (authors)

  1. Development of a membraneless ethanol/oxygen biofuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcagic, Sabina; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2006-01-01

    Biofuel cells are similar to traditional fuel cells, except the metallic electrocatalyst is replaced with a biological electrocatalyst. This paper details the development of an enzymatic biofuel cell, which employs alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize ethanol at the anode and bilirubin oxidase to reduce oxygen at the cathode. This ethanol/oxygen biofuel cell has an active lifetime of about 30 days and shows power densities of up to 0.46 mW/cm 2 . The biocathode described in this paper is unique in that bilirubin oxidase is immobilized within a modified Nafion polymer that acts both to entrap and stabilize the enzyme, while also containing the redox mediator in concentrations large enough for self-exchange based conduction of electrons between the enzyme and the electrode. This biocathode is fuel tolerant, which leads to a unique fuel cell that employs both renewable catalysts and fuel, but does not require a separator membrane to separate anolyte from catholyte

  2. 2015 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewis, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-22

    In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted its first annual survey update of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2013 survey.

  3. Biofuel market and carbon modeling to analyse French biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Prieur, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to comply with European Union objectives, France has set up an ambitious biofuel plan. This plan is evaluated on the basis of two criteria: tax exemption on fossil fuels and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission savings. An economic marginal analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) are provided using a coupling procedure between a partial agro-industrial equilibrium model and an oil refining optimization model. Thus, we determine the minimum tax exemption needed to place on the market a targeted quantity of biofuel by deducting the biofuel long-run marginal revenue of refiners from the agro-industrial marginal cost of biofuel production. With a clear view of the refiner's economic choices, total pollutant emissions along the biofuel production chains are quantified and used to feed an LCA. The French biofuel plan is evaluated for 2008, 2010 and 2012 using prospective scenarios. Results suggest that biofuel competitiveness depends on crude oil prices and demand for petroleum products and consequently these parameters should be taken into account by authorities to modulate biofuel tax exemption. LCA results show that biofuel production and use, from 'seed to wheel', would facilitate the French Government's compliance with its 'Plan Climat' objectives by reducing up to 5% GHG emissions in the French road transport sector by 2010

  4. Prospects for Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  5. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  6. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamic analysis of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  8. LCA of Biofuels and Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Susanne Vedel; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2018-01-01

    , the potential of bio-products as substitutes for fossil-based products is receiving much attention. According to many LCA studies, bio-products are environmentally superior to fossil products in some life cycle impact categories, while the picture is often opposite in others. Bio-products is a highly diverse...

  9. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  10. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  11. Origins of the debate on the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption of first-generation biofuels – A sensitivity analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Anthony; Dron, Dominique; Zoughaib, Assaad

    2012-01-01

    Available results about energy and GreenHouse Gases (GHG) balances of biofuels from Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) or life-cycle based studies present large discrepancies and thus, may lead to contradictory policy-making measures. This work reviewed seven important European LCA studies in a sensitivity analysis approach in order to get a better understanding of the roots of such a debate for three major biofuels in European production: rape methyl ester and ethanol from wheat and sugar beet. Global trends and variability of energy and GHG balances were depicted and completed with a sensitivity analysis carried out for each methodological and data parameter, which allowed making recommendations on the carrying out of LCA in a policy-making or a biofuels comparison context. Methodological choices, and especially allocation rule, appeared as key elements for results variation with influences on balances up to 149%; system expansion approach was identified as the most relevant rule since it integrates the market potential and the environmental interest of by-products promotion, which was pointed out as a crucial point for biofuels sustainability. The influence of local specificity for cultivation data was evaluated up to 167%, which puts too large geographical coverage in question. Modelling uncertainties due to N 2 O emissions from soils showed influences from 17 to 46%, which represents a crucial challenge for research and for LCA results accuracy. Approximations evaluation pointed out the need to integrate agricultural machinery into the assessment. Finally, land-use issue revealed its dramatic importance for LCA results and the need to define explicit scenarios for land-use alternatives.

  12. Biofuel sustainability standards and public policy: A case study of Swedish ethanol imports from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    sustainability standards for those fuels. Central to these standards are criteria addressing the direct, and sometimes also indirect, greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, transport and use of the biofuels. This case study examines the first scheme applied to a traded biofuel, the Verified...... Sustainable Ethanol Initiative (VSEI), a private initiative of the Swedish fuel-ethanol supplier, SEKAB. VSEI went into operation in August 2008 to verify that the ethanol it was importing from Brazil met its own minimum standards for ―field-to-wheel‖ (life-cycle) greenhouse-gas emission standards...... is that it reduces consumer doubts about their product, and reduces competition from producers not participating in the Initiative; for SEKAB it increases the company’s credibility in various private and public forums working on sustainability standards for biofuels, and gives it a first-mover advantage once...

  13. High Relative Abundance of Biofuel Sourced Ethanol in Precipitation in the US and Brazil Determined Using Compound Specific Stable Carbon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M. S.; Felix, J. D. D.; Casas, M.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Willey, J. D.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol biofuel production and consumption have increased exponentially over the last two decades to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, 85% of global ethanol production and consumption occurs in the US and Brazil. Increasing biofuel ethanol usage in these two countries enhances emissions of uncombusted ethanol to the atmosphere contributing to poor air quality. Although measurements of ethanol in the air and the precipitation reveal elevated ethanol concentrations in densely populated cities, other sources such as natural vegetation can contribute to emission to the atmosphere. Previous modeling studies indicated up to 12% of atmospheric ethanol is from anthropogenic emissions. Only one gas phase study in southern Florida attempted to constrain the two sources through direct isotopic measurements. The current study used a stable carbon isotope method to constrain sources of ethanol in rainwater from the US and Brazil. A method was developed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C) of vehicle ethanol emission sources for both the US (-9.8‰) and Brazil (-12.7‰) represented C4 plants as feedstock (corn and sugarcane) for biofuel production. An isotope mixing model using biofuel from vehicles (C4 plants) and biogenic (C3 plants) end-members was implemented to estimate ethanol source apportionment in the rain. We found that stable carbon isotope ratio of ethanol in the rain ranged between -22.6‰ and -12.7‰. Our results suggest that the contribution of biofuel to atmospheric ethanol can be higher than previously estimated. As biofuel usage increasing globally, it is essential to determine the relative abundance of anthropogenic ethanol in other areas of the world.

  14. Energy valuation methods for biofuels in South Florida: Introduction to life cycle assessment and emergy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treese II, J. Van [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Amponsah, Nana [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose -Luis [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Here, recent changes in the United States requiring the use of ethanol in gasoline for most vehicular transportation have created discussion about important issues, such as shifting the use of certain plants from food production to energy supply, related federal subsidies, effects on soil, water and atmosphere resources, tradeoffs between food production and energy production, speculation about biofuels as a possible means for energy security, potential reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or development and expansion of biofuels industry. A sustainable approach to biofuel production requires understanding inputs (i.e., energy required to carry out a process, both natural and anthropogenic) and outputs (i.e., energy produced by that process) and cover the entire process, as well as environmental considerations that can be overlooked in a more traditional approach. This publication gives an overview of two methods for evaluating energy transformations in biofuels production: (1) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (2) Emergy Assessment (EA). The LCA approach involves measurements affecting greenhouse gases (GHG), which can be linked to the energy considerations used in the EA. Although these two methods have their basis in energy or GHG evaluations, their approaches can lead to a reliable judgment regarding a biofuel process. Using these two methods can ensure that the energy components are well understood and can help to evaluate the economic environmental component of a biofuel process. In turn, using these two evaluative tools will allow for decisions about biofuel processes that favor sustainability

  15. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain–represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner’s decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer’s choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  16. Ethanol distribution, dispensing, and use: analysis of a portion of the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain using system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J; Bush, Brian; Peterson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  17. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  18. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ► The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ► Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short

  19. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    The term biofuel is referred to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, vegetable oils, biodiesel, biogas, bio-synthetic gas (bio-syngas), bio-oil, bio-char, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and biohydrogen. Most traditional biofuels, such as ethanol from corn, wheat, or sugar beets, and biodiesel from oil seeds, are produced from classic agricultural food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. Bioethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. Biomethanol can be produced from biomass using bio-syngas obtained from steam reforming process of biomass. Biomethanol is considerably easier to recover than the bioethanol from biomass. Ethanol forms an azeotrope with water so it is expensive to purify the ethanol during recovery. Methanol recycles easier because it does not form an azeotrope. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative liquid fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Due to its environmental merits, the share of biofuel in the automotive fuel market will grow fast in the next decade. There are several reasons for biofuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. Biofuels include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The biofuel economy will grow rapidly during the 21st century. Its economy development is based on agricultural production and most people live in the rural areas. In the most biomass-intensive scenario, modernized biomass energy contributes by 2050 about one half of total energy

  20. Biofuel excision and the viability of ethanol production in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; Farine, Damien; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The promotion and use of renewable energy sources are established priorities worldwide as a way to reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases and promote energy security. Australia is committed to reach a target of 350 ML of biofuels per year by 2010, and incentives targeted to producers and consumers have been placed. These incentives include zero excise until 2011 for the ethanol produced in Australia and gradual increase of the taxation rates reaching the full excise of 0.125 AUD per litre by 2015. This paper analyses the viability of the second generation ethanol industry in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian regions for biomass production, by comparing the energy adjusted pump prices of petrol and the produced ethanol under different taxation rates and forecasted oil prices. Major findings suggest that under the current conditions of zero fuel excise and oil prices around 80US$ per barrel ethanol production is viable using biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD per ton. Moreover, the forecasted increase in oil prices have a higher impact on the price of petrol than the increased ethanol excise on the pump price of the biofuel. Thus, by 2016 feedstock with a plant gate cost of up to 190 AUD per ton might be used for ethanol production, representing a flow of 1.7 million tons of biomass per year potentially mitigating 1.2 million tons of CO 2 by replacing fossil fuels with ethanol. - Research highlights: →We assessed the potential for ethanol production in the Green Triangle. → Despite of increased ethanol taxation, higher oil prices promote ethanol production. → Currently, ethanol from biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD/ton is viable. →Forecasted oil prices suggest biomass of 190 AUD/ton might be used by 2016.

  1. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems: GHG consequences of using molasses for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → A challenging issue in LCA is how to account for co-products' environmental burdens. → The two most commonly used procedures are system expansion and allocation. → System expansion appears to be more appropriate than allocation. → Indirect land use change is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel. → The inclusion of land use change worsens the GHG balance of molasses ethanol. -- Abstract: This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use change (ILUC) is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel, system expansion is the most adequate method when the purpose of the LCA is to support decision makers in weighing the options and consequences. As shown in the sensitivity analysis, an addition of carbon emissions from ILUC worsens the GHG balance of ethanol, with deforestation being a worst-case scenario where the fuel is no longer a net carbon saver but carbon emitter.

  2. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately...

  3. Yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from different whole cassava flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, F T; Mepba, H D

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash point of ethanol produced differ slightly for different cultivars, while the yield of ethanol and electrical conductivity of ethanol from the different cassava cultivars varies significantly. The variation in mineral composition of the different whole cassava flours could also lead to variation in the electrical conductivity of ethanol produced from the different cassava cultivars. The differences in ethanol yield are attributed to differences in starch content, protein content, and dry matter of cassava cultivars. High yield of ethanol from whole cassava flour is best produced from cultivars with high starch content, low protein content, and low fiber.

  4. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Turra de Ávila, Márcio; Pacca, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m 3 ha −1 y −1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha −1 y −1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and −7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ► LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ► Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ► Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ► Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels in Sweden; Livscykelanalys av svenska biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael

    2009-05-15

    The purpose with this study is to carry out updated and developed life cycle assessments of biofuels produced and used in Sweden today. The focuses are on making the assessments as relevant and transparent as possible and identify hot spots having significant impacts on the environmental performance of the specific biofuel production chains. The study includes sensitivity analyses showing the impact on changed future conditions. The results should be seen as actual and average environmental performance based on updated calculation methods, thus individual systems developed by specific companies may have somewhat different performance. Biofuels analysed are ethanol from wheat, sugar beet and sugar cane (imported from Brazil), RME from rape seed, biogas from sugar beet, ley crops, maize and organic residues, such as municipal waste, food industry waste and liquor manure. The study also includes co-production of ethanol and biogas from wheat. Final use in both light and heavy duty vehicles, and related emissions, are assessed. Environmental impact categories considered are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidants, particles and energy balances. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, e.g. energy input in various operations and processes, and biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from direct land use changes (LUC). The potential risk of indirect land use changes (ILUC) is also assessed. By-products are included by three different calculation methods, system expansion, energy allocation and economic allocation. The results are presented per MJ biofuel, but the alternative functional unit per hectare cropland is also used regarding the greenhouse gas performance of crop-based biofuels. Finally, estimations are carried out regarding the current environmental performance of the actual various biofuel systems based on system expansion, recommended by the ISO-standardisation of LCA, and energy allocation

  6. Enhancement of ethanol-oxygen biofuel cell output using a CNT based nano-composite as bioanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouranlou, Farideh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-15

    The present research, describes preparation and application of a novel bioanode for ethanol-oxygen biofuel cells. We applied an enzyme based nanocomposite consisting of polymethylene green as electron transfer mediator, carboxylated-multiwall carbon nanotubes as electron transfer accelerator, alcohol dehydrogenase as biocatalyst and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride as supporting agent. In the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as cofactor, and ethanol as fuel, the feasibility of the bioanode for increasing the power was evaluated under the ambient conditions. In the optimum conditions the biofuel cell produced the power density of 1.713 mW cm(-2) and open circuit voltage of 0.281 V. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Review of Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Liquid Transportation Biofuels in the Pan American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Klemetsrud, Bethany; Sacramento-Rivero, Julio; Navarro-Pineda, Freddy; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert; Suppen, Nydia; Donovan, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to many biofuel and bioenergy systems to determine potential environmental impacts, but the conclusions have varied. Different methodologies and processes for conducting LCA of biofuels make the results difficult to compare, in-turn making it difficult to make the best possible and informed decision. Of particular importance are the wide variability in country-specific conditions, modeling assumptions, data quality, chosen impact categories and indicators, scale of production, system boundaries, and co-product allocation. This study has a double purpose: conducting a critical evaluation comparing environmental LCA of biofuels from several conversion pathways and in several countries in the Pan American region using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, and making recommendations for harmonization with respect to biofuel LCA study features, such as study assumptions, inventory data, impact indicators, and reporting practices. The environmental management implications are discussed within the context of different national and international regulatory environments using a case study. The results from this study highlight LCA methodology choices that cause high variability in results and limit comparability among different studies, even among the same biofuel pathway, and recommendations are provided for improvement.

  8. A Review of Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Liquid Transportation Biofuels in the Pan American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R.; Klemetsrud, Bethany; Sacramento-Rivero, Julio; Navarro-Pineda, Freddy; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert; Suppen, Nydia; Donovan, Richard P.

    2015-12-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to many biofuel and bioenergy systems to determine potential environmental impacts, but the conclusions have varied. Different methodologies and processes for conducting LCA of biofuels make the results difficult to compare, in-turn making it difficult to make the best possible and informed decision. Of particular importance are the wide variability in country-specific conditions, modeling assumptions, data quality, chosen impact categories and indicators, scale of production, system boundaries, and co-product allocation. This study has a double purpose: conducting a critical evaluation comparing environmental LCA of biofuels from several conversion pathways and in several countries in the Pan American region using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, and making recommendations for harmonization with respect to biofuel LCA study features, such as study assumptions, inventory data, impact indicators, and reporting practices. The environmental management implications are discussed within the context of different national and international regulatory environments using a case study. The results from this study highlight LCA methodology choices that cause high variability in results and limit comparability among different studies, even among the same biofuel pathway, and recommendations are provided for improvement.

  9. Biofilm formation and ethanol inhibition by bacterial contaminants of biofuel fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Joseph O; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Anderson, Amber M; Nunnally, Melinda S

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial contaminants can inhibit ethanol production in biofuel fermentations, and even result in stuck fermentations. Contaminants may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted of bacterial contaminants from a Midwestern dry grind corn fuel ethanol facility. Among eight sites sampled in the facility, the combined liquefaction stream and yeast propagation tank were consistently contaminated, leading to contamination of early fermentation tanks. Among 768 contaminants isolated, 92% were identified as Lactobacillus sp., with the most abundant species being Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus mucosae, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Seven percent of total isolates showed the ability to form biofilms in pure cultures, and 22% showed the capacity to significantly inhibit ethanol production. However, these traits were not correlated. Ethanol inhibition appeared to be related to acetic acid production by contaminants, particularly by obligately heterofermentative species such as L. fermentum and L. mucosae. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Anand R; Kammen, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO 2 - eq MJ -1 , which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO 2 - eq MJ -1 . Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF BIOFUEL ETHANOL RECOVERY USING THE PERVAPORATION SEPARATION TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilufer Durmaz Hilmioglu [Kocaeli University Chemical Engineering Department Veziroglu Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The climatic impact of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have become a major problem. The production of renewable biofuels from biomass has received increasing attention. Because of the economic and environmental benefits of fuel ethanol's use it is considered one of the most important renewable fuels. In ethanol fermentations inhibition of the microorganism by ethanol limits the amount of substrate in the feed that can be converted. In a process high feed concentrations are desirable to minimize the flows. Such high feed concentrations can be realized in integrated processes in which ethanol is recovered by pervaporation from the fermentation broth as it is formed. The hybrid process is an attractive process to increase ethanol production economics and to decrease environmental pollution. The separaiton of alcohol from mixtures with ethanol produced by fermentation is usually carried out by distillation and the energy consumption is very high when azeotropic concentration is reached, which corresponds to 5% water in ethanol/water mixture. The pervaporation process provides an economical alternative to the existing distillation technique. A continous recovery of alcohol could be achieved by using the pervaporation process during fermentation, making the process more energy efficient. In this work, for the purposes of membrane material development for pervaporation; zeolite filled and unfilled cellulose acetate membranes were prepared. Zeolite types were 4A, 13X. The effect of incorporation of nano-sized zeolites prepared in a colloidal form in membranes was also investigated. From the sorption tests it is concluded that, ethanol/water azeotropy can be breaked by pervaporation.

  12. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  13. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  14. Biofuels and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria.

  15. Comparative environmental performance of lignocellulosic ethanol from different feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic raw materials is considered the most potential next generation automotive fuel. In this paper, a Life Cycle Assessment model was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from five lignocellulosic materials: alfalfa stems, poplar, Ethiopian mustard, flax shives and hemp hurds and its use in passenger cars. Two ethanol-based fuel applications, E10 (a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) and E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) were assessed and the results were compared to those of conventional gasoline (CG) in an equivalent car. The environmental performance was assessed in terms of fossil fuels requirements, global warming, photochemical oxidant formation, acidification and eutrophication by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology in order to identify the best environmental friendly lignocellulosic source. The results show that, compared to CG, life cycle greenhouse gases emissions are lower for etanol blends, specifically up to 145% lower for E85-fueled car derived from Ethiopian mustard. This crop is also the best option in terms of eutrophying emissions regardless the ratio of ethanol in the blend. In the remaining impact categories, other feedstocks are considered beneficial, that is, poplar in the case of photochemical oxidants formation and flax shives for acidification. Concerning fossil fuels requirements, decreases up to 10% and 63% for E10 and E85 derived from hemp hurds and Ethiopian mustard, respectively, were obtained. According to the results, the study clearly demonstrates the importance of using low intensive energy and high biomass yield crops. LCA procedure helps to identify the key areas in the ethanol production life cycle where the researchers and technicians need to work

  16. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  17. An LCA-based evaluation of biomass to transportation fuels production and utilization pathways in a large port's context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsalidis, George; El Discha, Fadhila; Korevaar, Gijsbert; Haije, Wim; de Jong, Wiebren; Kiel, Jaap

    This study evaluates whether a transition of large ports facilities to biofuel production for mobility improves the environmental performance and satisfies the renewable energy directive (RED) and it is the first LCA study that considers biofuel production from torrefied wood. The systems studied

  18. Carbon Footprint of Biofuel Sugarcane Produced in Mineral and Organic Soils in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis; Hanlon, Edward; Amponsah, Nana; Capece, John

    2013-02-06

    Ethanol produced from sugarcane is an existing and accessible form of renewable energy. In this study, we applied the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to estimate the Carbon Footprint (CFP) of biofuel sugarcane produced on mineral (sandy) and organic (muck) soils in Florida. CFP was estimated from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) during the biofuel sugarcane cultivation. The data for the energy (fossil fuels and electricity), equipment, and chemical fertilizers were taken from enterprise budgets prepared by the University of Florida based on surveys and interviews obtained from local growers during the cropping years 2007/2008 and 2009/2010 for mineral soils and 2008/2009 for organic soils. Emissions from biomass burning and organic land use were calculated based on the IPCC guidelines. The results show that the CFP for biofuel sugarcane production is 0.04 kg CO2e kg-1y-1 when produced in mineral soils and 0.46 kg CO2e kg-1y-1 when produced in organic soils. Most of the GHG emissions from production of biofuel sugarcane in mineral soils come from equipment (33%), fertilizers (28%), and biomass burning (27%); whereas GHG emissions from production in organic soils come predominantly from the soil (93%). This difference should be considered to adopt new practices for a more sustainable farming system if biofuel feedstocks are to be considered.

  19. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  20. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  1. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  2. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  3. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. (author)

  4. Fluxes of Ethanol Between the Atmosphere and Oceanic Surface Waters; Implications for the Fate of Biofuel Ethanol Released into the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, G. B., Jr.; Shimizu, M. S.; Willey, J. D.; Mead, R. N.; Skrabal, S. A.; Kieber, R. J.; Lathrop, T. E.; Felix, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The use of ethanol as a transportation fuel has increased significantly during the past decade in the US. Some ethanol escapes the combustion process in internal combustion engines resulting in its release to the atmosphere. Ethanol can be oxidized photochemically to acetaldehyde and then converted to peroxyacetyl nitrate contributing to air pollution. Therefore it is important to determine the fate ethanol released to the atmosphere. Because of its high water solubility the oceans may act as a sink for ethanol depending on its state of saturation with respect to the gas phase. The purpose of the current study was to determine the relative saturation of oceanic surface waters by making simultaneous measurements of gas phase and surface water concentrations. Data were obtained from four separate cruises ranging from estuarine to open ocean locations in the coast of North Carolina, USA. The majority of estuarine sites were under saturated in ethanol with respect to the gas phase (11-50% saturated) representing a potential sink. Coastal surface waters tended to be supersaturated (135 - 317%) representing a net flux of ethanol to the atmosphere. Open ocean samples were generally at saturation or slightly below saturation (76-99%) indicating equilibrium between the gas and aqueous phases. The results of this study underscore to variable role the oceans play in mitigating the increases in atmospheric ethanol from increased biofuel usage and their impact on air quality.

  5. Life cycle assessment of first-generation biofuels using a nitrogen crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallejones, P; Pardo, G; Aizpurua, A; del Prado, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to assess the impacts of biofuel production using a method integrating the simulated values of a new semi-empirical model at the crop production stage within a life cycle assessment (LCA). This new approach enabled us to capture some of the effects that climatic conditions and crop management have on soil nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions, crop yields and other nitrogen (N) losses. This analysis considered the whole system to produce 1 MJ of biofuel (bioethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed). Non-renewable energy use, global warming potential (GWP), acidification, eutrophication and land competition are considered as potential environmental impacts. Different co-products were handled by system expansion. The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the variability due to site-specific conditions of climate and fertiliser management of the LCA of two different products: biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from wheat produced in the Basque Country (Northern Spain), and (ii) to improve the estimations of the LCA impacts due to N losses (N₂O, NO₃, NH₃), normally estimated with unspecific emission factors (EFs), that contribute to the impact categories analysed in the LCA of biofuels at local scale. Using biodiesel and bioethanol derived from rapeseed and wheat instead of conventional diesel and gasoline, respectively, would reduce non-renewable energy dependence (-55%) and GWP (-40%), on average, but would increase eutrophication (42 times more potential). An uncertainty analysis for GWP impact showed that the variability associated with the prediction of the major contributor to global warming potential (soil N₂O) can significantly affect the results from the LCA. Therefore the use of a model to account for local factors will improve the precision of the assessment and reduce the uncertainty associated with the convenience of the use of biofuels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  7. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Ciaian, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  8. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  9. Integrated production of nano-fibrillated cellulose and cellulosic biofuel (ethanol) by enzymatic fractionation of wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Ronald Sabo; Xiaolin Luo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating the production of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), a potentially highly valuable biomaterial, with sugar/biofuel (ethanol) from wood fibers. Commercial cellulase enzymes were used to fractionate the less recalcitrant amorphous cellulose from a bleached Kraft eucalyptus pulp, resulting in a highly crystalline and...

  10. Biofuels and Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The world obtains 86% of its energy from fossil fuels, 40% from petroleum, a majority of which goes to the transportation sector (www.IEA.gov). Well-recognized alternatives are fuels derived from renewable sources known as biofuels. There are a number of biofuels useful for transportation fuels, which include ethanol, biobutanol, mixed alcohols, biodiesel, and hydrogen. These biofuels are produced from biologically derived feedstock, almost exclusively being plant materials, either food or feed sources or inedible plant material called biomass. This chapter will discuss technologies for production of liquid transportation biofuels from renewable feedstocks, but hydrogen will not be included, as the production technology and infrastructure are not near term. In addition, a specific emphasis will be placed upon the research opportunities and potential for application of system biology tools to dissect and understand the biological processes central to production of these biofuels from biomass and biological materials. There are a number of technologies for production of each of these biofuels that range from fully mature processes such as grain-derived ethanol, emerging technology of ethanol form cellulose derived ethanol and immature processes such thermochemical conversion technologies and production of hydrogen all produced from renewable biological feedstocks. Conversion of biomass by various thermochemical and combustion technologies to produce thermochemical biodiesel or steam and electricity provide growing sources of bioenergy. However, these technologies are outside of the scope of this chapter, as is the use of biological processing for upgrading and conversion of fossil fuels. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the current status of production of biofuels produced from biological-derived feedstocks using biological processes. Regardless of the status of development of the biological process for production of the biofuels, each process can benefit from

  11. An overview of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels for transport have received considerable attention due to rising oil prices and growing concern about greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels namely ethanol and esters of fatty acids have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum fuel in the next few decades which will help to conserve fossil fuel resources. Life cycle analyses show that biofuels release lesser amount of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Thus biofuels are seen as a pragmatic step towards reducing carbon dioxide emission from transport sector. Biofuels are compatible with petroleum and combustion engines can easily operate with 10% ethanol and 20% biodiesel blended fuel with no modification. However higher concentrations require 'flex-fuel' engines which automatically adjust fuel injection depending upon fuel mix. Biofuels are derived from renewable biomass and can be produced from a variety of feedstocks. The only limiting factors are the availability of cropland, growth of plants and the climate. Countries with warmer climate can get about five times more biofuel crops from each acre of land than cold climate countries. Genetically modified crops and fast growing trees are being developed increase the production of energy crops. (author)

  12. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  13. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, W.D., E-mail: wdwalls@ucalgary.ca [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Rusco, Frank; Kendix, Michael [US GAO (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research Highlights: > Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. > This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. > Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city

  14. Biofuels policy and the US market for motor fuels: Empirical analysis of ethanol splashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.; Rusco, Frank; Kendix, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels-a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10% would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which there are about 350 in the US). We incorporate the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal. The empirical analysis illustrates how ethanol and gasoline prices affect ethanol usage, controlling for fuel specifications, blend attributes, and city-terminal-specific effects that, among other things, control for differential costs of delivering ethanol from bio-refinery to wholesale rack. - Research highlights: → Low ethanol prices and tax credits have resulted in discretionary blending of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels. → This has important implications for motor fuels markets and vehicular emissions. → Our analysis incorporates the price of ethanol as well as the blendstock price to model the wholesaler's decision of whether or not to blend additional ethanol into gasoline at any particular wholesale city-terminal.

  15. Panorama 2018 - 2017 biofuels scoreboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anne; Lorne, Daphne

    2018-01-01

    This note presents some 2017 statistical data about biofuels: consumption, fuel substitution rate, world ethanol and bio-diesel markets, diesel substitutes, French market, R and D investments, political measures for biofuels development

  16. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Biofuels represent 2,6% of the energy content of all the fuels used in road transport in Europe today. Nearly half of the target of 5,75% for 2010 set by the directive on biofuels has thus been reached in four years time. To achieve 5,75%, the european union is going to have to increase its production and doubtless call even more on imports, at a moment when biofuels are found at the core of complex ecological and economic issues. This analysis provided data and reflexions on the biofuels situation in the european union: consumption, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, producers, environmental problems, directives. (A.L.B.)

  17. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  18. Biofuel technology handbook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutz, Dominik; Janssen, Rainer

    2008-01-15

    This comprehensive handbook was created in order to promote the production and use of biofuels and to inform politicians, decision makers, biofuel traders and all other relevant stakeholders about the state-of-the-art of biofuels and relevant technologies. The large variety of feedstock types and different conversion technologies are described. Explanations about the most promising bio fuels provide a basis to discuss about the manifold issues of biofuels. The impartial information in this handbook further contributes to diminish existing barriers for the broad use of biofuels. Emphasis of this handbook is on first generation biofuels: bio ethanol, Biodiesel, pure plant oil, and bio methane. It also includes second generation biofuels such as BTL-fuels and bio ethanol from lingo-cellulose as well as bio hydrogen. The whole life cycle of bio fuels is assessed under technical, economical, ecological, and social aspect. Characteristics and applications of bio fuels for transport purposes are demonstrated and evaluated. This is completed by an assessment about the most recent studies on biofuel energy balances. This handbook describes the current discussion about green house gas (GHG) balances and sustainability aspects. GHG calculation methods are presented and potential impacts of biofuel production characterized: deforestation of rainforests and wetlands, loss of biodiversity, water pollution, human health, child labour, and labour conditions.

  19. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  20. Increase of the investments for the biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    With the construction for 2007 of six new units of biofuels (three bio-diesel and three bio-ethanol), France is developing its energy policy in favor of the biofuels. This decision benefits Diester and Sofiproteol industries which will invest in the development of their deposits. The enthusiasm is less for the bio-ethanol industries. (A.L.B.)

  1. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 bio-fuel continued to gnaw away at petrol and diesel consumption in the European Union (EU). However its pace backs the assertion that bio-fuel consumption growth in EU slackened off in 2010. In the transport sector, it increased by only 1.7 Mtoe compared to 2.7 Mtoe in 2009. The final total bio-fuel consumption figure for 2010 should hover at around 13.9 Mtoe that can be broken down into 10.7 Mtoe for bio-diesel, 2.9 Mtoe for bio-ethanol and 0.3 Mtoe for others. Germany leads the pack for the consumption of bio-fuels and for the production of bio-diesel followed by France and Spain

  2. An assessment of Thailand's biofuel development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S.; Salam, P. Abdul; Shrestha, Pujan

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The pol......The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects...... to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources...... as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8-2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel) to potentially offset 6%-15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector....

  3. Biofuel, land and water: maize, switchgrass or Miscanthus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qianlai; Qin Zhangcai; Chen Min

    2013-01-01

    The productive cellulosic crops switchgrass and Miscanthus are considered as viable biofuel sources. To meet the 2022 national biofuel target mandate, actions must be taken, e.g., maize cultivation must be intensified and expanded, and other biofuel crops (switchgrass and Miscanthus) must be cultivated. This raises questions on the use efficiencies of land and water; to date, the demand on these resources to meet the national biofuel target has rarely been analyzed. Here, we present a data-model assimilation analysis, assuming that maize, switchgrass and Miscanthus will be grown on currently available croplands in the US. Model simulations suggest that maize can produce 3.0–5.4 kiloliters (kl) of ethanol for every hectare of land, depending on the feedstock to ethanol conversion efficiency; Miscanthus has more than twice the biofuel production capacity relative to maize, and switchgrass is the least productive of the three potential sources of ethanol. To meet the biofuel target, about 26.5 million hectares of land and over 90 km 3 of water (of evapotranspiration) are needed if maize grain alone is used. If Miscanthus was substituted for maize, the process would save half of the land and one third of the water. With more advanced biofuel conversion technology for Miscanthus, only nine million hectares of land and 45 km 3 of water would probably meet the national target. Miscanthus could be a good alternative biofuel crop to maize due to its significantly lower demand for land and water on a per unit of ethanol basis. (letter)

  4. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  5. Water use implications of biofuel scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Mishra, G. S.; Yeh, S.

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies rely upon attributional lifecycle analysis (LCA) approaches to estimate water intensity of biofuels in liters of irrigated/evapotranspiration water consumed for biofuel production. Such approaches can be misleading. From a policy perspective, a better approach is to compare differential water impacts among scenarios on a landscape scale. We address the shortcomings of existing studies by using consequential LCA, and incorporate direct and indirect land use (changes) of biofuel scenarios, marginal vs. average biofuel water use estimates, future climate, and geographic heterogeneity. We use the outputs of a partial equilibrium economic model, climate and soil data, and a process-based crop-soil-climate-water model to estimate differences in green water (GW - directly from precipitation to soil) and blue water (BW - supplied by irrigation) use among three scenarios: (1) business-as-usual (BAU), (2) Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) mandates, and (3) a national Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) plus the RFS scenario. We use spatial statistical methods to interpolate key climatic variables using daily climate observations for the contiguous USA. Finally, we use FAO's crop model AquaCrop to estimate the domestic GW and BW impacts of biofuel policies from 2007-2035. We assess the differences among scenarios along the following metrics: (1) crop area expansion at the county level, including prime and marginal lands, (2) crop-specific and overall annual/seasonal water balances including (a) water inflows (irrigation & precipitation), (b) crop-atmosphere interactions: (evaporation & transpiration) and (d) soil-water flows (runoff & soil infiltration), in mm 3 /acre over the relevant time period. The functional unit of analysis is the BW and GW requirements of biofuels (mm3 per Btu biofuel) at the county level. Differential water use impacts among scenarios are a primarily a function of (1) land use conversion, in particular that of formerly uncropped land classes

  6. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  7. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  8. Biofuels. Environment, technology and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Yanez, Edgar E.; Castillo, Edgar F.; Almazan, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)

  9. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  10. Is it environmentally advantageous to use vegetable oil directly as biofuel instead of converting it to biodiesel?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Bernat; Baquero, Grau; Puig, Rita; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Rius, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    The oil price instability and the measures taken to reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions are the main factors promoting the development and use of environmentally friendly energies. From an energy efficiency point of view, biofuels constitute a renewable energy source and its use helps to reduce energy dependency on fossil fuels. The most used biofuels for transport worldwide are biodiesel (BD) and bioethanol. However, there are other options such as straight vegetable oil (SVO). SVO can be small-scale produced in local cooperatives through pressing, filtering and conditioning processes which are much simpler than the ones required for BD production. In this study a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of two biofuels obtained from Spanish rapeseed, namely small-scale SVO and large-scale BD, is performed. The LCA methodology allows the two biofuels' production and their rate of consumption in a vehicle (a truck) to be compared. In this manner, it is possible to assess which is environmentally advantageous: to use SVO directly as biofuel or to convert it to BD. Moreover, LCA is used in the study to calculate the energy return on investment index (EROI) and an energy conversion ratio to evaluate which biofuel is more energy efficient. The obtained results show the environmental benefits of using SVO instead of BD by analyzing representative impact categories defined by the CML and EDIP methods. A sensitivity analysis has also been conducted. EROI indexes for SVO and BD production show a clear preference for SVO as compared to BD.

  11. LCA Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    The LCA cookbook presents the provisions and actions from the ILCD Handbook that are central in the performance of an LCA. The selection is intended to cover all those activities that an LCA practitioner needs to undertake in a typical process-LCA , and the presentation follows the normal progres...... progression of the LCA work according to the ISO framework. For explanation of the reasoning behind the actions, the reader is referred to the presentation of the methodological elements in Part 2 of the book....

  12. A geographical assessment of vegetation carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions on potential microalgae-based biofuel facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Arita, Carlos; Yilmaz, Özge; Barlak, Semin; Catton, Kimberly B; Quinn, Jason C; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-12-01

    The microalgae biofuels life cycle assessments (LCA) present in the literature have excluded the effects of direct land use change (DLUC) from facility construction under the assumption that DLUC effects are negligible. This study seeks to model the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of microalgae biofuels including DLUC by quantifying the CO 2 equivalence of carbon released to the atmosphere through the construction of microalgae facilities. The locations and types of biomass and Soil Organic Carbon that are disturbed through microalgae cultivation facility construction are quantified using geographical models of microalgae productivity potential including consideration of land availability. The results of this study demonstrate that previous LCA of microalgae to biofuel processes have overestimated GHG benefits of microalgae-based biofuels production by failing to include the effect of DLUC. Previous estimations of microalgae biofuel production potential have correspondingly overestimated the volume of biofuels that can be produced in compliance with U.S. environmental goals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The price for biofuels sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, Henrique; Assunção, Lucas; Dam, Jinke van; Toneto, Rudinei

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage of biofuels has increased worldwide, seeking goals of energy security, low-carbon energy and rural development. As biofuels trade increased, the European Union introduced sustainability regulations in an attempt to reduce the risks associated with biofuels. Producers were then confronted with costs of sustainability certification, in order to access the EU market. Hopes were that sustainably-produced biofuels would be rewarded with higher prices in the EU. Based on a review of recent literature, interviews with traders and price data from Platts, this paper explores whether sustainability premiums emerged and if so, did they represent an attracting feature in the market for sustainable biofuels. This article finds that premiums for ethanol and biodiesel evolved differently between 2011 and 2012, but have been in general very small or inexistent, with certified fuels becoming the new norm in the market. For different reasons, there has been an apparent convergence between biofuel policies in the EU and the US. As market operators perceive a long-term trend for full certification in the biofuels market, producers in developing countries are likely to face additional challenges in terms of finance and capacity to cope with the sustainability requirements. - Highlights: • EU biofuel sustainability rules were once thought to reward compliant producers with price-premiums. • Premiums for certified biofuels, however, have been small for biodiesel and almost non-existent for ethanol. • As sustainable biofuels became the new norm, premiums disappeared almost completely in 2012. • Early stages of supply chains concentrate the highest compliance costs, affecting specially developing country producers. • Producers are now in a market where sustainable biofuels have become the new norm

  14. The bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.H.

    1993-02-01

    In France, using fallow soils for energy production may be a solution to agriculture problems. Technical and economical studies of biofuels (ethanol, methanol, ethyl tributyl ether, methyl tributyl ether and methyl ester) are presented with costs of production from the raw material to the end product, characteristics of the end product, engine consumption for pure or mixed fuels, and environmental impacts. For the author, the mixed ethanol process shows no advantages in term of energy dependency (ETBE, MTBE and colza ester give better results), ethanol production uses 90% and colza ester production 53% of the calorific power of the produced biofuels. Commercial balance: damaged, fiscal receipts: reduced, new jobs creation: inferior to 10.000 and the majority outside of the agriculture sphere, environmental impacts: slight diminution of greenhouse gases, but growth of soil and water pollution, all these points are developed by the author. Observations of some contradictors are also given. (A.B.). refs. figs., tabs

  15. Ligno-ethanol in competition with food-based ethanol in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poganietz, Witold-Roger

    2012-01-01

    First-generation biofuels are often challenged over their potentially adverse impact on food prices. Biofuels that use nonfood biomass such as lignocellulose are being promoted to ease the conflict between fuels and food. However, their complex processes mean that the total costs of lignocellulosic ethanol may be high in comparison. This might undermine the economic soundness of plans for its use. Another potential advantage of lignocellulosic ethanol is seen in an enhanced contribution to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet the increasing attractiveness of lignocellulosic biofuels may also lead to changes in land use that induce additional carbon emissions. For this reason, the environmental impacts of such plans are not straightforward and depend on the affected category of land. The objective of this paper is to compare the economic perspectives and environmental impact of lignocellulosic ethanol with food-based ethanol taking into account market constraints and policy measures. The analysis of the environmental impact focuses on carbon dioxide emissions. In the medium run, i.e., by 2020, lignocellulosic ethanol could enter the gasoline market, crowding out inter alia food-based ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, lignocellulosic ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable in each of the analyzed cases. The findings depend crucially on the market conditions, which are influenced inter alia by crude oil, the exchange rate, and technology conditions. -- Highlights: ► Competition of ligno-ethanol with competing energy carriers is analyzed. ► In medium-term ligno-ethanol could crowd out food-based ethanol. ► In terms of CO 2 ligno-ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable. ► The environmental impacts include by land use change induced CO 2 emissions. ► The findings depend crucially on market conditions.

  16. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  17. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  18. Production of bio-fuel ethanol from distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Sun, Zhaoyong; Zhang, Wenxue; Tang, Yueqin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    Distilled grain waste eluted from Chinese spirit making is rich in carbohydrates, and could potentially serve as feedstock for the production of bio-fuel ethanol. Our study evaluated two types of saccharification methods that convert distilled grain waste to monosaccharides: enzymatic saccharification and concentrated H2SO4 saccharification. Results showed that enzymatic saccharification performed unsatisfactorily because of inefficient removal of lignin during pretreatment. Concentrated H2SO4 saccharification led to a total sugar recovery efficiency of 79.0 %, and to considerably higher sugar concentrations than enzymatic saccharification. The process of ethanol production from distilled grain waste based on concentrated H2SO4 saccharification was then studied. The process mainly consisted of concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, solid-liquid separation, decoloration, sugar-acid separation, oligosaccharide hydrolysis, and continuous ethanol fermentation. An improved simulated moving bed system was employed to separate sugars from acid after concentrated H2SO4 saccharification, by which 95.8 % of glucose and 85.8 % of xylose went into the sugar-rich fraction, while 83.3 % of H2SO4 went into the acid-rich fraction. A flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae KF-7, was used for continuous ethanol fermentation, which produced an ethanol yield of 91.9-98.9 %, based on glucose concentration.

  19. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  20. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  1. A LCA (life cycle assessment) of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, Maria Luiza Grillo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Buchgeister, Jens; Almazan, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays one of the most important environmental issues is the exponential increase of the greenhouse effect by the polluting action of the industrial and transport sectors. The production of biofuels is considered a viable alternative for the pollution mitigation but also to promote rural development. The work presents an analysis of the environmental impacts of the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse, taking into consideration the balance of the energy life cycle and its net environmental impacts, both are included in a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach. The evaluation is done as a case study of a 100,000 t/y methanol plant, using sugarcane bagasse as raw material. The methanol is produced through the BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. The results of the environmental impacts were compared to others LCA studies of biofuel and it was showed that there are significant differences of environmental performance among the existing biofuel production system, even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, technology of the biomass conversion. With relation to the result of output/input ratio, the methanol production from sugarcane bagasse showed to be a feasible alternative for the substitution of an amount of fossil methanol obtained from natural gas. -- Highlights: → High and favorable energy ratio value of methanol from bagasse. → Sugarcane production has a low participation on environmental impacts. → The gasification and methanol synthesis can be combined in a biorefinery. → Farming biomass could cause the environmental impact land competition. → The trash of sugarcane can be used successfully in methanol production.

  2. Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Vaskan, Pavel; Pachón, Elia Ruiz

    2015-11-01

    This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues. Four multiproduct scenarios were considered; two from sugar mills and the others from ethanol distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity in the context of Brazil. The scenarios were analysed and compared using techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. The results show that the best economic configuration is provided by a scenario with largest ethanol production while the best environmental performance is presented by a scenario with full integration sugar - 1G2G ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry : Business value and organisational factors within cases of ethanol and biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Mirata, Murat; Eklund, Mats; Gundberg, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re- gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through by-product ex- changes, utility and service sharing, and joint innovations. While the importance of IS for the de- velopment of biofuels is commonly recognised hypothetically, this study aims at advancing under- standing of the actual contribution provided in two real life examples–one focusing on grain-based ethanol pr...

  4. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  5. Biofuels: from microbes to molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of different biofuel molecules including hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives, from genetically engineered microbes...

  6. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  7. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  8. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattman, Sarah L.; Hospes, Otto; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance of agribusiness, and exclusion of family farmers that have occurred with bioethanol production through the ProÁlcool policy since 1975. This paper compares the life histories of the bioethanol and the biodiesel policies of Brazil by analyzing their substantive policy content; the power and politics of actors that struggle for the design and implementation of the policies; and the polity in terms the organization and institutionalization of the policies. The paper concludes that both policies have become submerged by and dependent on the polity and politics of primarily the energy and agricultural sectors that operate as the two semi-autonomous governance fields. This submerging has shaped the substantive contents of biofuels policies, and explains why the 2004 biodiesel policy PNPB, in spite of its objectives for social inclusion and rural development, faces similar problems in implementation as its predecessor, the 1975 bioethanol policy ProÁlcool. - Highlights: • We compare governance fields of bioethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil. • Biodiesel policy wants to learn from the mistakes made with bioethanol. • Governance fields stress dynamics between policy, polity, and politics. • Like ethanol, biodiesel became submerged by domains of energy and agriculture

  9. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  10. Limits to biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  11. Biofuels: stakes, perspectives and researches; Biocarburants: enjeux, perspectives et recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Ballerin, D.; Montagne, X.

    2004-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) is a major intervener of the biofuels sector, from the production to the end-use in engines. In this press conference, the IFP takes stock of the technological, environmental and economical stakes of today and future biofuel production processes and of their impact on transports. This document gathers 2 presentations dealing with: IFP's research strategy on biofuels (transparencies: context; today's processes: ethanol, ETBE, bio-diesel; tomorrows processes: biomass to liquid; perspectives), bio-diesel fuel: the Axens process selected by Diester Industrie company for its Sete site project of bio-diesel production unit. The researches carried out at the IFP on biofuels and biomass are summarized in an appendix: advantage and drawbacks of biofuels, the ethanol fuel industry, the bio-diesel industry, biomass to liquid fuels, French coordinated research program, statistical data of biofuel consumption in France, Spain and Germany. (J.S.)

  12. Field to fuel: developing sustainable biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robin; Alles, Carina

    2011-06-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can be used as a scientific decision support technique to quantify the environmental implications of various biorefinery process, feedstock, and integration options. The goal of DuPont's integrated corn biorefinery (ICBR) project, a cost-share project with the United States Department of Energy, was to demonstrate the feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery concept. DuPont used LCA to guide research and development to the most sustainable cellulosic ethanol biorefinery design in its ICBR project and will continue to apply LCA in support of its ongoing effort with joint venture partners. Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel which has the potential to provide a sustainable solution to the nation's growing concerns around energy supply and climate change. A successful biorefinery begins with sustainable removal of biomass from the field. Michigan State University (MSU) used LCA to estimate the environmental performance of corn grain, corn stover, and the corn cob portion of the stover, grown under various farming practices for several corn growing locations in the United States Corn Belt. In order to benchmark the future technology options for producing cellulosic ethanol with existing technologies, LCA results for fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are compared to alternative ethanol processes and conventional gasoline. Preliminary results show that the DuPont ICBR outperforms gasoline and other ethanol technologies in the life-cycle impact categories considered here.

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of biofuels and BTEX compounds in aquifer sediment, with implications for modeling transport and fate (Philadelphia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  14. Biofuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union governments no longer view the rapid increase in biofuel consumption as a priority. Between 2010 and 2011 biofuel consumption increased by only 3%, which translates into 13.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) used in 2011 compared to 13.2 million toe in 2010. In 2011 6 European countries had a biofuel consumption in transport that went further 1 million toe: Germany (2,956,746 toe), France (2,050,873 toe), Spain (1,672,710 toe), Italy (1,432,455 toe), United Kingdom (1,056,105 toe) and Poland (1,017,793 toe). The breakdown of the biofuel consumption for transport in the European Union in 2011 into types of biofuels is: bio-diesel (78%), bio-ethanol (21%), biogas (0.5%) and vegetable oil (0.5%). In 2011, 4 bio-diesel producers had a production capacity in Europe that passed beyond 900,000 tonnes: Diester Industrie International (France) with 3,000,000 tonnes, Neste Oil (Finland) with 1,180,000 tonnes, ADM bio-diesel (Germany) with 975,000 tonnes, and Infinita (Spain) with 900,000 tonnes. It seems that the European Union's attention has shifted to setting up sustainability systems to verify that the biofuel used in the various countries complies with the Renewable Energy Directive's sustainability criteria

  15. LCA Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The chapter gives examples of applications of LCA by the central societal actors in government, industry and citizens, and discusses major motivations and challenges for the use of LCA to support science-based decision-making from their respective perspectives. We highlight applications of LCA...... environmental impacts of products and systems and support decisions around production and consumption and highlights factors that prevent its even more widespread application....

  16. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Du Xiaodong; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: → Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. → Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. → The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  17. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriquiry, Miguel A., E-mail: miguelc@iastate.edu [Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University (United States); Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.edu [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.org [Development Research Group, The World Bank (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study reviews economics of production of second generation biofuels from various feedstocks, including crop and wood/forestry residues, lignocellulosic energy crops, jatropha, and algae. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis. The median cost (across the studies reviewed) of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. As compared with the case of first generation biofuels, in which feedstock can account for over two-thirds of the total costs, the share of feedstock in the total costs is relatively lower (30-50%) in the case of second generation biofuels. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel. At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. - Highlights: > Second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix. > Cost is a major barrier to its the commercial production in the near to medium term. > The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different biofuels.

  18. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg......, and study cases at sugarcane farms and fuel ethanol industries in the northeast of SA o pound Paulo State, Brazil. The methodological structure for this LCA study is in agreement with the International Standardization Organization, and the method used is the Environmental Design of Industrial Products...... fuel. The recommendations for the ethanol lifecycle are: harvesting the sugarcane without burning; more environmentally benign agricultural practices; renewable fuel rather than diesel; not washing sugarcane and implementing water recycling systems during the industrial processing; and improving...

  19. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Oekobilanz von Energieprodukten: Oekologische Bewertung von Biotreibstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  20. An Assessment of Thailand’s Biofuel Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujan Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues—environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The policies, measures and incentives for the development of biofuel include targets, blending mandates and favorable tax schemes to encourage production and consumption of biofuels. Biofuel development improves energy security, rural income and reduces greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, but issues related to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources. The authors estimate that sustainably-derived agricultural crop residues alone could amount to 10.4 × 106 bone dry tonnes per year. This has the technical potential of producing 1.14–3.12 billion liters per year of ethanol to possibly displace between 25%–69% of Thailand’s 2011 gasoline consumption as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8–2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel to potentially offset 6%–15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector.

  1. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  2. The biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO 2 accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Applying life-cycle assessment to low carbon fuel standards-How allocation choices influence carbon intensity for renewable transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, Andrew S.; Meier, Paul J.; Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 requires life-cycle assessment (LCA) for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from expanded U.S. biofuel production. To qualify under the Renewable Fuel Standard, cellulosic ethanol and new corn ethanol must demonstrate 60% and 20% lower emissions than petroleum fuels, respectively. A combined corn-grain and corn-stover ethanol system could potentially satisfy a major portion of renewable fuel production goals. This work examines multiple LCA allocation procedures for a hypothetical system producing ethanol from both corn grain and corn stover. Allocation choice is known to strongly influence GHG emission results for corn-ethanol. Stover-derived ethanol production further complicates allocation practices because additional products result from the same corn production system. This study measures the carbon intensity of ethanol fuels against EISA limits using multiple allocation approaches. Allocation decisions are shown to be paramount. Under varying approaches, carbon intensity for corn ethanol was 36-79% that of gasoline, while carbon intensity for stover-derived ethanol was -10% to 44% that of gasoline. Producing corn-stover ethanol dramatically reduced carbon intensity for corn-grain ethanol, because substantially more ethanol is produced with only minor increases in emissions. Regulatory considerations for applying LCA are discussed.

  4. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  5. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  6. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  7. Challenge of biofuel: filling the tank without emptying the stomach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, D; Sexton, S E; Roland-Holst, D; Zilberman, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofuels have become a leading alternative to fossil fuel because they can be produced domestically by many countries, require only minimal changes to retail distribution and end-use technologies, are a partial response to global climate change, and because they have the potential to spur rural development. Production of biofuel has increased most rapidly for corn ethanol, in part because of government subsidies; yet, corn ethanol offers at most a modest contribution to society's climate change goals and only a marginally positive net energy balance. Current biofuels pose long-run consequences for the provision of food and environmental amenities. In the short run, however, when gasoline supply and demand are inelastic, they serve as a buffer supply of energy, helping to reduce prices. Employing a conceptual model and with back-of-the-envelope estimates of wealth transfers resulting from biofuel production, we find that ethanol subsidies pay for themselves. Adoption of second-generation technologies may make biofuels more beneficial to society. The large-scale production of new types of crops dedicated to energy is likely to induce structural change in agriculture and change the sources, levels, and variability of farm incomes. The socio-economic impact of biofuel production will largely depend on how well the process of technology adoption by farmers and processors is understood and managed. The confluence of agricultural policy with environmental and energy policies is expected

  8. Emerging role of Geographical Information System (GIS), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and spatial LCA (GIS-LCA) in sustainable bioenergy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, D C; Singh, Anoop; Kataki, Sampriti; Medhi, Kristina; Kumari, Shilpi; Ramachandra, T V; Jenkins, B M; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of a bioenergy project depends on precise assessment of biomass resource, planning of cost-effective logistics and evaluation of possible environmental implications. In this context, this paper reviews the role and applications of geo-spatial tool such as Geographical Information System (GIS) for precise agro-residue resource assessment, biomass logistic and power plant design. Further, application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in understanding the potential impact of agro-residue bioenergy generation on different ecosystem services has also been reviewed and limitations associated with LCA variability and uncertainty were discussed. Usefulness of integration of GIS into LCA (i.e. spatial LCA) to overcome the limitations of conventional LCA and to produce a holistic evaluation of the environmental benefits and concerns of bioenergy is also reviewed. Application of GIS, LCA and spatial LCA can help alleviate the challenges faced by ambitious bioenergy projects by addressing both economics and environmental goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  10. Time for commercializing non-food biofuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The booming automobile in China has added additional pressure on the country that needs to import almost 50% of its oil. Non-food-based biofuel is a viable fuel alternative for cars. China already has the required-foundation to commercialize non-food-based biofuel. Chinese crop straw and stock, energy crop, and woody biomass that could potentially be converted into energy are projected to be 700 million toe (ton of oil equivalent) in the near future. Meanwhile, Chinese food-based ethanol fuel industry ranks as the world's third after United States and Brazil. Several non-food-based ethanol plants are constructed or under constructed, one of which has been licensed. However, more efforts should be directed to commercializing non-food-based biofuel, including industrialized feedstock, strengthening key technology research, supporting private enterprise, and E10 upgrading to E20. The enormous increase in private ownership of car must compel China to commercialize biofuel. (author)

  11. Current status: biomass valorisation and biofuels in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermont, C.; Barbi, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    After having briefly presented the main types of biofuels (bio-ethanol, bio-diesel) and their first, second and third generation technologies to produce them (from food crops, from non food crops, and from algae), this report presents Singapore public R and D centres working in the field of biofuels development, and their activities. It also presents actors belonging to the private sector, and various realized and announced projects on biofuels

  12. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  13. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  14. Ethanol fuel gets the hangover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Corn, wheat, sugar cane.. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)

  15. Making biofuels sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Ed

    2008-01-01

    . Previous land use is also recorded. The indirect effects of biofuel production - such as land displacement - have recently been examined by a review commissioned by the U.K. Government and carried out by the Renewable Fuels Agency. It confirmed the concerns, and work is now under way to measure the indirect effects and incorporate them in reporting and analysis. It concluded that we need to be more cautious and discriminating in our use of biofuels and called for a slowing of targets until, in particular, the indirect efforts could be monitored and evaluated properly. But it also saw a way forward for a sustainable biofuels industry. If this is to happen, biofuels should use the right feedstocks, be grown on the right land and use the least energy intensive production processes. Thus, ethanol derived from sugar cane, grown on land not needed for food production, farmed with an efficient use of fertilisers and produced using bagasse (sugar cane waste) as a source of energy, would be a sustainable biofuel. However, ethanol derived from maize using highly intensive farming processes, grown on land needed for food, and using energy from coal-fired power stations, would be an unsustainable one. The Review recommended that biofuel production should be concentrated on idle agricultural land - areas that have been previously farmed but which would remain uncultivated if not used in this way - and on marginal areas which are unproductive when used for food crops or livestock. It also recommended increasing the use of wastes and residues for feedstocks and creating incentives for second generation biofuels using new technologies, such as cellulosic ethanol from woody plants or biodiesel from algae. The Review also concluded that, left to itself, the market was unlikely to develop in a sustainable way, and so recommended more research into both indirect and direct effects and introducing internationally agreed mandatory sustainability standards. These should be accompanied by full

  16. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Ecobilan d'agents energetiques. Evaluation ecologique de biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  17. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  18. The Fall of Oil Prices and the Effects on Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo, Fernando H; Lidon, Fernando; Pessoa, Fernanda; Ramalho, José C

    2016-01-01

    This analysis is focused on the effect of the abrupt decline of oil prices on biofuels, particularly second-generation ethanol. The efforts to decrease the production costs of biofuels, especially cellulosic ethanol (CE), will be greatly threatened if current oil prices remain low, especially since production is not slowing. Only huge state subsidies could alleviate this threat, but the challenge is to persuade citizens that this sacrifice is worthwhile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biofuels for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of strong government policies, the IEA projects that the worldwide use of oil in transport will nearly double between 2000 and 2030, leading to a similar increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels, such as ethanol, bio-diesel, and other liquid and gaseous fuels, could offer an important alternative to petroleum over this time frame and help reduce atmospheric pollution. This book looks at recent trends in biofuel production and considers what the future might hold if such alternatives were to displace petroleum in transport. The report takes a global perspective on the nascent biofuels industry, assessing regional similarities and differences as well as the cost and benefits of the various initiatives being undertaken around the world. In the short term, conventional biofuel production processes in IEA countries could help reduce oil use and thence greenhouse gas emissions, although the costs may be high. In the longer term, possibly within the next decade, advances in biofuel production and the use of new feedstocks could lead to greater, more cost-effective reductions. Countries such as Brazil are already producing relatively low-cost biofuels with substantial reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. This book explores the range of options on offer and asks whether a global trade in biofuels should be more rigorously pursued

  20. Biofuel seeks endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, C.; Rentmeester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane and cellulose ‘waste’ are theoretically sustainable, as their combustion releases no more CO2 than is absorbed during production. Even so, they are also controversial, because they are believed to be grown at the expense of food crops, or because areas of

  1. The European biofuels policy: from where and where to?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, H.; Silveira, S.

    2011-05-15

    Biofuels for transport had a long history prior to their formal introduction in the European Union by means of formal directives in 2003 and 2009. Dating back to years before the First World War, busses were already rolling in Paris on a mixture of ethanol and petrol. Between 1920 and 1950 the French continued using sugar-beet-based ethanol as a tool to improve energy independence and reduce trade deficits. Ethanol utilization as a fuel blend only fell once oil prices achieved record lows in the 1960s., as large reserves started being tapped in the middle-east. In the 1970s. oil price shocks brought concerns about the European dependence on foreign energy, and the following decades saw many actions which started to change the biofuels panorama in Europe. By 1973 biodiesel research was already being conducted in Wieselburg, Austria, and in 1982 the country had its first pilot plant for biodiesel (producing fatty-acid methyl ester - FAME). After successful experiences with ethanol in Brazil, the first European directive which opened potential large markets for biofuels in Europe was the Council Directive 85/536/ECC, which authorized blends of 5% ethanol and 15% Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE, a bio-ether) on petrol. The usage of bioethanol for blending, however, was hampered by the low prices of oil products which marked the late 1980s. and most of the 1990s. (the same reasons which dealt a blow to the Brazilian ethanol program during that time). In tandem with the development of biofuels in Europe, carbon emissions were already consolidated in scholarly literature as the major causal factor behind climate change. Since the UN's Brundtland commission report from 1987, alternatives to de-carbonize the transport sector were in high demand, but the deployment of alternatives was hampered by a conjuncture of low oil prices. The following years in the 1990s. were instrumental for the emergence of the modern environmental policy pursued by the EU, which became

  2. Burning water: The water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or

  3. Microbial bio-fuels: a solution to carbon emissions and energy crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kaushal, Sumit; Saraf, Shubhini A; Singh, Jay Shankar

    2018-06-01

    Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions. Microbial agents used for biofuel production also produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoagulant, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Because of importance of such high-value compounds in aquaculture and bioremediation, and the potential to reduce carbon emissions and energy security, the biofuels produced by microbial biotechnology might substitute the crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production.

  4. Environmental profile of ethanol from poplar biomass as transport fuel in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Liquid biofuels provide one of the few options for fossil fuel substitution in the short to medium-term and they are strongly being promoted by the European Union as transport fuel (such as ethanol) since they have the potential to offer both greenhouse gas (GHG) savings and energy security. A ''well to wheel'' analysis has been conducted for poplar based ethanol by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The aim of the analysis is to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol applications (E10, E85 and E100) in comparison with conventional gasoline. To compare the environmental profiles, the study addressed the impact potentials per kilometre driven by a middle size passenger car, taking into account the performance difference between ethanol blends and gasoline. According to the results of this study, fuel ethanol derived from poplar biomass may help to reduce the contributions to global warming, abiotic resources depletion and ozone layer depletion up to 62%, 72% and 36% respectively. Reductions of fossil fuel extraction of up to 80% could be achieved when pure ethanol is used. On the contrary, contributions to other impact categories would be increased, specifically to acidification and eutrophication. In both categories, ethanol based blends are less environmentally friendly than conventional gasoline due to the higher impact from the upstream activities. Research focussed on the reduction of the environmental impacts should be pointed forward poplar cultivation as well as ethanol conversion plant (enzyme manufacturing, energy production and distillation). In this study poplar cultivation was really intensive in order to obtain a high yield. Strategic planning according to the location of the crops and its requirements should help to reduce these impacts from its cultivation. (author)

  5. Which is the preferable transport fuel on a greenhouse gas basis; biomethane or ethanol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Niamh M.; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2009-01-01

    Biomethane and ethanol are both biofuels which are generated from agricultural crops that can be utilised to meet the Biofuels Directive. In Ireland with the demise of the sugar industry 48,000 Ha of land is readily available for biofuel production, without unduly effecting food production. Which biofuel should dominate? This paper investigates biofuel production for three different crop rotations: wheat, barley and sugar beet; wheat, wheat and sugar beet; wheat only. A greenhouse gas balance is performed to determine under what conditions each biofuel is preferable. For both biofuels, the preferred crop on a weight basis is wheat, while on an area basis the preferred crop is sugar beet. Biomethane scenarios produce more gross energy than ethanol scenarios. Under the base assumption (7.41% biogas losses, and biomethane utilised in a converted petrol engine, such as a bi-fuel car, and thus underperforming on a km/MJ basis) ethanol generated more net greenhouse gas savings than biomethane. This was unexpected as biomethane produces twice the net energy per hectare as ethanol. If either biogas losses were reduced or biomethane was utilised in a vehicular engine optimised for biomethane (such as a bus powered solely on gaseous biofuel) then biomethane would generate significantly more net greenhouse gas savings than ethanol. It was found that if biogas losses were eliminated and the biomethane was used in a vehicle optimised for biomethane, then the net greenhouse gas savings are 2.4 times greater than those from ethanol generated from the same feedstock.

  6. How does increased corn-ethanol production affect US natural gas prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whistance, Jarrett; Thompson, Wyatt

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a push to increase biofuel production in the United States. The biofuel of choice, so far, has been ethanol produced from corn. The effects of increased corn-ethanol production on the consumer prices of food and energy continue to be studied and debated. This study examines, in particular, the effects of increased corn-ethanol production on US natural gas prices. A structural model of the natural gas market is developed and estimated using two stage least squares. A baseline projection for the period 2007-2018 is determined, and two scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, current biofuel policies including EISA mandates, tariffs, and tax credits are removed. In the second scenario, we hold ethanol production to the level required only for largely obligatory additive use. The results indicate that the increased level of corn-ethanol production occurring as a result of the current US biofuel policies may lead to natural gas prices that are as much as 0.25% higher, on average, than if no biofuel policies were in place. A similar comparison between the baseline and second scenario indicates natural gas prices could be as much as 0.5% higher, on average, for the same period.

  7. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  8. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  9. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  10. A laboratory investigation of mixing dynamics between biofuels and surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiang; Cotel, Aline

    2017-11-01

    Recently, production and usage of ethanol-blend fuels or biofuels have increased dramatically along with increasing risk of spilling into surface waters. Lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and absence of standard clean-up procedures make it crucial to study the mixing behavior between biofuels and water. Biofuels are represented by a solution of ethanol and glycol. A Plexiglas tank in conjunction with a wave generator is used to simulate the mixing of surface waters and biofuels under different natural conditions. In our previous experiments, two distinct mixing regimes were observed. One regime was driven by turbulence and the other by interfacial instabilities. However, under more realistic situations, without wind driven waves, only the first mixing regime was found. After one minute of rapid turbulent mixing, biofuels and water were fully mixed and no interface was formed. During the mixing process, chemical reactions happened simultaneously and influenced mixing dynamics. Current experiments are investigating the effect of waves on the mixing dynamics. Support from NSF CBET 1335878.

  11. 2016 Survey of Non-Starch Alcohol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwab, Amy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bacovsky, Dina [Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    In order to understand the anticipated status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2015, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated its annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this survey update, describes the survey methodology, and documents important changes since the 2015 survey published at the end of 2015 (Schwab et al. 2015).

  12. Biofuels. An overview. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.F.M.

    2007-05-01

    The overall objective of this desk study is to get an overview of the most relevant liquid biofuels especially in the African context, and more specifically in the Netherlands' relevant partner countries. The study will focus on biofuels for transport, but will also consider biofuels for cooking and power generation. Biogas as the result of anaerobic fermentation which can be used for cooking, lighting and electricity generation will not be considered in this study. Liquid biofuels are usually divided into alcohols that are used to substitute for gasoline and oils that are used to substitute for diesel and are often called Biodiesel, and this division will be followed in this study. In chapter 2 we will analyse several aspects of the use of alcohols particularly ethanol, in chapter 3 the same analysis will be done for oils, using as example the very promising Jatropha oil. In chapter we will analyse socio-economic issues of the use of these biofuels

  13. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  14. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-07

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  15. Estimating Nitrogen Load Resulting from Biofuel Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawaf, Mohammad; Douglas, Ellen; Ricciardi, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 were enacted to reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil by increasing the use of biofuels. The increased demand for biofuels from corn and soybeans could result in an increase of nitrogen flux if not managed properly. The objectives of this study are to estimate nitrogen flux from energy crop production and to identify the catchment areas with high nitrogen flux. The results show that biofuel production can result in an increase of nitrogen flux to the northern Gulf of Mexico from 270 to 1742 thousand metric tons. Using all cellulosic (hay) ethanol or biodiesel to meet the 2022 mandate is expected to reduce nitrogen flux; however, it requires approximately 25% more land when compared to other scenarios. Producing ethanol from switchgrass rather than hay results in three-times more nitrogen flux, but requires 43% less land. Using corn ethanol for 2022 mandates is expected to have double the nitrogen flux when compared to the EISA-specified 2022 scenario; however, it will require less land area. Shifting the U.S. energy supply from foreign oil to the Midwest cannot occur without economic and environmental impacts, which could potentially lead to more eutrophication and hypoxia. PMID:27171101

  16. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  17. Fuelling biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian government has recently committed to legislation ensuring that all transportation fuels will be supplemented with biofuels by 2010. This article provided details of a position paper written by the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association in response to the legislation. Details of new research to optimize the future biodiesel industry were also presented. Guiding principles of the paper included the creation of open markets across provincial boundaries; the manipulation of tax structures to make products competitive in the United States; and establishing quality standards via the Canadian General Standards Board. It is expected that the principles will reassure petroleum producers and retailers, as ethanol behaves differently than gasoline in storage tanks. As ethanol is water-absorbing, retailers must flush and vacuum their tanks to remove water, then install 10 micron filters to protect fuel lines and dispenser filters from accumulated gasoline residue loosened by the ethanol. Refineries are concerned that the average content of ethanol remains consistent across the country, as refiners will be reluctant to make different blends for different provinces. Critics of biodiesel claim that it is not energy-intensive enough to meet demand, and biodiesel crops are not an efficient use of soils that could otherwise be used to grow food crops. However, researchers in Saskatchewan are committed to using a variety of methods such as reduced tillage systems to make biodiesel production more efficient. Laboratory research has resulted in improved refining processes and genetic manipulation of potential biodiesel crops. Membrane technology is now being used to select water from ethanol. A process developed by the Ottawa company Iogen Corporation uses enzymatic hydrolysis to break down the tough fibres found in corn stalks, leaves, wood and other biomass into sugars. Scientists are also continuing to improve oil content yields in canola and soybean crops. It was

  18. The Brazilian biofuels programme and trends for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penteado Neto, Renato de Arruda; Cunha, Ricardo Brasil Correa

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil the use of biofuels has increased along the last decades and the participation on the national energy matrix is expected to be more relevant in the near future. Ethanol and biodiesel are the main types of biofuel used in the transport sector. Brazil was responsible for 41% of the total world ethanol production in 2006. As far as vehicles are concerned, the participation of flexfuel cars in the Brazilian market in 2007 was 65%. The Brazilian Government implemented in 2005 its Biodiesel National Programme. In 2008 a mixture of 2% in diesel is mandatory, representing 840 million litres per year. (author)

  19. Life cycle analyses applied to first generation bio-fuels consumed in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This rather voluminous publication reports detailed life cycle analyses for the different present bio-fuels channels also named first-generation bio-fuels: bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, pure vegetal oils, and oil. After a recall of the general principles adopted for this life-cycle analysis, it reports the modelling of the different channels (agricultural steps, bio-fuel production steps, Ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE steps, vehicles, animal fats and used vegetal oils, soil assignment change). It gives synthetic descriptions of the different production ways (methyl ester from different plants, ethanol from different plants). It reports and compares the results obtained in terms of performance

  20. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  1. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  2. New insights to the use of ethanol in automotive fuels: a stable isotopic tracer for fossil- and bio-fuel combustion inputs to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Brian M; Swart, Peter K; Riemer, Daniel D

    2011-08-01

    Ethanol is currently receiving increased attention because of its use as a biofuel or fuel additive and because of its influence on air quality. We used stable isotopic ratio measurements of (13)C/(12)C in ethanol emitted from vehicles and a small group of tropical plants to establish ethanol's δ(13)C end-member signatures. Ethanol emitted in exhaust is distinctly different from that emitted by tropical plants and can serve as a unique stable isotopic tracer for transportation-related inputs to the atmosphere. Ethanol's unique isotopic signature in fuel is related to corn, a C4 plant and the primary source of ethanol in the U.S. We estimated a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for ethanol's oxidative loss in the atmosphere and used previous assumptions with respect to the fractionation that may occur during wet and dry deposition. A small number of interpretive model calculations were used for source apportionment of ethanol and to understand the associated effects resulting from atmospheric removal. The models incorporated our end-member signatures and ambient measurements of ethanol, known or estimated source strengths and removal magnitudes, and estimated KIEs associated with atmospheric removal processes for ethanol. We compared transportation-related ethanol signatures to those from biogenic sources and used a set of ambient measurements to apportion each source contribution in Miami, Florida-a moderately polluted, but well ventilated urban location.

  3. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  4. Recommendations for a sustainable development of biofuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douaud, A.; Gruson, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The biofuels are presented as a solution to the greenhouse gases and the petroleum consumption decrease. The development of the biofuels needs an active research of the production, transformation and use costs improvement. It will be necessary to prepare the market of the biofuels to the globalization. Some recommendations are also provided in the domains of the vegetal oil ester, the ethanol for the diesel and for the development of simulation tools to evaluate the costs. (A.L.B.)

  5. Liquid biofuels in the aeroderivative gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCampli, James; Schornick, Joe; Farr, Rachel

    2010-09-15

    While there are regional economic and political incentives for using liquid biofuels for renewable power generation, several challenges must be addressed. Given the fuel volumes required, base-load operation with renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol are not likely sustainable with today's infrastructure. However, blending of biofuels with fossil fuels is a more economic option to provide renewable power. In turn, this lays the foundation to increase to more power generation in the future as new generation biofuels come on line. And, much like the automotive industry, the power industry will need to institute design changes to accommodate these fuels.

  6. Corn stover for advanced biofuels perspectives of a soil “Lorax”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues like corn (Zea Mays L) stover are potential feedstock for production of advanced biofuels (e.g., cellulosic ethanol). Utilization of residue like stover for biofuel feedstock may provide economic and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits; however, harvesting these materials must be done i...

  7. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  8. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  9. Bio-fuels are not so green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2007-01-01

    Today there is an unrelenting trend for bio-fuels but some scientists question their utility. Some surveys show that the environmental balance sheet for bio-fuels is strongly positive for instance it is assessed that the production of 1 MJ of ethanol from beet roots of wheat requires only 0.49 MJ of fossil energy, interesting figure when compared to the 1.14 MJ of fossil energy needed to produce 1 MJ of gasoline. Other studies are less optimistic, all depends strongly on the basic data used and on the approach followed. Some scientists wonder whether all the pollutants generated in the transformation processes are well taken into account. In fact the environment benefit of the first generation of bio-fuels is mild because scientists do not know how to use efficiently the wood-cellulose by-products of plants. There is a notably exception to that, it is the sugar cane in Brazil, this plant has a good energy conversion rate and its by-products are completely and efficiently used in industry. A way to valorize cellulose by-products is to transform them in ethanol and hydrogen through the use of mushroom enzymes. (A.C.)

  10. The biofuels excellence network; Rede de excelencia em biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo de Tarso; Nascimento Filho, Lenart Palmeira do; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network, inside PROMINP - the Program of Mobilization of the National Industry of Oil and Natural Gas, has the objective of improving the actions of technical innovation and management in the chain of Oil, Gas Natural and Biofuels, through the optimized use of physical, financial, technological resources, of information and staff, with maximum qualification in areas of the human knowledge, whose purpose is to make decisions on specific problems of improvement of processes and/or products, besides promoting actions for the development and reinforcement of the markets of ethanol and biodiesel. The organization of the Biofuels Excellence Network became necessary, in order to enable Brazil to reach vanguard standards in biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) in a sustainable, competitive and environmentally responsible way. Among the main reasons for the creation of the Biofuels Excellence Network are: to speed up the acquisition of knowledge and innovation, through partnerships with academical, technological, and government institutions; to contribute with PETROBRAS Strategical Planning planned goals; to capture synergies through the accomplishment of Projects of the Strategical Partners interest; to create sustainable economic value as a result of the Network Projects; to foster specialized professional qualification for the alcohol industry. (author)

  11. Effective immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase on carbon nanoscaffolds for ethanol biofuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Chen, Aicheng

    2017-12-01

    An efficient approach for immobilizing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) while enhancing its electron transfer ability has been developed using poly(2-(trimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MADQUAT) cationic polymer and carbon nanoscaffolds. The carbon nanoscaffolds were comprised of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The ADH entrapped within the MADQUAT that was present on the carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited a high electron exchange capability with the electrode through its cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced disodium salt hydrate (NAD + /NADH) redox reaction. The advantages of the carbon nanoscaffolds used as the support matrix and the MADQUAT employed for the entrapment of ADH versus physisorption were demonstrated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Our experimental results showed a higher electron transfer, electrocatalytic activity, and rate constant for MADQUAT entrapped ADH on the carbon nanoscaffolds. The immobilization of ADH using both MADQUAT and carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited strong potential for the development of an efficient bio-anode for ethanol powered biofuel cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An economic evaluation of alternative biofuel deployment scenarios in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbadebo Oladosu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy market conditions have shifted dramatically since the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS1 in 2005; RFS2 in 2007 were enacted. The USA has transitioned from an increasing dependence on oil imports to abundant domestic oil production. In addition, increases in the use of ethanol, the main biofuel currently produced in the USA, is now limited by the blend wall constraint. Given this, the current study evaluates alternative biofuel deployment scenarios in the USA, accounting for changes in market conditions. The analysis is performed with a general equilibrium model that reflects the structure of the USA biofuel market as the transition to advanced biofuels begins. Results suggest that ethanol consumption would increase, albeit slowly, if current biofuel deployment rates of about 10% are maintained as persistently lower oil prices lead to a gradual increase in the consumption of liquid transportation fuels. Without the blend wall constraint, this study finds that the overall economic impact of a full implementation of the USA RFS2 policy is largely neutral before 2022. However, the economic impacts become slightly negative under the blend wall constraint since more expensive bio-hydrocarbons are needed to meet the RFS2 mandates. Results for a scenario with reduced advanced biofuel deployment based on current policy plans show near neutral economic impacts up to 2027. This scenario is also consistent with another scenario where the volume of bio-hydrocarbons deployed is reduced to adjust for its higher cost and energy content relative to deploying the mandated RFS2 advanced biofuel volumes as ethanol. The important role of technological change is demonstrated under pioneer and accelerated technology scenarios, with the latter leading to neutral or positive economic effects up to 2023 under most blend wall scenarios. All scenarios evaluated in this study are found to have positive long-term benefits for the USA economy.

  13. Investigation of Atomization and Combustion Performance of Renewable Biofuels and the Effects of Ethanol Blending in Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Adam Gregory

    than for conventional diesels, while the neat biofuels emitted overall less NOx per CO than the baseline fuels. This research clearly demonstrated that blends of two renewable fuels (B99 and ethanol improved (1) atomization and (2) emissions performance for the burner studied when compared to the baseline fossil fuels DF2 and F-76.

  14. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  15. American Pro-Biofuel and Climate Policies: Impact on the Energy Choices of Brazil and the United States and the Carbon Footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravorty, Ujjayant; Hubert, Marie-Helene; Moreaux, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a partial trade equilibrium model is developed to explore the impacts of US energy policies on the use and trade of first-generation biofuels (ethanol) and second-generation biofuels (ligno-cellulosic ethanol) in the United-States and Brazil. In addition, we investigate their impacts on direct and indirect carbon emissions. The first policy is the biofuels mandatory target. The second defines a cap on carbon emissions. Our study reveals that the biofuels mandatory target encourages ligno-cellulosic ethanol production, reductions in carbon emissions being marginal. The second policy increases energy prices leading to a decrease in energy consumption as well as in direct carbon emissions. However, this policy has a significant impact on deforestation in Brazil resulting in a rise in indirect carbon emissions. The biofuels subsidy needed to reach the mandatory target amounts to US $ 1.1 per gallon. The US carbon tax reaches US $ 120 per ton equivalent carbon. A differential tax is imposed on gasoline, ethanol and ligno-cellulosic ethanol based on the carbon content. It is respectively equal to US $ 0.38, US $ 0.204 and US $ 0.024

  16. Trading greenhouse gas emission benefits from biofuel use in US transportation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarappan, Subbu; Joshi, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Replacing petroleum fuels with biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has been shown to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These GHG benefits can potentially be traded in the fledgling carbon markets, and methodologies for quantifying and trading are still being developed. We review the main challenges in developing such carbon trading frameworks and outline a proposed framework for the US, the main features of which include, lifecycle assessment of GHG benefits, a combination of project-specific and standard performance measures, and assigning GHG property rights to biofuel producers. At carbon prices of 10 $ t −1 , estimated monetary benefits from such trading can be 4.5 M$ hm −3 and 17 M$ hm −3 of corn ethanol and cellulosic ethanol respectively. -- Highlights: ▶ Develops a biofuel GHG trading protocol using life-cycle emissions. ▶ Discusses the differences in feedstock and impacts on GHG trading potential. ▶ Compares the developed protocol for biofuels with other existing protocols. ▶ Estimates the market potential, and challenges associated with trading GHG emissions.

  17. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  18. The development of the biofuels in the german farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palz, W.

    2005-03-01

    Germany is today at the first place of the world for the production and the utilization of vegetable oils and by products, the Diester. The main reasons of this enjoyment is the two european directives on biofuels and the tax exemption at 100% decided by the government in 2004. All the biofuels available in Germany, as the ethanol, the vegetable oils and the bio-alcohol, are presented in this paper. The research axis and the government policy in favor of the biofuels are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Study for a simplified LCA methodology adapted to bio-products. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural resources form a renewable stock of raw materials that can be used for various purposes: food supply, production of energy (including biofuels), bio-products and bio-based construction materials. The use of agricultural resources to produce bio-products is expanding in France and throughout the world, partly due to the presumed advantages of these products towards the environment. In this context, ADEME (the French Environment and Energy Management Agency) commissioned a study for the development of a methodological framework to evaluate the environmental impacts of bio-products. This study was also in charge of the identification of areas of improvement for the 'Bilan Produit', an environmental assessment tool developed by ADEME, in order to allow a future integration of bio-products. The first step of this study consisted of a comparative review of the existing bio-products' LCA (Life Cycle Assessment). This review underlined a deep heterogeneity among the methodologies used, as well as a lack of transparency in the results displayed. In a second step of the project, all the methodological issues in the evaluation of bio-products were studied, and recommendations for the resolution of each one of them have been proposed. These critical analyses are presented in individual fact-sheets, which detail the specific issues of each question, facts from the bibliographic review, the results of the tests conducted on three bio-products, and finally the methodological recommendations to answer the question. This project showed that some methodological recommendations had to be specified depending on the objective of the LCA: eco-design, environmental labeling or comparative LCA. The work conducted also identified some necessary improvements to the Bilan Produit tool, which come under four categories: addition of the missing inventories, integration of metadata regarding the inventories, consideration for the specific end-of-life scenarios of bio-products, and

  20. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  1. LCA Experiences in Danish Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Christensen, Per

    1999-01-01

    of the products with subsequent new priorities in the environmental efforts. Only a few enterprises have built up in-house LCA competence whereas consultants are heavily involved in LCA work. In large enterprises LCA work is pre-dominantly carried out by environmental staff members, but also product development...

  2. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  3. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant...

  4. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  5. Bio-fuels barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  6. Assessment of the GHG Reduction Potential from Energy Crops Using a Combined LCA and Biogeochemical Process Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA, as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  7. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  8. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.K.; Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  9. New Insights in Polymer-Biofuels Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richaud Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polymer-fuel interaction focusing on specific effects of biofuels on polyethylene (PE in automotive applications. The practical objective is to develop a predictable approach for durability of polyethylene tanks in contact of ethanol based or biofuel based fuels. In the case of ethanol, the main consequence on PE durability is a reduction of the rate of stabilizer extraction; this latter phenomenon can be modeled by first order kinetics with a rate constant that obeys the Arrhenius equation. Concerning biodiesels, the study was focused on soy and rapeseed methyl ester which were compared to methyl oleate and methyl linoleate used as model compounds. Here, PE-fuel interactions can be described as well as physical interaction, linked to the oil penetration into the polymer, as chemical interaction linked to an eventual co-oxidation of PE and oil. Both aspects were investigated. Concerning biofuel transport in PE, it appeared that the oil diffusivity depends only of temperature and oil molar mass. Some aspects of the temperature dependence of the oil solubility in PE are discussed. About chemical interaction between oil and PE, it was put in evidence that unsaturated fatty esters promote and accelerate PE oxidation. A co-oxidation kinetic model was proposed to describe this process.

  10. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Labeling renewable energies: How the language surrounding biofuels can influence its public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciatore, Michael A.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Shaw, Bret R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing interest and investments in biological fuels, little is known of how the public form opinions toward this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on several factors that can be expected to influence citizens' opinions about the issue. First, we tested the results of a framing experiment that was embedded within a public opinion survey. This experiment explored how the public responded to the term “biofuels” as compared to the term “ethanol.” Our results suggest that, overall, respondents tended to react more favorably to the former as opposed to the latter term. Second, we examined the impacts of sociodemographics on public attitudes toward biofuels. We found that while sociodemographics did little to consistently explain attitudes toward biofuels there was clear evidence of ideological influences on attitudes, with self-identifying Democrats showing more positive attitudes overall. Finally, we explored the interaction between political partisanship and our experimental manipulation. We found evidence that our wording manipulation differed based on the political party identification of our respondents, with Democrats fluctuating greatly in their assessments depending upon whether they were asked to evaluate “biofuels” or “ethanol.” - Highlights: ► This study tested how the public responds to the terms “biofuels” and “ethanol”. ► Respondents tended to react more favorably to “biofuels” as opposed to “ethanol”. ► Sociodemographics did little to consistently explain biofuels/ethanol attitudes. ► However, Democrats were more positive than Republicans toward biofuels/ethanol. ► Wording manipulation also differed based on respondent political party affiliation.

  12. Sugar rush: Prospects for a global ethanol market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hira, Anil, E-mail: ahira@sfu.ca [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    In 2005, the major economies of the world, including the G8 and 5 developing nations (Mexico, India, Brazil, China, and South Africa), along with the United Nations, the International Energy Agency, and the European Union launched the Global Bioenergy Partnership to discuss ways to promote the sustained use and production of biofuels around the globe, reflecting growing concerns for finding economically viable substitutes for petroleum. This paper examines whether and if a vibrant global market in biofuels based on sugarcane-based ethanol is economically feasible. The paper finds that while there is already international trading in biofuels, it is highly limited compared with its potential. In the current climate of accelerating fossil fuel prices, biofuels represent an increasingly attractive displacement for some of our fossil fuel addiction. Not only do they substitute for petrol, but they also produce lower emissions. The paper finds that sugarcane ethanol could make an important contribution to substituting for a portion of petroleum and also offer potential benefits for international development.

  13. Sugar rush: Prospects for a global ethanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, Anil

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the major economies of the world, including the G8 and 5 developing nations (Mexico, India, Brazil, China, and South Africa), along with the United Nations, the International Energy Agency, and the European Union launched the Global Bioenergy Partnership to discuss ways to promote the sustained use and production of biofuels around the globe, reflecting growing concerns for finding economically viable substitutes for petroleum. This paper examines whether and if a vibrant global market in biofuels based on sugarcane-based ethanol is economically feasible. The paper finds that while there is already international trading in biofuels, it is highly limited compared with its potential. In the current climate of accelerating fossil fuel prices, biofuels represent an increasingly attractive displacement for some of our fossil fuel addiction. Not only do they substitute for petrol, but they also produce lower emissions. The paper finds that sugarcane ethanol could make an important contribution to substituting for a portion of petroleum and also offer potential benefits for international development.

  14. Policies for second generation biofuels: current status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Haakan; Greaker, Mads; Potter, Emily

    2011-07-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge concludes that green house gas (GHG) emissions must be controlled and reduced within the next 30-40 years. The transport sector contributes almost a fifth of the current global emissions, and its share is likely to increase in the future. The US and a number of European countries have therefore introduced various support schemes for research and development (RandD) of low emission fuels that can potentially replace the current fossil fuels. One such alternative is biofuels. The advantage of biofuels are that it is easy to introduce into the transport sector. On the other hand, recent research papers question whether the supply of feedstock is sufficient, and to what extent biofuels lead to GHG emission reductions. This report reviews the current status of second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are made from cellulose, which according to our survey of the literature, is in more abundant supply than the first generation biofuels feedstocks. Furthermore, it seems to have the potential to reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector without leading to devastating land use changes, which recent critique has held against first generation biofuels. Given that governments have decided to support RandD of low emission fuels, we ask the following questions: Should second generation biofuels receive RandD support to the same extent as other low emission fuels like hydrogen? How should support schemes for second generation biofuels be designed? Second generation biofuels can be divided according to the production process into thermo-chemical and bio-chemical. With respect to the thermo-chemical process the potential for cost reductions seems to be low. On the other hand, ethanol made from cellulose using the biochemical conversion process is far from a ripe technology. Expert reports point to several potential technological breakthroughs which may reduce costs substantially. Hence, cellulosic ethanol, should receive direct

  15. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  16. Clean vehicles with biofuel. A state of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maansson, Tommy

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overall analysis and assessment of the use of biofuel in the Swedish transport sector. The report is based on the information and experiences that have been accumulated within the KFB biofuel programme. The results of the various activities in the programme suggest that the technology required for the use of ethanol and biogas as fuels, functions satisfactorily and that biofuels possess considerable potential as a means of improving health and environment Refs, 57 figs, 20 tabs

  17. Cradle to Cradle and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    with the circular economy , the C2C certification and examples of C2C certified or inspired products and systems. This is followed by a comparison of C2C with eco-efficiency and LCA . Because of their important differences, we conclude that care should be taken when combing C2C and LCA, e.g. using LCA to evaluate......Cradle to Cradle (C2C) offers a positive vision of a future, where products are radically redesigned to be beneficial to humans and the environment. The idea is not to reduce negative impacts (as in LCA), but to increase positive impacts . This chapter presents the C2C concept and its relationship...... products inspired by C2C. We then provide an in-depth analysis of the conflicts between C2C and LCA and offer solutions. Finally, we reflect upon how LCA practitioners can learn from C2C in terms of providing a vision of a sustainable future, creating a sense of urgency for change and communicating results...

  18. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  19. Preliminary results on optimising hydrothermal treatment used in co-production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jørgensen, H.

    . The solubilised hemicellulose is in a second step converted by either enzymes or weak acid hydrolyses tomonomeric sugar compounds for ethanol production. The cellulose fraction containing the lignin will be burned for electricity or part of it may be used for ethanol production by means of SSF. By-products from......In December 2002, an EU-project for co-production of biofuels was started. The overall objective is to develop cost and energy effective production systems for co-production of bio ethanol and electricity based on integrated biomass utilization. Duringthe first 12 months period of the project...... illustrates that it is possible to extract more than 95% of the alkaline salts (at 200 C) leaving a solid cellulose rich biofuel for combustion or for further treatment in the ethanol process. In the experiments performed at 190 C, the best totalglucose yield after pre-treatment and following enzymatic...

  20. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage...... in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...

  1. The biofuels in France; Les biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The biofuels are liquid renewable energies sources resulting from vegetal matters. Today are two channels of biofuels: the ethanol channel for gasoline and the vegetal oils channel for the diesel. In the first part, the document presents the different channels and the energy efficiency of the products. It shows in the second part the advantages for the environment (CO{sub 2} accounting) and for the energy independence. It discusses then the future developments and the projects. The fourth part is devoted to the legislation, regulations, taxes and financial incentives. The last part presents the french petroleum industry actions and attitudes in the framework of the biofuels development. (A.L.B.)

  2. Ethanol generation, oxidation and energy production in a cooperative bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoncelli, Kamila C; Pereira, Andressa R; Sedenho, Graziela C; Bertaglia, Thiago; Crespilho, Frank N

    2018-08-01

    Integrating in situ biofuel production and energy conversion into a single system ensures the production of more robust networks as well as more renewable technologies. For this purpose, identifying and developing new biocatalysts is crucial. Herein, is reported a bioelectrochemical system consisting of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wherein both function cooperatively for ethanol production and its bioelectrochemical oxidation. Here, it is shown that it is possible to produce ethanol and use it as a biofuel in a tandem manner. The strategy is to employ flexible carbon fibres (FCF) electrode that could adsorb both the enzyme and the yeast cells. Glucose is used as a substrate for the yeast for the production of ethanol, while the enzyme is used to catalyse the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Regarding the generation of reliable electricity based on electrochemical systems, the biosystem proposed in this study operates at a low temperature and ethanol production is proportional to the generated current. With further optimisation of electrode design, we envision the use of the cooperative biofuel cell for energy conversion and management of organic compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Small-Scale Biofuel Production in Brazil: Lessons for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Muniz Kubota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale biofuel initiatives to produce sugarcane ethanol are claimed to be a sustainable opportunity for ethanol supply, particularly for regions with price-restricted or no access to modern biofuels, such as communities located far from the large ethanol production centers in Brazil and family-farm communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, respectively. However, smallholders often struggle to achieve economic sustainability with ethanol microdistilleries. The aim of this paper is to provide an assessment of the challenges faced by small-scale bioenergy initiatives and discuss the conditions that would potentially make these initiatives economically feasible. Ethanol microdistilleries were assessed through a critical discussion of existent models and through an economic analysis of different sugarcane ethanol production models. The technical-economic analysis showed that the lack of competitiveness against large-scale ethanol distillery, largely due to both low crop productivity and process efficiency, makes it unlikely that small-scale distilleries can compete in the national/international ethanol market without governmental policies and subsidies. Nevertheless, small-scale projects intended for local supply and integrated food–fuel systems seem to be an interesting alternative that can potentially make ethanol production in small farms viable as well as increase food security and project sustainability particularly for local communities in developing countries.

  4. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold

  5. Metabolomics-based prediction models of yeast strains for screening of metabolites contributing to ethanol stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Z.; Fukusaki, E.

    2016-06-01

    The increased demand for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources has driven the development of various microbial systems to produce biofuels. One of such systems is the ethanol-producing yeast. Although yeast produces ethanol naturally using its native pathways, production yield is low and requires improvement for commercial biofuel production. Moreover, ethanol is toxic to yeast and thus ethanol tolerance should be improved to further enhance ethanol production. In this study, we employed metabolomics-based strategy using 30 single-gene deleted yeast strains to construct multivariate models for ethanol tolerance and screen metabolites that relate to ethanol sensitivity/tolerance. The information obtained from this study can be used as an input for strain improvement via metabolic engineering.

  6. Coproduction of bioethanol with other biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Large scale transformation of biomass to more versatile energy carriers has most commonly been focused on one product such as ethanol or methane. Due to the nature of the biomass and thermodynamic and biological constraints, this approach is not optimal if the energy content of the biomass...... pilot-scale biorefineries for multiple fuel production and also discuss perspectives for further enhancement of biofuel yields from biomass. The major fuels produced in this refinery are ethanol, hydrogen, and methane. We also discuss the applicability of our biorefinery concept as a bolt-on plant...

  7. Technical solutions to make biofuels more competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    With the present day environmental and economical stakes, the French government has announced in 2005 a plan for the accelerated development of biofuels. In France, two traditional ways of biofuel generation exist: the bio-ethanol way and the bio-diesel way (methyl esters of vegetable oils). Two problems limit today the development of biofuels: the available cultivation surfaces and the production costs. The challenge of the next generation of biofuels concerns the better use of the available biomass, with no competition with the food productions, and in particular the development of ethyl esters of vegetable oils or the hydrogen processing of vegetable oils. Other processes are making their way, like the biomass to liquid (BTL) process, based on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which allows to convert any type of biomass source into liquid fuels with a high production rate (about 5000 l/Ha). Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. Tax exemption for bio fuels in Germany: is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, J.M.; Klepper, G.; Schmitz, N.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable resources. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. It analyzes the underlying basic German, European, and worldwide conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels. It is shown that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive and that imports are likely to increase. Using energy and greenhouse-gas balances we then demonstrate that the promotion and a possible increased use of bio-ethanol to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions are economically inefficient and that there are preferred alternative strategies. In addition, scenarios of the future development of the bio-ethanol market are derived from a model that allows for variations in all decisive variables and reflects the entire production and trade chain of bio-ethanol, from the agricultural production of wheat and sugar beet to the consumption of bio-ethanol in the fuel sector. (author)

  9. Tax exemption for bio fuels in Germany: is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, J.M.; Klepper, G. [Kiel Institute for World Economics, Kiel (Germany); Schmitz, N. [Meo Consulting Team, Koeln (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable resources. The paper takes a closer look at bio-ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. It analyzes the underlying basic German, European, and worldwide conditions that provide the setting for the production and promotion of biofuels. It is shown that the production of bio-ethanol in Germany is not competitive and that imports are likely to increase. Using energy and greenhouse-gas balances we then demonstrate that the promotion and a possible increased use of bio-ethanol to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions are economically inefficient and that there are preferred alternative strategies. In addition, scenarios of the future development of the bio-ethanol market are derived from a model that allows for variations in all decisive variables and reflects the entire production and trade chain of bio-ethanol, from the agricultural production of wheat and sugar beet to the consumption of bio-ethanol in the fuel sector. (author)

  10. The biofuel support policy. Public thematic report. Assessing a public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In its first part, this detailed report gives an overview of some key facts regarding biofuels: energy context, biofuels and energy, biofuels and agriculture, multiple and superimposed regulation levels, financial data, and international comparisons. The second part analyses the positions of the different actors (oil industry and dealers, car manufacturers, bio-diesel producers, ethanol producers, farmers producing raw materials, consumer associations, defenders of the environment, public bodies). The third part reports the assessment of the French public policy in terms of efficiency. Some recommendations are made

  11. Climate change and health costs of air emissions from biofuels and gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Polasky, Stephen; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Huo, Hong; Ludwig, Lindsay; Neumann, James; Zheng, Haochi; Bonta, Diego

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impacts of energy use can impose large costs on society. We quantify and monetize the life-cycle climate-change and health effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from gasoline, corn ethanol, and cellulosic ethanol. For each billion ethanol-equivalent gallons of fuel produced and combusted in the US, the combined climate-change and health costs are $469 million for gasoline, $472–952 million for corn ethanol depending on biorefinery heat source (natural gas, corn stover, or coal) and technology, but only $123–208 million for cellulosic ethanol depending on feedstock (prairie biomass, Miscanthus, corn stover, or switchgrass). Moreover, a geographically explicit life-cycle analysis that tracks PM2.5 emissions and exposure relative to U.S. population shows regional shifts in health costs dependent on fuel production systems. Because cellulosic ethanol can offer health benefits from PM2.5 reduction that are of comparable importance to its climate-change benefits from GHG reduction, a shift from gasoline to cellulosic ethanol has greater advantages than previously recognized. These advantages are critically dependent on the source of land used to produce biomass for biofuels, on the magnitude of any indirect land use that may result, and on other as yet unmeasured environmental impacts of biofuels. PMID:19188587

  12. Biofuels - Meeting the energy and environmental challenges of the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballerini, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the world energy context, the increasing awareness of the environmental stakes and the development of research on the production of second and third generation biofuels revealed a clear need to write a new book which updates and complements all technical, financial and environmental aspects of Les Biocarburants - etat des lieux, perspectives et enjeux du developpement (Biofuels - Current status, outlook and development stakes) published in 2006. This book provides a detailed state of the art of the first generation biofuel production technologies. It describes the new 'second generation' pathways which use lignocellulosic biomass as raw material and are starting to find industrial applications, thereby reducing the competition between the food resource and the use of agricultural materials for energy purposes. It also provides a technical update on the algae-to-energy pathway (third generation) and the production of methane and hydrogen by biochemical pathways. The book arrives at exactly the right time to renew the interest in biofuels, including for air transport, and provide an insight on the technological research and development axes currently being investigated. It is intended for transport companies, refiners, forestry companies, the agricultural and agribusiness sectors as well as the public authorities, students, university teachers and researchers. Contents: 1. Biofuels: a partial solution with several challenges. 2. First generation biofuels for spark ignition engines: ethanol and ETBE. 3. First generation biofuels for diesel engines. 4. Lignocellulosic biomass resources. 5. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass by thermochemical pathway. 6. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass by biochemical pathway, production of ethanol and ABE. 7. Other biomass-to-energy biochemical pathways. Appendixes

  13. An energy analysis of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock. Corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The shift from fossil resources to renewables for energy and materials production has been the driving force for research on energy analysis and environmental impact assessment of bio-based production. This study presents a detailed energy analysis of corn stover based ethanol production using advanced cellulosic technologies. The method used differs from that in LCA and from major studies on the subject as published in Science in two respects. First, it accounts for all the co-products together and so mainly avoids the allocation problems which plague all LCA studies explicitly and other studies implicitly. Second, the system boundaries only involve the content of the energy products used in the system but not the production processes of these energy products, like refining and electricity production. We normalized the six Science studies to this unified method. The resulting values of the total energy product use in both agricultural production and biomass conversion to ethanol are lower than these literature values. LCA-type of values including energy conversion would systematically be higher, in our case study around 45%. The net energy value of cellulosic ethanol production is substantially higher than the ones of the corn-based technologies, and it is similar to incineration and gasification for electricity production. The detailed analysis of energy inputs indicates opportunities to optimize the system. This form of energy analysis helps establishing models for the analysis of more complex systems such as biorefineries. (author)

  14. Biofuels barometer: Crops pending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The actors and production capacities have changed only little in the biofuel sector from year to another. Nevertheless, it is interesting to take stock of the development of this sector at the end of 2002, so as to update the more complete barometer published in issue 144 of Systemes Solaires. Indeed, European ethanol production grew by 13% and that of bio-diesel by more than 20% in 2001. (authors)

  15. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  16. Furfural and ethanol production from corn stover by dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant carbohydrate source in the world and has potential for economical production of biofuels, especially ethanol. However, its composition is an obstacle for the production of ethanol by the conventional ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as it...

  17. Butanol biorefineries: simultaneous product removal & process integration for conversion of biomass & food waste to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol, a superior biofuel, packs 30% more energy than ethanol on a per gallon basis. It can be produced from various carbohydrates and lignocellulosic (biomass) feedstocks. For cost effective production of this renewable and high energy biofuel, inexpensive feedstocks and economical process techno...

  18. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  19. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Y. Menetrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such as food grains, and require a minimal footprint. Although the uses of algae seem promising, a number of demonstrations have not been economically successful in today‟s market. This paper identifies efforts being conducted on ethanol and biodiesel production and how algae might contribute to the production of biofuel in the United States. Additionally, the feedstock and land requirements of existing biofuel pathways are compared and discussed.

  20. Evaluation of environmental impact by LCA method. LCA shuho ni yoru kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, H.; Utsuno, F.; Yasui, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1994-06-01

    This paper explains the concept, history, and analytic methods of life cycle assessment (LCA), showing its application to beer bottles and cement factories as specific examples. The LCA is a method to calculate substances and energies put into the whole process of production of a product from raw material mining to product wasting and environmental loads emitted therefrom. It also evaluates the result collectively and quantitatively. A first case of the research is reportedly the one performed at Coca-Cola Co., Ltd. in 1969. Full-scale researches have gone forward in European countries in the recent several years, and are progressing to international networks. The analytic methods can be divided largely into an accumulation method to analyze data in each process and add them up, and a method to use an industrial association table. The former method is the most generally used method currently in overseas countries if referred to the LCA. Because the LCA can cause the analytic result and evaluation to vary depending on the purpose, it is important to define the goal, and set the scope. The LCA must develop in the future although it has a number of problems. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Impacts of a United States' biofuel policy on New Zealand's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Caroline; Kaye-Blake, William; Marshall, Liz; Greenhalgh, Suzie; De Aragao Pereira, Mariana

    2009-01-01

    The rise in oil prices has spurred interest in biofuels. Policies in the United States like the renewable fuel standard (RFS) have led to an expansion of ethanol production, while the New Zealand government has mandated a minimum level of biofuel sales. The research used a partial equilibrium model of international trade to quantify the price and farmgate income effects of the US RFS policy. The goal was to examine the competition between food and biofuel production and to quantify the impact of the policy on the agricultural sector in New Zealand. The RFS policy has a significant impact on corn prices, but a small effect on livestock prices and production. There thus appears to be little conflict between food and fuel uses for corn at the level of the RFS mandate. New Zealand's pasture-based livestock sector benefits from the use of corn for ethanol production: it receives better prices for its products, but does not face the same input cost increases as competitors. The results suggest that New Zealand faces an interesting decision: it could support investment in biofuels research, or benefit from the biofuels boom through the indirect impacts on demand and prices for meat and milk. (author)

  2. Co-production of hydrogen and ethanol by Escherichia coli SS1 and its recombinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Shyan Soo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: HybC could improve glycerol consumption rate and ethanol productivity of E. coli despite lower hydrogen and ethanol yields. Higher glycerol consumption rate of recombinant hybC could be an advantage for bioconversion of glycerol into biofuels. This study could serve as a useful guidance for dissecting the role of hydrogenase in glycerol metabolism and future development of effective strain for biofuels production.

  3. The composition and impact of stakeholders' agendas on US ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamini, Edson; Eduardo Caldarelli, Carlos; Wubben, Emiel F.M.; Dewes, Homero

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the macro-environmental dimensions under which journalists, scientists and policy-makers have framed the liquid biofuels in the US over time. The number of publications concerning liquid biofuels from mass media, scientific community and government with ethanol production are correlated, seeking for causality between ethanol production and those stakeholders' agendas. Text-mining techniques were used to explore 2016 mass-media news sources, 455 scientific papers and 854 government documents published between 1997 and 2006. Granger-causality tests were performed to analyse the causality concerning stakeholders' agendas. The results indicate that scientists emphasise environmental, agronomic and technological matters, while journalists are more interested in covering economic, environmental, geopolitical and political issues. Although policies on this subject appear to be more in line with science, the trend analysis indicates that the mass media are gaining prominence amongst policy-makers. The causation analysis suggests that ethanol production and public policy present a bi-directional causality at t-2 time lag. At t-1 time lag, ethanol production precedes the publication of scientific documents, which present a bi-directional causality with public policy on ethanol and precedes the mass-media news. In conclusion, ethanol production precedes the presence of liquid biofuels on the agendas of scientists, journalists and policy-makers. - Highlights: ► Composition and impact of stakeholders' agendas on ethanol production were analysed. ► 3325 documents published between 1997 and 2006 were text mined. ► Government agenda and ethanol production present a bi-directional causality. ► Science has played an advisory role in policy-making. ► Ethanol production precedes the stakeholders' agendas.

  4. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson GP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3 particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.

  6. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  7. Biofuels and Biotechnology: Cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a Research Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes S, Simon; Chavarriaga, Paul; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, obtained from plants and their constituents, have recently received the world's attention as a true alternative to the global energy supply, mainly because they are cheaper and less contaminant of the environment than the currently used, non-renewable fossil fuels. Due to the pushing biofuel market, the world is currently experiencing an increase of agricultural land devoted to grow crops used to obtain them, like maize and sugar cane, as well as crops that have the potential to become new sources of biofuels. Similarly, this emerging market is boosting the basic research oriented towards obtaining better quality and yield in these crops. Plants that store high quantities of starch, simple sugars or oils, are the target of the biofuel industry, although the newest technologies use also cellulose as raw material to produce fuels. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is widely grown in the tropics and constitutes a staple food for approximately 10% of the world population. The high starch content of its storage roots, together with the use of conventional and non-conventional breeding turn this crop into an option to obtain better adapted varieties for ethanol production. This manuscript reviews the current state of biofuels worldwide and at the national level,and discusses the benefits and challenges faced in terms of effect on the environment and the human food chain. Finally, it discusses the potential of cassava as a source of raw material for obtaining biofuels in Colombia.

  8. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass, and a soy biodiesel pathway. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2017 which includes five ethanol LUC scenarios and four soy biodiesel LUC scenarios.

  9. Reevaluation of the global warming impacts of algae-derived biofuels to account for possible contributions of nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sarah K; Grotz, Lara S; Connelly, Elizabeth B; Colosi, Lisa M

    2016-10-01

    The environmental impacts of algae biofuels have been evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA); however, these analyses have overlooked nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. A literature analysis was performed to estimate algal N2O emissions and assess the impacts of growth conditions on flux magnitudes. Nitrogen source and dissolved oxygen concentration were identified as possible key contributors; therefore, their individual and combined impacts were evaluated using bench-scale experiments. It was observed that maximum N2O emissions (77.5μg/galgae/day) occur under anoxic conditions with nitrite. Conversely, minimum emissions (6.25μg/galgae/day) occur under oxic conditions with nitrate. Aggregated N2O flux estimates were then incorporated into a LCA framework for algae biodiesel. Accounting for "low" N2O emissions mediated no significant increase (<1%) compared to existing GWP estimates; however, "high" N2O emissions mediate an increase of roughly 25%, potentially jeopardizing the anticipated economic and environmental performances of algae biofuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Indirect land-use changes can overcome carbon savings from biofuels in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David M.; Schaldach, Ruediger; Alcamo, Joseph; Bondeau, Alberte; Koch, Jennifer; Koelking, Christina; Priess, Joerg A.

    2010-01-01

    The planned expansion of biofuel plantations in Brazil could potentially cause both direct and indirect land-use changes (e.g., biofuel plantations replace rangelands, which replace forests). In this study, we use a spatially explicit model to project land-use changes caused by that expansion in 2020, assuming that ethanol (biodiesel) production increases by 35 (4) x 109 liter in the 2003-2020 period. Our simulations show that direct land-use changes will have a small impact on carbon emissions because most biofuel plantations would replace rangeland areas. However, indirect land-use changes, especially those pushing the rangeland frontier into the Amazonian forests, could offset the carbon savings from biofuels. Sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel each contribute to nearly half of the projected indirect deforestation of 121,970 km2 by 2020, creating a carbon debt that would take about 250 years to be repaid using these biofuels instead of fossil fuels. We also tested different crops that could serve as feedstock to fulfill Brazil’s biodiesel demand and found that oil palm would cause the least land-use changes and associated carbon debt. The modeled livestock density increases by 0.09 head per hectare. But a higher increase of 0.13 head per hectare in the average livestock density throughout the country could avoid the indirect land-use changes caused by biofuels (even with soybean as the biodiesel feedstock), while still fulfilling all food and bioenergy demands. We suggest that a closer collaboration or strengthened institutional link between the biofuel and cattle-ranching sectors in the coming years is crucial for effective carbon savings from biofuels in Brazil. PMID:20142492

  11. Effects of Inhaled Ethanol on Developmental Outcomes in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of biofuels is increasing in the US automotive fleet. The primary alternative to petroleum fuels is ethanol, and the health risk associated with more than 10% ethanol in gasoline is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to i...

  12. Outlook for advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2006-01-01

    To assess which biofuels have the better potential for the short-term or the longer term (2030), and what developments are necessary to improve the performance of biofuels, the production of four promising biofuels-methanol, ethanol, hydrogen, and synthetic diesel-is systematically analysed. This present paper summarises, normalises and compares earlier reported work. First, the key technologies for the production of these fuels, such as gasification, gas processing, synthesis, hydrolysis, and fermentation, and their improvement options are studied and modelled. Then, the production facility's technological and economic performance is analysed, applying variations in technology and scale. Finally, likely biofuels chains (including distribution to cars, and end-use) are compared on an equal economic basis, such as costs per kilometre driven. Production costs of these fuels range 16-22 Euro /GJ HHV now, down to 9-13 Euro /GJ HHV in future (2030). This performance assumes both certain technological developments as well as the availability of biomass at 3 Euro /GJ HHV . The feedstock costs strongly influence the resulting biofuel costs by 2-3 Euro /GJ fuel for each Euro /GJ HHV feedstock difference. In biomass producing regions such as Latin America or the former USSR, the four fuels could be produced at 7-11 Euro /GJ HHV compared to diesel and gasoline costs of 7 and 8 Euro /GJ (excluding distribution, excise and VAT; at crude oil prices of ∼35 Euro /bbl or 5.7 Euro /GJ). The uncertainties in the biofuels production costs of the four selected biofuels are 15-30%. When applied in cars, biofuels have driving costs in ICEVs of about 0.18-0.24 Euro /km now (fuel excise duty and VAT excluded) and may be about 0.18 in future. The cars' contribution to these costs is much larger than the fuels' contribution. Large-scale gasification, thorough gas cleaning, and micro-biological processes for hydrolysis and fermentation are key major fields for RD and D efforts, next to

  13. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  14. Chemistry and combustion of fit-for-purpose biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothamer, David A; Donohue, Timothy J

    2013-06-01

    From the inception of internal combustion engines, biologically derived fuels (biofuels) have played a role. Nicolaus Otto ran a predecessor to today's spark-ignition engine with an ethanol fuel blend in 1860. At the 1900 Paris world's fair, Rudolf Diesel ran his engine on peanut oil. Over 100 years of petroleum production has led to consistency and reliability of engines that demand standardized fuels. New biofuels can displace petroleum-based fuels and produce positive impacts on the environment, the economy, and the use of local energy sources. This review discusses the combustion, performance and other requirements of biofuels that will impact their near-term and long-term ability to replace petroleum fuels in transportation applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the Value Chain of Biofuel Manufacturing Operations by Enhancing Coproduct Transportation and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, including corn-based ethanol, can partially meet the increasing demand for transportation fuels. The production of ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased; so too has the quantity of manufacturing coproducts. These nonfermentable residues (i.e., proteins, fibers, oils) are sold as...

  16. Adsorption and preconcentration of divalent metal ions in fossil fuels and biofuels: gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, diesel-like and ethanol by using chitosan microspheres and thermodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alexandre G S; Pescara, Igor C; Evangelista, Sheila M; Holanda, Matheus S; Andrade, Romulo D; Suarez, Paulo A Z; Zara, Luiz F

    2011-05-15

    Biodiesel and diesel-like have been obtained from soybean oil by transesterification and thermal cracking process, respectively. These biofuels were characterized as according to ANP standards by using specific ASTM methods. Ethanol, gasoline, and diesel were purchased from a gas station. Deacetylation degree of chitosan was determined by three distinct methods (conductimetry, FTIR and NMR), and the average degree was 78.95%. The chitosan microspheres were prepared from chitosan by split-coating and these spheres were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde. The surface area of microspheres was determined by BET method, and the surface area of crosslinked microspheres was 9.2m(2)g(-1). The adsorption isotherms of cooper, nickel and zinc on microspheres of chitosan were determined in petroleum derivatives (gasoline and diesel oil), as well as in biofuels (alcohol, biodiesel and diesel-like). The adsorption order in all fuels was: Cu>Ni>Zn. The elution tests presented the following preconcentration degrees: >4.5 to ethanol, >4.4 to gasoline, >4.0 to diesel, >3.8 to biodiesel and >3.6 to diesel-like. The application of chitosan microspheres in the metal ions preconcentration showed the potential of this biopolymer to enrich fuel sample in order to be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels: A case study of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Loan T.; Ierland, Ekko C. van; Zhu, Xueqin; Wesseler, Justus; Ngo, Giang

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel substitution for fossil fuels has been recommended in the literature and promoted in many countries; however, there are concerns about its economic viability. In this paper we focus on the cost-effectiveness of fuels, i.e., we compare the social costs of biofuels and fossil fuels for a functional unit defined as 1 km of vehicle transportation. We base our empirical results on a case study in Vietnam and compare two biofuels and their alternative fossil fuels: ethanol and gasoline, and biodiesel and diesel with a focus on the blends of E5 and E10 for ethanol, and B5 and B10 for biodiesel. At the discount rate of 4%, ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 or E10 saves 33% of the social cost of gasoline if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is the same as gasoline. The ethanol substitution will be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of E5 and E10, in terms of L km −1 , is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline by more than 1.7% and 3.5% for E5 and E10 respectively. The biodiesel substitution would be cost-effective if the fuel consumption of B5 and B10, in terms of L km −1 compared to diesel, would decrease by more than 1.4% and 2.8% for B5 and B10 respectively at the discount rate of 4%. -- Highlights: •We examine cost-effectiveness of biofuels under efficiency levels of blends. •Cassava-based ethanol used as E5 saves 33% of social cost compared to gasoline. •Ethanol is cost-effective if E5 consumption per km is less than 1.017 times gasoline consumption. •Jatropha-based biodiesel used as B5 or B10 is currently not cost-effective in comparison to diesel. •Biodiesel would be cost-effective if B5 consumption per km would be less than 0.986 times diesel consumption

  18. Stimulating learning-by-doing in advanced biofuels: effectiveness of alternative policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu; Yeh, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This letter examines the effectiveness of various biofuel and climate policies in reducing future processing costs of cellulosic biofuels due to learning-by-doing. These policies include a biofuel production mandate alone and supplementing the biofuel mandate with other policies, namely a national low carbon fuel standard, a cellulosic biofuel production tax credit or a carbon price policy. We find that the binding biofuel targets considered here can reduce the unit processing cost of cellulosic ethanol by about 30% to 70% between 2015 and 2035 depending on the assumptions about learning rates and initial costs of biofuel production. The cost in 2035 is more sensitive to the speed with which learning occurs and less sensitive to uncertainty in the initial production cost. With learning rates of 5–10%, cellulosic biofuels will still be at least 40% more expensive than liquid fossil fuels in 2035. The addition of supplementary low carbon/tax credit policies to the mandate that enhance incentives for cellulosic biofuels can achieve similar reductions in these costs several years earlier than the mandate alone; the extent of these incentives differs across policies and different kinds of cellulosic biofuels. (letter)

  19. Next-generation biofuels: a new challenge for yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovič, Uroš

    2015-09-01

    Economic growth depends strongly on the availability and price of fuels. There are various reasons in different parts of the world for efforts to decrease the consumption of fossil fuels, but biofuels are one of the main solutions considered towards achieving this aim globally. As the major bioethanol producer, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a central position among biofuel-producing organisms. However, unprecedented challenges for yeast biotechnology lie ahead, as future biofuels will have to be produced on a large scale from sustainable feedstocks that do not interfere with food production, and which are generally not the traditional carbon source for S. cerevisiae. Additionally, the current trend in the development of biofuels is to synthesize molecules that can be used as drop-in fuels for existing engines. Their properties should therefore be more similar to those of oil-derived fuels than those of ethanol. Recent developments and challenges lying ahead for cost-effective production of such designed biofuels, using S. cerevisiae-based cell factories, are presented in this review. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ethanol tolerance in Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli phytase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expanded use of corn and other grain for biofuels have created an increased supply of dried grains with soluble (DDGS) and other byproducts of ethanol fermentation. Elevated levels of phytic acid in this DDGS indicate that ethanol is denaturing the native phytase produced by the yeast, Saccharo...

  1. Biofuel effect on flame propagation and soot formation in a DISI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimescu, A.; Merola, S. S.; Di Iorio, S.; Vaglieco, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    The use of biofuels, especially in transportation and industrial processes, is seen as one of the most effective solutions to promote the reduction of greenhouse gases and pollutant emissions, as well as to lighten the dependence from petro-fuel producers. Biofuels are defined as a wide range of energy sources derived from biomass. In this category, alcohols produced through fermentation, such as ethanol and butanol, are considered some of the most suitable alternatives for transportation purposes. The benefits of bio-ethanol addition to gasoline have always been recognized for practical reasons. Apart from the variety of sources which it can be produced from, ethanol can raise the octane rating, given its improved anti-knock characteristics, allowing the use of higher compression ratios and higher thermal efficiency. However, ethanol’s high latent heat of vaporization can cause problems during cold-start due to poor evaporation. On the other hand, in hot climates ethanol fuelling can result in adverse effects such as vapour lock. Butanol can be considered as an emergent alternative fuel. Normal butanol has several well-known advantages when compared to ethanol, including increased energy content, greater miscibility with transportation fuels, and lower propensity for water absorption. Despite of these pros, the costs of n-butanol production are higher due to lower yields compared to ethanol. Moreover, vaporization remains a critical aspect of this biofuel. Understanding the effect of biofuels on in-cylinder combustion processes is a key-point for the optimization of fuel flexibility and achieving lower CO2 emissions. To this aim, a combined thermodynamic and optical investigation was performed on a direct injection spark ignition engine fuelled with ethanol, butanol and gasoline. Fuels were compared by fixing the injection and spark ignition strategies. Thermodynamic measurements were coupled with optical investigations based on cycle resolved flame

  2. USEEIOv1.1 - openLCA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a version of the full USEEIO v1.1 model in the openLCA schema serialized as JSON-LD that can be imported into openLCA software (www.openlca.org) v1.5 and...

  3. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Dose, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using existing corn grain ethanol plants as a proxy for possible future co-located cellulosic ethanol plants. Cob production estimates averaged 6.04 Tg and 8.87 Tg using a 40 km radius area and 80 km radius area, respectively, from existing corn grain ethanol plants. The use of CHP from cobs reduces overall GHG emissions by 60%–65% from existing dry mill ethanol plants. An integrated biorefinery further reduces corn grain ethanol GHG emissions with estimated ranges from 13.9 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 to 17.4 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 . Significant radius area overlap (53% overlap for 40 km radius and 86% overlap for 80 km radius) exists for cob availability between current corn grain ethanol plants in this region suggesting possible cob supply constraints for a mature biofuel industry. A multi-feedstock approach will likely be required to meet multiple end user renewable energy requirements for the north central United States. Economic and feedstock logistics models need to account for possible supply constraints under a mature biofuel industry. - Highlights: • Corn cob biomass was estimated for the north central United States region. • Cobs were evaluated for combined heat and power generation and bioethanol. • Co-located ethanol plants showed a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • Biomass supply constraints may occur under a mature cellulosic ethanol scenario

  4. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  5. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Marlies A.; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout; De Boer, Imke

    Background, aim and scope: Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  6. Bio-fuels: European Communities fiscal initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrand, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the influence that European Communities fiscal policies have had in the past on the development of more environmentally compatible fuels such as unleaded gasoline. It then discusses which directions fiscal policy makers should take in order to create appropriate financial incentives encouraging the production and use of biomass derived fuels - methanol, ethanol and pure and transesterified vegetable oils. An assessment is made of the efficacy of a recent European Communities proposal which calls for the application of excise tax reductions on bio-fuels. Attention is given to the net effects due to reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide emissions characterizing bio-fuels and the increased use of fertilizers necessary to produce biomass fuels

  7. Metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathway for production of renewable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijai; Mani, Indra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Dhar, Pawan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic engineering is an important area of research that involves editing genetic networks to overproduce a certain substance by the cells. Using a combination of genetic, metabolic, and modeling methods, useful substances have been synthesized in the past at industrial scale and in a cost-effective manner. Currently, metabolic engineering is being used to produce sufficient, economical, and eco-friendly biofuels. In the recent past, a number of efforts have been made towards engineering biosynthetic pathways for large scale and efficient production of biofuels from biomass. Given the adoption of metabolic engineering approaches by the biofuel industry, this paper reviews various approaches towards the production and enhancement of renewable biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, hydrogen, and biodiesel. We have also identified specific areas where more work needs to be done in the future.

  8. The composition and impact of stakeholders' agendas on U.S. ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.; Padula, A.D.; Wubben, E.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the macro-environmental dimensions under which journalists, scientists and policy-makers have framed the liquid biofuels in the US over time. The number of publications concerning liquid biofuels from mass media, scientific community and government with ethanol production

  9. An economic analysis of a major bio-fuel program undertaken by OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel are creating a new demand for agricultural output and for agriculture land in Canada. However, the participation of other large countries with a large demand potential is necessary for bio-fuels to have a significant impact on the price of grains and oilseeds. This paper quantified the potential impact that a major bio-fuel program initiated by OECD countries has on grain and oilseed prices. The program was initiated for the period 1999 to 2006. There is considerable interest by Canadian producers to stimulate grain and oilseed prices by increasing demand of biofuels. This renewable energy source produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than petroleum products. The analysis presented in this paper only considered ethanol from corn or wheat and bio-diesel from vegetable oils. It also focused only on the use of bio-fuels in the OECD transportation sector. The analysis was undertaken with AGLINK, a multi-commodity multi-country policy-specific dynamic model of the international agricultural markets built by the OECD with member countries. It was shown that the increase in world and domestic prices for grains and vegetable oils will remain strong, particularly toward 2006. It was also shown that a major bio-fuel program for all OECD countries would be beneficial to Canadian agriculture. It was concluded that ultimately, an increase in OECD bio-fuels usage has a direct impact on the demand for grains and oilseeds which are important feed-stocks in biofuel production. The analysis presumes an increase in renewable fuel use, but does not consider factors such as financial incentives and regulatory requirements that could bring about this increase. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Use of Input–Output Analysis in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Tuomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Input–output analysis can be used as a tool for complementing the traditionally process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) with macroeconomic data from the background systems. Properly used, it can result in faster and more accurate LCA. It also provides opportunities for streamlining the LCA inve...

  11. Biofuels for automobiles - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Vetter, A. [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Dornburg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Due to increasing oil prices and climate change concerns, biofuels have become more important as potential alternative energy sources. It is an open question as to which types of biofuels have the best yield potentials, characteristic properties and environmental consequences for providing the largest contribution to future energy requirements. Apart from the quality aspects, the question of quantity is very important, i.e., yields of biomass raw materials from agriculture and forestry as well as the conversion efficiencies/yields of the conversion process to automotive fuels. The most widely used biofuel forms today are fatty acid methyl esters and ethanol. However, in the future it is possible that synthetic hydrocarbons and hydrogen, produced via biotechnological or chemical processes may become feasible as fuel sources. Limitations in quantity are caused by net productivities of photosynthesis, which are limited by several factors, e.g., by the supply of water, limited availability of land, and conversion losses. As a consequence, biofuels as they exist can only contribute to a limited extent to securing raw material supplies for energy requirements in the future. Efficiency improvements in processing technologies and changes in consumer behavior and attitude will also be required. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Biorefinery of instant noodle waste to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-05-01

    Instant noodle waste, one of the main residues of the modern food industry, was employed as feedstock to convert to valuable biofuels. After isolation of used oil from the instant noodle waste surface, the starch residue was converted to bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity was 61.1g/l and 1.7 g/lh, respectively. After the optimization of fermentation, ethanol conversion rate of 96.8% was achieved within 36 h. The extracted oil was utilized as feedstock for high quality biodiesel conversion with typical chemical catalysts (KOH and H2SO4). The optimum conversion conditions for these two catalysts were estimated; and the highest biodiesel conversion rates were achieved 98.5% and 97.8%, within 2 and 3h, respectively. The high conversion rates of both bioethanol and biodiesel demonstrate that novel substrate instant noodle waste can be an attractive biorefinery feedstock in the biofuels industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Economy-wide impacts of biofuels in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Chisari, Omar O.; Romero, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is one of the world's largest biodiesel producers and the largest exporter, using soybeans as feedstock. Using a computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents the biofuel industry, this study carries out several simulations on two sets of issues: (i) international markets for biofuel and feedstock, such as an increase in prices of soybean, soybean oil, and biodiesel, and (ii) domestic policies related to biofuels, such as an introduction of biofuel mandates. Both sets of issues can have important consequences to the Argentinean economy. The simulations indicate that increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstocks would increase Argentina's gross domestic product and social welfare. Increases in international prices of ethanol and corn also can benefit Argentina, but to a lesser extent. The domestic mandates for biofuels, however, would cause small losses in economic output and social welfare because they divert part of biodiesel and feedstock from exports to lower-return domestic consumption. An increase in the export tax on either feedstock or biodiesel also would lead to a reduction in gross domestic product and social welfare, although government revenue would rise. - Highlights: ► Argentina is one of the largest biodiesel producer and exporter using soybeans. ► Economy-wide impacts are assessed using a CGE model for Argentina. ► Policies simulated are feedstock and biodiesel price change, and domestic mandates. ► Increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstock benefit the country. ► Domestic mandates for biofuels cause small losses in economic output

  14. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  15. Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elazhari-Ali, Abdulmagid; Singh, Arvind K.; Davenport, Russell J.; Head, Ian M.; Werner, David

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition. Highlights: ► The effect of 10% ethanol or 20% biodiesel on the biodegradability of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was investigated. ► Competition for scarce inorganic nutrients between biofuel and VPH degraders slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. ► Biofuel effects were transitional. ► Each fuel selected for a distinct predominant bacterial community. ► All bacterial communities were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. - Blending of petroleum with ethanol or biodiesel changes the fuel degrading soil bacterial community structure, but the long-term effects on fuel biodegradability are minor.

  16. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  17. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, D.; Marklein, A.; Toth, M. A.; Karpoff, M.; Paul, G. S.; McCormack, R.; Kyriazis, J.; Krueger, T.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%. (author)

  18. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  19. Chlamydomonas as a model for biofuels and bio-products production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scranton, Melissa A; Ostrand, Joseph T; Fields, Francis J; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-05-01

    Developing renewable energy sources is critical to maintaining the economic growth of the planet while protecting the environment. First generation biofuels focused on food crops like corn and sugarcane for ethanol production, and soybean and palm for biodiesel production. Second generation biofuels based on cellulosic ethanol produced from terrestrial plants, has received extensive funding and recently pilot facilities have been commissioned, but to date output of fuels from these sources has fallen well short of what is needed. Recent research and pilot demonstrations have highlighted the potential of algae as one of the most promising sources of sustainable liquid transportation fuels. Algae have also been established as unique biofactories for industrial, therapeutic, and nutraceutical co-products. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii's long established role in the field of basic research in green algae has paved the way for understanding algal metabolism and developing genetic engineering protocols. These tools are now being utilized in C. reinhardtii and in other algal species for the development of strains to maximize biofuels and bio-products yields from the lab to the field. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biofuel greenhouse gas calculations under the European Renewable Energy Directive – A comparison of the BioGrace tool vs. the tool of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennecke, Anna M.; Faist, Mireille; Reinhardt, Jürgen; Junquera, Victoria; Neeft, John; Fehrenbach, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare tools for biofuel CO 2 calculations under the Renewable Energy Directive. ► Results for the same biofuel differ up to 21% between tools. ► Hence a producer can enhance the CO 2 performance by 21% by using a different tool. ► Reasons: differences in background data and calculation of fertiliser N 2 O-emissions. ► Shows a regulatory gap: need for specification of method in current legislation. -- Abstract: The European Renewable Energy Directive (EU RED) requires biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 35% compared to fossil fuels in order to count towards mandatory biofuel quota or to be eligible for financial support schemes. This reduction target will rise to 50% in 2017. For biofuel producers this implies that they want or need to calculate their emissions. The purpose of this paper is to compare two calculation tools for economic operators that are on their way to the market: the “BioGrace tool” and the ”Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) GHG tool” for GHG calculations under the Renewable Energy Directive (both of which are freely available). Greenhouse gas emissions from four production pathways were calculated: ethanol from wheat, ethanol from sugarcane, biodiesel from rapeseed and biodiesel from palm oil. In addition, three land use change (LUC) scenarios were calculated: for expansion of the biofuel cultivation area to grassland and to forest (10–30% canopy cover) and for improvement of agricultural practices. Both tools follow the methodology of the European Renewable Energy Directive and exactly the same input data along the production chain was used. Despite this, the results were significantly different. GHG emissions of the pathway ethanol from wheat were 21% lower when calculated with the BioGrace tool than with the RSB GHG tool. Differences were most pronounced in the cultivation phase with 20% deviation between the tools for biodiesel from palm oil and 35% deviation for ethanol from

  1. State of the art review of biofuels production from lignocellulose by thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yujia; Xin, Fengxue; Lu, Jiasheng; Dong, Weiliang; Zhang, Wenming; Zhang, Min; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min

    2017-12-01

    Biofuels, including ethanol and butanol, are mainly produced by mesophilic solventogenic yeasts and Clostridium species. However, these microorganisms cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic materials, which are abundant, renewable and non-compete with human demand. More recently, thermophilic bacteria show great potential for biofuels production, which could efficiently degrade lignocellulose through the cost effective consolidated bioprocessing. Especially, it could avoid contamination in the whole process owing to its relatively high fermentation temperature. However, wild types thermophiles generally produce low levels of biofuels, hindering their large scale production. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art development of biofuels production by reported thermophilic microorganisms, and also concludes strategies to improve biofuels production including the metabolic pathways construction, co-culturing systems and biofuels tolerance. In addition, strategies to further improve butanol production are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecodesign Implementation and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    2018-01-01

    implementation into manufacturing companies. Existing methods and tools for ecodesign implementation will be described, focusing on a multifaceted approach to environmental improvement through product development. Additionally, the use of LCA in an ecodesign implementation context will be further described...... in terms of the challenges and opportunities, together with the discussion of a selection of simplified LCA tools. Finally, a seven-step approach for ecodesign implementation which has been applied by several companies will be described....

  3. Organisational LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    environmental performance over time, supporting strategic decisions, and informing corporate sustainability reporting. Several initiatives are on the way for the LCA of organisations: the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative published the ‘Guidance on organizational LCA’, using ISO/TS 14072 as a backbone; moreover......, when the unit of analysis and the system boundaries are defined. Also, the approach for data collection needs to be fixed. Organisational LCA is a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of the activities associated with the organisation adopting a life...... cycle perspective. It includes not only the facilities of the organisation itself, but also the activities upstream and downstream the value chain. This methodology is capable of serving multiple goals at the same time, like identifying environmental hotspots throughout the value chain, tracking...

  4. Biofuels for transportation. From R and D to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, C [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the Workshop was to bring together stakeholders in industry, government and science to identify technical, economic and institutional opportunities and/or barriers to the market penetration of biofuels and to tackle these issues jointly in an international environment. The Workshop was to cover the role of biofuels in replacing fossil fuels and achieving sustainable transportation. It was to be more oriented towards policy issues than towards analyses of scientific and technical details. The Workshop was focused on the conditions in Northern Europe and North America. Three main themes were chosen: THEME 1. Biomass Feedstocks. How do we produce them cost-effectively and for what purpose? THEME 2. Biofuels for Transportation. What will make them technically and economically competitive? THEME 3. Market Penetration of Biofuels. How do we remove barriers? The following biofuels were considered during the Workshop: Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol. Ethers, such as MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) and ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). Vegetable oils and esters, such as VME (vegetable-oil-methylester), RME (rape-oil-methyl-ester) and REE (rape-oil-ethyl-ester)

  5. No substitute for oil? How Brazil developed its ethanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, Anil; De Oliveira, Luiz Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    The world is presently mired in an energy crisis that challenges our ability to maintain standards of living in the North and raise them in the South. With accelerating demand for fossil fuels and relatively stagnant supplies, the fundamental bases of our transportation, energy, and agricultural systems are being questioned. Biofuels provide a more feasible technology than other renewables that could serve immediately to substitute for petroleum products in transportation. However, biofuels have been much reviled as leading to increased food prices and being environmental unfriendly. This article examines the case of Brazil. As a pioneer of biofuel use, Brazil is a key case for studying the possibilities, trade-offs, costs and benefits, of ethanol as an alternative to petroleum. Brazil has had an active program for over 30 years and is the world leader both in terms of technology and usage of ethanol. With relatively low economies of scale, a number of developing countries could successfully adopt the Brazilian system, reducing their dear dependence on petroleum. The evolution of the Brazilian ethanol system and its parameters are therefore of paramount interest to those interested in energy policy around the world. (author)

  6. Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, Dilip; Venkata, Bharadwaj K.; Silveira, Semida; Johnson, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study performs LCA analysis of sugarcane-based bioethanol production. • Energy and GHG balances are evaluated in the entire production chain. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key influencing parameters. • Efficient cogeneration and biogas recovery enhances energy and climate gains. • Results of LCA studies and issues related to land use change impact are discussed. - Abstract: This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO 2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are −7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  7. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  8. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    . Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  9. Overview of technical barriers and implementation of cellulosic ethanol in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting concern about the buildup of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In general, bioethanol production requires minimal fossil fuel input in the conversion step, and ethanol is considered a promising alternative fuel to petroleum-derived products. It is anticipated that ethanol production with second-generation biomass, i.e. lignocellulosic materials, will be possible on a large scale in the near future. Latest efforts have been focused on overcoming technical challenges in bioconversion, particularly pretreatment, and finding the solutions required to implement biorefinery on a large scale. This paper introduces and reviews the current status of research, and of the ethanol industry in the U.S. In addition, other important concepts in biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, and biorefinery in general are reviewed, and the key technical issues in bioconversion of cellulosic ethanol, such as pretreatment and factors affecting bioconversion of biomass are also discussed. - Highlights: • The current status of research, and of the ethanol industry in the U.S. • Important concepts in biofuels, cellulosic ethanol, and biorefinery. • The key technical issues in bioconversion of cellulosic ethanol. • Pretreatment and factors affecting bioconversion of biomass

  10. Water Use and Quality Footprints of Biofuel Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Hendricks, G.; Helsel, Z.; Knowles, J.

    2013-12-01

    The use of biofuel crops for future energy needs will require considerable amounts of water inputs. Favorable growing conditions for large scale biofuel production exist in the sub-tropical environment of South Florida. However, large-scale land use change associated with biofuel crops is likely to affect the quantity and quality of water within the region. South Florida's surface and ground water resources are already stressed by current allocations. Limited data exists to allocate water for growing the energy crops as well as evaluate the accompanying hydrologic and water quality impacts of large-scale land use changes. A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the water supply and quality impacts of three energy crops: sugarcane, switchgrass, and sweet sorghum (with a winter crop). Six lysimeters were used to collect the data needed to quantify crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in groundwater and discharge (drainage and runoff). Each lysimeter (4.85 x 3.65 x 1.35 m) was equipped to measure water input, output, and storage. The irrigation, runoff, and drainage volumes were measured using flow meters. Groundwater samples were collected bi-weekly and drainage/runoff sampling was event based; samples were analyzed for nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) species. Data collected over the three years revealed that the average annual ETc was highest for sugarcane (1464 mm) followed by switchgrass and sweet sorghum. Sweet sorghum had the highest total N (TN) concentration (7.6 mg/L) in groundwater and TN load (36 kg/ha) in discharge. However, sweet sorghum had the lowest total P (TP) concentration (1.2 mg/L) in groundwater and TP load (9 kg/ha) in discharge. Water use footprint for ethanol (liter of water used per liter of ethanol produced) was lowest for sugarcane and highest for switchgrass. Switchgrass had the highest P-load footprint for ethanol. No differences were observed for the TN load footprint for ethanol. This is the

  11. Microbial conversion of pyrolytic products to biofuels: a novel and sustainable approach toward second-generation biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zia Ul; Zhisheng, Yu; Hassan, El Barbary; Dongdong, Chang; Hongxun, Zhang

    2015-12-01

    This review highlights the potential of the pyrolysis-based biofuels production, bio-ethanol in particular, and lipid in general as an alternative and sustainable solution for the rising environmental concerns and rapidly depleting natural fuel resources. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydrous-β-D-glucopyranose) is the major anhydrosugar compound resulting from the degradation of cellulose during the fast pyrolysis process of biomass and thus the most attractive fermentation substrate in the bio-oil. The challenges for pyrolysis-based biorefineries are the inefficient detoxification strategies, and the lack of naturally available efficient and suitable fermentation organisms that could ferment the levoglucosan directly into bio-ethanol. In case of indirect fermentation, acid hydrolysis is used to convert levoglucosan into glucose and subsequently to ethanol and lipids via fermentation biocatalysts, however the presence of fermentation inhibitors poses a big hurdle to successful fermentation relative to pure glucose. Among the detoxification strategies studied so far, over-liming, extraction with solvents like (n-butanol, ethyl acetate), and activated carbon seem very promising, but still further research is required for the optimization of existing detoxification strategies as well as developing new ones. In order to make the pyrolysis-based biofuel production a more efficient as well as cost-effective process, direct fermentation of pyrolysis oil-associated fermentable sugars, especially levoglucosan is highlly desirable. This can be achieved either by expanding the search to identify naturally available direct levoglusoan utilizers or modify the existing fermentation biocatalysts (yeasts and bacteria) with direct levoglucosan pathway coupled with tolerance engineering could significantly improve the overall performance of these microorganisms.

  12. Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    The Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis includes an LCA Learning Module Series, case studies, and analytics on the use of the modules. The module series is a set of narrated slideshows on topics related to environmental LCA. Phase I ...

  13. Integrated strategic and tactical biomass-biofuel supply chain optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Rodríguez, Luis F; Shastri, Yogendra N; Hansen, Alan C; Ting, K C

    2014-03-01

    To ensure effective biomass feedstock provision for large-scale biofuel production, an integrated biomass supply chain optimization model was developed to minimize annual biomass-ethanol production costs by optimizing both strategic and tactical planning decisions simultaneously. The mixed integer linear programming model optimizes the activities range from biomass harvesting, packing, in-field transportation, stacking, transportation, preprocessing, and storage, to ethanol production and distribution. The numbers, locations, and capacities of facilities as well as biomass and ethanol distribution patterns are key strategic decisions; while biomass production, delivery, and operating schedules and inventory monitoring are key tactical decisions. The model was implemented to study Miscanthus-ethanol supply chain in Illinois. The base case results showed unit Miscanthus-ethanol production costs were $0.72L(-1) of ethanol. Biorefinery related costs accounts for 62% of the total costs, followed by biomass procurement costs. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 50% reduction in biomass yield would increase unit production costs by 11%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  15. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  16. Byproducts for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondt, N.; Meeusen, M.J.G.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the market for residues from the Dutch food and beverage industry, and the appeal of these residues for the production of bio-ethanol and biodiesel. The firstgeneration technology is readily suited to the conversion of no more than 29% of the 7.5 million tonnes of residues into biofuels. Moreover, when non-technological criteria are also taken into account virtually none of the residues are of interest for conversion into bioethanol, although vegetable and animal fats can be used to produce biodiesel. The economic consequences for sectors such as the animal-feed sector are limited [nl

  17. Properties, performance, and applications of biofuel blends: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Al-Mashhadani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel derived from living plants or animal matter can be used directly in their neat forms or as blends with their fossil counterparts in internal combustion engines. Although the properties and performance of neat biofuels have been extensively reported, this is not the case for many blends. The purpose of this review is to analyze different forms of biofuel blends that are under research and development comparing their utility and performance in the two primary classes of engines, i.e., spark ignition and compression ignition engines. The fuel properties, performance and emission characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of various fuel blends are compared and discussed. The analysis reveals certain blends possess better overall fuel properties and yield better overall performance than the neat or fossil forms.

  18. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: The global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; van Lienden, A.R.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over energy security and climate change stimulate developments towards renewable energy. Transport is expected to switch from fossil fuel use to the use of fuel mixtures with a larger fraction of biofuels, e.g. bio-ethanol and biodiesel. Growing biomass for biofuels requires water, a scarce

  19. Estimation of un-used land potential for biofuels development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yishui [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Sun, Liying [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Yan, Jinyue [Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the current status of biofuel development and estimates the potential of un-used land for biofuel development. The potential of crops including cassava, sweet potato, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet and Jerusalem artichoke were assessed and discussed for different regions considering the geographical conditions and features of agricultural production. If reserved land resources are explored together with substitute planting implemented and unit area yield improved, potential production of ethanol fuel will be 22 million ton in 2020. The study also recommends the use of winter idle lands for rapeseed plantation for biofuel production. The potential for production of biodiesel by rapeseed and cottonseed can reach to 3.59 million ton. (author)

  20. Mapping and characterization of LCA networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to provide an up-todate overview of global, regional and local networks supporting life cycle thinking and to characterize them according to their structure and activities. Methods: Following a tentative life cycle assessment (LCA) network definition, a mapping......: The provided list of LCA networks is currently the most comprehensive, publicly available mapping. We believe that the results of this mapping can serve as a basis for deciding where priorities should be set to increase the dissemination and development of LCA worldwide. In this aim, we also advocate...... was performed based on (1) a literature search, (2) a web search and (3) an inquiry to stakeholders distributed via the two largest LCA fora. Networks were characterized based on responses from a survey. Results and discussion: We identified 100 networks, of which 29 fulfilled all six criteria composing our...

  1. Impact of Technology and Feedstock Choice on the Environmental Footprint of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. B.; Dodder, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS2) has led to a dramatic shift in the use of biofuel in the U.S. transportation system over the last decade. To satisfy this demand, the production of U.S. corn-based ethanol has grown rapidly, with an average increase of over 25% annually from 2002 to 2010. RFS2 requires a similarly steep increase in the production of advanced biofuels, such as cellulosic ethanol. Unlike corn-based ethanol, which is derived from the biochemical fermentation of sugars in wet and dry mills, it is likely that a more diverse suite of technologies will need to be developed to be able to meet the advanced biofuel RFS2 targets, including biochemical as well as thermochemical (e.g., gasification and pyrolysis) approaches. Rather than relying on energy crops, a potential advantage of thermochemical approaches is the ability to use a wider variety of feedstocks, including municipal solid waste and wood waste. In this work, we conduct a system-level analysis to understand how technology and feedstock choice can impact the environmental footprint of biofuels in the U.S. We use a least-cost optimization model of the U.S. energy system to account for interactions between various components of the energy system: industrial, transportation, electric, and residential/commercial sectors. The model was used to understand the scale of feedstock demand required from dedicated energy crops, as well as other biomass feedstocks, in order to meet the RFS2 mandate. On a regional basis, we compare the overall water-consumption and land requirements for biofuels production given a suite of liquid-fuel production technologies. By considering a range of scenarios, we examine how the use of various feedstocks (e.g., agricultural residues, wood wastes, mill residues and municipal wastes) can be used to off-set environmental impacts as compared to relying solely on energy crops.

  2. Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Audrey P [Madison, WI; Lewis, Jeffrey A [Madison, WI

    2012-05-15

    The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

  3. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  4. Panorama 2007: Potential biomass mobilization for bio-fuel production worldwide, in Europe and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.

    2007-01-01

    One key factor in ensuring the success of bio-fuel technologies, which are expected to see high growth, is the availability of biomass resources. Although the targets set in Europe and France for the replacement of petroleum products in the transport sector by 2010 can be met by converting farm surpluses into biofuels, in order to proceed further, it will be necessary to mobilize a resource that is more abundant and potentially less costly: ligno-cellulosic materials, i.e. wood or straw. The future of biofuels depends on establishing the much-awaited 'second generation' bio-fuel pathways able to convert ligno-cellulosic materials to ethanol, bio-diesel and bio-kerosene. (author)

  5. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover...... LCA on solid waste systems....

  6. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways: Economic impacts of biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: 1) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, 2) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and 3) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect, and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5,960 and 8,470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized for one million dollars of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter more jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2,000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. The agriculture/forest, services, and trade industries are the primary sectors that will benefit from the ongoing operation of biorefineries.

  7. The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in São Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales

  8. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  9. Mitigating secondary aerosol generation potentials from biofuel use in the energy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Colls, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates secondary aerosol generation potential of biofuel use in the energy sector from the photochemical interactions of precursor gases on a life cycle basis. The paper is divided into two parts-first, employing life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the extent of the problem for a typical biofuel based electricity production system using five baseline scenarios; second, proposing adequate mitigation options to minimise the secondary aerosol generation potential on a life cycle basis. The baseline scenarios cover representative technologies for 2010 utilising energy crop (miscanthus), short rotation coppiced chips and residual/waste wood in different proportions. The proposed mitigation options include three approaches-biomass gasification prior to combustion, delaying the harvest of biomass, and increasing the geographical distance between the biomass plant and the harvest site (by importing the biofuels). Preliminary results indicate that the baseline scenarios (assuming all the biomass is sourced locally) bear significant secondary aerosol formation potential on a life cycle basis from photochemical neutralisation of acidic emissions (hydrogen chloride and sulphur dioxide) with ammonia. Our results suggest that gasification of miscanthus biomass would provide the best option by minimising the acidic emissions from the combustion plant whereas the other two options of delaying the harvest or importing biofuels from elsewhere would only lead to marginal reduction in the life cycle aerosol loadings of the systems.

  10. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  11. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  12. Transport biofuel yields from food and lignocellulosic C{sub 4} crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [IBED University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    In the near future, the lignocellulosic C{sub 4} crops Miscanthus and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) are unlikely to outcompete sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in net energetic yearly yield of transport biofuel ha{sup -1}. This holds both for the thermochemical conversion into liquid hydrocarbons and the enzymatic conversion into ethanol. Currently, Miscanthus and switchgrass would also not seem able to outcompete corn (Zea mays) in net energetic yearly yield of liquid transport biofuel ha{sup -1}, but further development of these lignocellulosic crops may gradually lead to a different outcome. (author)

  13. Technoeconomic analysis of biofuels: A wiki-based platform for lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Simmons, Blake A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a process model for a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery that is open to the biofuels academic community. Beyond providing a series of static results, the wiki-based platform provides a dynamic and transparent tool for analyzing, exploring, and communicating the impact of process adva...

  14. Strategy for research and development connected to production o fliquid biofuels; Strategi for forskning og udvikling vedr. fremstilling af flydende biobraendstoffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    In many large industrialised countries it is expected that engine fuels manufactured from biomass will play an increasing role, especially considering security of supply, reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and increasing rate of employment within farming. The price of biofuel will, however, even in the long term, depending on the biomass and the technology used for production, easily remain significantly higher than the price of the fossil fuel, which biofuel substitutes. The most relevant biofuels today are ethanol and RME (rape seed methyl ester - bio diesel). As regards new technology for ethanol production, a significant knowledge base has been built in Denmark in research collaboration between DTU-BioCentrum and Risoe National Laboratory. The Danish research efforts should primarily focus on development of technology and know-how that can be patented and commercialised internationally and furthermore can be used for establishing a biofuel production in Denmark. (BA)

  15. Three routes forward for biofuels: Incremental, leapfrog, and transitional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Geoff M.; Witcover, Julie; Parker, Nathan C.; Fulton, Lew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines three technology routes for lowering the carbon intensity of biofuels: (1) a leapfrog route that focuses on major technological breakthroughs in lignocellulosic pathways at new, stand-alone biorefineries; (2) an incremental route in which improvements are made to existing U.S. corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel biorefineries; and (3) a transitional route in which biotechnology firms gain experience growing, handling, or chemically converting lignocellulosic biomass in a lower-risk fashion than leapfrog biorefineries by leveraging existing capital stock. We find the incremental route is likely to involve the largest production volumes and greenhouse gas benefits until at least the mid-2020s, but transitional and leapfrog biofuels together have far greater long-term potential. We estimate that the Renewable Fuel Standard, California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard, and federal tax credits provided an incentive of roughly $1.5–2.5 per gallon of leapfrog biofuel between 2012 and 2015, but that regulatory elements in these policies mostly incentivize lower-risk incremental investments. Adjustments in policy may be necessary to bring a greater focus on transitional technologies that provide targeted learning and cost reduction opportunities for leapfrog biofuels. - Highlights: • Three technological pathways are compared that lower carbon intensity of biofuels. • Incremental changes lead to faster greenhouse gas reductions. • Leapfrog changes lead to greatest long-term potential. • Two main biofuel policies (RFS and LCFS) are largely incremental in nature. • Transitional biofuels offer medium-risk, medium reward pathway.

  16. Meeting the global demand for biofuels in 2021 through sustainable land use change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, José; Mello, Francisco F.C.; Cerri, Carlos E.P.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 renewable energy policy mandates adopted in twenty-seven countries will increase the need for liquid biofuels. To achieve this, ethanol produced from corn and sugarcane will need to increase from 80 to approximately 200 billion l in 2021. This could be achieved by increasing the productivity of raw material per hectare, expansion of land into dedicated biofuels, or a combination of both. We show here that appropriate land expansion policies focused on conservationist programs and a scientific basis, are important for sustainable biofuel expansion whilst meeting the increasing demand for food and fiber. The Brazilian approach to biofuel and food security could be followed by other nations to provide a sustainable pathway to renewable energy and food production globally. One sentence summary: Conservationist policy programs with scientific basis are key to drive the expansion of biofuel production and use towards sustainability

  17. Recommendations for a sustainable development of biofuels in France; Recommandations pour un developpement durable des biocarburants en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douaud, A.; Gruson, J.F

    2006-01-15

    The biofuels are presented as a solution to the greenhouse gases and the petroleum consumption decrease. The development of the biofuels needs an active research of the production, transformation and use costs improvement. It will be necessary to prepare the market of the biofuels to the globalization. Some recommendations are also provided in the domains of the vegetal oil ester, the ethanol for the diesel and for the development of simulation tools to evaluate the costs. (A.L.B.)

  18. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  19. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  20. Screening potential social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth; Höglund, Jonas; Finnveden, Göran

    2014-01-01

    The generic social and socioeconomic impacts of various biofuels and fossil fuels were screened by applying Social Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Data were taken from the Social Hotspots Database on all categories for all the related themes and all indicators available. To limit the amount of data, only high and very high risk indicators were considered for each combination. The risks identified per life cycle phase were listed for each fuel assessed and the results were then aggregated by counting the number of high and very high risk indicators for that fuel. All the fossil fuels and biofuels analysed were found to display high or very high risks of negative impacts. Country of origin seemed to be of greater importance for risks than fuel type, as the most risk-related and least risk-related product systems referred to the same type of fuel, fossil oil from Russia/Nigeria and fossil oil from Norway, respectively. These results suggest that in developing policy, strict procurement requirements on social performance should be set for both fossil fuel and biofuel. However, the results must be interpreted with care owing to some limitations in the assessment, such as simplifications to life cycles, method used and data collection. - Highlights: • Both fossil and biofuels displayed high or very high risks of negative social impacts. • Social procurement requirements should be applied on all vehicle fuels. • Applying social criteria only on biofuels may be unfairly benefiting fossil fuels. • Social LCA can identify severe social impacts and influence policies accordingly. • Schemes can be adapted to include relevant criteria for specific fuels and/or origins

  1. Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2013-01-01

    produces ethanol, solid biofuel, molasses, and is able to produce district heating hot water. Considering all products equally valuable, the exergy efficiency of the ethanol facility was found to be 0.790 during integrated operation with zero district heating production, and 0.852 during integrated...

  2. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from an algae fractionation process for producing renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegallapati, Ambica K.; Frank, Edward D.

    2016-09-01

    In one approach to algal biofuel production, lipids are extracted and converted to renewable diesel and non-lipid remnants are converted to biogas, which is used for renewable heat and power to support the process. Since biofuel economics benefit from increased fuel yield, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed an alternative pathway that extracts lipids and also makes ethanol from carbohydrates in the biomass. In this paper, we examine the environmental sustainability of this "fractionation pathway" through life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. When the feedstock productivity was 30 (18) g/m(2)/d, this pathway emitted 31 (36) gCO(2)e/MJ of total fuel, which is less than the emissions associated with conventional low sulfur petroleum diesel (96 gCO(2)e/MJ). The fractionation pathway performed well in this model despite the diversion of carbon to the ethanol fuel.

  3. Developing symbiotic consortia for lignocellulosic biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuroff, Trevor R.; Curtis, Wayne R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-02-15

    The search for petroleum alternatives has motivated intense research into biological breakdown of lignocellulose to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol. Degradation of lignocellulose for biofuel production is a difficult process which is limited by, among other factors, the recalcitrance of lignocellulose and biological toxicity of the products. Consolidated bioprocessing has been suggested as an efficient and economical method of producing low value products from lignocellulose; however, it is not clear whether this would be accomplished more efficiently with a single organism or community of organisms. This review highlights examples of mixtures of microbes in the context of conceptual models for developing symbiotic consortia for biofuel production from lignocellulose. Engineering a symbiosis within consortia is a putative means of improving both process efficiency and stability relative to monoculture. Because microbes often interact and exist attached to surfaces, quorum sensing and biofilm formation are also discussed in terms of consortia development and stability. An engineered, symbiotic culture of multiple organisms may be a means of assembling a novel combination of metabolic capabilities that can efficiently produce biofuel from lignocellulose. (orig.)

  4. Does the U.S. biofuels mandate increase the price at the pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Stephen R.

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 created a federal mandate for blending conventional biofuels like corn-based ethanol and advanced biofuels like biodiesel and renewable gasoline into the United States transportation fuel supply. The RFS established yearly blending standards for the obligated parties--refiners and importers of petroleum products--that increase progressively until reaching a high of 36 billion gallons by 2022. Each ethanol-equivalent gallon of biofuel blended is assigned a unique Renewable Identification Number (RIN) through the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Moderated Transaction System (EMTS). At year's close, obligated parties must submit their allotted RIN obligations to the EPA to demonstrate compliance. In the case of under-compliance or over-compliance, RINs can be traded between obligated parties freely through the EMTS or carried over for use in the next year. It follows, then, that a RIN carries a market value reflective of the cost of complying with RFS regulations. Indeed, most biofuels cost more than their fossil-based equivalents. When the price of a corn ethanol RIN went from 2-3 cents each in 2012 to nearly $1.50 in July of 2013 due to a perceived shortage in corn ethanol RINs, obligated parties faced the prospect of multimillion-dollar compliance cost increases. Arguing that RFS makes fuel significantly more expensive for consumers, petroleum companies have begun to advocate for the full repeal of the RFS, winning over some allies in Congress. The future of this program is uncertain. In an attempt to quantify the concerns of RFS critics, this thesis estimated the effect that RIN prices have on the wholesale cost of diesel fuel. Using daily price data from January 2011 through August of 2013 on RINs and crude oil, I specified twelve OLS regression models that predict the passthrough of the diesel RIN price to wholesale diesel price. My statistical analysis

  5. Promoting Second Generation Biofuels: Does the First Generation Pave the Road?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Eggert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The U.S., Brazil and a number of European and other countries worldwide have introduced various support schemes for bioethanol and biodiesel. The advantage of these biofuels is that they are relatively easily integrated with the current fossil fuel-based transport sector, at least up to a certain point. However, recent studies point to various negative effects of expanding the production of first generation (1G biofuels further. 1G biofuels’ problems can be overcome by a transition to second generation (2G biofuels. So far, 2G biofuels are much more costly to produce. We therefore ask: to what extent is targeted support to 2G biofuels likely to bring costs down? Additionally, are current support schemes for biofuels well designed in order to promote the development of 2G biofuels? We find that the prospects for cost reduction look better for 2G bioethanol than for 2G biodiesel. Bioethanol made from cellulose is far from a ripe technology, with several cost-reducing opportunities yet to be developed. Hence, targeted support to cellulosic ethanol might induce a switch from 1G to 2G biofuels. However, we find little evidence that production and use of 1G bioethanol will bridge the conversion to 2G bioethanol. Hence, to the extent that private investment in the development of 2G bioethanol is too low, current support schemes for 1G biofuels may block 2G bioethanol instead of promoting it.

  6. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C.; Vanderpooten, D.

    2001-01-01

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l -1 [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l -1 for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l -1 for ester and 3.30FF l -1 for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l -1 for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  7. Round table on bio-fuels; Table ronde sur les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  8. The role of bio-fuels in satisfying US transportation fuel demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Berk; Fitch, Jonathan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Kassebaum, Paul G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Thompson, Robert W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    In spite of the abundant interest in conversion of agricultural products into useful energy carriers, there have been relatively few studies assessing the magnitude of the impact these fuels can make on satisfying US energy demands. There have been fewer studies of unintended consequences stemming from these enterprises, although several research groups have begun questioning the appropriate levels of subsidies provided to individuals and companies to stimulate production of bio-fuels. In this paper, the production capacities for bio-fuels - ethanol and biodiesel - are evaluated for their potential impact on the US energy market. Several ramifications of these technologies are reviewed. This study concludes that ethanol or biodiesel production do not appear scalable to make a significant difference on the US fossil fuel demand for transportation. Aspects of this study point to systemic changes that may be required in lifestyles and attitudes toward energy consumption. Finally, comments regarding US energy policies are included to stimulate discussion. (author)

  9. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)

  10. The greenhouse gas intensity and potential biofuel production capacity of maize stover harvest in the US Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Curtis D. [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Zhang, Xuesong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Reddy, Ashwan D. [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Robertson, G. Philip [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners MI 49060 USA; Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; Izaurralde, Roberto César [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Texas A& M AgriLife Research & Extension Center, Temple TX 76502 USA

    2017-08-11

    Agricultural residues are important sources of feedstock for a cellulosic biofuels industry that is being developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy independence. While the US Midwest has been recognized as key to providing maize stover for meeting near-term cellulosic biofuel production goals, there is uncertainty that such feedstocks can produce biofuels that meet federal cellulosic standards. Here, we conducted extensive site-level calibration of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) terrestrial ecosystems model and applied the model at high spatial resolution across the US Midwest to improve estimates of the maximum production potential and greenhouse gas emissions expected from continuous maize residue-derived biofuels. A comparison of methodologies for calculating the soil carbon impacts of residue harvesting demonstrates the large impact of study duration, depth of soil considered, and inclusion of litter carbon in soil carbon change calculations on the estimated greenhouse gas intensity of maize stover-derived biofuels. Using the most representative methodology for assessing long-term residue harvesting impacts, we estimate that only 5.3 billion liters per year (bly) of ethanol, or 8.7% of the near-term US cellulosic biofuel demand, could be met under common no-till farming practices. However, appreciably more feedstock becomes available at modestly higher emissions levels, with potential for 89.0 bly of ethanol production meeting US advanced biofuel standards. Adjustments to management practices, such as adding cover crops to no-till management, will be required to produce sufficient quantities of residue meeting the greenhouse gas emission reduction standard for cellulosic biofuels. Considering the rapid increase in residue availability with modest relaxations in GHG reduction level, it is expected that management practices with modest benefits to soil carbon would allow considerable expansion of potential cellulosic

  11. Impact of US biofuel policy on US corn and gasoline price variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies that examine the influence of biofuels and biofuel policy on commodity prices, the impact of biofuel policy on commodity price variability is poorly understood. A good understanding of biofuel policy’s impact on price variability is important for mitigating food insecurity and assisting policy formation. We examine how U.S. ethanol policies such as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates and the blend wall affect the price variability of corn and gasoline. We first present an analytical and graphical framework to identify the effect and then use stochastic partial equilibrium simulation to measure the magnitude of the impacts. We show that RFS mandates and the blend wall both reduce the price elasticity of demand for corn and gasoline and therefore increase the price variability when supply shocks occur to the markets. This has important implications for policy actions with respect to maintaining or changing the current RFS mandates and/or blend wall in the US. -- Highlights: ► The RFS is found to lead to less elastic demand for corn and gasoline. ► Thus the RFS is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices when supply shocks occur. ► The ethanol blend wall is found to lead to less elastic corn and gasoline demand. ► Thus the blend wall is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices.

  12. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  13. Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Henrique, E-mail: henrique.pacini@energy.kth.se; Silveira, Semida, E-mail: semida.silveira@energy.kth.se

    2011-11-15

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline. - Research Highlights: > Brazil and Sweden both have infrastructure for high fuel ethanol blends. > Flex-fuel vehicles enable competition between ethanol and gasoline in fuel markets. > Data suggests that consumers make their fuel choice based mainly on prices. > Consumers in Sweden appear to be more price-sensitive than their Brazilian counterparts. > In the absence of international markets, high ethanol prices may drive consumers back to gasoline.

  14. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, D.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present...... the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining...

  15. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  16. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2018-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  17. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  18. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified.

  19. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-02-29

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area.

  20. New generation biofuel from whey: Successive acidogenesis and alcoholic fermentation using immobilized cultures on γ-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boura, Konstantina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kolliopoulos, Dionysios; Vasileiou, Dimitrios; Panas, Panayiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Successive continuous alcoholic fermentation and acidogenesis of whey. • UASB culture (acidogenesis) and kefir (alcoholic fermentation) fixed on γ-alumina. • Alcoholic fermentation-acidogenesis process led to 10-fold higher ethanol content. • Organic acids production was increased by 2.5-fold. • The process is promising for new generation ester-based biofuels from whey. - Abstract: Cheese whey exploitation in a biorefinery manner is proposed involving anaerobic acidogenesis by a UASB mixed anaerobic culture and alcoholic fermentation by kefir. Both cultures were immobilized on γ-alumina. The produced organic acids (OAs) and ethanol could be esterified to obtain a novel ester-based biofuel similar to biodiesel. During acidogenesis, lactic acid-type fermentation occurred leading to 12 g L"−"1 total OAs and 0.2 g L"−"1 ethanol. The fermented substrate was subsequently supplied to a second bioreactor with immobilized kefir, which increased the OAs content (15 g L"−"1), especially lactic acid, and slightly the ethanol concentration (0.3–0.4 g L"−"1). To further increase ethanol concentration, a second experiment was conducted supplying whey firstly to the immobilized kefir bioreactor and then pumping the effluent into the acidogenesis bioreactor, resulting in 40% increase of OAs and 10-fold higher ethanol content. The residual sugar was ∼50% of the initial whey lactose; consequently, future research could result to further increase of ethanol and OAs.

  1. Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susan Tarka; Woods, Jeremy; Akhurst, Mark; Brander, Matthew; O'Hare, Michael; Dawson, Terence P.; Edwards, Robert; Liska, Adam J.; Malpas, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of land used for crop production causes variable direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and other economic, social and environmental effects. We analyse the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Two approaches are critiqued: direct, attributional life cycle analysis and consequential life cycle analysis (CLCA). A proposed hybrid ‘combined model’ of the two approaches for ILUC analysis relies on first defining the system boundary of the resulting full LCA. Choices are then made as to the modelling methodology (economic equilibrium or cause–effect), data inputs, land area analysis, carbon stock accounting and uncertainty analysis to be included. We conclude that CLCA is applicable for estimating the historic emissions from ILUC, although improvements to the hybrid approach proposed, coupled with regular updating, are required, and uncertainly values must be adequately represented; however, the scope and the depth of the expansion of the system boundaries required for CLCA remain controversial. In addition, robust prediction, monitoring and accounting frameworks for the dynamic and highly uncertain nature of future crop yields and the effectiveness of policies to reduce deforestation and encourage afforestation remain elusive. Finally, establishing compatible and comparable accounting frameworks for ILUC between the USA, the European Union, South East Asia, Africa, Brazil and other major biofuel trading blocs is urgently needed if substantial distortions between these markets, which would reduce its application in policy outcomes, are to be avoided. PMID:22467143

  2. Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Susan Tarka; Woods, Jeremy; Akhurst, Mark; Brander, Matthew; O'Hare, Michael; Dawson, Terence P; Edwards, Robert; Liska, Adam J; Malpas, Rick

    2012-06-07

    The expansion of land used for crop production causes variable direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and other economic, social and environmental effects. We analyse the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Two approaches are critiqued: direct, attributional life cycle analysis and consequential life cycle analysis (CLCA). A proposed hybrid 'combined model' of the two approaches for ILUC analysis relies on first defining the system boundary of the resulting full LCA. Choices are then made as to the modelling methodology (economic equilibrium or cause-effect), data inputs, land area analysis, carbon stock accounting and uncertainty analysis to be included. We conclude that CLCA is applicable for estimating the historic emissions from ILUC, although improvements to the hybrid approach proposed, coupled with regular updating, are required, and uncertainly values must be adequately represented; however, the scope and the depth of the expansion of the system boundaries required for CLCA remain controversial. In addition, robust prediction, monitoring and accounting frameworks for the dynamic and highly uncertain nature of future crop yields and the effectiveness of policies to reduce deforestation and encourage afforestation remain elusive. Finally, establishing compatible and comparable accounting frameworks for ILUC between the USA, the European Union, South East Asia, Africa, Brazil and other major biofuel trading blocs is urgently needed if substantial distortions between these markets, which would reduce its application in policy outcomes, are to be avoided.

  3. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Alonsoamador Morales Alberteris, Lidice; García del Pino, Gilberto; Duvoisin, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  4. Membraneless enzymatic ethanol/O2 fuel cell: Transitioning from an air-breathing Pt-based cathode to a bilirubin oxidase-based biocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Milton, Ross D.; Hickey, David P.; De Andrade, Adalgisa R.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2016-08-01

    The bioelectrooxidation of ethanol was investigated in a fully enzymatic membraneless ethanol/O2 biofuel cell assembly using hybrid bioanodes containing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-decorated gold metallic nanoparticles with either a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzyme or a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent ADH enzyme. The biofuel cell anode was prepared with the PQQ-dependent enzyme and designed using either a direct electron transfer (DET) architecture or via a mediated electron transfer (MET) configuration through a redox polymer, 1,1‧-dimethylferrocene-modified linear polyethyleneimine (FcMe2-C3-LPEI). In the case of the bioanode containing the NAD+-dependent enzyme, only the mediated electron transfer mechanism was employed using an electropolymerized methylene green film to regenerate the NAD+ cofactor. Regardless of the enzyme being employed at the anode, a bilirubin oxidase-based biocathode prepared within a DET architecture afforded efficient electrocatalytic oxygen reduction in an ethanol/O2 biofuel cell. The power curves showed that DET-based bioanodes via the PQQ-dependent ADH still lack high current densities, whereas the MET architecture furnished maximum power density values as high as 226 ± 21 μW cm-2. Considering the complete membraneless enzymatic biofuel cell with the NAD+-dependent ADH-based bioanode, power densities as high as 111 ± 14 μW cm-2 were obtained. This shows the advantage of PQQ-dependent ADH for membraneless ethanol/O2 biofuel cell applications.

  5. PBPK Models for Gasoline-Ethanol Biofuels in Adult and Pregnant Rats@@@@

    Science.gov (United States)

    As utilization of biofuels (BF) in the commercial marketplace has increased in recent years, so has the need for evaluation of exposure-related health effects, such as developmental neurotoxicity. This research describes the development of inhalation life-stage physiologically-ba...

  6. PBPK Models for Gasoline-Ethanol Biofuels in Adult and Pregnant Rats**

    Science.gov (United States)

    As utilization of biofuels (BF) in the commercial marketplace has increased in recent years, so has the need for evaluation of exposure-related health effects, such as developmental neurotoxicity. This research describes the development of inhalation life-stage physiologically-ba...

  7. PBPK Models for Gasoline-Ethanol Biofuels in Adult and Pregnant Rats####

    Science.gov (United States)

    As utilization of biofuels (BF) in the commercial marketplace has increased in recent years, so has the need for evaluation of exposure-related health effects, such as developmental neurotoxicity. This research describes the development of inhalation life-stage physiologically-ba...

  8. PBPK Models for Gasoline-Ethanol Biofuels in Adult and Pregnant Rats###

    Science.gov (United States)

    As utilization of biofuels (BF) in the commercial marketplace has increased in recent years, so has the need for evaluation of exposure-related health effects, such as developmental neurotoxicity. This research describes the development of inhalation life-stage physiologically-ba...

  9. PBPK Models for Gasoline-Ethanol Biofuels in Adult and Pregnant Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    As utilization of biofuels (BF) in the commercial marketplace has increased in recent years, so has the need for evaluation of exposure-related health effects, such as developmental neurotoxicity. This research describes the development of inhalation life-stage physiologically-ba...

  10. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  11. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  12. Improvement of ethanol yield from glycerol via conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Jung, Ju; Ramzi, Ahmad Bazli; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2012-02-01

    The conversion of low-priced glycerol to higher value products has been proposed as a way to improve the economic viability of the biofuels industry. In a previous study, the conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a metabolically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accomplished by minimizing the synthesis of glycerol, the main by-product in ethanol fermentation processing. To further improve ethanol production, overexpression of the native genes involved in conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in S. cerevisiae was successfully accomplished. The overexpression of an alcohol dehydrogenase (adh1) and a pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc1) caused an increase in growth rate and glycerol consumption under fermentative conditions, which led to a slight increase of the final ethanol yield. The overall expression of the adh1 and pdc1 genes in the modified strains, combined with the lack of the fps1 and gpd2 genes, resulted in a 1.4-fold increase (about 5.4 g/L ethanol produced) in fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupCas) (about 4.0 g/L ethanol produced). In summary, it is possible to improve the ethanol yield by overexpression of the genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in engineered S. cerevisiae using glycerol as substrate.

  13. The context of biofuels for road transportation in Brazil; O contexto dos biocombustiveis para o transporte rodoviario no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: mberni@uol.com.br; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Brazil is one of the countries with greatest potential for fuels production from biomass and has already given a good example to the world as how to implement a program and use of biofuel based on renewable energy source. The Brazilian ethanol program has already 30 years of experience and has produced a mature industry. Biogas and biodiesel, in turn, is just in the initial phase, with a supply chain being structured and looking for the best solutions from the economic, social and environment standpoint. In this context, this work analyzed the potential, implications and experiences for biofuels with ethanol, mainly biogas and biodiesel for road transport in Brazil. (author)

  14. Integrated micro-economic modelling and multi-criteria methodology to support public decision-making: the case of liquid bio-fuels in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozakis, S.; Sourie, J.-C. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Thiveral-Grignon, 78 (France); Vanderpooten, D. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, LAMSADE, Paris, 75 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decision making to determine government support policy for agro-energy industry can be assisted by mathematical programming and Multiple Criteria procedures. In this case study, tax credit policy in the French bio-fuel industry producing ethanol and esters is determined. Micro-economic models simulate the agricultural sector and the bio-fuel industry through multi-level mixed integer linear programming. Aggregate supply of energy crops at the national level is estimated using a staircase model of 450 individual farm sub-models specialising in arable cropping. The government acts as a leader, since bio-fuel chains depend on subsidies. The model provides rational responses of the industry, taking into account of the energy crops' supply, to any public policy scheme (unitary tax exemptions for bio-fuels subject to budgetary constraints) as well as the performance of each response regarding total greenhouse gases emissions (GHG), budgetary expenditure and agents' surpluses. Budgetary, environmental and social concerns will affect policy decisions, and a multi-criteria optimisation module projects the decision maker aims at the closest feasible compromise solutions. When public expenditure is the first priority, the best compromise solution corresponds to tax exemptions of about 2 FF l{sup -1} [FF: French Franc (1Euro equivalent to 6.559FF)] for ester and 3FF l{sup -1} for ethanol (current tax exemptions amount at 2.30FF l{sup -1} for ester and 3.30FF l{sup -1} for ethanol). On the other hand, a priority on the reduction of GHG emissions requires an increase of ester volume produced at the expense of ethanol production (2.30 FF l{sup -1} for both ester and ethanol chains proposed by the model). (Author)

  15. Recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubieniechi, Simona; Peranantham, Thinesh; Levin, David B

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but pre-treatment of the biomass to release sugars for microbial conversion is a significant barrier to commercial success of lignocellulosic biofuel production. Strategies to reduce the energy and cost inputs required for biomass pre-treatment include genetic modification of plant materials to reduce lignin content. Significant efforts are also underway to create recombinant microorganisms capable of converting sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass to a variety of biofuels. An alternative strategy to reduce the costs of cellulosic biofuel production is the use of cellulolytic microorganisms capable of direct microbial conversion of ligno-cellulosic biomass to fuels. This paper reviews recent patents on genetic modification of plants and microbes for biomass conversion to biofuels.

  16. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    the production and use of alternative and sustainable energy sources as rapidly as possible. Biofuel is a type of alternative energy that can be produced from many sources including sugar substances (such as sugarcane juice and molasses), starchy materials (such as corn and cassava), and lignocellulosic...... materials such as agricultural residual, straw and wood chips, the residual from wood industry. However, those sugar and starchy materials can be used not only to make biofuels but they are also food sources. Thus, lignocellulosic materials are interesting feed-stocls as they are inexpensive, abundantly...... available, and are also non-food crops. In this respect, Cassava rhizome has several characteristics that make it a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production. It has high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses . The objective of this paper is to present a study focused on the sustainable process...

  17. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  18. Asymmetric Adjustment in the Ethanol and Grains Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); L.H. Chen (Li-Hsueh); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the long- and short-run asymmetric adjustments for nine pairs of spot and futures prices, itemized as three own pairs for three different bio-fuel ethanol types, three own pairs for three related agricultural products, namely corn, soybeans and sugar, and three cross

  19. Integrated Biorefineries with Engineered Microbes and High-value Co-products for Profitable Biofuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn-based fuel ethanol production processes provide several advantages which could be synergistically applied to overcome limitations of biofuel processes based on lignocellulose. These include resources such as equipment, manpower, nutrients, water, and heat. The fact that several demonstration-...

  20. Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Mexican Gasoline and Diesel Reformulated with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Caballero-Mata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High energy prices, environmental issues and increasing importation of fossil fuels has provoked, in some countries, a reorientation of resources towards the development of biofuels that can partially substitute the consumption of fossil fuels. Ethanol is one of the biofuels more commonly used in the world; in the United States, Brazil and Australia gasoline blends that reach up to 85% Ethanol are commercialized. This work presents the results of a physicochemical characterization of commercial Mexican gasoline (Magna and Premium and diesel blends with 10% vol. and 15% vol. anhydrous Ethanol. The analytical testing included: Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, Cetane Number, Reid Vapor Pressure, Distillation Curve and Heating Value. The stability of the blends was also evaluated. The theoretical emissions of CO2 were calculated based on the results of the physicochemical characterization. The ethanol-gasoline blends increased their Octane Number with respect to the commercial gasoline, while conserving an appropriate Distillation Index. The Cetane Number of the ethanol-diesel blends showed a substantial decrease, while the heating value of gasoline and diesel blends was negatively affected by the addition of ethanol. Nevertheless, taking into account the credits by the use of a renewable fuel, the use of the reformulated gasoline blends would imply a maximum theoretical reduction of 7.5% in CO2 emissions whereas in the case of ethanol-diesel blends it would represent a 9.2% decrease.

  1. An innovative biofuel approach : 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Dimethylfuran (DMF) has physical properties very close to gasoline, but it has a very high octane number and relatively low volatility. Compared to ethanol, it has an energy density higher by 50 per cent in volume and by 40 per cent in mass. DMF is stable in storage and not soluble in water and therefore it cannot become contaminated by absorbing water from the atmosphere. DMF is also an ideal candidate for a new generation of sustainable biofuel. This presentation discussed the use of DMF as an innovative biofuel approach and illustrated results for ignition delay; heat release rate; volumetric efficiency; engine efficiency; carbon emissions; hydrocarbon emissions; nitrogen oxide emissions; maximum combustion pressure; particulate matter emissions; and particulate mass and numbers. The ignition delay of DMF was shown to be shorter than that of gasoline. When it was compared with ethanol, the difference varied with load so that it was longer at the low load but shorter at higher load conditions. The emissions of carbon, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide using DMF were all similar to those with gasoline. Overall, the experiments confirmed that due to the physiochemical properties of DMF being similar to gasoline, DMF and gasoline exhibited very similar combustion and emissions characteristics. tabs., figs.

  2. Panorama 2015 - Second generation biofuels: a new milestone reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnes, Charlene; Chabrelie, Marie-Francoise

    2015-01-01

    The commissioning of several commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production units worldwide marks a new stage in the development of second generation biofuels. Certainly many obstacles, both technological and economic, still remain to be overcome, and considerable investment amounts will have to be mobilized to develop and sustain these sectors. Favorable evolution of the regulatory environment in the markets remains the key to their future. (authors)

  3. Policy Uncertainty and the US Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. H. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2, as implemented, has introduced uncertainty into US ethanol producers and the supporting commodity market. First, the fixed mandate for what is mainly cornstarch-based ethanol has increased feedstock price volatility and exerts a general effect across the agricultural sector. Second, the large discrepancy between the original Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA intentions and the actual RFS2 implementation for some fuel classes has increased the investment uncertainty facing investors in biofuel production, distribution, and consumption. Here we discuss and analyze the sources of uncertainty and evaluate the effect of potential RFS2 adjustments as they influence these uncertainties. This includes the use of a flexible, production dependent mandate on corn starch ethanol. We find that a flexible mandate on cornstarch ethanol relaxed during drought could significantly reduce commodity price spikes and alleviate the decline of livestock production in cases of feedstock production shortfalls, but it would increase the risk for ethanol investors.

  4. Consumer choice between ethanol and gasoline: Lessons from Brazil and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, Henrique; Silveira, Semida

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of flex-fuel vehicles since 2003 has made possible for Brazilian drivers to choose between high ethanol blends or gasoline depending on relative prices and fuel economies. In Sweden, flex-fuel fleets were introduced in 2005. Prices and demand data were examined for both Brazil and Sweden. Bioethanol has been generally the most cost-efficient fuel in Brazil, but not for all states. In any case, consumers in Brazil have opted for ethanol even when this was not the optimal economic choice. In Sweden, a different behavior was observed when falling gasoline prices made E85 uneconomical in late 2008. In a context of international biofuels expansion, the example of E85 in Sweden indicates that new markets could experience different consumer behavior than Brazil: demand falls rapidly with reduced price differences between ethanol and gasoline. At the same time, rising ethanol demand and lack of an international market with multiple biofuel producers could lead to higher domestic prices in Brazil. Once the limit curve is crossed, the consumer might react by shifting back to the usage of gasoline. - Research highlights: → Brazil and Sweden both have infrastructure for high fuel ethanol blends. → Flex-fuel vehicles enable competition between ethanol and gasoline in fuel markets. → Data suggests that consumers make their fuel choice based mainly on prices. → Consumers in Sweden appear to be more price-sensitive than their Brazilian counterparts. → In the absence of international markets, high ethanol prices may drive consumers back to gasoline.

  5. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-01

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  6. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  7. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  8. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  9. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  10. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L Joyce

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1 to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2 to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass. Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  11. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Blake L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G J; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Astatkie, Tess; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-01-01

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749-3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass)-1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  12. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam

    2014-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol......Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype....

  13. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences between the

  14. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  15. Temporal Considerations of Carbon Sequestration in LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Salazar; Richard Bergman

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for carbon sequestration in LCA illustrates the limitations of a single global warming characterization factor. Typical cradle-to-grave LCA models all emissions from end-of-life processes and then characterizes these flows by IPCC GWP (100-yr) factors. A novel method estimates climate change impact by characterizing annual emissions with the IPCC GHG forcing...

  16. Evaluation of Ethanol Production and Cogeneration of Energy by Sweet Sorghum Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Olivieri De Nóbile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of fossil fuels and environmental pollution have led to the discussions of new biofuels. For this reason new sources of renewable fuels are sought and an alternative to ethanol production, besides sugar cane, is sweet sorghum, using it as a complement, not as a competitor of sugar cane, considering that the demand for biofuels is growing on a large scale worldwide. The aim was to analyze the production of ethanol and the cogeneration of sweet sorghum in the offseason of sugar cane, and to compare the yield of sweet sorghum with sugar cane, the processes to obtain and to produce etnhanol from sweet sorgo and the production cost, supplying the lack of raw materials in the offseason and increasing the period of grinding mill. The methodology used was a bibliographical review in scientific journals, books and internet. In a near future, with research of new more productive varieties, sweet sorghum is an alternative to produce ethanol during the offseason of sugar cane for its short cycle of sowing and harvesting, besides climatic factors which favor its development and utilization of the same systems used for the production of ethanol from sugar cane.

  17. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies; (2) model biomass productivity and associated environmental impacts of annual cellulosic feedstocks; (3) simulate production of perennial biomass feedstocks grown on marginal lands; and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. We used the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model to simulate biomass productivity and environmental impacts of annual and perennial cellulosic feedstocks across much of the USA on both croplands and marginal lands. We used data from LTER and eddy-covariance experiments within the study region to test the

  18. Reducing Fuel Volatility. An Additional Benefit From Blending Bio-fuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailis, R. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Koebl, B.S. [Utrecht University, Science Technology and Society, Budapestlaan 6, 3584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands); Sanders, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Oil price volatility harms economic growth. Diversifying into different fuel types can mitigate this effect by reducing volatility in fuel prices. Producing bio-fuels may thus have additional benefits in terms of avoided damage to macro-economic growth. In this study we investigate trends and patterns in the determinants of a volatility gain in order to provide an estimate of the tendency and the size of the volatility gain in the future. The accumulated avoided loss from blending gasoline with 20 percent ethanol-fuel estimated for the US economy amounts to 795 bn. USD between 2010 and 2019 with growing tendency. An amount that should be considered in cost-benefit analysis of bio-fuels.

  19. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  20. Water and Land Use Efficiency in Current and Potential Future US Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Biofuels represent an opportunity for domestic fuel production from renewable energy sources with potential environmental and social benefits such as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and promoting rural development. However, as demand for biofuel continues to increase worldwide, concerns about land competition between food and fuel, excessive water usage and other unintended environmental consequences have grown. Through a comparative study between US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, we examine the energy, land, water and GHG performance of the two largest industrial fuel ethanol production systems in the world. Our comparisons include current and potential future systems with improved agronomic practices, crop yields, ethanol conversion processes, and utilization of agricultural residues. Our results suggest that the average water footprints of US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol are fairly close (108 and 110 m3/GJ of ethanol, respectively) while the variations can range from 50 to 250 m3/GJ for sugarcane ethanol and 50 to380 m3/GJ for corn ethanol. Results emphasize the need to examine the water footprint within the context of local and regional climatic variability, water availability, competing uses (e.g. agricultural, industrial, and municipal water needs) and other ecosystem constraints. Research is under way (at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and other institutions) to develop models to analyze water supply and demand at the watershed-scale for current and future biomass production, and to understand the tradeoffs among water supply, demand and quality due to more intensive agricultural practices and expansion of biofuels. Land use efficiency metrics, with regards to life cycle GHG emissions (without land use change) savings through gasoline displacement with ethanol, illustrate the progression of the biofuel industry and the importance of maximizing bioenergy production by utilizing both the crops and the residues. A recent

  1. Reduced ultrafine particle levels in São Paulo's atmosphere during shifts from gasoline to ethanol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Alberto; Brito, Joel; Artaxo, Paulo; Geiger, Franz M

    2017-07-18

    Despite ethanol's penetration into urban transportation, observational evidence quantifying the consequence for the atmospheric particulate burden during actual, not hypothetical, fuel-fleet shifts, has been lacking. Here we analyze aerosol, meteorological, traffic, and consumer behavior data and find, empirically, that ambient number concentrations of 7-100-nm diameter particles rise by one-third during the morning commute when higher ethanol prices induce 2 million drivers in the real-world megacity of São Paulo to substitute to gasoline use (95% confidence intervals: +4,154 to +13,272 cm -3 ). Similarly, concentrations fall when consumers return to ethanol. Changes in larger particle concentrations, including US-regulated PM2.5, are statistically indistinguishable from zero. The prospect of increased biofuel use and mounting evidence on ultrafines' health effects make our result acutely policy relevant, to be weighed against possible ozone increases. The finding motivates further studies in real-world environments. We innovate in using econometrics to quantify a key source of urban ultrafine particles.The biofuel ethanol has been introduced into urban transportation in many countries. Here, by measuring aerosols in São Paulo, the authors find that high ethanol prices coincided with an increase in harmful nanoparticles by a third, as drivers switched from ethanol to cheaper gasoline, showing a benefit of ethanol.

  2. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  3. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  4. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  5. The challenges of biofuels from the perspective of small-scale producers in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, Michele; Stuart, Ben J.; McHenry, Izaak; Buckley, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Increased interest in renewable fuels in the United States, such as biodiesel and ethanol, is mainly the result of higher cost for traditional fuels after years of low prices. A growing concern over oil imports from politically unstable parts of the world has also led people to seriously consider alternatives to gasoline. Despite this attention, there are issues that challenge the widespread acceptance of biofuels, including the availability of raw materials and food security concerns. Ohio is one of the most productive agricultural states in the country, able to contribute significant amounts of corn and soybeans, the main feedstock for biofuels. Even though Ohio is rich in the raw materials needed for biofuel production, it is still an endeavor that mainly involves small businesses that face numerous challenges. Some of these challenges are national in scope, while others are localized. Interviews with small-scale biofuels producers in Ohio identify some of the major political, economic, and perceptual hurdles confronting this fledgling industry

  6. Developments in National Fuel Alcohol (biofuel) Programs: implications for world sugar trade. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments in the national fuel alcohol programmes of Brazil, the European Union and USA with the main emphasis on Brazil. A brief history of Brazil's alcohol production is given, and the deregulation of the alcohol sector in Brazil, the impacts of partial liberalisation of Brazil's alcohol sector, government delays in further liberalisation and attempts to manage supply, the PROALCOOL programme, the government's actions to boost ethanol demand, the slump in ethanol output in 1998/1999, and the increase in sugar output are examined. The long term goal of increasing reliance on biofuels in the European Union, the EU's alcohol industry, and ethanol production in France are considered. Market factors affecting ethanol production in the US, the US government's extension of its ethanol tax incentive, the US ethanol sector, and the future demand for ethanol in the US are discussed. The short and medium-term implications for sugar in Brazil, the EU and the US are assessed. (UK)

  7. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.; Tan Hao; Moore, Michael J.B.; Bell, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  8. Experimental characterization and modeling of an ethanol steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Bovo, Mirko; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the characterization of an ethanol reforming system for a high temperature PEM fuel cell system. High temperature PEM fuel cells are well suited for operation on reformate gas due to the superior CO tolerance compared with low temperature PEM. Steam reforming of liquid biofuels...

  9. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Farshad

    The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understanding of exhaust products of fuels such as gasoline, ethanol and 2,5-dimethylfuran and comparison of results. A quantitative analysis of individual hydrocarbon species from exhaust emissions of these three fuels were carried out with direct injects spark ignition (DISI) single cylinder engine. The analysis of hydrocarbon species were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) connected on-line to SI engine. During this project, novel works have been done including the set up of on-line exhaust emission measurement device for detection and quantification of individual volatile hydrocarbons. Setting of a reliable gas chromatography mass spectrometry measurement system required definition and development of a precise method. Lubricity characteristics of biofuels and gasoline were investigated using High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). Results showed great enhancing lubricity characteristics of biofuels when added to conventional gasoline. 2,5-dimenthylfuran was found to be the best among the fuels used, addition of this fuel to gasoline also showed better result compared with ethanol addition.

  10. Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kwon, Hoyoung [Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St. NW Washington DC 20006 USA; Mueller, Steffen [Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1309 South Halsted Street Chicago IL 60607 USA; Wander, Michelle M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2016-03-03

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  11. Survey on the Use of LCA in European Chemical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a questionnaire was sent to 40 European chemical manufacturers representing different positions in the supply chain. 25 companies (62.5%) responded, of which 23 had been involved in LCA to some degree. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions divided into four parts dealing...... industry has taken up the LCA methodology and is testing its applicability for their purposes, although they still feel the methodology is a bit immature. The resources devoted to LCA depends to a great extent on the company's position in the supply chain and on the size of the company. Many of the LCA...

  12. Trade-offs between Biofuels Energy Production, Land Use and Water Use in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Michal [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John [Intelligentsia International Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward [Univ. of Florida, Immokalee, FL (United States); Alsharif, Kamal [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-02-11

    Objective of the presentation is to document land use and water use implications of biomass production to demonstrate the overall resources implications associated with bioethanol production for Florida’s transportation sector needs. Rationale for using biofuels (BF) is explained, so are advantages & challenges of BF production and use. Land use changes (LUC) in Florida are presented and consequences outlined. It is documented that Florida’s agricultural land is a very limited resource, with only 0.43 ac/person comparing to the global average of 1.71 ac/person. The direct relation of increased biofuels production causing increased water use is explained. Favorable climate, water resources, advanced research, traditional leading agricultural role, minor oil reserves, no refineries and increasing energy demands are the main reasons why Florida considers pursuing BF production in large scale. Eight various bioethanol crops produced in Florida were considered in this study (Miscanthus, Switchgrass, Sweet Sorghum, Corn, Elephantgrass, Sugarcane, Energycane, Eucalyptus). Biomass yield and bioethanol yield of these crops are documented. Bioethanol needs of Florida are estimated and related land requirements for the needed bioethanol production calculated. Projections for various bioethanol blends (E15 to E85) are then presented. Finally, water demand for biofuels production is quantified. It is concluded that land use requirement for production of all ethanol in E85 fuel blend in Florida is roughly the same as the total available ag land in Florida for the best yielding biofuels crops (energycane, eucalyptus). Water demand for production of all ethanol needed for E100 would increase current overall water consumption in Florida between 65% and 100% for the most common biofuels crops. Vehicular energy is only 33% of Floridians energy consumption, so even all Florida’s agricultural land was given up for biofuels, it would still produce only 33% of Florida’s total

  13. Plant-based biofuels [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hood

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review is a short synopsis of some of the latest breakthroughs in the areas of lignocellulosic conversion to fuels and utilization of oils for biodiesel. Although four lignocellulosic ethanol factories have opened in the USA and hundreds of biodiesel installations are active worldwide, technological improvements are being discovered that will rapidly evolve the biofuels industry into a new paradigm. These discoveries involve the feedstocks as well as the technologies to process them.

  14. Efficient production of automotive biofuels; Effektiv produktion av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Rydberg, Tomas; Raadberg, Henrik; Saernholm, Erik

    2008-07-01

    The report describes opportunities and consequences associated with biomass polygeneration plants, in particular the role that heat plants (HP) or combined heat and power plants (CHP) in district heating systems can play in the production of automotive biofuels. The aim of the report is to provide a knowledge base to stakeholders to help assess energy and environmental benefits associated with collaborative approaches in planning, constructing and operating energy plants. Several configurations are possible for an energy polygeneration plant, but this report focuses on configurations in which a plant for automotive biofuel production and a district heating system with HPs or CHPs have been integrated in some way in order to achieve added value. The modes of integration are several, e.g.: - Supply of process steam from the CHP to the fuel plant, by which the time of operation for the CHP can be extended; Supply of surplus heat from the fuel plant to the district heating system; Material exchange between the systems, by use of residue streams from the fuel plant as fuel in the HP/CHP; Surplus heat from the fuel plant used for drying of the solid fuel to the HP/CHP or for drying of raw material for pellets production; Co-location providing opportunities for shared infrastructure for raw material handling, service systems, utilities and/or logistics. The report principally addresses integration options of the first three types, but describes briefly also pellets production. The starting point for the analysis of integration options is the description of technologies of interest for the production of automotive biofuels. Commercially available technologies are of prime interest, but also a couple of technologies under development are included in this part of the study. In addition to outlining the process characteristics for these processes, surrounding conditions and system requirements are briefly outlined. The results are summarized in Table S1. Ethanol fermentation

  15. A comparison of land use change accounting methods: seeking common grounds for key modeling choices in biofuel assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo Saez; Hamelin, Lorie; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Five currently used methods to account for the global warming (GW) impact of the induced land-use change (LUC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been applied to four biofuel case studies. Two of the investigated methods attempt to avoid the need of considering a definite occupation -thus...... amortization period by considering ongoing LUC trends as a dynamic baseline. This leads to the accounting of a small fraction (0.8%) of the related emissions from the assessed LUC, thus their validity is disputed. The comparison of methods and contrasting case studies illustrated the need of clearly...... distinguishing between the different time horizons involved in life cycle assessments (LCA) of land-demanding products like biofuels. Absent in ISO standards, and giving rise to several confusions, definitions for the following time horizons have been proposed: technological scope, inventory model, impact...

  16. Economic, energy and environmental evaluations of biomass-based fuel ethanol projects based on life cycle assessment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suiran; Tao Jing

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research of Monte Carlo simulation-based Economic, Energy and Environmental (3E) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the three Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol (BFE) projects in China. Our research includes both theoretical study and case study. In the theoretical study part, 3E LCA models are structured, 3E Index Functions are defined and the Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to address uncertainties in BFE life cycle analysis. In the case study part, projects of Wheat-based Fuel Ethanol (WFE) in Central China, Corn-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Northeast China, and Cassava-based Fuel Ethanol (CFE) in Southwest China are evaluated from the aspects of economic viability and investment risks, energy efficiency and airborne emissions. The life cycle economy assessment shows that KFE project in Guangxi is viable, while CFE and WFE projects are not without government's subsidies. Energy efficiency assessment results show that WFE, CFE and KFE projects all have positive Net Energy Values. Emissions results show that the corn-based E10 (a blend of 10% gasoline and 90% ethanol by volume), wheat-based E10 and cassava-base E10 have less CO 2 and VOC life cycle emissions than conventional gasoline, but wheat-based E10 and cassava-based E10 can generate more emissions of CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 , PM 10 and corn-based E10 can has more emissions of CH 4 , N 2 O, NO x , SO, PM 10 .

  17. Making the most of LCA in technical inter-organisational R&D projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Gustav; Clancy, Gunilla; Heimersson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In technical Research and Development (R&D) projects, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the technology under development is sometimes carried out. Particularly in inter-organisational R&D projects, the roles of LCAs tend to be unclear and arbitrary, and as a consequence, LCA work is not adequately...... designed for the needs of the project. There is a need for research on how to choose an appropriate role for LCA in such projects and how to plan LCA work accordingly. We have identified some possible roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and used experiences from LCA work in different...... such projects to identify four project characteristics that are decisive for what roles the LCA can have. The project characteristics are: (i) the project's potential influence on environmental impacts, (ii) the degrees of freedom available for the technical direction of the project, (iii) the project...

  18. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  19. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilcocq, L.; Cabiac, A.; Guillon, E.; Especel, C.; Duprez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing oil supplies and increasing energy demand provide incentives to find alternative fuels. First, the valorisation of edible crops for ethanol and bio-diesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable carbon (second generation biofuels). Whereas the cellulosic ethanol production is in progress, a new way consisting of the transformation of ex-lignocellulose sugars and polyols towards light hydrocarbons by heterogeneous catalysis in aqueous phase has been recently described. This process is performed under mild conditions (T < 300 deg. C and P < 50 bar). It requires on one hand hydrogen formation by catalytic reforming of carbohydrates in aqueous phase and on the other hand, the dehydration/hydrogenation of polyols leading to alkanes by selective C-O bond cleavages. The challenge here is to conceive multifunctional catalytic systems that are stable, active and selective under the reaction conditions. The aim of this article is to present the involved reactions, the catalytic systems described in literature for that kind of transformation and examples of industrial applications. (authors)

  20. Development of optimal enzymatic and microbial conversion systems for biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrueang, Natthiporn

    The increase in demand for fuels, along with the concerns over the depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental problems associated with the use of the petroleum-based fuels, has driven the exploitation of clean and renewable energy. Through a collaboration project with Mendota Bioenergy LLC to produce advanced biofuel from sugar beet and other locally grown crops in the Central Valley of California through demonstration and commercial-scale biorefineries, the present study focused on the investigation of selected potential biomass as biofuel feedstock and development of bioconversion systems for sustainable biofuel production. For an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, three important steps, which are central to this research, must be considered: feedstock characterization, enzymatic hydrolysis of the feedstock, and the bioconversion process. The first part of the research focused on the characterization of various lignocellulosic biomass as feedstocks and investigated their potential ethanol yields. Physical characteristics and chemical composition were analyzed for four sugar beet varieties, three melon varieties, tomato, Jose tall wheatgrass, wheat hay, and wheat straw. Melons and tomato are those products discarded by the growers or processors due to poor quality. The mass-based ethanol potential of each feedstock was determined based on the composition. The high sugar-containing feedstocks are sugar beet roots, melons, and tomato, containing 72%, 63%, and 42% average soluble sugars on a dry basis, respectively. Thus, for these crops, the soluble sugars are the main substrate for ethanol production. The potential ethanol yields, on average, for sugar beet roots, melons, and tomato are 591, 526, and 448 L ethanol/metric ton dry basis (d.b.), respectively. Lignocellulosic biomass, including Jose Tall wheatgrass and wheat straw, are composed primarily of cellulose (27-39% d.b.) and hemicellulose (26-30% d.b.). The ethanol yields from these

  1. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ≥ 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated

  2. How to ensure greenhouse gas emission reductions by increasing the use of biofuels? - Suitability of the European Union sustainability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Koponen, Kati

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels are promoted in many parts of the world. However, concern of environmental and social problems have grown due to increased production of biofuels. Therefore, many initiatives for sustainability criteria have been announced. As a part of the European Union (EU) renewable energy promotion directive (RED), the EU has introduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-saving requirements for biofuels along with the first-ever mandate methodology to calculate the GHG emission reduction. As explored in this paper, the RED methodology, based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach, excludes many critical issues. These include indirect impacts due to competition for land, biomass and other auxiliary inputs. Also, timing issues, allocation problems, and uncertainty of individual parameters are not yet considered adequately. Moreover, the default values provided in the RED for the GHG balances of biofuels may significantly underestimate their actual impacts. We conclude that the RED methodology cannot ensure the intended GHG emission reductions of biofuels. Instead, a more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators. Even if it may be very difficult to verify the GHG emission reductions of biofuels in practice, it is necessary to consider the uncertainties more closely, in order to mitigate climate change effectively. -- Highlights: → The EU introduced mandatory criteria for greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. → The aim of the criteria is to ensure reduction in GHG emissions. → We analysed and discussed the suitability of the criteria. → The criteria may significantly underestimate the actual GHG emissions. → A more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators.

  3. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavan, Aravind [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum (India); Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran, E-mail: sindhurgcb@gmail.com; Sukumaran, Rajeev K. [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Center for Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab (India); Castro, Galliano Eulogio [Dpt. Ingeniería Química, Ambiental y de los Materiales Edificio, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén (Spain)

    2017-04-25

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  4. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Sindhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  5. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Aravind; Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Galliano Eulogio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  6. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  7. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  8. Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitrat, E.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are fuels made from non-fossil vegetal or animal materials (biomass). They belong to the renewable energy sources as they do not contribute to worsen some global environmental impacts, like the greenhouse effect, providing that their production is performed in efficient energy conditions with low fossil fuel consumption. This article presents: 1 - the usable raw materials: biomass-derived resources, qualitative and quantitative aspects, biomass uses; 2 - biofuels production from biomass: alcohols and ethers, vegetable oils and their esters, synthetic liquid or gaseous biofuels, biogas; 3 - characteristics of liquid biofuels and comparison with gasoline and diesel fuel; 4 - biofuel uses: alcohols and their esters, biofuels with oxygenated compounds; vegetable oils and their derivatives in diesel engines, biogas, example of global environmental impact: the greenhouse effect. (J.S.)

  9. Noncatalytic Direct Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin by Ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Madsen, Line Riis

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in lignin valorization to biofuels and chemicals. Here, we propose a novel and simple noncatalytic process to directly liquefy lignin rich solid residual from second generation bioethanol production by solvolysis with ethanol. Through an extensive parameter study...... in batch autoclaves assessing the effects of varying reaction temperature, reaction time, and solvent:lignin ratio, it is shown that hydrothermally pretreated enzymatic hydrolysis lignin solvolysis in supercritical ethanol can produce a heptane soluble bio-oil without the need for exhaustive deoxygenation....... The process does not require addition of catalyst or a reducing agent such as hydrogen. The process is advantageously carried out with a low reaction period ((ethanol:lignin (w/w) ratio of 2:1) which is a previously unexplored domain for lignin...

  10. Biofuels in Central America, a real potential for commercial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.L. (Regional Coordinator Energy and Environmental Partnership with Central America EEP (El Salvador))

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the current capabilities of the Central American countries regarding the production of biofuels, and the real potential in increasing the volumes produced and the impacts that can be generated if a non sustainable policy is followed for achieving the targets of biofuel production. Due to the world oil price crisis, and the fact that Central American counties are fully dependant on oil imports (just Guatemala and Belize produce little amounts of oil), just to mention, in some countries the imports of oil is equivalent to the 40% of the total exports, the region started to look for massive production of biofuels, something that it is not new for us. The countries have started with programs for producing ethanol from sugar cane, because it is one of the most strongest industries in Central America and they have all the infrastructure and financial sources to develop this project. The ethanol is a biofuel that can be mixed with gasoline or a complete substitute. Another biofuel that is currently under develop, is the production of biodiesel, and the main source for it nowadays is the Palm oil, where Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala have already commercial productions of crude palm oil, but the principal use of it is for the food industry, but now it is under assessment for using part of it for biodiesel. EEP is now developing pilot programs for production of biodiesel from a native plant named Jatropha curcas, and up to now we have a commercial plantation in Guatemala, and we started as well in Honduras for start spreading this plantations. In El Salvador we installed a pilot processing plant for biodiesel that can be operated with multiple feed stock, such as Jatropha, palm oil, castor oil, vegetable used oil and others. Currently we have interesting and good results regarding the production of Jatropha, we have developed a methodology for its cropping, harvesting and processing. All the vehicles and equipment involved in the

  11. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus

  12. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Rising crude oil prices, lower crop prices on world ... industrial strategy of South Africa suggests the use of sugar based crops, ... Development of the biofuels industry in South Africa is ... production of ethanol from cassava is both economical ... In the SSF process, the saccharification step and fermentation.

  13. GHG sustainability compliance of rapeseed-based biofuels produced in a Danish multi-output biorefinery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels are likely to play an increasingly important role in the transportation sector in the coming decades. To ensure the sustainability of the biofuel chain, regulatory criteria and reduction targets for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have been defined in different legislative frameworks (e.g. the European Renewable Energy Directive, RED). The provided calculation methods, however, leave room for interpretation regarding methodological choices, which could significantly affect the resulting emission factors. In this study, GHG reduction factors for a range of biofuels produced in a Danish biorefinery system were determined using five different emission allocation principles. The results show that emission savings ranged from −34 % to 71 %, indicating the need for a better definition of regulatory calculation principles. The calculated emission factors differed significantly from default values provided in the literature, suggesting that case-specific local conditions should be taken into consideration. A more holistic LCA-based approach proved useful in overcoming some of the issues inherent in the regulatory allocation principles. On this basis, indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions were shown to have the same magnitude as the direct emissions, thus indicating that the overall system should be included when assessing biofuel sustainability criteria. - Highlights: • Fulfillment of the GHG compliance criteria may depend on the calculation criteria. • Default factors may not be representative of local conditions. • Zero burden approach should be excluded. • ILUC should not be neglected

  14. Ensuring sustainability in developing world biofuel productoin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available el N at io n al an d in te rn at io n al liq u id fu el s bl en ds Type 1 projects E.g. Mali Folkecentre Ghana Dumpong Biofuels See text box A and B Type 4 projects E.g. Large scale commercial plantations... approach Mali farmer growing jatropha as a fuel source to fuel 3 X 100 KW generators that will provide power to his village Brazilian ethanol production from large scale mechanised sugar cane fields Is certification and setting...

  15. Tax exemption for biomass-based automotive fuels - the right way to go? Including an economic evaluation of ethanol as a vehicle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoersell, Mats

    2004-12-01

    Biofuels are tax-exempt from 2004. Only ethanol and FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) are discussed in this assessment of the tax exemption. The EU's Biofuels Directive from 2003 contains the objective that 2% of fuels for transport purposes, in terms of energy content, is to consist of biofuels by 2005 and 5.75% by 2010. In practice, low admixture of ethanol and FAME are the only ways of very rapidly increasing the proportion of biofuels. EU quality requirements for petrol limit the admixture of ethanol in petrol to a maximum of 5%. As far as Sweden is concerned, this is equivalent to around 275,000m 3 ethanol. The admixture is lucrative for the oil companies, and we therefore assume that this volume will nearly be reached in 2004. Around 70,000m 3 ethanol is produced annually in Sweden, and imported ethanol with the following origins and costs is principally used in the admixture: Sugar cane is used as a raw material for ethanol production in Brazil. The production costs for the latest and largest ethanol factories are around SEK 1.75 per litre. In Norrkoeping, Sweden, ethanol is produced from cereals, and costs are reported to be around SEK 5 per litre. Wine ethanol is prepared from residual products in the manufacturing of wine and from surplus wine. The 'production cost' (heavily subsidised) is often quoted as being around SEK 2 per litre. We estimate the price in Sweden of ethanol from Brazil, including duty of SEK 0.93 and carriage costs of SEK 0.35-0.50 per litre, at around SEK 3.50 in both 2005 and 2010. Those EU member states which appear to be intending to rapidly implement the Biofuels Directive are expected to have demand for something of the order of 1 million m 3 ethanol in 2005. Supply in the medium term, for example in 2010, is highly elastic, and prices are not likely to increase in the longer term either, as the potential for future new production capacity in Brazil is huge: tens of millions of m 3 per year. We anticipate that in the foreseeable

  16. Strategic design and investment capacity planning of the ethanol supply chain under price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal-Mas, Matteo; Giarola, Sara; Zamboni, Andrea; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion and the increase of greenhouse gases emissions has been pushing the search for alternative fuels for automotive transport. The European Union has identified biofuel technology as one option for reducing its dependence on imported energy. Ethanol is a promising biofuel, but great uncertainty on the business profitability has recently determined a slowdown in the industry expansion. In particular, geographical plant location, biomass price fluctuation and fuel demand variability severely constrain the economic viability of new ethanol facilities. In this work a dynamic, spatially explicit and multi-echelon Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) modeling framework is presented to help decision-makers and potential investors assessing economic performances and risk on investment of the entire biomass-based ethanol supply chain. A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production supply chain in Northern Italy is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach. The mathematical pattern addresses the issue of optimizing the ethanol supply network over a ten years' time period under uncertainty on biomass production cost and product selling price. The model allows optimizing economic performances and minimize financial risk on investment by identifying the best network topology in terms of biomass cultivation site locations, ethanol production plant capacities, location and transport logistics. -- Highlights: →A dynamic spatially explicit Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) of the entire corn-based ethanol supply chain is proposed. →Uncertainty on corn price and ethanol selling price is taken into account. →The model allows assessing and optimizing the supply chain economic performance and risk on investment. →A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production in Northern Italy demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Direct fuel cell - A high proficiency power generator for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Steinfeld, G.; Baker, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion of renewable bio-based resources into energy offers significant benefits for our environment and domestic economic activity. It also improves national security by displacing fossil fuels. However, in the current economic environment, it is difficult for biofuel systems to compete with other fossil fuels. The biomass-fired power plants are typically smaller than 50 MW, lower in electrical efficiencies (<25%) and experience greater costs for handling and transporting the biomass. When combined with fuel cells such as the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC), biofuels can produce power more efficiently with negligible environmental impact. Agricultural and other waste biomass can be converted to ethanol or methane-rich biofuels for power generation use in the DFC. These DFC power plants are modular and factory assembled. Due to their electrochemical (non-combustion) conversion process, these plants are environmentally friendly, highly efficient and potentially cost effective, even in sizes as small as a few meagawatts. They can be sited closer to the source of the biomass to minimize handling and transportation costs. The high-grade waste heat available from DFC power plants makes them attractive in cogeneration applications for farming and rural communities. The DFC potentially opens up new markets for biofuels derived from wood, grains and other biomass waste products

  18. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  20. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co......-products. Insight is needed in the effect of choice on results of environmental analyses of agricultural products, such as milk. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate and compare ALCA and CLCA of an average conventional milk production system in The Netherlands. Materials and methods  ALCA describes...... the pollution and resource flows within a chosen system attributed to the delivery of a specified amount of the functional unit. CLCA estimates how pollution and resource flows within a system change in response to a change in output of the functional unit. For an average Dutch conventional milk production...

  1. Modification of Glucose Oxidase biofuel cell by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Ladan; Farahbakhsh, Afshin; Aghili, Sina

    2018-01-01

    Biofuel cells are a subset of fuel cells that employ biocatalysts. Enzyme-based biofuel cells (EBFCs) generate electrical energy from biofuels such as glucose and ethanol, which are renewable and sustainable energy sources. Glucose biofuel cells (GBFCs) are particularly interesting nowadays due to continuous harvesting of oxygen and glucose from bioavailable substrates, activity inside the human body, and environmental benign, which generate electricity through oxidation of glucose on the anode and reduction of oxygen on the cathode. Promoting the electron transfer of redox enzymes at modified electrode utilizing Nano size materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), to achieve the direct electrochemistry of enzymes has been reported. The polypyrrole-MWCNTs-glucose oxidase (PY-CNT-GOx) electrode has been investigated in the present work. Cyclic voltammetry tests were performed in a three-electrode electrochemical set-up with modified electrode (Pt/PPy/MWCNTs/GOx) was used as working electrode. Platinum flat and Ag/AgCl (saturated KCl) were used as counter electrode and the reference electrode, respectively. The biofuel cells probe was prepared by immobilizing MWCNTs at the tip of a platinum (Pt) electrode (0.5 cm2) with PPy as the support matrix We have demonstrated a well-dispersed nanomaterial PPy/MWNT, which is able to immobilize GOx firmly under the condition of the absence of any other cross-linking agent.

  2. LCA Experiences in Danish Industry: Results of a Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Christensen, Per

    1999-01-01

    A study on Danish industry's experiences with LCA has been performed. Twenty-six enterprises from different sectors filled in a questionnaire. The enterprises are still in an adoption and learning phase and experiences with full-blown LCA's are sparse. Expectations of future market pressure...

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GASOLINE AND ALCOHOL BIOFUEL MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Povar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of added alcohols, ethanol and butanol, on the main biofuel properties, such as the specific gravity, Reid saturated vapour pressure and distillation curves have been investigated. These properties are intimately related to the fuel composition and their prediction relies on the knowledge of its components characteristics. This research proves the possibility of obtaining fuels with different levels of resistance to detonation, using gasoline with different chemical components and various fractions of alcohols.

  4. Options for suitable biofuel farming: Experience from Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available sugarcane-based ethanol project that has been operational since 1982. Furthermore, sugarcane for sugar production is a well established crop in the region, with projects operational in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Biofuel... in the sugar industry where sugarcane is grown was also investigated. Data were obtained from detailed case studies undertaken previously by the author. Further data were gathered from a wide selection of Southern African sugar projects using key informant...

  5. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  6. Water consumption in the production of ethanol and petroleum gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  7. Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Mintz, Marianne; Wang, Michael; Arora, Salil

    2009-11-01

    We assessed current water consumption during liquid fuel production, evaluating major steps of fuel lifecycle for five fuel pathways: bioethanol from corn, bioethanol from cellulosic feedstocks, gasoline from U.S. conventional crude obtained from onshore wells, gasoline from Saudi Arabian crude, and gasoline from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis revealed that the amount of irrigation water used to grow biofuel feedstocks varies significantly from one region to another and that water consumption for biofuel production varies with processing technology. In oil exploration and production, water consumption depends on the source and location of crude, the recovery technology, and the amount of produced water re-injected for oil recovery. Our results also indicate that crop irrigation is the most important factor determining water consumption in the production of corn ethanol. Nearly 70% of U.S. corn used for ethanol is produced in regions where 10-17 liters of water are consumed to produce one liter of ethanol. Ethanol production plants are less water intensive and there is a downward trend in water consumption. Water requirements for switchgrass ethanol production vary from 1.9 to 9.8 liters for each liter of ethanol produced. We found that water is consumed at a rate of 2.8-6.6 liters for each liter of gasoline produced for more than 90% of crude oil obtained from conventional onshore sources in the U.S. and more than half of crude oil imported from Saudi Arabia. For more than 55% of crude oil from Canadian oil sands, about 5.2 liters of water are consumed for each liter of gasoline produced. Our analysis highlighted the vital importance of water management during the feedstock production and conversion stage of the fuel lifecycle.

  8. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  9. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    Energy security and environmental concerns have been the main drivers for a historic shift to biofuel production in transportation fuel industry. Biofuels should not only offer environmental advantages over the petroleum fuels they replace but also should be economically sustainable and viable. The so-called second generation biofuels such as ethanol which is the most produced biofuel are mostly derived from lignocellulosic biomasses. These biofuels are more difficult to produce than the first generation ones mainly due to recalcitrance of the feedstocks in extracting their sugar contents. Costly pre-treatment and fractionation stages are required to break down lignocellulosic feedstocks into their constituent elements. On the other hand the mixture produced in fermentation step in a biorefinery contains very low amount of product which makes the subsequent separation step more difficult and more energy consuming. In an ethanol biorefinery, the dilute fermentation broth requires huge operating cost in downstream separation for recovery of the product in a conventional distillation technique. Moreover, the non-ideal nature of ethanol-water mixture which forms an iseotrope at almost 95 wt%, hinders the attainment of the fuel grade ethanol (99.5 wt%). Therefore, an additional dehydration stage is necessary to purify the ethanol from its azeotropic composition to fuel-grade purity. In order to overcome the constraint pertaining to vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol-water separation, several techniques have been investigated and proposed in the industry. These techniques such as membrane-based technologies, extraction and etc. have not only sought to produce a pure fuel-grade ethanol but have also aimed at decreasing the energy consumption of this energy-intensive separation. Decreasing the energy consumption of an ethanol biorefinery is of paramount importance in improving its overall economics and in facilitating the way to displacing petroleum transportation fuel

  10. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  11. Involvement of LCA5 in Leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa in the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, Marta; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Vallespín, Elena; López-Molina, María Isabel; Almoguera, Berta; Martín-Garrido, Esther; Tatu, Sorina D; Khan, M Imran; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Riveiro-Alvarez, Rosa; Brión, María; García-Sandoval, Blanca; Cremers, Frans P M; Carracedo, Angel; Ayuso, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify novel genetic defects in the LCA5 gene underlying Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in the Spanish population and to describe the associated phenotype. Case series. A cohort of 217 unrelated Spanish families affected by autosomal recessive or isolated retinal dystrophy, that is, 79 families with LCA and 138 families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (EORP). A total of 100 healthy, unrelated Spanish individuals were screened as controls. High-resolution homozygosity mapping was performed in 44 patients with LCA using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. Direct sequencing of the LCA5 gene was performed in 5 patients who showed homozygous regions at chromosome 6 and in 173 unrelated individuals with LCA or EORP. The ophthalmic history of 8 patients carrying LCA5 mutations was reviewed and additional examinations were performed, including electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus photography. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, identity-by-descent (IBD) regions, LCA5 mutations, best-corrected visual acuity, visual field assessments, fundus appearance, ERG, and OCT findings. Four novel and 2 previously reported LCA5 mutations have been identified in 6 unrelated families with LCA by homozygosity mapping or Sanger sequencing. Thus, LCA5 mutations have a frequency of 7.6% in the Spanish population. However, no LCA5 mutations were found in 138 patients with EORP. Although most of the identified LCA5 mutations led to a truncated protein, a likely pathogenic missense variant was identified for the first time as a cause of LCA, segregating in 2 families. We also have characterized a novel splicing site mutation at the RNA level, demonstrating that the mutant LCA5 transcript was absent in a patient. All patients carrying LCA5 mutations presented nystagmus, night blindness, and progressive loss of visual acuity and visual field leading to blindness toward the third decade of life. Fundoscopy

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of the adoption of the EU Directive on biofuels in Spain. Effect of the import of raw materials and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of the use of different alternative biofuels in passenger vehicles in Spain in order to meet EU biofuel goals. Different crop production alternatives are analysed, including the possible import of some raw materials. Availability of land for national production of the raw materials is analysed and indirect land use changes and associated GHG emissions are quantified. There are important differences in GHG emissions of biofuels depending on the raw material used and whether this is domestically produced or imported. Ethanol production using imported cereals and FAME production using domestic rapeseed have the highest GHG emissions per kilometre driven. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from sunflower has shown the lowest emissions. When taking into account the results of GHG emissions savings per hectare, these findings are somehow reversed. Production of ethanol and around 12% of FAME can be done domestically. The rest will need to be imported and will cause indirect land use change (ILUC). Therefore, ethanol production will not displace any land, whereas FAME production will displace some amounts of land. Calculated ILUC factors are 29%-34%. The additional GHG emissions due to these indirect land use changes are significant (67%-344% of life cycle GHG emissions). Standalone, the EU biofuel targets can have important benefits for Spain in terms of global warming emissions avoided. However, when considering the impact of land use change effects, these benefits are significantly reduced and can even be negative. -- Highlights: → Biofuel greenhouse gas emissions in Spain using domestic and imported raw materials. → Availability of land, indirect land use changes (ILUC) and GHG emissions quantified. → Important differences in biofuels GHG emissions depending on the raw material found. → All ethanol and 12% FAME can be produced domestically with ILUC factors of 29

  13. On process optimization considering LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieragostini, Carla; Mussati, Miguel C; Aguirre, Pío

    2012-04-15

    The goal of this work is to research the state-of-the-art in process optimization techniques and tools based on LCA, focused in the process engineering field. A collection of methods, approaches, applications, specific software packages, and insights regarding experiences and progress made in applying the LCA methodology coupled to optimization frameworks is provided, and general trends are identified. The "cradle-to-gate" concept to define the system boundaries is the most used approach in practice, instead of the "cradle-to-grave" approach. Normally, the relationship between inventory data and impact category indicators is linearly expressed by the characterization factors; then, synergic effects of the contaminants are neglected. Among the LCIA methods, the eco-indicator 99, which is based on the endpoint category and the panel method, is the most used in practice. A single environmental impact function, resulting from the aggregation of environmental impacts, is formulated as the environmental objective in most analyzed cases. SimaPro is the most used software for LCA applications in literature analyzed. The multi-objective optimization is the most used approach for dealing with this kind of problems, where the ε-constraint method for generating the Pareto set is the most applied technique. However, a renewed interest in formulating a single economic objective function in optimization frameworks can be observed, favored by the development of life cycle cost software and progress made in assessing costs of environmental externalities. Finally, a trend to deal with multi-period scenarios into integrated LCA-optimization frameworks can be distinguished providing more accurate results upon data availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  15. Impact of various storage conditions on enzymatic activity, biomass components and conversion to ethanol yields from sorghum biomass used as a bioenergy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigdon, Anne R; Jumpponen, Ari; Vadlani, Praveen V; Maier, Dirk E

    2013-03-01

    With increased mandates for biofuel production in the US, ethanol production from lignocellulosic substrates is burgeoning, highlighting the need for thorough examination of the biofuel production supply chain. This research focused on the impact storage has on biomass, particularly photoperiod-sensitive sorghum biomass. Biomass quality parameters were monitored and included biomass components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, along with extra-cellular enzymatic activity (EEA) responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation and conversion to ethanol yields. Analyses revealed dramatic decreases in uncovered treatments, specifically reduced dry matter content from 88% to 59.9%, cellulose content from 35.3% to 25%, hemicellulose content from 23.7% to 16.0% and ethanol production of 0.20 to 0.02gL(-1) after 6months storage along with almost double EEA activities. In contrast, biomass components, EEA and ethanol yields remained relatively stable in covered treatments, indicating covering of biomass during storage is essential for optimal substrate retention and ethanol yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. To BECCS or Not To BECCS: A Question of Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicco, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is seen as an important option in many climate stabilization scenarios. Limited demonstrations are underway, including a system that captures and sequesters the fermentation CO2 from ethanol production. However, its net CO2 emissions are uncertain for reasons related to both system characteristics and methodological issues. As for bioenergy in general, evaluations draw on both ecological and engineering methods. It is informative to apply different methods using available data for demonstration systems in comparison to related bioenergy systems. To do so, this paper examines a case study BECCS system and addresses questions regarding the utilization of terrestrial carbon, biomass sustainability and the implications for scalability. The analysis examines four systems, all utilizing the same land area, using two methods. The cases are: A) a crop system without either biofuel production or CCS; B) a biofuel production system without CCS; C) biofuel system with CCS, i.e., the BECCS case, and D) a crop system without biofuel production or CCS but with crop residue removal and conversion to a stable char. In cases A and D, the delivered fuel is fossil-based; in cases B and C the fuel is biomass-based. The first method is LCA, involving steady-flow modeling of systems over a defined lifecycle, following current practice as seen in the attributional LCA component of California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). The second method involves spatially and temporally explicit analysis, reflecting the dynamics of carbon exchanges with the atmosphere. Although parameters are calibrated to the California LCFS LCA model, simplified spreadsheet modeling is used to maximize transparency while highlighting assumptions that most influence the results. The analysis reveals distinctly different pictures of net CO2 emissions for the cases examined, with the dynamic method painting a less optimistic picture of the BECCS system than the LCA

  17. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  18. Uncovering the Green, Blue, and Grey Water Footprint and Virtual Water of Biofuel Production in Brazil: A Nexus Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Munoz Castillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil plays a major role in the global biofuel economy as the world’s second largest producer and consumer and the largest exporter of ethanol. Its demand is expected to significantly increase in coming years, largely driven by national and international carbon mitigation targets. However, biofuel crops require significant amounts of water and land resources that could otherwise be used for the production of food, urban water supply, or energy generation. Given Brazil’s uneven spatial distribution of water resources among regions, a potential expansion of ethanol production will need to take into account regional or local water availability, as an increased water demand for irrigation would put further pressure on already water-scarce regions and compete with other users. By applying an environmentally extended multiregional input-output (MRIO approach, we uncover the scarce water footprint and the interregional virtual water flows associated with sugarcane-derived biofuel production driven by domestic final consumption and international exports in 27 states in Brazil. Our results show that bio-ethanol is responsible for about one third of the total sugarcane water footprint besides sugar and other processed food production. We found that richer states such as São Paulo benefit by accruing a higher share of economic value added from exporting ethanol as part of global value chains while increasing water stress in poorer states through interregional trade. We also found that, in comparison with other crops, sugarcane has a comparative advantage when rainfed while showing a comparative disadvantage as an irrigated crop; a tradeoff to be considered when planning irrigation infrastructure and bioethanol production expansion.

  19. Addressing crop interactions within cropping systems in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2018-01-01

    objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...

  20. Effects of US biofuel policies on US and world petroleum product markets with consequences for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Wyatt; Whistance, Jarrett; Meyer, Seth

    2011-01-01

    US biofuel policy includes greenhouse gas reduction targets. Regulators do not address the potential that biofuel policy can have indirect impacts on greenhouse gases through its impacts on petroleum product markets, and scientific research only partially addresses this question. We use economic models of US biofuel and agricultural markets and US and world petroleum and petroleum product markets to show that discontinuing biofuel tax credits and ethanol tariff lower biofuel use could lead to increased US petroleum product use, and a reduction in petroleum product use in other parts of the world. The net effect is lower greenhouse gas emissions. Under certain assumptions, we show that biofuel use mandate elimination can have positive or negative impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude and the direction of effects depend on how US biofuel trade affects biofuel in other countries with different emissions, context that determines how important use mandates are in the first place, who pays mandate costs, and the price responsiveness of global petroleum supplies and uses. However, our results show that counter-intuitive effects are possible and discourage broad conclusions about the greenhouse gas impacts of removing these elements of US biofuel policy. - Highlights: → Biofuel policy has counter-intuitive greenhouse gas effects under certain conditions. → US biofuel policies affect global petroleum markets, with implications for GHGs. → US biofuel use mandate GHG effects depend on whether they are binding and who pays. → US biofuel GHGs are sensitive to policy, petroleum market responses, and biofuel trade.

  1. Biofuels health research at the EPA: Initial studies with inhaled ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates increased use of alternative fuels in the American automobile fleet. Currently, the primary alternative to petroleum fuels is ethanol, and the public health risk associated with adding ethanol to gasoline at concentrations...

  2. EPA Research on Health Effects of Biofuels: Studies with inhaled ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates increased use of alternative fuels in the American automobile fleet. Currently, the primary alternative to petroleum fuels is ethanol, and the public health risk associated with adding ethanol to gasoline at concentrations...

  3. STUDYING OF INFLUENCE OF BIOFUEL MOTOR QUALITIES ON POWER AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levterov, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of bench tests of D21A (2 Ч 10,5/12 diesel engine at its operation on mixed diesel fuel with improved qualities (Euro and the biofuel synthesized by the way of ethanol intereste-rification of rapeseed oil are offered.

  4. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  5. LCA profiles for building components:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    . A full bivariate linear regression analysis is performed, showing statistically significant correlations with strong direct relationships between environmental impact categories. A simplified LCA profile consisting of total primary energy, global warming potential and acidification potential is developed...

  6. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Land Use Implications of Biofuels: State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Banse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    caused by an increased demand for biofuels. Main Features. The main feature of the conference was the crossbreeding The main feature of the conference was the crossbreeding of experience from the different approaches to land use modelling: The field of LCA could especially benefit from economic modelling...... in the identification of marginal crop production and the resulting expansion of the global agricultural area. Furthermore, the field of geography offers insights in the complexity behind new land cultivation and practical examples of where this is seen to occur on a regional scale. Results. Results presented...... potential of current and future The intensification potential of current and future crop and biomass production was widely discussed. It was generally agreed that some parts of the third world hold large potentials for intensification, which are not realised due to a number of barriers resulting in so...

  8. Prospective time-resolved LCA of fully electric supercap vehicles in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benedikt M; Dura, Hanna; Baumann, Manuel J; Weil, Marcel R

    2015-07-01

    The ongoing transition of the German electricity supply toward a higher share of renewable and sustainable energy sources, called Energiewende in German, has led to dynamic changes in the environmental impact of electricity over the last few years. Prominent scenario studies predict that comparable dynamics will continue in the coming decades, which will further improve the environmental performance of Germany's electricity supply. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the methodology commonly used to evaluate environmental performance. Previous LCA studies on electric vehicles have shown that the electricity supply for the vehicles' operation is responsible for the major part of their environmental impact. The core question of this study is how the prospective dynamic development of the German electricity mix will affect the impact of electric vehicles operated in Germany and how LCA can be adapted to analyze this impact in a more robust manner. The previously suggested approach of time-resolved LCA, which is located between static and dynamic LCA, is used in this study and compared with several static approaches. Furthermore, the uncertainty issue associated with scenario studies is addressed in general and in relation to time-resolved LCA. Two scenario studies relevant to policy making have been selected, but a moderate number of modifications have been necessary to adapt the data to the requirements of a life cycle inventory. A potential, fully electric vehicle powered by a supercapacitor energy storage system is used as a generic example. The results show that substantial improvements in the environmental repercussions of the electricity supply and, consequentially, of electric vehicles will be achieved between 2020 and 2031 on the basis of the energy mixes predicted in both studies. This study concludes that although scenarios might not be able to predict the future, they should nonetheless be used as data sources in prospective LCA studies, because in many cases

  9. Technological trends, global market, and challenges of bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Dragone, Giuliano; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Silva, João Paulo A; Carneiro, Lívia M; Roberto, Inês C; Vicente, António; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José A

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol use as a fuel additive or directly as a fuel source has grown in popularity due to governmental regulations and in some cases economic incentives based on environmental concerns as well as a desire to reduce oil dependency. As a consequence, several countries are interested in developing their internal market for use of this biofuel. Currently, almost all bio-ethanol is produced from grain or sugarcane. However, as this kind of feedstock is essentially food, other efficient and economically viable technologies for ethanol production have been evaluated. This article reviews some current and promising technologies for ethanol production considering aspects related to the raw materials, processes, and engineered strains development. The main producer and consumer nations and future perspectives for the ethanol market are also presented. Finally, technological trends to expand this market are discussed focusing on promising strategies like the use of microalgae and continuous systems with immobilized cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of pretreatment and downstream processing technologies on economics and energy in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Ganti S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While advantages of biofuel have been widely reported, studies also highlight the challenges in large scale production of biofuel. Cost of ethanol and process energy use in cellulosic ethanol plants are dependent on technologies used for conversion of feedstock. Process modeling can aid in identifying techno-economic bottlenecks in a production process. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was performed for conversion of cellulosic feedstock to ethanol using some of the common pretreatment technologies: dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion. Detailed process models incorporating feedstock handling, pretreatment, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, ethanol recovery and downstream processing were developed using SuperPro Designer. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb was used as a model feedstock. Results Projected ethanol yields were 252.62, 255.80, 255.27 and 230.23 L/dry metric ton biomass for conversion process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment technologies respectively. Price of feedstock and cellulose enzymes were assumed as $50/metric ton and 0.517/kg broth (10% protein in broth, 600 FPU/g protein respectively. Capital cost of ethanol plants processing 250,000 metric tons of feedstock/year was $1.92, $1.73, $1.72 and $1.70/L ethanol for process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Ethanol production cost of $0.83, $0.88, $0.81 and $0.85/L ethanol was estimated for production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment respectively. Water use in the production process using dilute acid, dilute alkali, hot water and steam explosion pretreatment was estimated 5.96, 6.07, 5.84 and 4.36 kg/L ethanol respectively. Conclusions Ethanol price and energy use were highly dependent on process conditions used in the ethanol production plant. Potential for

  11. Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case...... of biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices....

  12. Environmental aspects of ethanol-based fuels from Brassica carinata. A case study of second generation ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M'a Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-01-01

    for conventional gasoline. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) procedure helps to identify the key areas in the B. carinata ethanol production life cycle where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Technological development could help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  13. Evaluation of environmental impacts of cellulosic ethanol using life cycle assessment with technological advances over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelzik, Paul F.; Zhang, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used in quantifying the environmental impacts of materials, processes, products, or systems across their entire lifespan from creation to disposal. To evaluate the environmental impact of advancing technology, Life Cycle Assessment with Technological Advances over Time (LCA-TAT) incorporates technology improvements within the traditional LCA framework. In this paper, the LCA-TAT is applied to quantify the environmental impacts of ethanol production using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock through the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process as it improves over time. The data for the SSCF process are taken from the Aspen Plus ® simulation developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool (EFRAT) is used to calculate the fugitive emissions and SimaPro 7.1 software is used to quantify the environmental impacts of processes. The impact indicators of the processes are calculated using the Eco-indicator 95 method; impact categories analyzed include ozone layer depletion, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, winter smog, pesticides, greenhouse effect, acidification, and eutrophication. Based on the LCA-TAT results, it is found that removal of the continuous ion exchange step within the pretreatment area increases the environmental impact of the process. The main contributor to the increase in the environmental impact of the process is the heavy metal indicator. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify major inputs and outputs that affect environmental impacts of the overall process. Based on this analysis it is observed that an increase in waste production and acid use have the greatest effect on the environmental impacts of the SSCF process. Comparing economic analysis with projected technological advances performed by NREL, the improvement in environmental impact was not matched by a concomitant improvement in economic performance. In

  14. Economic Impact of NMMO Pretreatment on Ethanol and Biogas Production from Pinewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilouei, Hamid; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    Processes for ethanol and biogas (scenario 1) and biomethane (scenario 2) production from pinewood improved by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment were developed and simulated by Aspen plus. These processes were compared with two processes using steam explosion instead of NMMO pretreatment ethanol (scenario 3) and biomethane (scenario 4) production, and the economies of all processes were evaluated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Gasoline equivalent prices of the products including 25% value added tax (VAT) and selling and distribution expenses for scenarios 1 to 4 were, respectively, 1.40, 1.20, 1.24, and 1.04 €/l, which are lower than gasoline price. The profitability indexes for scenarios 1 to 4 were 1.14, 0.93, 1.16, and 0.96, respectively. Despite the lower manufacturing costs of biomethane, the profitability indexes of these processes were lower than those of the bioethanol processes, because of higher capital requirements. The results showed that taxing rule is an effective parameter on the economy of the biofuels. The gasoline equivalent prices of the biofuels were 15–37% lower than gasoline; however, 37% of the gasoline price contributes to energy and carbon dioxide tax which are not included in the prices of biofuels based on the Swedish taxation rules. PMID:25276777

  15. Economic Impact of NMMO Pretreatment on Ethanol and Biogas Production from Pinewood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Shafiei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes for ethanol and biogas (scenario 1 and biomethane (scenario 2 production from pinewood improved by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO pretreatment were developed and simulated by Aspen plus. These processes were compared with two processes using steam explosion instead of NMMO pretreatment ethanol (scenario 3 and biomethane (scenario 4 production, and the economies of all processes were evaluated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Gasoline equivalent prices of the products including 25% value added tax (VAT and selling and distribution expenses for scenarios 1 to 4 were, respectively, 1.40, 1.20, 1.24, and 1.04 €/l, which are lower than gasoline price. The profitability indexes for scenarios 1 to 4 were 1.14, 0.93, 1.16, and 0.96, respectively. Despite the lower manufacturing costs of biomethane, the profitability indexes of these processes were lower than those of the bioethanol processes, because of higher capital requirements. The results showed that taxing rule is an effective parameter on the economy of the biofuels. The gasoline equivalent prices of the biofuels were 15–37% lower than gasoline; however, 37% of the gasoline price contributes to energy and carbon dioxide tax which are not included in the prices of biofuels based on the Swedish taxation rules.

  16. Economic impact of NMMO pretreatment on ethanol and biogas production from pinewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zilouei, Hamid; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-01-01

    Processes for ethanol and biogas (scenario 1) and biomethane (scenario 2) production from pinewood improved by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment were developed and simulated by Aspen plus. These processes were compared with two processes using steam explosion instead of NMMO pretreatment ethanol (scenario 3) and biomethane (scenario 4) production, and the economies of all processes were evaluated by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Gasoline equivalent prices of the products including 25% value added tax (VAT) and selling and distribution expenses for scenarios 1 to 4 were, respectively, 1.40, 1.20, 1.24, and 1.04 €/l, which are lower than gasoline price. The profitability indexes for scenarios 1 to 4 were 1.14, 0.93, 1.16, and 0.96, respectively. Despite the lower manufacturing costs of biomethane, the profitability indexes of these processes were lower than those of the bioethanol processes, because of higher capital requirements. The results showed that taxing rule is an effective parameter on the economy of the biofuels. The gasoline equivalent prices of the biofuels were 15-37% lower than gasoline; however, 37% of the gasoline price contributes to energy and carbon dioxide tax which are not included in the prices of biofuels based on the Swedish taxation rules.

  17. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  18. Innovation strategies in a fruit growers association impacts assessment by using combined LCA and s-LCA methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Nadia; Baudino, Claudio; Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana

    2016-10-15

    In the challenging world of territorial transformations within the agriculture, there is an increasing need for an integrated methodological framework of assessment that is able to reconcile the demand for solutions that are both economically sustainable and contribute to environmental and social improvement. This study aims to assess the introduction of innovation into agro-food systems by combining an environmental life cycle (LCA) assessment and a social life cycle assessment (s-LCA) to support the decision making process of a fruit growers co-op for the adoption of mulching and covering in raspberry farming. LCA and s-LCA have been applied independently under specific consistency requirements, selecting two scenarios to compare the impact with (1) and without (2) the innovation and then combined within a cause-effect chain. The interactions between the environment and socioeconomic components were considered within a nested frameset of business and territorial features. The total emissions from raspberry production in Scenario 1, according to the Global Warming Potential (GWP) Impact Category amounted to 2.2840kg of CO2 eq. In Scenario 2, the impact of production was associated with a GWP of 0.1682kg of CO2 eq. Social repercussions analysis from Scenario 1 compared to Scenario 2 indicate more satisfaction for working conditions and the management of climate risks. The mulching and covering, implemented within a given framework of farm activity, created conditions for the preservation of a model in which raspberry production contributes to landscape protection, the business sustainability of farms and the creation of employment. The combined use of the two methods contributes to the development of a strategy planning due to its ability to deliver, as well as specific analysis at a functional level, a wider framework for assessing the consistency of the impacts related to innovation in raspberry production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PENGARUH KATALIS BASA (NaOH PADA TAHAP REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI TERHADAP KUALITAS BIOFUEL DARI MINYAK TEPUNG IKAN SARDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Probo Ningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel is an alternative diesel engine fuel is produced from oils/fats of plants and animals (including the fisheries industry waste through the esterification and transesterifiksi reactions. A transesterification is reaction to form esters and glycerol from trigliserin (fat/oil and bioalcohol (methanol or ethanol. Transesterification is an equilibrium reaction so that the presence of a catalyst can accelerate the achievement of a state of equilibrium. Process of the transesterification reaction of sardine flour oil waste with NaOH as base catalyst in producing biofuels was conducted.The research purpose has studied the influence of NaOH concentration in transesterification process and examinate its effect on the quality of biofuels production, conversion, and physic quality. The variables that analysed was the effect of NaOH concentration as catalyst (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% from amount of oil and methanol in the transesterification reaction step. The result showed that the increasing NaOH concentration (0.5 - 1.5%, enhanced the biofuel conversion (%. The highest conversion of biofuels was achieved by using 1.50% NaOH (w/w with 45.34% biofuels conversion. The major component in the biofuels was methyl palmitate (20.31%. ASTM analysis data also supported that the biofuel product was in agreement with automotive diesel fuel specification.

  20. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  1. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  2. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W

    2013-08-20

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013.

  3. Energy and greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Loan T.; Ierland, Ekko C. van; Zhu, Xueqin; Wesseler, Justus

    2013-01-01

    Biofuel production has been promoted to save fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there have been concerns about the potential of biofuel to improve energy efficiency and mitigate climate change. This paper investigates energy efficiency and GHG emission saving of cassava-based ethanol as energy for transportation. Energy and GHG balances are calculated for a functional unit of 1 km of road transportation using life-cycle assessment and considering effects of land use change (LUC). Based on a case study in Vietnam, the results show that the energy input for and GHG emissions from ethanol production are 0.93 MJ and 34.95 g carbon dioxide equivalent per megajoule of ethanol respectively. The use of E5 and E10 as a substitute for gasoline results in energy savings, provided that their fuel consumption in terms of liter per kilometer of transportation is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 2.4% and 4.5% respectively. It will reduce GHG emissions, provided that the fuel consumption of E5 and E10 is not exceeding the consumption of gasoline per kilometer by more than 3.8% and 7.8% respectively. The quantitative effects depend on the efficiency in production and on the fuel efficiency of E5 and E10. The variations in results of energy input and GHG emissions in the ethanol production among studies are due to differences in coverage of effects of LUC, CO 2 photosynthesis of cassava, yields of cassava, energy efficiency in farming, and by-product analyses. -- Highlights: ► Cassava-based ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 could save 1.4 MJ km −1 ► Ethanol substitution for gasoline in form of E5 reduces a CO 2 e emission of 156 g km −1 ► We examined changes in fuel efficiency of blends affecting energy and GHG balances. ► LUC and change in soil management lead to a CO 2 e emission of 942 g L −1 of ethanol. ► LUC effects, energy inputs, yields, and by-products explain results among

  4. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies...... and present methodological issues to consider when conducting LCAs within the area. Within the field of contaminated site remediation , a terminology distinguishing three types of environmental impacts: primary, secondary and tertiary, is often applied. Primary impacts are the site-related impacts due...... and efficiency of remediation, which are important for assessment or primary impacts; (ii) robust assessment of primary impacts using site-specific fate and exposure models; (iii) weighting of primary and secondary (or tertiary) impacts to evaluate trade-offs between life cycle impacts from remediation...

  5. Design and synthesis of mixed oxides nanoparticles for biofuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Senniang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The work in this dissertation presents the synthesis of two mixed metal oxides for biofuel applications and NMR characterization of silica materials. In the chapter 2, high catalytic efficiency of calcium silicate is synthesized for transesterfication of soybean oil to biodisels. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a new Rh based catalyst on mesoporous manganese oxides. The new catalyst is found to have higher activity and selectivity towards ethanol. Chapter 4 demonstrates the applications of solid-state Si NMR in the silica materials.

  6. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  7. IAQ performance of interior finishing products and the role of LCA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of interior finishing products to be more performance-oriented, where performance is defined in terms of the life cycle human health effects 4 . 3.0 LCA – the science-based tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a science-based tool which is designed... of interior finishing products and the role of LCA Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, Senior Researcher, CSIR 1.0 Introduction The environmental rating and certification of products is a voluntary, market-based response by industry and business to the consumer’s...

  8. Globalisation and Mainstreaming of LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2018-01-01

    The chapter describes how a globalised economy exacerbates the need of a mainstreaming of LCA, in particular the emergence of long, complex and geographically highly dispersed global value chains (GVCs). In documenting the three phases of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, a conventional roadmap...

  9. Essays on the U.S. biofuel policies: Welfare impacts and the potential for reduction of GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossiso, Kassu Wamisho

    This dissertation study investigates the impact of the US biofuel policies related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulation, tax credit and renewable fuel standard (RFS2) mandate over production and consumption of ethanol as well as technical and environmental performance of corn ethanol plants. The study develops analytical models and provides quantitative estimation of the impact of various biofuel policies in each of the three chapters. Chapter 1 of this dissertation examines the tradeoff between achieving the environmental goal of minimizing life cycle GHG emissions and minimizing production costs in recently built dry-grind corn ethanol plants. The results indicate that the average ethanol plant is able to reduce GHG emissions by 36 % relative to the level under cost minimization, but production costs are 22 % higher. To move from least cost to least emissions allocations, ethanol plants would on average produce 25 % more of wet byproduct and 47% less of dry byproduct. Using a multi-output, multi-input partial equilibrium model, Chapter 2 explores the impact of the tax credit and RFS2 mandate policy on market price of ethanol, byproducts, corn, and other factor inputs employed in the production of corn ethanol. In the short-run, without tax credit ethanol plants will not have the incentive to produce the minimum level of ethanol required by RFS2. In the long-run, if ethanol plants to have the incentive to produce the minimum RFS2 mandate without tax credit policy, gasoline price will need to increase by order of 50% or more relative to the 2011 price. Chapter 3 develop meta-regression model to investigate the extent to which statistical heterogeneity among results of multiple studies on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates can be related to one or more characteristics of the studies in response to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT). Regarding the difference in the rate of SOC sequestration between NT and CT, our results shows that the

  10. Differences of Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration (LCA) between Eyes with Intraocular Lenses from Different Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masashi; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Takagi, Seiu; Hirohara, Yoko; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Several researchers have studied the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of eyes implanted with an intraocular lens (IOL). We investigated the LCA of eyes implanted with yellow-colored IOLs from three different manufacturers: Alcon Inc., HOYA Corp., and AMO Inc. The number of subjects was 11, 16, and 16, respectively. The LCA of eyes implanted with SN60WF and SN60AT (Alcon Inc.), and with XY-1 (HOYA Corp.), was the same as that of phakic eyes. The LCA of eyes with ZCB00V (AMO Inc.) was smaller than that of phakic eyes. The LCA of eyes implanted with Alcon’s and HOYA’s IOLs, but not the LCA of eyes implanted with AMO’s IOLs, was positively correlated with the powers of the IOLs. We also performed simulations to verify the impacts of LCA on visual performance for 4-mm pupil diameter; the simulations were a polychromatic modulation transfer function (MTF) and a visual Strehl ratio computed on the basis of an optical transfer function (VSOTF). We concluded that the differences between the LCA of different manufacturers do not affect visual performances when some extent of higher-order aberration (HOA) exists. The smaller HOA of AMO IOLs may enhance visual performance. PMID:27258141

  11. Status of advanced biofuels demonstration facilities in 2012. A report to IEA Bioenergy task 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacovsky, Dina; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Ognissanto, Monica; Woergetter, Manfred

    2013-03-18

    A number of companies around the world pursue projects to develop and deploy advanced technologies for the production of biofuels. Plenty of options are available, e.g. on which feedstock to use, how to pretreat it and how to convert it, up to which fuel to produce. This report monitors the multi-facetted development, adds transparency to the sector and thus supports the development and deployment of advanced biofuels production technologies. Main pathways under development can be classified into biochemical technologies, thermochemical technologies and chemical technologies. Biochemical technologies are usually based on lignocellulosic feedstock which is pretreated, hydrolysed into sugars and then fermented to ethanol. Alternative biochemical pathways process sugars or gaseous components into methanol, butanol, mixed alcohols, acetic acids, or other chemical building blocks. Most thermochemical technologies use gasification to convert lignocellulosic feedstock into synthesis gas, which can be converted into BtL-Diesel, SNG, DME or mixed alcohols. Alternative thermochemical pathways include pyrolysis of biomass and upgrading of the resulting pyrolysis oil. The most successful chemical pathway is the hydrotreatment of vegetable oil or fats to produce diesel-type hydrocarbons. Other pathways include catalytic decarboxylation, and methanol production from glycerin. This report is based on a database on advanced biofuels projects. The database feeds into an interactive map which is available at http://demoplants.bioenergy2020.eu, and it is updated continuously. The report includes general descriptions of the main advanced biofuels technologies under development, a list of 102 projects that are being pursued worldwide, and detailed descriptions of these projects. All data displayed has been made available by the companies that pursue these projects. For this reason, the list of projects may not be complete, as some companies may still be reluctant to share data. Since

  12. The state of autotrophic ethanol production in Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, J; Armshaw, P; Sheahan, C; Pembroke, J T

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production directly from CO2 , utilizing genetically engineered photosynthetic cyanobacteria as a biocatalyst, offers significant potential as a renewable and sustainable source of biofuel. Despite the current absence of a commercially successful production system, significant resources have been deployed to realize this goal. Utilizing the pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas species, metabolically derived pyruvate can be converted to ethanol. This review of both peer-reviewed and patent literature focuses on the genetic modifications utilized for metabolic engineering and the resultant effect on ethanol yield. Gene dosage, induced expression and cassette optimizat-ion have been analyzed to optimize production, with production rates of 0·1-0·5 g L(-1) day(-1) being achieved. The current 'toolbox' of molecular manipulations and future directions focusing on applicability, addressing the primary challenges facing commercialization of cyanobacterial technologies are discussed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  14. Lignocellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: The impact of facility siting on competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, James D.; Mabee, Warren E.; Saddler, Jack N.

    2013-01-01

    Just as temperate region pulp and paper companies need to compete with Brazilian eucalyptus pulp producers, lignocellulosic biofuel producers in North America and Europe, in the absence of protectionist trade policies, will need to be competitive with tropical and sub-tropical biofuel producers. This work sought to determine the impact of lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery siting on economic performance and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for both east and west coast North American fuel markets. Facility sites included the pine-dominated Pacific Northwest Interior, the mixed deciduous forest of Ontario and New York, and the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Feedstock scenarios included both plantation (poplar, willow, and eucalyptus, respectively) and managed forest harvest. Site specific variables in the techno-economic model included delivered feedstock cost, ethanol delivery cost, cost of capital, construction cost, labour cost, electricity revenues (and co-product credits), and taxes, insurance, and permits. Despite the long shipping distance from Brazil to North American east and west coast markets, the MESP for Brazilian-produced eucalyptus lignocellulosic ethanol, modelled at $0.74 L −1 , was notably lower than that of all North American-produced cases at $0.83–1.02 L −1 . - Highlights: • Lignocellulosic ethanol production costs vary notably by region. • Feedstock cost is the primary site-specific production cost variable. • Woody feedstocks in North America have a higher cost than those in Brazil. • Use of Brazilian eucalyptus resulted in the lowest MESP for considered feedstocks. • MESP ranged from −1 to >$1.00 L −1

  15. Lignin plays a negative role in the biochemical process for producing lignocellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Yang, Shihui; Ding, Shi-You

    2014-06-01

    A biochemical platform holds the most promising route toward lignocellulosic biofuels, in which polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes into simple sugars and fermented to ethanol by microbes. However, these polysaccharides are cross-linked in the plant cell walls with the hydrophobic network of lignin that physically impedes enzymatic deconstruction. A thermochemical pretreatment process is often required to remove or delocalize lignin, which may also generate inhibitors that hamper enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Here we review recent advances in understanding lignin structure in the plant cell walls and the negative roles of lignin in the processes of converting biomass to biofuels. Perspectives and future directions to improve the biomass conversion process are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the government study of Fossil-Free Vehicle traffic (FFF investigation). The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on the production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international outlooks. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, GHG performance and production costs are based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain up to produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and production chains and is based primarily on standardized LCA and for some systems also on industrial systems analysis.

  17. Current and future sustainable biofuels; Dagens och framtidens haallbara biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Lundgren, Joakim [Luleaa Univ. of Technology Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Ahlgren, Serina [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This report has been prepared as a background paper for the government study of Fossil-Free Vehicle traffic (FFF investigation). The purpose of this study is to describe and summarize the current knowledge on the production of biofuels and linkages to sustainability issues such as energy and land efficiency, GHG performance and costs. The report includes both existing and future fuel systems under development and based on different raw materials and production processes. The study has primarily a Swedish perspective, but with international outlooks. The report's analysis of energy efficiency, GHG performance and production costs are based on system analysis and a life-cycle perspective. The focus is on the production chain up to produced fuel (well-to-tank). Results are based on current research and production chains and is based primarily on standardized LCA and for some systems also on industrial systems analysis.

  18. Report: Suitability of Leak Detection Technology for Use In Ethanol-Blended Fuel Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the use of biofuels has increased in the last decade, there has been a level of concern over the effect that ethanol blends have on the material compatibility and operability of existing infrastructure. The focus of this research is to determine whether leak detection (LD) te...

  19. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  20. Biofuels in West Africa: prospective analysis of substitution for petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonato, A.

    1993-01-01

    Is it viable and realistic to believe that biofuels can relieve the energy bill for certain countries in West Africa, restimulate whole areas often cut off from the development process, and diversify the outlets of the agricultural sector, hard struck as it is by the price drop in raw materials. The answer here is drawn from a micro-economic analysis of Benin, Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, and Niger, concerning the competitiveness of the three main products considered: - ethanol, produced from cane sugar; - methanol, obtained from eucalyptus by cryogenic oxygen gasification process; methyl ester, from palm oil. The result of this study is a forecast, for the year 2010, of conditions under which methyl alcohols and ester might be substituted for refined gasoline and fuel oil, and a hierarchical classification of the various biofuels in West Africa. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs

  1. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  2. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M; Geiger, Robert A; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V; Davison, Brian H

    2015-11-03

    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  3. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  4. Modelling and simulation of a pervaporation process using tubular module for production of anhydrous ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2017-09-01

    Pervaporation is a potential process for the final step of ethanol biofuel production. In this study, a mathematical model was developed based on the resistance-in-series model and a simulation was carried out using the specialized simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to describe a tubular type pervaporation module with membranes for the dehydration of ethanol solution. The permeance of membranes, operating conditions, and feed conditions in the simulation were referred from experimental data reported previously in literature. Accordingly, the simulated temperature and density profiles of pure water and ethanol-water mixture were validated based on existing published data.

  5. The importance of the application context for the design of Social LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas

    comprises users of the Social LCA, their target audience, ethical considerations of relevance to the application of Social LCA, and legal limitations. The users of the Social LCA are either companies, NGOs or GOs, and the target audience is the recipients of the assessment results from the above mentioned...... user groups. Both users’ and their target audience’s views are found through analysis of interviews with potential user groups. Ethical considerations concern negative social impacts that may occur in relation to the application of Social LCA. These are included here, as it is assumed that the overall...

  6. Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

  7. Economic impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico: A general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, Alejandra; Boyd, Roy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the economic impact of a decision to produce ethanol in Mexico, comparing the effect of a subsidy to initiate ethanol production with that of alternative public policies. Public support of biofuels has been a public policy goal since 2008, and the promotion of ethanol remains an active part of the government agenda. The evidence used to encourage or alter the policy is (by necessity) chiefly based on international experience. In this study we use a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) to estimate the impact of ethanol production on the Mexican economy. Using cost data from Brazil we introduce ethanol into a Mexican social accounting matrix, and insert a latent sector into the model to analyze ethanol promotion. Our results show that subsidies to ethanol would increase agriculture production but at the expense of aggregate welfare. By contrast, alternative 'clean energy' policies appear to advance economic growth to a greater extent. - Highlights: • A CGE model is used to estimate the impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico. • The benefits of a policy designed to promote the use of ethanol are rather small. • The rural sector benefits modestly, but production in other sectors decrease. • Alternative policies advance economic growth and welfare to a greater extent.

  8. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Scovronick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  9. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  10. Cost of Oil and Biomass Supply Shocks under Different Biofuel Supply Chain Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; Brown, Maxwell L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2018-04-01

    This analysis estimates the cost of selected oil and biomass supply shocks for producers and consumers in the light-duty vehicle fuel market under various supply chain configurations using a mathematical programing model, BioTrans. The supply chain configurations differ by whether they include selected flexibility levers: multi-feedstock biorefineries; advanced biomass logistics; and the ability to adjust ethanol content of low-ethanol fuel blends, from E10 to E15 or E05. The simulated scenarios explore market responses to supply shocks including substitution between gasoline and ethanol, substitution between different sources of ethanol supply, biorefinery capacity additions or idling, and price adjustments. Welfare effects for the various market participants represented in BioTrans are summarized into a net shock cost measure. As oil accounts for a larger fraction of fuel by volume, its supply shocks are costlier than biomass supply shocks. Corn availability and the high cost of adding biorefinery capacity limit increases in ethanol use during gasoline price spikes. During shocks that imply sudden decreases in the price of gasoline, the renewable fuel standard (RFS) biofuel blending mandate limits the extent to which flexibility can be exercised to reduce ethanol use. The selected flexibility levers are most useful in response to cellulosic biomass supply shocks.

  11. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The proposed methods are broadly similar and encompass both the computation of water use and its impacts, but differ in communication of a water footprint result. In this paper, we explain the role and goal of LCA and ISO-compatible water footprinting and resolve the six issues raised by Hoekstra (2016) in “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”. By clarifying the concerns, we identify both the overlapping goals in the WFN and LCA water footprint assessments and discrepancies between them. The main differing perspective between the WFN and LCA-based approach seems to relate to the fact that LCA aims to account for environmental impacts, while the WFN aims to account for water productivity of global fresh water as a limited resource. We conclude that there is potential to use synergies in research for the two approaches and highlight the need for proper declaration of the methods applied. This paper advances efforts to understand ways to accurately capture use of water in life cycle analysis in other contexts. As the paper indicates, there is a discussion about whether quantities of water should be weighted by some local stress factor. This paper attempts to brid

  12. High efficient ethanol and VFAs production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas fermenta......In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fatty acids and ethanol was achieved by the pure culture (Clostridium ragsdalei). Depending on the headspace gas composition, VFA concentrations were up to 300% higher after fermentation with Clostridium ragsdalei compared to fermentation with mixed culture. The preferred gas composition with respect...... to highest VFA concentration was pure CO (100%) regardless of microbial composition of the inoculum and media composition. The addition of acetate had a negative impact on the VFA formation which was depending on the initial gas composition in head space....

  13. Bio-fuels: results in progress, necessary adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    In this report, the French Court of Auditors examines whether its assessments and recommendations published some years before about the development and use of bio-fuels in France had been taken into account. It shows that the support to bio-fuels has multiple objectives, produced some interesting results, but at high cost. Production processes are described. The authors outline that instruments had not been always coherently implemented, and that the tax system had negative effects. They notice that the objective in terms of bio-diesel share has been reached, whereas that of bio-ethanol has not. They also outline that these results have also been obtained with the help of some palliative measures, and that cost remains high for the consumer. In a second part, the report outlines that the present context calls for adaptations, notably due to its uncertainty (instability of European rules, lack of European ambition, a less promising market, a lower priority for automotive manufacturers), and proposes some perspectives and approaches of adaptation, notably to reach quantitative objectives with a greater transparency for the consumer. The report also contains answers made by the different concerned ministers

  14. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  15. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  16. Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Using Bagasse-Derived Ethanol as a Gasoline Oxygenate in Mumbai (Bombay)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K.

    2000-12-07

    Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. About 15%--25% of the bagasse is left after satisfying the mills' energy requirements, and this excess bagasse can be used in a bioconversion process to make ethanol. It is estimated that a 23 million L/yr ({approximately}6 million gal/yr) ethanol facility is feasible by combining excess bagasse from three larger sugar mills in Maharashtra state. The plant could supply about half of the ethanol demand in Mumbai, assuming that all gasoline is sold as an E10 fuel, a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume. The life cycle assessment (LCA) performed in this study demonstrated the potentially significant benefits of diverting excess bagasse in Maharashtra to ethanol production, as opposed to disposing it by burning. In particular, lower net values for the ethanol production scenario were observed for the following: fossil energy consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons (except methane), SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, and methane. The lower greenhouse potential of the ethanol scenario is also important in the context of Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation because India is a developing country.

  17. Biofuel Production in Ireland—An Approach to 2020 Targets with a Focus on Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Murphy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the Biofuels Obligation Scheme in Ireland, the biofuels penetration rate target for 2013 was set at 6% by volume from a previous 4% from 2010. In 2012 the fuel blend reached 3%, with approximately 70 million L of biodiesel and 56 million L of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline, respectively. Up to and including April 2013, the current blend rate in Ireland for biodiesel was 2.3% and for bioethanol was 3.7% which equates to approximately 37.5 million L of biofuel for the first four months of 2013. The target of 10% by 2020 remains, which equates to approximately 420 million L yr−1. Achieving the biofuels target would require 345 ktoe by 2020 (14,400 TJ. Utilizing the indigenous biofuels in Ireland such as tallow, used cooking oil and oil seed rape leaves a shortfall of approximately 12,000 TJ or 350 million L (achieving only 17% of the 10% target that must be either be imported or met by other renewables. Other solutions seem to suggest that microalgae (for biodiesel and macroalgae (for bioethanol could meet this shortfall for indigenous Irish production. This paper aims to review the characteristics of algae for biofuel production based on oil yields, cultivation, harvesting, processing and finally in terms of the European Union (EU biofuels sustainability criteria, where, up to 2017, a 35% greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction is required compared to fossil fuels. From 2017 onwards, a 50% GHG reduction is required for existing installations and from 2018, a 60% reduction for new installations is required.

  18. Byproducts for biofuels; Bijproducten voor biobrandstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)