WorldWideScience

Sample records for layer inline separator

  1. Development of a centrifugal in-line separator for oil-water flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The world energy consumption will increase in the next decades. However, many aging oil fields are showing a steady decline in oil production. And they are producing increasing amounts of water, making the separation of the oil from the oil-water mixture an important processing step. In-line

  2. In-Line Oil-Water Separation in Swirling Flow (USB stick)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.; van Campen, L.J.A.M.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie; Mudde, R.F.; Johansen, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    An in-line oil-water separator has been designed and is investigated for single- and two-phase flow. Numerical single-phase flow results show an annular reversed flow region. This flow pattern agrees qualitatively with results from measurements. In the two-phase flow simulations two different drag

  3. Vortex dynamics of in-line twin synthetic jets in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Hui; Duan, Fei

    2015-08-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on the vortices induced by twin synthetic jets (SJs) in line with a laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate. The twin SJs operating at four different phase differences, i.e., Δϕ = 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, are visualized using a stereoscopic color dye visualization system and measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. It is found that depending on the phase difference of twin SJs, three types of vortex structures are produced. At Δϕ = 90°, the two hairpin vortices interact in a very constructive way in terms of the vortex size, strength, and celerity, forming one combined vortex. At Δϕ = 270°, the two individual hairpin vortices do not have much interaction, forming two completely separated hairpin vortices that behave like doubling the frequency of the single SJ case. At Δϕ = 0° and 180°, the two hairpin vortices produced by the twin SJ actuators are close enough, with the head of one hairpin vortex coupled with the legs of the other, forming partially interacting vortex structures. Quantitative analysis of the twin SJs is conducted, including the time histories of vortex circulation in the mid-span plane as well as a selected spanwise-wall-normal plane, and the influence of the twin SJs on the boundary layer flow filed. In addition, dynamic mode decomposition analysis of the PIV data is conducted to extract representative coherent structures. Through this study, a better understanding in the vortex dynamics associated with the interaction of in-line twin SJs in laminar boundary layers is achieved, which provides useful information for future SJ-array applications.

  4. [In-line leukocyte depletion ov thrombocytapheresis concentrates with the Fresenius-AS-104 cell separator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    This study reports on in-line filtration of 72 platelet concentrates (PC) collected by the Fresenius AS 104 cell separator, using the new C4F sets with integrated leukocyte filters (Biofil P plus). 72 volunteer donors, automatic counts of platelets, microscopical counting of residual leukocytes with the Nageotte chamber, GMP-140 by flow cytometrie, beta-thromboglobulin release, platelet aggregation (ADP, collagen). Filtration reduced leukocytes by 98.5%. Residual leukocyte contamination remained clearly below 5 x 10(6) (mean 0.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(6), maximum 2.8 x 10(6). Platelet loss by filtration was found to be between 27.4 and 0.7% (median 8.5%). Filtration caused a significant decrease of platelet aggregability (p < 0.005), but no significant increase of beta-thromboglobulin release and only a slight decrease of GMP-140 expression. From these data can be concluded that in-line filtration was highly efficient with acceptable platelet retention. No significant platelet activation could be observed in the PC. The decrease of platelet aggregability have been due to the reduction of activated platelets which are believed to show reduced in vivo survival.

  5. A high-sensitive and quantitative in-line monitoring method for transplutonium elements separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Wang Shiju; Xu Yingpu; Zhang Zengrui

    1986-04-01

    A high-sensitive monitoring device and a quantitative analys technigue for transplutonium elements separation processes are described. X-ray and low energy γ-ray are measured by means of a scintillation monitor with two NaI(Tl) thin crystals. The α spectra of the fluents of ion-exchange column is measured by means of Si(Au) surface barrier in-line monitor. The construction of the monitors, auxiliary electronics, investigation result for the α spectra character of thick source and the calibration method were described. The determination results for extracting process of 243 Am and 244 Cm by ion-exchange chromatography were given. The sensitivity of total adding amount for 243 Am using the 4π scintillation monitor is better than 0.1 μCi. The precision of 243 Am and 244 Cm concentration determination using Si(Au) monitor is +- 5%. The precision of the two metals contents in containers is about +- 10%

  6. In-line near real time monitoring of fluid streams in separation processes for used nuclear fuel - 5146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nee, K.; Nilsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Applying spectroscopic tools for chemical processes has been intensively studied in various industries owing to its rapid and non-destructive analysis for detecting chemical components and determine physical characteristic in a process stream. The general complexity of separation processes for used nuclear fuel, e.g., chemical speciation, temperature variations, and prominent process security and safety concerns, require a well-secured and robust monitoring system to provide precise information of the process streams at real time without interference. Multivariate analysis accompanied with spectral measurements is a powerful statistic technique that can be used to monitor this complex chemical system. In this work, chemometric models that respond to the chemical components in the fluid samples were calibrated and validated to establish an in-line near real time monitoring system. The models show good prediction accuracy using partial least square regression analysis on the spectral data obtained from UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopies. The models were tested on a solvent extraction process using a single stage centrifugal contactor in our laboratory to determine the performance of an in-line near real time monitoring system. (authors)

  7. In-line formation of chemically cross-linked P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes for H2/CO2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak; Jansen, Johannes C.; Tasselli, Franco; Barbieri, Giuseppe; Drioli, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, chemically cross-linked asymmetric P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes with enhanced separation performance were fabricated, using a dry-wet spinning process with an innovative in-line cross-linking step. The chemical

  8. Sensitive and predictable separation of microfluidic droplets by size using in-line passive filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruihua; Ung, W Lloyd; Heyman, John A; Weitz, David A

    2017-01-01

    Active manipulation of droplets is crucial in droplet microfluidics. However, droplet polydispersity decreases the accuracy of active manipulation. We develop a microfluidic "droplet filter" that accurately separates droplets by size. The droplet filter has a sharp size cutoff and is capable of distinguishing droplets differing in volume by 20%. A simple model explains the behavior of the droplets as they pass through the filter. We show application of the filter in improving dielectric sorting efficiency.

  9. Airfoil boundary layer separation and control at low Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarusevych, S.; Sullivan, P.E. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kawall, J.G. [Ryerson University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-04-01

    The boundary layer separation on a NACA 0025 airfoil was studied experimentally via hot-wire anemometry and surface pressure measurements. The results provide added insight into periodic boundary layer control, suggesting that matching the excitation frequency with the most amplified disturbance in the separated shear layer is optimal for improving airfoil performance. (orig.)

  10. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Separate the inseparable one-layer mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Lun J.

    2000-04-01

    When the input-output mapping of a one-layered perceptron (OLP) does NOT meet the PLI condition which is the if-and- only-if, or 'IFF, condition that the mapping can be realized by a OLP, then no matter what learning rule we use, a OLP just cannot realize this mapping at all. However, because of the nature of the PLI, one can still construct a parallel- cascaded, two-layered perceptron system to realize this `illegal' mapping. Theory and design example of this novel design will be reported in detail in this paper.

  12. Experimental investigation of separated shear layer from a leading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shear layer development over a thick flat plate with a semi-circular leading edge is investigated for a range of angles of attack under different pressure gradients for a Reynolds number of 2.44×105 (based on chord and free-stream velocity). The characteristics of the separated shear layer are very well documented through ...

  13. Innovative in-line separators: removal of water or sand in oil/water and gas/liquid/solid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepson, Paul; Cheolho Kang; Gopal, Madan [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In oil and gas production, multiphase mixtures are often separated before downstream processing. The separators are large, often 20 - 40 feet long and large diameter and use sophisticated internals. The costs are in the millions of dollars. Further, the sand and water in the flow can cause severe internal erosion and corrosion respectively before the flow reaches the separators. The CC Technologies/MIST In line Separation System is a cost-effective, efficient device for use in multiphase environments. The device is applicable for gas/solid, gas/liquid/solid and oil/water systems and offers exceptional separation between phases for a fraction of the cost of expensive gravity separators and hydro cyclones. The System contains no moving parts and is designed to be of the same diameter as the pipe, and experiences low shear forces. It can be fabricated with standard pipes. The efficiency of the separator has been determined in an industrial scale, pilot plant test facility at CC Technologies in 4-inch diameter pipes and has been found to be in excess of 98-99% for the removal of sand. Two phase oil/water separation effectiveness is in excess of 90% in 1-stage and 95% in 2 - stage. (author)

  14. In-line formation of chemically cross-linked P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes for H2/CO2 separation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2010-12-13

    In this study, chemically cross-linked asymmetric P84® co-polyimide hollow fibre membranes with enhanced separation performance were fabricated, using a dry-wet spinning process with an innovative in-line cross-linking step. The chemical modification was conducted by controlled immersion of the coagulated fibre in an aqueous 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane (DAMP) cross-linker solution before the take-up. The effect of the cross-linker concentration on the thermal, mechanical, chemical and gas transport properties of the membranes was investigated. FT-IR/ATR analysis was used to identify the chemical changes in the polymer, while DSC analysis confirmed the changes in the Tg and the specific heat of the polymer upon cross-linking. Chemical cross-linking with a 10 wt.% aqueous DAMP solution strongly enhanced the H2/CO2 ideal selectivity from 5.3 to 16.1, while the H2 permeance of the membranes decreased from 7.06 × 10−3 to 1.01 × 10−3 m3(STP) m−2 h−1 bar−1 for a feed pressure of 1 bar at 25 °C. The increase of selectivity with decreasing permeance is somewhat higher than the slope in the Robeson upper bound, evidencing the positive effect of the cross-linking on the separation performance of the fibres. Simultaneously, the cross-linking leads to improved mechanical resistance of the membranes, which could be further enhanced by an additional thermal treatment. The produced membranes are therefore more suitable for use under harsh conditions and have a better overall performance than the uncross-linked ones.

  15. Analysis and Modeling of Boundary Layer Separation Method (BLSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethő, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid

    2010-09-01

    Nowadays rules of environmental protection strictly regulate pollution material emission into environment. To keep the environmental protection laws recycling is one of the useful methods of waste material treatment. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial waste water and named it boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We apply the phenomena that ions can be enriched in the boundary layer of the electrically charged electrode surface compared to the bulk liquid phase. The main point of the method is that the boundary layer at correctly chosen movement velocity can be taken out of the waste water without being damaged, and the ion-enriched boundary layer can be recycled. Electrosorption is a surface phenomenon. It can be used with high efficiency in case of large electrochemically active surface of electrodes. During our research work two high surface area nickel electrodes have been prepared. The value of electrochemically active surface area of electrodes has been estimated. The existence of diffusion part of the double layer has been experimentally approved. The electrical double layer capacity has been determined. Ion transport by boundary layer separation has been introduced. Finally we have tried to estimate the relative significance of physical adsorption and electrosorption.

  16. Streaming effect of wall oscillation to boundary layer separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. H.; Wu, J. Z.; Wu, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary theoretical result on the time averaged streaming effect of local forcing excitation to the boundary layer separation from smooth surface. The problem is formulated as a periodic disturbance to a basic steady breakaway separating flow, for which the data are taken from a numerical triple-deck solution. The ratio of Strouhal number St and Reynolds number Re plays an important role, both being assumed sufficiently high. The analytical and numerical results show that this streaming effect is quite strong at proper values of St/Re exp 1/4, which may delay or even suppress the separation.

  17. Vortex Formation During Unsteady Boundary-Layer Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-11-01

    Unsteady laminar boundary-layer separation is invariably accompanied by the formation of vortices. The aim of the present work is to study the vortex formation mechanism(s). An adverse pressure gradient causing a separation can be decomposed into a spatial component ( spatial variation of the velocity external to the boundary layer ) and a temporal component ( temporal variation of the external velocity ). Experiments were conducted in a piston driven 2-D water channel, where the spatial component could be be contolled by geometry and the temporal component by the piston motion. We present results for three divergent channel geometries. The piston motion consists of three phases: constant acceleration from start, contant velocity, and constant deceleration to stop. Depending on the geometry and piston motion we observe different types of unsteady separation and vortex formation.

  18. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons

  19. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Layer-by-layer assembled biopolymer microcapsule with separate layer cavities generated by gas-liquid microfluidic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Zhou, Jing; Guo, Xuecheng; Hu, Qian; Qin, Chaoran; Liu, Hui; Dong, Meng; Chen, Yanjun

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled biopolymer microcapsule with separate layer cavities is generated by a novel and convenient gas-liquid microfluidic approach. This approach exhibits combined advantages of microfluidic approach and LbL assembly method, and it can straightforwardly build LbL-assembled capsules in mild aqueous environments at room temperature. In particular, using this approach we can build the polyelectrolyte multilayer capsule with favorable cavities in each layer, and without the need for organic solvent, emulsifying agent, or sacrificial template. Various components (e.g., drugs, proteins, fluorescent dyes, and nanoparticles) can be respectively encapsulated in the separate layer cavities of the LbL-assembled capsules. Moreover, the encapsulated capsules present the ability as colorimetric sensors, and they also exhibit the interesting release behavior. Therefore, the LbL-assembled biopolymer capsule is a promising candidate for biomedical applications in targeted delivery, controlled release, and bio-detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Notes on the Prediction of Shock-induced Boundary-layer Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Roy H.

    1953-01-01

    The present status of available information relative to the prediction of shock-induced boundary-layer separation is discussed. Experimental results showing the effects of Reynolds number and Mach number on the separation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layer are given and compared with available methods for predicting separation. The flow phenomena associated with separation caused by forward-facing steps, wedges, and incident shock waves are discussed. Applications of the flat-plate data to problems of separation on spoilers, diffusers, and scoop inlets are indicated for turbulent boundary layers.

  2. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  3. OPV for mobile applications: an evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Lenzmann, Frank O.; Ryley, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic modules have been evaluated for their integration in mobile electronic applications such as a laser pointer. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells has been carried out from different perspectives: life cycle assessment, cost analysis...... and layer quality evaluation using inline optical and functional inspection tools. The polymer solar cells were fabricated in credit card sized modules by three routes, and several encapsulation alternatives have been explored, with the aim to provide the simplest but functional protection against moisture...... a low carbon footprint. From the economic perspective there is a huge reduction in the cost of the ITO- and silver-free options, reaching as low as 0.25 V for the OPV module. We used inspection tools such as a roll-to-roll inspection system to evaluate all processing steps during the fabrication...

  4. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav URUBA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.

  5. OPV for mobile applications. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells through analysis of life cycle, cost and layer quality using inline optical and functional inspection tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinos, N.; Angmo, D.; Hoesel, M.; Soendergaard, R.R.; Joergensen, M.; Krebs, F.C. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lenzmann, F.O. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ryley, S. [UK Materials Technology Research Institute, Nottingham Road, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Huss, D.; Dafinger, S.; Gritsch, S. [Dr. Schenk GmbH Industriemesstechnik, Einsteinstrasse 37, D-82152 Planegg (Germany); Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, High Tech Campus 5 P-61, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-05-08

    Organic photovoltaic modules have been evaluated for their integration in mobile electronic applications such as a laser pointer. An evaluation of roll-to-roll processed indium and silver free polymer solar cells has been carried out from different perspectives: life cycle assessment, cost analysis and layer quality evaluation using inline optical and functional inspection tools. The polymer solar cells were fabricated in credit card sized modules by three routes, and several encapsulation alternatives have been explored, with the aim to provide the simplest but functional protection against moisture and oxygen, which could deteriorate the performance of the cells. The analysis shows that ITO- and silver-free options are clearly advantageous in terms of energy embedded over the traditional modules, and that encapsulation must balance satisfying the protection requirements while having at the same time a low carbon footprint. From the economic perspective there is a huge reduction in the cost of the ITO- and silver-free options, reaching as low as 0.25 euro for the OPV module. We used inspection tools such as a roll-to-roll inspection system to evaluate all processing steps during the fabrication and analyse the layers' quality and forecast whether a module will work or not and establish any misalignment of the printed pattern or defects in the layers that can affect the performance of the devices. This has been found to be a good tool to control the process and to increase the yield.

  6. Separation prediction in two dimensional boundary layer flows using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetghadam, F.; Ghomi, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the ability of artificial neural networks in prediction of separation in steady two dimensional boundary layer flows is studied. Data for network training is extracted from numerical solution of an ODE obtained from Von Karman integral equation with approximate one parameter Pohlhousen velocity profile. As an appropriate neural network, a two layer radial basis generalized regression artificial neural network is used. The results shows good agreements between the overall behavior of the flow fields predicted by the artificial neural network and the actual flow fields for some cases. The method easily can be extended to unsteady separation and turbulent as well as compressible boundary layer flows. (author)

  7. Thin-layer approximation and algebraic model for separated turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, B.; Lomax, H.

    1978-01-01

    An algebraic turbulence model for two- and three-dimensional separated flows is specified that avoids the necessity for finding the edge of the boundary layer. Properties of the model are determined and comparisons made with experiment for an incident shock on a flat plate, separated flow over a compression corner, and transonic flow over an airfoil. Separation and reattachment points from numerical Navier-Stokes solutions agree with experiment within one boundary-layer thickness. Use of law-of-the-wall boundary conditions does not alter the predictions significantly. Applications of the model to other cases are contained in companion papers.

  8. In-line optical fiber metallic mirror reflector for monolithic common path optical coherence tomography probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwarpal; Reddy, Rohith; Sharma, Gargi; Verma, Yogesh; Gardecki, Joseph A; Tearney, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    Endoscopic optical coherence tomography probes suffer from various artifacts due to dispersion imbalance and polarization mismatch between reference and sample arm light. Such artifacts can be minimized using a common path approach. In this work, we demonstrate a miniaturized common path probe for optical coherence tomography using an inline fiber mirror. A common path optical fiber probe suitable for performing high-resolution endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging was developed. To achieve common path functionality, an inline fiber mirror was fabricated using a thin gold layer. A commercially available swept source engine was used to test the designed probe in a cadaver human coronary artery ex vivo. We achieved a sensitivity of 104 dB for this probe using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. To test the probe, images of a cadaver human coronary artery were obtained, demonstrating the quality that is comparable to those obtained by OCT systems with separate reference arms. Additionally, we demonstrate recovery of ranging depth by use of a Michelson interferometer in the detection path. We developed a miniaturized monolithic inline fiber mirror-based common path probe for optical coherence tomography. Owing to its simplicity, our design will be helpful in endoscopic applications that require high-resolution probes in a compact form factor while reducing system complexity. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:230-235, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Separated and Transitional Boundary Layers Under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Volino, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Modern low-pressure turbine airfoils are subject to increasingly stronger pressure gradients as designers impose higher loading in an effort to improve efficiency and to reduce part count. The adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation, particularly under cruise conditions. Separation bubbles, notably those which fail to reattach, can result in a significant degradation of engine efficiency. Accurate prediction of separation and reattachment is hence crucial to improved turbine design. This requires an improved understanding of the transition flow physics. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions, has a strong influence on subsequent reattachment, and may even eliminate separation. Further complicating the problem are the high free-stream turbulence levels in a real engine environment, the strong pressure gradients along the airfoils, the curvature of the airfoils, and the unsteadiness associated with wake passing from upstream stages. Because of the complicated flow situation, transition in these devices can take many paths that can coexist, vary in importance, and possibly also interact, at different locations and instances in time. The present work was carried out in an attempt to systematically sort out some of these issues. Detailed velocity measurements were made along a flat plate subject to the same nominal dimensionless pressure gradient as the suction side of a modern low-pressure turbine airfoil ('Pak-B'). The Reynolds number based on wetted plate length and nominal exit velocity, Re, was varied from 50;000 to 300; 000, covering cruise to takeoff conditions. Low, 0.2%, and high, 7%, inlet free-stream turbulence intensities were set using passive grids. These turbulence levels correspond to about 0.2% and 2.5% turbulence intensity in the test section when normalized with the exit velocity. The Reynolds number and free

  10. Thin-layer chromatography - liquid chromatography, an ideal supplement demonstrated by the separation of lanthanoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specker, H.; Hufnagel, A.

    1984-01-01

    All lanthanoids have been separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with short retention times by using a mixture of ether/tetrahydrofurane (THF)/bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (HDEHP)/nitric acid. The eluent was empirically tested by synergistic effects. The results have been transferred to high-performance liquid chromatography /HPLC). It was possible to use the same eluent in TLC and HPLC both for the analytical separation of all lanthanoids and for the separation of fission products. The experimental experience gained in HPLC could be applied to the pre-concentration of isotopes in TLC. Both methods excellently supplemented each other in the separation of lanthanoids. (orig.) [de

  11. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell,; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay, A [Oviedo, FL

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  12. Boundary layer transition observations on a body of revolution with surface heating and cooling in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, V. H.

    1980-04-01

    Boundary layer flow visualization in water with surface heat transfer was carried out on a body of revolution which had the predicted possibility of laminar separation under isothermal conditions. Flow visualization was by in-line holographic technique. Boundary layer stabilization, including elimination of laminar separation, was observed to take place on surface heating. Conversely, boundary layer destabilization was observed on surface cooling. These findings are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Wazzan et al. (1970).

  13. Structural characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Liu, W. D.; Fan, X. Q.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2017-07-01

    For a better understanding of the local unstart of supersonic/hypersonic inlet, a series of experiments has been conducted to investigate the shock-induced boundary layer separation extended to the leading edge. Using the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering, we recorded the fine structures of these interactions under different conditions and paid more attention to their structural characteristics. According to their features, these interactions could be divided into four types. Specifically, Type A wave pattern is similar to the classic shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction, and Type B wave configuration consists of an overall Mach reflection above the large scale separation bubble. Due to the gradual decrease in the size of the separation bubble, the separation bubble was replaced by several vortices (Type C wave pattern). Besides, for Type D wave configuration which exists in the local unstart inlet, there appears to be some flow spillage around the leading edge.

  14. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Václav URUBA

    2010-01-01

    Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL) on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition) techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns) method. The study contributes...

  15. Passive Flap Actuation by Reversing Flow in Laminar Boundary Layer Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Chase; Lang, Amy; Santos, Leo; Bonacci, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the flow separation is of great interest in the field of fluid mechanics in order to reduce drag and improve the overall efficiency of aircraft. This project seeks to investigate passive flow control using shark inspired microflaps in laminar boundary layer separation. This study aims to show that whether a flow is laminar or turbulent, laminar and 2D or turbulent and 3D, microflaps actuated by reversing flow is a robust means of controlling flow separation. In order to generate a controlled adverse pressure gradient, a rotating cylinder induces separation at a chosen location on a flat plate boundary layer with Re above 10000. Within this thick boundary layer, digital particle image velocimetry is used to map the flow. This research can be used in the future to better understand the nature of the bristling shark scales and its ability to passively control separation. Results show that microflaps successfully actuated due to backflow and that this altered the formation of flow separation. I would like to thank the NSF for REU Grant EEC 1659710 and the Army Research Office for funding this project.

  16. Drying of upper peat of a low degree of separation in a vibro-boiling layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumovich, V M; Goryachev, V I; Shafeyev, R S

    1981-01-01

    The boiling layer created by a gas flow in its motion upward through friable material finds wide application for the drying of different dispersed materials. In spite of the significant superiority of a boiling layer to other methods of drying, it is not universal and possesses a series of important drawbacks. For an intensification of the boiling layer and an upgrading of its structure, different mechanical systems are employed: agitators, impulses, ultrasound, and other actions on the material. In particular with the development of the vibration technique, vibrated low-frequency oscillations are not only a means of structurally upgrading the boiling layer, but serve as the basic factor in creating an intensively blended layer of friable material. According to the character of the motion of the particles, such a layer resembles a boiling liquid. Therefore, in the given case, it is called vibro-boiling. An appartus working on the principle of a vibro-boiling layer, in many cases, is eliminated of faults, a characteristic worthy of considering by installations with a boiling layer. A considered created department of machines and processes of refining peat, the KPI, is a vibration-drying installatin of the VSU type, designed for the drying of peat with a low degree of separation in a vibro-boiling layer.

  17. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO 2 and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer (∼ 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  18. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-03-06

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO{sub 2} and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer ({approx} 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  19. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-02

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s).

  20. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Kyeong

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.

  1. A Simple Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Separation of Selected Natural Steroid Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowska, J.; Rudnicka-Litka, K.; Ciura, K.; Pikul, P.; Piotrowicz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatographic properties of seven steroids: estrogens (β-estradiol and estrone), androgens (testosterone, methyltestosterone, trans-androsterone), progesterone and cholesterol have been studied by planar chromatography with usage of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates. Normal, reversed and cyano-bonded silica stationary phases were tested with five binary mobile phases (acetonitrile-water, acetonitrile-DMSO, acetonitrile-methanol, acetone-petroleum ether, acetone-water) in which the concentration of organic modifier varied from 0 to 100 % (v/v). This study reports the optimization of steroid hormones separation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on calculated molecular descriptors quantitatively differentiating solutes was performed in order to investigate the similarity and dissimilarity between tested compounds. The separation abilities of mobile and stationary phases were compared based on separation factor α. Chromatographic retention data and possible retention mechanisms also were discussed. (author)

  2. Recent advances in multi-layer composite polymeric membranes for CO2 separation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongde Dai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of multilayer composite membranes for CO2 separation has gained increasing attention due to the desire for energy efficient technologies. Multilayer composite membranes have many advantages, including the possibility to optimize membrane materials independently by layers according to their different functions and to reduce the overall transport resistance by using ultrathin selective layers, and less limitations on the material mechanical properties and processability. A comprehensive review is required to capture details of the progresses that have already been achieved in developing multilayer composite membranes with improved CO2 separation performance in the past 15–20 years. In this review, various composite membrane preparation methods were compared, advances in composite membranes for CO2/CH4 separation, CO2/N2 and CO2/H2 separation were summarized with detailed data, and challenges facing for the CO2 separation using composite membranes, such as aging, plasticization and long-term stability, were discussed. Finally the perspectives and future research directions for composite membranes were presented. Keywords: Composite membrane, CO2 separation, Membrane fabrication, Membrane aging, Long-term stability

  3. In-line analytical instrumentation in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Bhargava, V.K.; Marathe, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants where uranium and plutonium are separated from highly radioactive fission products, continuous monitoring of these constituents is helpful in many ways. Apart from quick detection of possible process malfunctions, in-line monitoring protects operating personnel from radiation hazards, reduces the cost of laboratory analysis and increases the overall efficiency of the process. A review of a proqramme of work on the design, fabrication and testing of some in-line instruments viz. gamma absorptiometer for uranium, neutron monitor for plutonium, acidity monitor for scrub nitric acid etc., their feasibility studies in the laboratory as well as in the pilot plant is presented. (auth.)

  4. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary layer separation. Part 1: General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.

  5. On the Lagrangian description of unsteady boundary-layer separation. I - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dommelen, Leon L.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    Although unsteady, high-Reynolds number, laminar boundary layers have conventionally been studied in terms of Eulerian coordinates, a Lagrangian approach may have significant analytical and computational advantages. In Lagrangian coordinates the classical boundary layer equations decouple into a momentum equation for the motion parallel to the boundary, and a hyperbolic continuity equation (essentially a conserved Jacobian) for the motion normal to the boundary. The momentum equations, plus the energy equation if the flow is compressible, can be solved independently of the continuity equation. Unsteady separation occurs when the continuity equation becomes singular as a result of touching characteristics, the condition for which can be expressed in terms of the solution of the momentum equations. The solutions to the momentum and energy equations remain regular. Asymptotic structures for a number of unsteady 3-D separating flows follow and depend on the symmetry properties of the flow. In the absence of any symmetry, the singularity structure just prior to separation is found to be quasi 2-D with a displacement thickness in the form of a crescent shaped ridge. Physically the singularities can be understood in terms of the behavior of a fluid element inside the boundary layer which contracts in a direction parallel to the boundary and expands normal to it, thus forcing the fluid above it to be ejected from the boundary layer.

  6. Experimental Study of Unsteady Flow Separation in a Laminar Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Andrew; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Santos, Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    Flow separation, caused by an adverse pressure gradient, is a major problem in many applications. Reversing flow near the wall is the first sign of incipient separation and can bristle shark scales which may be linked to a passive, flow actuated separation control mechanism. An investigation of how this backflow forms and how it interacts with shark skin is of interest due to the fact that this could be used as a bioinspired means of initiating flow control. A water tunnel experiment aims to study unsteady separation with a focus on the reversing flow development near the wall within a flat plate laminar boundary layer (Re on order of 105) as an increasing adverse pressure gradient is induced by a rotating cylinder. Unsteady reversing flow development is documented using DPIV. Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (EEC 1659710) and the Army Research Office.

  7. Boundary layer separation method for recycling of sodium ions from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petho, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid

    2010-12-01

    The most effective technological solution for waste treatment is recycling. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial wastewaters and have called it the boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We have used the phenomenon that, on the surface of an electrically charged electrode, ions can be enriched in the boundary layer, as compared with the inside of the phase. The essence of the method is that, with an appropriately chosen velocity, the boundary layer can be removed from the wastewater, and the boundary layer, which is rich in ions, can be recycled. The BLSM can be executed as a cyclic procedure. The capacitance of the boundary layer was examined. The best mass transport can be achieved with the use of 1000 and 1200 mV polarization potentials in the examined system, with its value being 1200 mg/m2 per cycle. The necessary operation times were determined by the examination of the velocity of the electrochemical processes. When using 1000 mV polarization potential, the necessary adsorption time is at least 25 seconds, and the desorption time at least 300 seconds. The advantage of the procedure is that it does not use dangerous chemicals, only inert electrodes. The drawback is that it is not selective to ions, the achievable separation in one step is low, and the hydrogen that emerges during the electrolysis might be dangerous.

  8. [Clinical research of arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique for delaminated rotator cuff tear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangtao; Xu, Cong; Liu, Xianglin; Wang, Jiansong; Li, Zhihuai; Lü, Yongming

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effectiveness of the arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique in treatment of the delaminated rotator cuff tear. Between May 2013 and May 2015, 54 patients with the delaminated rotator cuff tears were recruited in the study. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive repair either using arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique (trial group, n =28) or using arthroscopic whole-layer suture bridge technique (control group, n =26). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injured side, tear type, and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Constants score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, and the range of motion of shoulder joint between 2 groups ( P >0.05). Postoperative functional scores, range of motion, and recurrence rate of tear in 2 groups were observed and compared. The operation time was significant longer in trial group than in control group ( t =8.383, P =0.000). All incisions healed at stage Ⅰ without postoperative complication. All the patients were followed up 12 months. At 12 months postoperatively, the UCLA score, ASES score, VAS score, Constant score, and the range of motion were significantly improved when compared with the preoperative values in 2 groups ( P 0.05). Four cases (14.3%) of rotator cuff tear recurred in trial group while 5 cases (19.2%) in control group, showing no significant difference ( χ 2 =0.237, P =0.626). Compared with the arthroscopic whole-layer suture bridge technique, arthroscopic separate double-layer suture bridge technique presents no significant difference in the shoulder function score, the range of motion, and recurrence of rotator cuff tear, while having a longer operation time.

  9. A documentation of two- and three-dimensional shock-separated turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. D.; Brown, J. L.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1988-01-01

    A shock-related separation of a turbulent boundary layer has been studied and documented. The flow was that of an axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer over a 5.02-cm-diam cylinder that was aligned with the wind tunnel axis. The boundary layer was compressed by a 30 deg half-angle conical flare, with the cone axis inclined at an angle alpha to the cylinder axis. Nominal test conditions were P sub tau equals 1.7 atm and M sub infinity equals 2.85. Measurements were confined to the upper-symmetry, phi equals 0 deg, plane. Data are presented for the cases of alpha equal to 0. 5. and 10 deg and include mean surface pressures, streamwise and normal mean velocities, kinematic turbulent stresses and kinetic energies, as well as reverse-flow intermittencies. All data are given in tabular form; pressures, streamwise velocities, turbulent shear stresses, and kinetic energies are also presented graphically.

  10. Boundary Layer Separation and Reattachment Detection on Airfoils by Thermal Flow Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Busche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensor concept for detection of boundary layer separation (flow separation, stall and reattachment on airfoils is introduced in this paper. Boundary layer separation and reattachment are phenomena of fluid mechanics showing characteristics of extinction and even inversion of the flow velocity on an overflowed surface. The flow sensor used in this work is able to measure the flow velocity in terms of direction and quantity at the sensor’s position and expected to determine those specific flow conditions. Therefore, an array of thermal flow sensors has been integrated (flush-mounted on an airfoil and placed in a wind tunnel for measurement. Sensor signals have been recorded at different wind speeds and angles of attack for different positions on the airfoil. The sensors used here are based on the change of temperature distribution on a membrane (calorimetric principle. Thermopiles are used as temperature sensors in this approach offering a baseline free sensor signal, which is favorable for measurements at zero flow. Measurement results show clear separation points (zero flow and even negative flow values (back flow for all sensor positions. In addition to standard silicon-based flow sensors, a polymer-based flexible approach has been tested showing similar results.

  11. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  12. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  13. The role of interfacial water layer in atmospherically relevant charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Indrani

    Charge separation at interfaces is important in various atmospheric processes, such as thunderstorms, lightning, and sand storms. It also plays a key role in several industrial processes, including ink-jet printing and electrostatic separation. Surprisingly, little is known about the underlying physics of these charging phenomena. Since thin films of water are ubiquitous, they may play a role in these charge separation processes. This talk will focus on the experimental investigation of the role of a water adlayer in interfacial charging, with relevance to meteorologically important phenomena, such as atmospheric charging due to wave actions on oceans and sand storms. An ocean wave generates thousands of bubbles, which upon bursting produce numerous large jet droplets and small film droplets that are charged. In the 1960s, Blanchard showed that the jet droplets are positively charged. However, the charge on the film droplets was not known. We designed an experiment to exclusively measure the charge on film droplets generated by bubble bursting on pure water and aqueous salt solution surfaces. We measured their charge to be negative and proposed a model where a slight excess of hydroxide ions in the interfacial water layer is responsible for generating these negatively charged droplets. The findings from this research led to a better understanding of the ionic disposition at the air-water interface. Sand particles in a wind-blown sand layer, or 'saltation' layer, become charged due to collisions, so much so, that it can cause lightning. Silica, being hydrophilic, is coated with a water layer even under low-humidity conditions. To investigate the importance of this water adlayer in charging the silica surfaces, we performed experiments to measure the charge on silica surfaces due to contact and collision processes. In case of contact charging, the maximum charge separation occurred at an optimum relative humidity. On the contrary, in collisional charging process, no

  14. Reversing flow causes passive shark scale actuation in a separating turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amy; Gemmell, Bradford; Motta, Phil; Habegger, Laura; Du Clos, Kevin; Devey, Sean; Stanley, Caleb; Santos, Leo

    2017-11-01

    Control of flow separation by shortfin mako skin in experiments has been demonstrated, but the mechanism is still poorly understood yet must be to some extent Re independent. The hypothesized mechanisms inherent in the shark skin for controlling flow separation are: (1) the scales, which are capable of being bristled only by reversing flow, inhibit flow reversal events from further development into larger-scale separation and (2) the cavities formed when scales bristle induces mixing of high momentum flow towards the wall thus energizing the flow close to the surface. Two studies were carried out to measure passive scale actuation caused by reversing flow. A small flow channel induced an unsteady, wake flow over the scales prompting reversing flow events and scale actuation. To resolve the flow and scale movements simultaneously we used specialized optics at high magnification (1 mm field of view) at 50,000 fps. In another study, 3D printed models of shark scales, or microflaps (bristling capability up to 50 degrees), were set into a flat plate. Using a tripped, turbulent boundary layer grown over the long flat plate and a localized adverse pressure gradient, a separation bubble was generated within which the microflaps were placed. Passive flow actuation of both shark scales and microflaps by reversing flow was observed. Funding from Army Research Office and NSF REU site Grant.

  15. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2013-08-01

    Nanoporous layered silicate/polymer composite membranes are of interest because they can exploit the high aspect ratio of exfoliated selective flakes/layers to enhance molecular sieving and create a highly tortuous transport path for the slower molecules. In this work, we combine membrane synthesis, detailed microstructural characterization, and mixed gas permeation measurements to demonstrate that nanoporous flake/polymer membranes allows significant improvement in gas permeability while maintaining selectivity. We begin with the primary-amine-intercalated porous layered silicate SAMH-3 and show that it can be exfoliated using a high shear rate generated by a high-speed mixer. The exfoliated SAMH-3 flakes were used to form SAMH-3/cellulose acetate (CA) membranes. Their microstructure was analyzed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), revealing a high degree of exfoliation of AMH-3 layers in the CA membrane with a small number of layers (4-8) in the exfoliated flakes. TEM analysis visualized the thickness of the flakes as 15-30nm, and is consistent with the SAXS analysis. The CO2/CH4 gas separation performance of the CA membrane was significantly increased by incorporating only 2-6wt% of SAMH-3 flakes. There was a large increase in CO2 permeability with maintenance of selectivity. This cannot be explained by conventional models of transport in flake-containing membranes, and indicates complex transport paths in the membrane. It is also in contrast to the much higher loadings of isotropic particles required for similar enhancements. The present approach may allow avoidance of particle aggregation and poor interfacial adhesion associated with larger quantities of inorganic fillers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Thermophoretic motion behavior of submicron particles in boundary-layer-separation flow around a droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ao; Song, Qiang; Ji, Bingqiang; Yao, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    As a key mechanism of submicron particle capture in wet deposition and wet scrubbing processes, thermophoresis is influenced by the flow and temperature fields. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the characteristics of the flow and temperature fields around a droplet at three droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) that correspond to three typical boundary-layer-separation flows (steady axisymmetric, steady plane-symmetric, and unsteady plane-symmetric flows). The thermophoretic motion of submicron particles was simulated in these cases. Numerical results show that the motion of submicron particles around the droplet and the deposition distribution exhibit different characteristics under three typical flow forms. The motion patterns of particles are dependent on their initial positions in the upstream and flow forms. The patterns of particle motion and deposition are diversified as Re increases. The particle motion pattern, initial position of captured particles, and capture efficiency change periodically, especially during periodic vortex shedding. The key effects of flow forms on particle motion are the shape and stability of the wake behind the droplet. The drag force of fluid and the thermophoretic force in the wake contribute jointly to the deposition of submicron particles after the boundary-layer separation around a droplet.

  17. The structure of a separating turbulent boundary layer. IV - Effects of periodic free-stream unsteadiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. L.; Shivaprasad, B. G.; Chew, Y.-T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements were obtained of the sinusoidal unsteadiness of the free stream velocity during the separation of the turbulent boundary layer. Data were gathered by single wire and cross-wire, anemometry upstream of flow detachment, by laser Doppler velocimetry to detect the movement of the flow in small increments, and by a laser anemometer in the detached zone to measure turbulence and velocities. The study was restricted to a sinusoidal instability frequency of 0.61 and a ratio of oscillation amplitude to mean velocity of 0.3. Large amplitude and phase variations were found after the detachment, with unsteady effects producing hysteresis in the relationships between flow parameters. The detached shear layer decreased in thickness with increasing free-stream velocity and increases in the Reynolds shear stress. Deceleration of the free stream velocity caused thickening in the shear layer and upstream movement of the flow reversal location. The results are useful for studies of compressor blade and helicopter rotors in transition.

  18. Photoinduced charge separation in a colloidal system of exfoliated layered semiconductor controlled by coexisting aluminosilicate clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakato, Teruyuki; Yamada, Yoshimi; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi

    2009-02-05

    We investigated photoinduced charge separation occurring in a multicomponent colloidal system composed of oxide nanosheets of photocatalytically active niobate and photochemically inert clay and electron accepting methylviologen dications (MV2+). The inorganic nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of layered hexaniobate and hectorite clay. The niobate and clay nanosheets were spatially separated in the colloidally dispersed state, and the MV2+ molecules were selectively adsorbed on the clay platelets. UV irradiation of the colloids led to electron transfer from the niobate nanosheets to the MV2+ molecules adsorbed on clay. The photoinduced electron transfer produced methylviologen radical cations (MV*+), which was characterized by high yield and long lifetime. The yield and stability of the MV*+ species were found to depend strongly on the clay content of the colloid: from a few mol % to approximately 70 mol % of the yield and several tens of minutes to more than 40 h of the lifetime. The contents of the niobate nanosheets and MV2+ molecules and the aging of the colloid also affected the photoinduced charge separation. In the absence of MV2+ molecules in the colloid, UV irradiation induced electron accumulation in the niobate nanosheets. The stability of the electron-accumulated state also depended on the clay content. The variation in the photochemical behavior is discussed in relation to the viscosity of the colloid.

  19. Incorporating an Electrode Modification Layer with a Vertical Phase Separated Photoactive Layer for Efficient and Stable Inverted Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenzhen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Yaping; Li, Jinyan; Bai, Yiming; Wang, Fuzhi; Bian, Xingming; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2017-12-20

    For bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs), the donors and acceptors featuring specific phase separation and concentration distribution within the electron donor/acceptor blends crucially affect the exciton dissociation and charge transportation. Herein, efficient and stable nonfullerene inverted PSCs incorporating a phase separated photoactive layer and a titanium chelate electrode modification layer are demonstrated. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques are implemented to characterize the morphology of photoactive layers. Compared with the control conventional device, the short-circuit current density (J sc ) is enhanced from 14.74 to 17.45 mAcm -2 . The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for the inverted PSCs with a titanium (diisopropoxide)-bis-(2,4-pentanedionate) (TIPD) layer increases from 9.67% to 11.69% benefiting from the declined exciton recombination and fairly enhanced charge transportation. Furthermore, the nonencapsulated inverted device with a TIPD layer demonstrates the best long-term stability, 85% of initial PCE remaining and an almost undecayed open-circuit voltage (V oc ) after 1440 h. Our results reveal that the titanium chelate is an excellent electrode modification layer to incorporate with a vertical phase separated photoactive layer for producing high-efficiency and high-stability inverted nonfullerene PSCs.

  20. Shifted knife-edge aperture digital in-line holography for fluid velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palero, Virginia; Lobera, Julia; Andrés, Nieves; Arroyo, M Pilar

    2014-06-01

    We describe a digital holography technique that, with the simplicity of an in-line configuration, produces holograms where the real and virtual images are completely separated, as in an off-axis configuration. An in-line setup, in which the object is imaged near the sensor, is modified by placing a shifted knife-edge aperture that blocks half the frequency spectrum at the focal plane of the imaging lens. This simple modification of the in-line holographic configuration allows discriminating the virtual and real images. As a fluid velocimetry technique, the use of this aperture removes the minimum defocusing distance requisite and reduces the out-of-plane velocity measurement errors of classical in-line holography. Results with different test objects are shown.

  1. Investigation of a transonic separating/reattaching shear layer by means of PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scharnowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The separating/reattaching flow over an axisymmetric backward-facing step is analyzed experimentally by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV. The main purpose of the measurements is the investigation of the mean flow field as well as of the Reynolds stress distributions at a Mach number of 0.7 and at a Reynolds number of 3.3×105 based on the step height. Due to the strong progress of optical flow measurements in the last years it was possible to resolve all flow scales down to 180μm (≈1% of the step height with high precision. Thanks to the high spatial resolution it was found for the first time that the Reynolds stress distribution features a local minimum between the first part of the shear layer and a region inside the recirculation region. This implies a more complex wake dynamics than assumed before.

  2. The Role Seemingly of Amorphous Silica Gel Layers in Chiral Separations by Planar Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kowalska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In planar chromatography, silica gel appears as the most frequently used adsorbent. Its preference as planar chromatographic stationary phase is due to its high specific surface area (ca. 700 m2 g-1 and relatively simple active sites (silanol groups, Si-OH. The high specific surface area of silica gel and a high density of coverage of its surface with the silanol active sites contribute jointly to an excellent separation performance of this adsorbent. In our experiments on chiral separation of the enantiomer pairs by planar chromatography, contradictory behavior of the silica gel layers versus the chiral compounds was observed. The migration tracks of chiral compounds in the ascending planar chromatographic mode were not vertical but bent on either side being a function of analyte chirality. This deviation of the analyte’s migration track was noticed, when using the densitometric scanner to quantify the respective chromatograms. In order to confirm the hypothesis as to the microcrystalline nature of silica gel used in liquid chromatography, it was further investigated through circular dichroism (CD and the data thereof confirmed that the ‘chromatographic’ silica gels are not amorphous but microcrystalline, contributing to the (partial horizontal enantioseparation of the antimer pairs. This paper summarizes the results of our investigation on the microcrystalline nature of silica gels used in planar chromatography and their impact on enantioseparation of the selected pairs of antimers.

  3. The role seemingly of amorphous silica gel layers in chiral separations by planar chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajewicz, M.; Kowalska, T.

    2007-01-01

    In planar chromatography, silica gel appears as the most frequently used adsorbent. Its preference as planar chromatographic stationary phase is due to its high specific surface area (ca. 700 m2 gl) and relatively simple active sites (silanol groups =Si-OH). The high specific surface area of silica gel and a high density of coverage of its surface with the silanol active sites contribute jointly to an excellent separation performance of this adsorbent. In our experiments on chiral separation of the enantiomer pairs by planar chromatography, contradictory behavior of the silica gel layers versus the chiral compounds was observed. The migration tracks of chiral compounds in the ascending planar chromatographic mode were not vertical but bent on either side being a function of analyte chirality. This deviation of the analytes migration track was noticed, when using the densitometric scanner to quantify the respective chromatograms. In order to confirm the hypothesis as to the microcrystalline nature of silica gel used in liquid chromatography, it was further investigated through circular dichroism (CD) and the data thereof confirmed that the chromatographic silica gels are not amorphous but microcrystalline, contributing to the (partial) horizontal enantioseparation of the antimer pairs. This paper summarizes the results of our investigation on the microcrystalline nature of silica gels used in planar chromatography and their impact on enantioseparation of the selected pairs of antimers. (author)

  4. Corner Separation Control by Boundary Layer Suction Applied to a Highly Loaded Axial Compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangwei Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Control of corner separation has attracted much interest due to its improvement of performance and energy utilization in turbomachinery. Numerical studies have been performed under both design and off-design flow conditions to investigate the effects of boundary layer suction (BLS on corner separation in a highly loaded compressor cascade. Two new BLS slot configurations are proposed and a total of five suction slot configurations were studied and compared. Averaged static pressure rise, exit loss coefficient, passage blockage and flow turning angle have been given and compared systematically over a range of operation incidence angles. Distributions of significant loss removal, blade loading, exit deviation and total pressure loss at 3 degree and 7 degree incidence have also been studied. Under the same suction mass flows of 0.7% of the inlet mass flows, the pitchwise suction slot on the endwall shows a better optimal performance over the whole operation incidence among single suction slots. By using of the new proposed compound slot configuration with one spanwise slot on the blade suction side and one pitchwise slot on the endwall, the maximum reduction of total pressure loss at 7 degree incidence can be 39.4%.

  5. Optofluidic Sensor for Inline Hemolysis Detection on Whole Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chen; Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2018-01-01

    Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells and constitutes the most common reason for unsuitable blood samples in the clinic. To detect hemolysis, one has to separate the hemoglobin in blood plasma from that in red blood cells. However, current methods entail centrifugation for cell......-time inline detection on whole blood without extra sample preparation like centrifugation. Long-term testing with inline integration in a modified, commercial blood gas analyzer shows high reliability and repeatability of the measurements even with the presence of interference from bilirubin. We envision...... that the present work has large potential in improving diagnosis quality by enabling PoC hemolysis detection in blood gas analyzers and can also lend unique sensing capabilities to other applications dealing with complex turbid media....

  6. Optofluidic Sensor for Inline Hemolysis Detection on Whole Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chen; Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2018-01-01

    -plasma separation, which is complex, time-consuming, and not easy to integrate into point-of-care (PoC) systems. Here, we demonstrate an optofluidic sensor composed of nanofilters on an optical waveguide, which enables evanescent-wave absorption measurement of hemoglobin in plasma with the capability of real......-time inline detection on whole blood without extra sample preparation like centrifugation. Long-term testing with inline integration in a modified, commercial blood gas analyzer shows high reliability and repeatability of the measurements even with the presence of interference from bilirubin. We envision...... that the present work has large potential in improving diagnosis quality by enabling PoC hemolysis detection in blood gas analyzers and can also lend unique sensing capabilities to other applications dealing with complex turbid media....

  7. A chip-type thin-layer electrochemical cell coupled with capillary electrophoresis for online separation of electrode reaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jian-Bo, E-mail: jbhe@hfut.edu.cn; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Deng, Ning

    2013-07-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new coupling of thin-layer electrolysis with capillary electrophoresis (CE). •Rapid electrolysis, direct sampling followed by online CE separation. •At least 13 products of quercetin oxidation were separated. •Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined from CE peak areas. -- Abstract: A coupling technique of thin-layer electrolysis with high-performance capillary electrophoresis/UV–vis technique(EC/HPCE/UV–vis) is developed for online separation and determination of electrode reaction products. A chip-type thin-layer electrolytic (CTE) cell was designed and fabricated, which contains a capillary channel and a background electrolyte reservoir, allowing rapid electrolysis, direct sampling and online electrophoretic separation. This chip-type setup was characterized based on an electrophoresis expression of Nernst equation that was applied to the redox equilibrium of o-tolidine at different potentials. The utility of the method was demonstrated by separating and determining the electro-oxidation products of quercetin in different pH media. Two main products were always found in the studied time, potential and pH ranges. The variety of products increased not only with increasing potential but also with increasing pH value, and in total, at least 13 products were observed in the electropherograms. This work illustrates a novel example of capillary electrophoresis used online with thin-layer electrolysis to separate and detect electrode reaction products.

  8. A chip-type thin-layer electrochemical cell coupled with capillary electrophoresis for online separation of electrode reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jian-Bo; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Deng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new coupling of thin-layer electrolysis with capillary electrophoresis (CE). •Rapid electrolysis, direct sampling followed by online CE separation. •At least 13 products of quercetin oxidation were separated. •Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were determined from CE peak areas. -- Abstract: A coupling technique of thin-layer electrolysis with high-performance capillary electrophoresis/UV–vis technique(EC/HPCE/UV–vis) is developed for online separation and determination of electrode reaction products. A chip-type thin-layer electrolytic (CTE) cell was designed and fabricated, which contains a capillary channel and a background electrolyte reservoir, allowing rapid electrolysis, direct sampling and online electrophoretic separation. This chip-type setup was characterized based on an electrophoresis expression of Nernst equation that was applied to the redox equilibrium of o-tolidine at different potentials. The utility of the method was demonstrated by separating and determining the electro-oxidation products of quercetin in different pH media. Two main products were always found in the studied time, potential and pH ranges. The variety of products increased not only with increasing potential but also with increasing pH value, and in total, at least 13 products were observed in the electropherograms. This work illustrates a novel example of capillary electrophoresis used online with thin-layer electrolysis to separate and detect electrode reaction products

  9. [Injury patterns and prophylaxis in inline skating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Heck, C

    2005-05-01

    Inline skating has become one of the fastest growing sports since its appearance in 1980. The increasing number of inline skaters has also led to a rising incidence of injuries. The most common injury is the distal fracture of the radius, which occurs in 50% of all fractures. There are several reasons for increasing serious injuries in inline skating. The majority of skaters do not wear proper protective equipment (helmet, elbow, knee and wrist protectors), however, many users can not handle their inline skates in dangerous situations. All skaters should take care by buying industrially tested inline skates and appropriate protective equipment; novice skaters should additionally attend special skating schools to learn skating, braking and the the correct falling techniques.

  10. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  11. Influence of Active Layer on Separation Potentials of Nanofiltration Membranes for Inorganic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadekar, Shardul S; Vidic, Radisav D

    2017-05-16

    Active layers of two fully aromatic and two semi-aromatic nanofiltration membranes were studied along with surface charge at different electrolyte composition and effective pore size to elucidate their influence on separation mechanisms for inorganic ions by steric, charge, and dielectric exclusion. The membrane potential method used for pore size measurement is underlined as the most appropriate measurement technique for this application owing to its dependence on the diffusional potentials of inorganic ions. Crossflow rejection experiments with dilute feed composition indicate that both fully aromatic membranes achieved similar rejection despite the differences in surface charge, which suggests that rejection by these membranes is exclusively dependent on size exclusion and the contribution of charge exclusion is weak. Rejection experiments with higher ionic strength and different composition of the feed solution confirmed this hypothesis. On the other hand, increase in the ionic strength of feed solution when the charge exclusion effects are negligible due to charge screening strongly influenced ion rejection by semi-aromatic membranes. The experimental results confirmed that charge exclusion contributes significantly to the performance of semi-aromatic membranes in addition to size exclusion. The contribution of dielectric exclusion to overall ion rejection would be more significant for fully aromatic membranes.

  12. Structural optimization of interpenetrated pillared-layer coordination polymers for ethylene/ethane separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Keisuke; Horike, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Tahara, Mina; Inubushi, Yasutaka; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    With the goal of achieving effective ethylene/ethane separation, we evaluated the gas sorption properties of four pillared-layer-type porous coordination polymers with double interpenetration, [Zn2(tp)2(bpy)]n (1), [Zn2(fm)2(bpe)]n (2), [Zn2(fm)2(bpa)]n (3), and [Zn2(fm)2(bpy)]n (4) (tp = terephthalate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, fm = fumarate, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene and bpa = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane). It was found that 4, which contains the narrowest pores of all of these compounds, exhibited ethylene-selective sorption profiles. The ethylene selectivity of 4 was estimated to be 4.6 at 298 K based on breakthrough experiments using ethylene/ethane gas mixtures. In addition, 4 exhibited a good regeneration ability compared with a conventional porous material. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Lee, Jong Suk; Bucknall, David G.; Koros, William J.; Nair, Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous layered silicate/polymer composite membranes are of interest because they can exploit the high aspect ratio of exfoliated selective flakes/layers to enhance molecular sieving and create a highly tortuous transport path for the slower

  14. A fluidized layer of granular material used for the separation of particulate impurities in drinking water treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Bubáková, Petra; Hnaťuková, Petra; Knesl, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 95-106 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : aggregation * destabilization * fluidized layer * separation * water treatment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011

  15. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which

  16. Core-shell structured ceramic nonwoven separators by atomic layer deposition for safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiu; Li, Chao; Shi, Chuan; Yang, Chaochao; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Longqing; Dai, Jianhui; Wu, Dezhi; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2018-05-01

    Safety is one of the most factors for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a novel kind of ceramic separator with high safety insurance is proposed. We fabricated the core-shell nanofiber separators for LIBs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of 30 nm Al2O3 on the electrospinning nonwoven fiber of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP). The separators show a pretty high heat resistance up to 200 °C without any shrinkage, an excellent fire-resistant property and a wide electrochemical window. Besides, with higher uptake and ionic conductivity, cells assembled with the novel separator shows better electrochemical performance. The ALD produced separators exhibit great potential in elaborate products like 3C communications and in energy field with harsh requirements for safety such as electric vehicles. The application of ALD on polymer fiber membranes brings a new strategy and opportunity for improving the safety of the advanced LIBs.

  17. Multilayer composite membranes for gas separation based on crosslinked PTMSP gutter layer and partially crosslinked Matrimid R 5218 selective layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peter, Jakub; Peinemann, K.; V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 340, 1-2 (2009), s. 62-72 ISSN 0376-7388 Grant - others:Marie Curie fellowship(XE) HPMT-CT-2001-00220 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : composite membrane * gas separation * PTMSP * Matrimid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.203, year: 2009

  18. Fabrication of PVDF-based blend membrane with a thin hydrophilic deposition layer and a network structure supporting layer via the thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Tianyu; Qin, Shuhao; He, Benqiao; Han, Na; Li, Jianxin

    2017-10-01

    A simple strategy of thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (TIPS-NIPS) is reported to fabricate poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based blend membrane. The dissolved poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) in diluent prevents the crystallization of PVDF during the cooling process and deposites on the established PVDF matrix in the later extraction. Compared with traditional coating technique, this one-step TIPS-NIPS method can not only fabricate a supporting layer with an interconnected network structure even via solid-liquid phase separation of TIPS, but also form a uniform SMA skin layer approximately as thin as 200 nm via surface deposition of NIPS. Besides the better hydrophilicity, what's interesting is that the BSA rejection ratio increases from 48% to 94% with the increase of SMA, which indicates that the separation performance has improved. This strategy can be conveniently extended to the creation of firmly thin layer, surface functionalization and structure controllability of the membrane.

  19. Algae separation from urban landscape water using a high density microbubble layer enhanced by micro-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Wei, Qiaoling; Li, Guangming; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of raw water results in outbreaks of algae, which hinders conventional water treatment. In this study, high density microbubble layers combined with micro-flocculation was adopted to remove algae from urban landscape water, and the effects of pressure, hydraulic loading, microbubble layer height and flocculation dosage on the removal efficiency for algae were studied. The greatest removal efficiency for algae, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained at 0.42 MPa with hydraulic loading at 5 m/h and a flocculation dosage of 4 mg/L using a microbubble layer with a height of 130 cm. Moreover, the size, clearance distance and concentration of microbubbles were found to be affected by pressure and the height of the microbubble layer. Based on the study, this method was an alternative for algae separation from urban landscape water and water purification.

  20. Boundary-Layer Separation Control under Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil Conditions using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Ashpis, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Modem low-pressure turbines, in general, utilize highly loaded airfoils in an effort to improve efficiency and to lower the number of airfoils needed. Typically, the airfoil boundary layers are turbulent and fully attached at takeoff conditions, whereas a substantial fraction of the boundary layers on the airfoils may be transitional at cruise conditions due to the change of density with altitude. The strong adverse pressure gradients on the suction side of these airfoils can lead to boundary-layer separation at the latter low Reynolds number conditions. Large separation bubbles, particularly those which fail to reattach, cause a significant degradation of engine efficiency. A component efficiency drop of the order 2% may occur between takeoff and cruise conditions for large commercial transport engines and could be as large as 7% for smaller engines at higher altitude. An efficient means of of separation elimination/reduction is, therefore, crucial to improved turbine design. Because the large change in the Reynolds number from takeoff to cruise leads to a distinct change in the airfoil flow physics, a separation control strategy intended for cruise conditions will need to be carefully constructed so as to incur minimum impact/penalty at takeoff. A complicating factor, but also a potential advantage in the quest for an efficient strategy, is the intricate interplay between separation and transition for the situation at hand. Volino gives a comprehensive discussion of several recent studies on transition and separation under low-pressure-turbine conditions, among them one in the present facility. Transition may begin before or after separation, depending on the Reynolds number and other flow conditions. If the transition occurs early in the boundary layer then separation may be reduced or completely eliminated. Transition in the shear layer of a separation bubble can lead to rapid reattachment. This suggests using control mechanisms to trigger and enhance early

  1. Separation of pigment formulations by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with automated multiple development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Constanze; Dietzel, Sylvia; Endress, Marc; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2016-09-02

    Food packaging is designed to provide sufficient protection for the respective filling, legally binding information for the consumers like nutritional facts or filling information, and an attractive appearance to promote the sale. For quality and safety of the package, a regular quality control of the used printing materials is necessary to get consistently good print results, to avoid migration of undesired ink components into the food and to identify potentially faulty ink batches. Analytical approaches, however, have hardly been considered for quality assurance so far due to the lack of robust, suitable methods for the analysis of rarely soluble pigment formulations. Thus, a simple and generic high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the separation of different colored pigment formulations was developed on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 by automated multiple development. The gradient system provided a sharp resolution for differently soluble pigment constituents like additives and coating materials. The results of multi-detection allowed a first assignment of the differently detectable bands to particular chemical substance classes (e.g., lipophilic components), enabled the comparison of different commercially available pigment batches and revealed substantial variations in the composition of the batches. Hyphenation of HPTLC with high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy allowed the characterization of single unknown pigment constituents, which may partly be responsible for known quality problems during printing. The newly developed, precise and selective HPTLC method can be used as part of routine quality control for both, incoming pigment batches and monitoring of internal pigment production processes, to secure a consistent pigment composition resulting in consistent ink quality, a faultless print image and safe products. Hyphenation of HPTLC with the A. fischeri bioassay gave first information on the bioactivity or rather

  2. Separation of metals in the form of ion associates by the method of thin-layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, E.N.; Timerbaev, A.R.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Mel'nik, S.V.; Kordejro, E.

    1990-01-01

    Behaviour of pyridylazo resorcinates of certain metals (Ga, In, Fe, Co) in the form of ionic pairs with tri-n-octylamine (TOA) under conditions of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has been studied. For all eluents investigated Ga and In complexes possess the highest mobility. Selectivity of ionic associate separation decreases with an increase in mobile phase polarity. Mixtures with 10-15 % content of isopropanol in eluating solution are the optimal ones. Separation of Ga and In from Fe 3+ and Co takes place with separation criterion 3.1 and 4.1 respectively. An attempt to separate ionic associates of In and Ga failed owing to similar stability of their pyridylazoresorcinates. Solution of the problem of In and Ga determination in the presence of iron can contribute to concrete application of the method

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Ivan; Ruzic, Lana; Padovan, Viktoria; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav; Podnar, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male) were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level). They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8–2.6%] – 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0–4.5%]). In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2–2.4%] – 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1–4.0%]) and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92–0.99] – 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98–1.00]). The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2) revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters’ performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4–26.4%, all p skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters. Key points Study evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed inline skating skill test. Evaluated test is a first protocol designed to assess specific inline skating skill. Two groups of amateur skaters with different skating proficiency repeated the skill test in four separate occasions. The results suggest that evaluated test is reliable and valid to evaluate inline skating skill in amateur skaters. PMID:27803616

  4. Competitive separation of di- vs. mono-valent cations in electrodialysis: effects of the boundary layer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younggy; Walker, W Shane; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-05-01

    In electrodialysis desalination, the boundary layer near ion-exchange membranes is the limiting region for the overall rate of ionic separation due to concentration polarization over tens of micrometers in that layer. Under high current conditions, this sharp concentration gradient, creating substantial ionic diffusion, can drive a preferential separation for certain ions depending on their concentration and diffusivity in the solution. Thus, this study tested a hypothesis that the boundary layer affects the competitive transport between di- and mono-valent cations, which is known to be governed primarily by the partitioning with cation-exchange membranes. A laboratory-scale electrodialyzer was operated at steady state with a mixture of 10mM KCl and 10mM CaCl(2) at various flow rates. Increased flows increased the relative calcium transport. A two-dimensional model was built with analytical solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation. In the model, the boundary layer thickness was considered as a random variable defined with three statistical parameters: mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient between the thicknesses of the two boundary layers facing across a spacer. Model simulations with the Monte Carlo method found that a greater calcium separation was achieved with a smaller mean, greater standard deviation, or more negative correlation coefficient. The model and experimental results were compared for the cationic transport number as well as the current and potential relationship. The mean boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 40 to less than 10 μm as the superficial water velocity increased from 1.06 to 4.24 cm/s. The standard deviation was greater than the mean thickness at slower water velocities and smaller at faster water velocities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Intestinal Fluid Layer Separation: The Effect On Colloidal Structures & Solubility Of Lipophilic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny, Riethorst; Amitava, Mitra; Filippos, Kesisoglou; Wei, Xu; Jan, Tack; Joachim, Brouwers; Patrick, Augustijns

    2018-05-23

    In addition to individual intestinal fluid components, colloidal structures are responsible for enhancing the solubility of lipophilic compounds. The present study investigated the link between as well as the variability in the ultrastructure of fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) and their solubilizing capacity for lipophilic compounds. For this purpose, FeHIF samples from 10 healthy volunteers with known composition and ultrastructure were used to determine the solubility of four lipophilic compounds. In light of the focus on solubility and ultrastructure, the study carefully considered the methodology of solubility determination in relation to colloid composition and solubilizing capacity of FeHIF. To determine the solubilizing capacity of human and simulated intestinal fluids, the samples were saturated with the compound of interest, shaken for 24 h, and centrifuged. When using FeHIF, solubilities were determined in the micellar layer of FeHIF, i.e. after removing the upper (lipid) layer (standard procedure), as well as in 'full' FeHIF (without removal of the upper layer). Compound concentrations were determined using HPLC-UV/fluorescence. To link the solubilizing capacity with the ultrastructure, all human and simulated fluids were imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and after centrifugation and top layer (lipid) removal. Comparing the ultrastructure and solubilizing capacity of individual FeHIF samples demonstrated a high intersubject variability in postprandial intestinal conditions. Imaging of FeHIF after removal of the upper layer clearly showed that only micellar structures remain in the lower layer. This observation suggests that larger colloids such as vesicles and lipid droplets are contained in the upper, lipid layer. The solubilizing capacity of most FeHIF samples substantially increased with inclusion of this lipid layer. The relative increase in solubilizing capacity upon inclusion of the lipid layer was most pronounced

  6. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.

    2012-01-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with di...

  7. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N. J.; Braber, R. van den; Brand, H. van den; Meo, F.; Baar, M.R. de; Amerongen, F.J.; Donné, A.J.H.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Erckmann, V.; Goede, A.P.H.; Giannone, L.; Grünwald, G.; Hollman, F.; Kaas, G.; Krijger, B.; Michel, G.; Lubyako, L.; Monaco, F.; Noke, F.; Petelin, M.; Plaum, B.; Purps, F.; Pierik, J.G.W. ten; Schüller, C.; Slob, J.W.; Stober, J.K.; Schütz, H.; Wagner, D.; Westerhof, E.; Ronden, D.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with

  8. Many-body correlation effects in the spatially separated electron and hole layers in the coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichenko, V.S. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Polishchuk, I.Ya., E-mail: iyppolishchuk@gmail.com [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700, 9, Institutskii per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    The many-body correlation effects in the spatially separated electron and hole layers in the coupled quantum wells are investigated. A special case of the many-component electron–hole system is considered. It is shown that if the hole mass is much greater than the electron mass, the negative correlation energy is mainly determined by the holes. The ground state of the system is found to be the 2D electron–hole liquid with the energy smaller than the exciton phase. It is shown that the system decays into the spatially separated neutral electron–hole drops if the initially created charge density in the layers is smaller than the certain critical value n{sub eq}.

  9. Disassembly and physical separation of electric/electronic components layered in printed circuit boards (PCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeryeong; Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jae-chun

    2012-11-30

    Although printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain various elements, only the major elements (i.e., those with content levels in wt% or over grade) of and precious metals (e.g., Ag, Au, and platinum groups) contained within PCBs can be recycled. To recover other elements from PCBs, the PCBs should be properly disassembled as the first step of the recycling process. The recovery of these other elements would be beneficial for efforts to conserve scarce resources, reuse electric/electronic components (EECs), and eliminate environmental problems. This paper examines the disassembly of EECs from wasted PCBs (WPCBs) and the physical separation of these EECs using a self-designed disassembling apparatus and a 3-step separation process of sieving, magnetic separation, and dense medium separation. The disassembling efficiencies were evaluated by using the ratio of grinding area (E(area)) and the weight ratio of the detached EECs (E(weight)). In the disassembly treatment, these efficiencies were improved with an increase of grinder speed and grinder height. 97.7% (E(area)) and 98% (E(weight)) could be accomplished ultimately by 3 repetitive treatments at a grinder speed of 5500 rpm and a grinder height of 1.5mm. Through a series of physical separations, most groups of the EECs (except for the diode, transistor, and IC chip groups) could be sorted at a relatively high separation efficiency of about 75% or more. To evaluate the separation efficiency with regard to the elemental composition, the distribution ratio (R(dis)) and the concentration ratio (R(conc)) were used. 15 elements could be separated with the highest R(dis) and R(conc) in the same separated division. This result implies that the recyclability of the elements is highly feasible, even though the initial content in EECs is lower than several tens of mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamical effects accompanied freezing of two water layers separated by sea ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    The process of melt pond freezing is very important for generation of sea ice cover thermodynamic and mass balance during winterperiod. However, due to significant difficulties of field measurements the available data of model estimations still have no instrumental confirmation. In May 2009 the authors carried out laboratory experiment on freezing of limited water volume in the University Centre in Svalbard ice tank. In the course of experiment fresh water layer of 27.5 cm thickness at freezing point poured on the 24 cm sea ice layer was cooled during 50 hours at the temperature -10º C and then once again during 60 hours at -20º C. For revealing process typical characteristics the data of continuous measurements of temperature and salinity in different phases were compared with data of numerical computations obtained with thermodynamic model which was formulated in the frames of 1-D equation system (infinite extension of water freezing layer) and adapted to laboratory conditions. The known surprise of the experiment became proximity of calculated and measured estimates of process dynamics that confirmed the adequacy of the problem mathematical statement (excluding probably process finale stage). This effect can be explained by formation of cracks on the upper layer of ice at sharp decreases of air temperature, which temporary compensated hydrostatic pressure growth during freezing of closed water volume. Another compensated mechanism can be migration of brine through the lower layer of ice under influence of vertical pressure gradient and also rejection of gas dissolved in water which increased its compressibility. During 110 hours cooling thickness of water layer between ice layers reduced approximately to 2 cm. According to computations this layer is not chilled completely but keeps as thin brine interlayer within ice body whose thickness (about units of mm) is determined by temperature fluctuations of cooled surface. Nevertheless, despite good coincidence of

  11. Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...

  12. Specialization of Generic Array Accesses After Inlining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Tokuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an optimization that specializes type-generic array accesses after inlining of polymorphic functions in the native-code OCaml compiler. Polymorphic array operations (read and write in OCaml require runtime type dispatch because of ad hoc memory representations of integer and float arrays. It cannot be removed even after being monomorphized by inlining because the intermediate language is mostly untyped. We therefore extended it with explicit type application like System F (while keeping implicit type abstraction by means of unique identifiers for type variables. Our optimization has achieved up to 21% speed-up of numerical programs.

  13. Resolution in in-line digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, C; Denis, L; Fournel, T

    2010-01-01

    Digital in-line holography is a 3D imaging technique which has been widely developed during the last two decades. This technique achieves the 3D reconstruction of volume objects from a 2D image-hologram. It is a metrological tool and therefore the improvement of resolution is one of the current challenges. However the resolution depends on several experimental parameters and the experimenters have to choose the parameters which will lead to the best resolution. This paper presents the study of resolution in in-line digital holography from the asymptotical bounds of the covariance of estimators used in hologram reconstruction.

  14. Effect of Hydrograph Separation on Suspended Sediment Concentration Predictions in a Forested Headwater with Thick Soil and Weathered Gneiss Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Kabeya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-component hydrograph separation using oxygen-18 concentrations was conducted at a sediment runoff observation weir installed in a small subcatchment of a forested gneiss catchment in Japan. The mean soil thickness of this catchment is 7.27 m, which comprises 3.29 m of brown forest soil (A and B layers and a 3.98-m layer of heavily weathered gneiss. Data were collected for a storm on 20–21 May 2003, and the percentage of event water separated by the stable isotope ratio in comparison with the total rainfall amount was about 1%. This value is within the ratio of a riparian zone in a drainage area. Temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration exhibited higher correlation with the event water component than with the total runoff or pre-event water component. This shows that the riparian zone causes rainwater to flow out quickly during a rain event, and that this is an important area of sediment production and transportation in a forested headwater with thick soil and weathered gneiss layers.

  15. A facile method to enhance the uniformity and adhesion properties of water-based ceramic coating layers on hydrophobic polyethylene separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoogil; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Gong, Seokhyeon; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2018-01-01

    To enhance the uniformity and adhesion properties of water-based ceramic coating layers on hydrophobic polyethylene (PE) separators, their surfaces were treated with thin and hydrophilic polydopamine layers. As a result, an aqueous ceramic coating slurry consisting of Al2O3 particles, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) binders, and water solvent was easily spread on the separator surface, and a uniform ceramic layer was formed after solvent drying. Moreover, the ceramic coating layer showed greatly improved adhesion properties to the PE separator surface. Whereas the adhesion strength within the bulk coating layer (Fmid) ranged from 43 to 86 N m-1 depending on the binder content of 1.5-3.0 wt%, the adhesion strength at the interface between the ceramic coating layer and PE separator (Fsepa-Al2O3) was 245-360 N m-1, a value equivalent to an increase of four or five times. Furthermore, an additional ceramic coating layer of approximately 7 μm did not degrade the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of the bare PE separators. Thus, all the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with ceramic-coated separators delivered an improved cycle life and rate capability compared with those of the control cells with bare PE separators.

  16. Role of the electron blocking layer in the graded-index separate confinement heterostructure nitride laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarska, Agata; Goss, Jakub; Stanczyk, Szymon; Makarowa, Irina; Schiavon, Dario; Czernecki, Robert; Suski, Tadeusz; Perlin, Piotr

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the role of the electron blocking layer (EBL) in laser diodes based on a graded index separate confinement heterostructure. We compare two sets of devices with very different EBL aluminum composition (3% and 12%) and design (graded and superlattice). The results of electro-optical characterization of these laser diodes reveal surprisingly modest role of electron blocking layer composition in determination of the threshold current and the differential efficiency values. However, EBL structure influences the operating voltage, which is decreased for devices with lower EBL and superlattice EBL. We observe also the differences in the thermal stability of devices - characteristic temperature is lower for lasers with 3% Al in EBL.

  17. In situ Silver Spot Preparation and on-Plate Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection in Thin Layer Chromatography Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, K.; Mircescu, N. E.; Szabo, L.; Leopold, L. F.; Chiş, V.; Leopold, N.

    2013-05-01

    An improved approach for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of mixture constituents after thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation is presented. A SERS active silver substrate was prepared under open air conditions, directly on the thin silica film by photo-reduction of silver nitrate, allowing the detection of binary mixtures of cresyl violet, bixine, crystal violet, and Cu(II) complex of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The recorded SERS spectrum provides a unique spectral fingerprint for each molecule; therefore the use of analyte standards is avoided, thus rendering the presented procedure advantageous compared to the conventional detection methodology in TLC.

  18. Aerodynamics of wings at low Reynolds numbers: Boundary layer separation and reattachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, John

    Due to advances in electronics technology, it is now possible to build small scale flying and swimming vehicles. These vehicles will have size and velocity scales similar to small birds and fish, and their characteristic Reynolds number will be between 104 and 105. Currently, these flying and swimming vehicles do not perform well, and very little research has been done to characterize them, or to explain why they perform so poorly. This dissertation documents three basic investigations into the performance of small scale lifting surfaces, with Reynolds numbers near 104. Part I. Low Reynolds number aerodynamics. Three airfoil shapes were studied at Reynolds numbers of 1 and 2x104: a flat plate airfoil, a circular arc cambered airfoil, and the Eppler 387 airfoil. Lift and drag force measurements were made on both 2D and 3D conditions, with the 3D wings having an aspect ratio of 6, and the 2D condition being approximated by placing end plates at the wing tips. Comparisons to the limited number of previous measurements show adequate agreement. Previous studies have been inconclusive on whether lifting line theory can be applied to this range of Re, but this study shows that lifting line theory can be applied when there are no sudden changes in the slope of the force curves. This is highly dependent on the airfoil shape of the wing, and explains why previous studies have been inconclusive. Part II. The laminar separation bubble. The Eppler 387 airfoil was studied at two higher Reynolds numbers: 3 and 6x10 4. Previous studies at a Reynolds number of 6x104 had shown this airfoil experiences a drag increase at moderate lift, and a subsequent drag decrease at high lift. Previous studies suggested that the drag increase is caused by a laminar separation bubble, but the experiments used to show this were conducted at higher Reynolds numbers and extrapolated down. Force measurements were combined with flow field measurements at Reynolds numbers 3 and 6x104 to determine whether

  19. Bioparticle Separation in Microfluidic Devices for in-Line Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2009-01-01

    There was an explosive growth in the bioprocess industry market during the last decade. The tight control of these processes is often very critical in order to optimize the process efficiency or even achieve the right product. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) system is a good option for process

  20. Fast Inline Roll-to-Roll Printing for Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells Using Automatic Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    layer. The third and fourth layers were slot-die coated at the same time again using inline processing at a web speed of 10 mmin1 of firstly zinc oxide as the electron transport layer followed by P3HT:PCBM as the active layer. The first three layers (silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ZnO) comprise a generally......Fast inline roll-to-roll printing and coating on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and barrier foil was demonstrated under ambient conditions at web speeds of 10 mmin1 for the manufacture of indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells comprising a 6-layer stack: silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ Zn...

  1. Centrifugal Separation Device Based on Two-Layer Laminar Flow in Microchannels for High-Throughput and Continuous Blood Cell/Plasma Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taizo Kobayashi,; Taisuke Funamoto,; Makoto Hosaka,; Satoshi Konishi,

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a novel type of centrifugation device that is based on the two-layer laminar flow in micro flow channels for continuous blood cell/plasma separation. We propose to rotate the flow channels which are arranged along the circumference around the rotational axis. Downsizing the channel width reduced both the cell sedimentation time and the required centrifugal force, because the channel width corresponds to the centrifugal sedimentation length. First, plasma and cells were continuously extracted from pig blood in each of the branch channels using a milled acrylic prototype device (channel width = 800 μm, volume = 150 μl). Next, the relationship between the channel width (125, 250, and 500 μm) and the sedimentation time taken for various centrifugal forces (2.3, 9, 36, and 145 G) was evaluated using the downsized microchannels fabricated by hot-embossing and thermal bonding technologies. Using downsized microchannels with a width of 125 μm successfully reduced the sedimentation time to 85 s as compared to the sedimentation time of 270 s for a channel of a width of 500 μm, when a centrifugal force of 2.3 G was applied. The use of the proposed device did not result in obvious hemolysis at the centrifugal forces lower than 335 G.

  2. Composition-dependent phase separation effects of organic solar cells using P3HT:PCBM as active layer and chromium oxide as hole transporting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Pingli; Fang Guojia; Sun Nanhai; Fan Xi; Zheng Qiao; Chen Fei; Wan Jiawei; Zhao Xingzhong

    2011-01-01

    Phase separation of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) active layer (ATL) was investigated by varying their relative ratio in the organic solar cells (OSCs). With the help of the UV/visible spectrophotometer, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope, we found that the cluster of PCBM at the interface or surface was affected by Al cathode, the composition of the blends and thermal annealing. The disc-like shape crystals of PCBM substituted for the needle-like ones at higher PCBM compositions at the ATL/Al interface, which led to stronger contacts and bigger contact area. It could make short circuit current density increase, but may affect the blend morphology and result in parallel resistance and open circuit voltage decreased with the PCBM ratio increasing from 40 to 60%. The microstructure of the P3HT:PCBM ATL, determined by the composition dependent phase separation, supported the optimized performance of the OSCs with the composition of 40-50% PCBM.

  3. Experimental, theoretical and numerical interpretation of thermodiffusion separation for a non-associating binary mixture in liquid/porous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Jawad, H.; Saghir, M.Z.; Giraudet, C.; Croccolo, F.; Bataller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodiffusion in a hydrocarbon binary mixture has been investigated experimentally and numerically in a liquid-porous cavity. The solutal separation of the 50% toluene and 50% n-hexane binary mixture induced by a temperature difference at atmospheric pressure has been performed in a new thermodiffusion cell. A new optimized cell design is used in this study. The inner part of the cell is a cylindrical porous medium sandwiched between two liquid layers of the same binary hydrocarbon mixture. Experimental measurement and theoretical estimation of the molecular diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients showed a good agreement. In order to understand the different regimes occurring in the different parts of the cell, a full transient numerical simulation of the solutal separation of the binary mixture has been performed. Numerical results showed that the lighter species, which are of n-hexane migrated toward the hot surface, while the denser species, which is toluene migrated towards the cold surface. Also, it was found that a good agreement has been reached between experimental measurements and numerical calculations for the solutal separation between the hot and cold surface for different medium porosity. In addition, we used the numerical results to analyse convection and diffusion regions in the cell precisely. (authors)

  4. Kill ratio calculation for in-line yield prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Alfonso; Oter, David; Cruceta, Sergio; Valtuena, Juan F.; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Mata, Carlos

    1999-04-01

    The search for better yields in IC manufacturing calls for a smarter use of the vast amount of data that can be generated by a world class production line.In this scenario, in-line inspection processes produce thousands of wafer maps, number of defects, defect type and pictures every day. A step forward is to correlate these with the other big data- generator area: test. In this paper, we present how these data can be put together and correlated to obtain a very useful yield predicting tool. This correlation will first allow us to calculate the kill ratio, i.e. the probability for a defect of a certain size in a certain layer to kill the die. Then we will use that number to estimate the cosmetic yield that a wafer will have.

  5. In-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for the metallization of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Christoph Paul

    2012-07-11

    This work focuses on the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for contacting rear sides of silicon solar cells. The substrate temperature during the deposition process, the wafer bow after deposition, and the electrical properties of evaporated contacts are investigated. Furthermore, this work demonstrates for the first time the formation of aluminum-doped silicon regions by the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum without any further temperature treatment. The temperature of silicon wafers during in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum is investigated in this work. The temperatures are found to depend on the wafer thickness W, the aluminum layer thickness d, and on the wafer emissivity {epsilon}. Two-dimensional finite-element simulations reproduce the measured peak temperatures with an accuracy of 97%. This work also investigates the wafer bow after in-line high-rate evaporation and shows that the elastic theory overestimates the wafer bow of planar Si wafers. The lower bow is explained with plastic deformation in the Al layer. Due to the plastic deformation only the first 79 K in temperature decrease result in a bow formation. Furthermore the electrical properties of evaporated point contacts are examined in this work. Parameterizations for the measured saturation currents of contacted p-type Si wafers and of contacted boron-diffused p{sup +}-type layers are presented. The contact resistivity of the deposited Al layers to silicon for various deposition processes and silicon surface concentrations are presented and the activation energy of the contact formation is determined. The measured saturation current densities and contact resistivities of the evaporated contacts are used in one-dimensional numerical Simulations and the impact on energy conversion efficiency of replacing a screen-printed rear side by an evaporated rear side is presented. For the first time the formation of aluminum-doped p{sup +}-type (Al-p{sup +}) silicon regions by the in-line

  6. Reynolds stress structures in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at the verge of separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.; Sekimoto, A.; Jiménez, J.; Soria, J.

    2018-04-01

    Mean Reynolds stress profiles and instantaneous Reynolds stress structures are investigated in a self-similar adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (APG-TBL) at the verge of separation using data from direct numerical simulations. The use of a self-similar APG-TBL provides a flow domain in which the flow gradually approaches a constant non-dimensional pressure gradient, resulting in a flow in which the relative contribution of each term in the governing equations is independent of streamwise position over a domain larger than two boundary layer thickness. This allows the flow structures to undergo a development that is less dependent on the upstream flow history when compared to more rapidly decelerated boundary layers. This APG-TBL maintains an almost constant shape factor of H = 2.3 to 2.35 over a momentum thickness based Reynolds number range of Re δ 2 = 8420 to 12400. In the APG-TBL the production of turbulent kinetic energy is still mostly due to the correlation of streamwise and wall-normal fluctuations, 〈uv〉, however the contribution form the other components of the Reynolds stress tensor are no longer negligible. Statistical properties associated with the scale and location of sweeps and ejections in this APG-TBL are compared with those of a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer developing from the same inlet profile, resulting in momentum thickness based range of Re δ 2 = 3400 to 3770. In the APG-TBL the peak in both the mean Reynolds stress and the production of turbulent kinetic energy move from the near wall region out to a point consistent with the displacement thickness height. This is associated with a narrower distribution of the Reynolds stress and a 1.6 times higher relative number of wall-detached negative uv structures. These structures occupy 5 times less of the boundary layer volume and show a similar reduction in their streamwise extent with respect to the boundary layer thickness. A significantly lower percentage

  7. A novel in-line NIR spectroscopy application for the monitoring of tablet film coating in an industrial scale process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möltgen, C-V; Puchert, T; Menezes, J C; Lochmann, D; Reich, G

    2012-04-15

    Film coating of tablets is a multivariate pharmaceutical unit operation. In this study an innovative in-line Fourier-Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) application is described which enables real-time monitoring of a full industrial scale pan coating process of heart-shaped tablets. The tablets were coated with a thin hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film of up to approx. 28 μm on the tablet face as determined by SEM, corresponding to a weight gain of 2.26%. For a better understanding of the aqueous coating process the NIR probe was positioned inside the rotating tablet bed. Five full scale experimental runs have been performed to evaluate the impact of process variables such as pan rotation, exhaust air temperature, spray rate and pan load and elaborate robust and selective quantitative calibration models for the real-time determination of both coating growth and tablet moisture content. Principal Component (PC) score plots allowed each coating step, namely preheating, spraying and drying to be distinguished and the dominating factors and their spectral effects to be identified (e.g. temperature, moisture, coating growth, change of tablet bed density, and core/coat interactions). The distinct separation of HPMC coating growth and tablet moisture in different PCs enabled a real-time in-line monitoring of both attributes. A PLS calibration model based on Karl Fischer reference values allowed the tablet moisture trajectory to be determined throughout the entire coating process. A 1-latent variable iPLS weight gain calibration model with calibration samples from process stages dominated by the coating growth (i.e. ≥ 30% of the theoretically applied amount of coating) was sufficiently selective and accurate to predict the progress of the thin HPMC coating layer. At-line NIR Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) in combination with PLS Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) verified the HPMC coating growth and physical changes at the core/coat interface during the initial

  8. Separation of Berberine Hydrochloride and Tetrahydropalmatine and Their Quantitative Analysis with Thin Layer Chromatography Involved with Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [BMIM]OH was used in mobile and stationary phase of thin layer chromatography (TLC to analyze berberine hydrochloride and tetrahydropalmatine for the first time. Supported imidazole ionic liquid with hydroxide ion on silica gel (SiO2·Im+·OH− was synthesized through simple procedure and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Moreover, on the plates prepared by SiO2·Im+·OH−, the contents of the above alkaloids in the Chinese patent medicine (CPM of “Stomacheasy” capsule were successfully determined by TLC scanner. The key conditions and chromatographic behaviors were also investigated in detail. According to similar ways, ionic liquids (ILs also can be used in other planar chromatographies in two modes. This study is expected to be helpful in expanding the application of IL and its bonded silica gel in TLC separation field.

  9. A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-07-01

    The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n=15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m 2 , and n=19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m 2 ) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29±19%) than for SEPARATE (57±11%, p<0.001). In the present study we show that gastric sieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of in-line near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for improved understanding of pharmaceutical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Jukka; Wikström, Håkan; Turner, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    was extracted. Principal component loadings were fully interpreted to validate the conclusions drawn from scores and predictions. Thus NIR spectroscopy could be used to determine the end points of the three subphases of high shear wet granulation and, as such, provide a fast in-line quality control tool....... solid dosage form. In this study, the use of in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a process analytical tool for high shear granulation was investigated. In combination with principal component-based methods, process analysis of three separate phases of high shear wet granulation (mixing, spraying...

  11. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  12. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qingxue [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Rong [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Jinan 250063 (China); Xiao, Hongdi, E-mail: hdxiao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  13. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe - the Inline One-Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189-220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211-271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races.

  14. Twist on protein microarrays: layering wax-patterned nitrocellulose to create customizable and separable arrays of multiplexed affinity columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Victoria; Vörös, János

    2014-05-06

    We developed the simple and inexpensive FoRe microarray to simultaneously test several 1 μL samples for multiple proteins. By combining forward and reverse phase microarrays into an innovative three-dimensional format, the FoRe array exploits the advantages and eliminates several drawbacks of the traditional approaches (i.e., large sample volumes, protein loss, and cross-reactivity between detection antibodies). Samples are pipetted into an array of separable, multiplexed affinity columns. Several nitrocellulose membranes, each functionalized with a different capture antibody, are stacked to create a customizable affinity column. The nitrocellulose is patterned with wax to form 25 isolated microspots on each layer, allowing us to analyze multiple samples in parallel. After running the immunoassay, the stacks are quickly disassembled, revealing 2D microarrays of different fractions from multiple samples. By combining the stack-and-separate technique with wax patterning, we keep the arrays low cost and easily tailored to a variety of applications. We successfully performed 3D multiplexing using a model system with mouse and rabbit IgG. Binding proved to be independent of the position in the stack, and the limit of detection for a mouse IgG sandwich assay was 7.3 pM in BSA and 15 pM in human plasma. The FoRe microarray makes it possible to identify protein expression patterns across several minute volume samples; for example, it could be used to analyze cell lysate in drug response studies or pricks of blood from small animal studies.

  15. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: the eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO 2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie; Adil, Karim; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal–organic frameworks (1–5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores

  16. LARGE-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF A SEPARATION/REATTACHMENT BUBBLE IN A TURBULENT-BOUNDARY-LAYER SUBJECTED TO A PRESCRIBED UPPER-BOUNDARY, VERTICAL-VELOCITY PROFILE

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan

    2015-06-30

    We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.

  17. Ultrasound transmission spectroscopy: in-line sizing of nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Volker, A.W.F.; Pierre, G.; Bouvet, F.; Crozat, S.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in a number of applications, e.g. coatings or paints. To optimize nanoparticle production in-line quantitative measurements of their size distribution and concentration are needed. Ultrasound-based methods are especially suited for in-line particle sizing. These

  18. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donné A.J.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG. The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  19. Commissioning of inline ECE system within waveguide based ECRH transmission systems on ASDEX upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, W. A.; Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.; van den Braber, R.; van den Brand, H.; Meo, F.; de Baar, M. R.; Amerongen, F. J.; Donné, A. J. H.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Erckmann, V.; Goede, A. P. H.; Giannone, L.; Grünwald, G.; Hollman, F.; Kaas, G.; Krijger, B.; Michel, G.; Lubyako, L.; Monaco, F.; Noke, F.; Petelin, M.; Plaum, B.; Purps, F.; ten Pierik, J. G. W.; Schüller, C.; Slob, J. W.; Stober, J. K.; Schütz, H.; Wagner, D.; Westerhof, E.; Ronden, D. M. S.

    2012-09-01

    A CW capable inline electron cyclotron emission (ECE) separation system for feedback control, featuring oversized corrugated waveguides, is commissioned on ASDEX upgrade (AUG). The system is based on a combination of a polarization independent, non-resonant, Mach-Zehnder diplexer equipped with dielectric plate beam splitters [2, 3] employed as corrugated oversized waveguide filter, and a resonant Fast Directional Switch, FADIS [4, 5, 6, 7] as ECE/ECCD separation system. This paper presents an overview of the system, the low power characterisation tests and first high power commissioning on AUG.

  20. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  1. [Injury pattern caused by aggressive inline skating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, R E; Besch, L; Behnke, B; Egbers, H-J

    2004-12-01

    In order to evaluate the special injury pattern of aggressive inline skating, a field study was conducted in a local, non-commercial skate park equipped with all the typical features like ramps, halfpipes, gully areas. 66 unselected aggressive inline skaters were randomly enrolled and interviewed concerning their skating habits and their skating injury history. Average age was 15 (10 to 41) years, skating was performed since 2.1 (0.1 to 6) years, as aggressive skating since 1.3 (0.1 to 4) years. Medical treatment in a doctor's practice or in a hospital had been necessary in 66 cases, averaging 1.4 times per skater and year, averaging one injury per 586 hours of aggressive skating. The injury pattern reflected the regions typically injured in fitness skating, too, with a higher percentage of injuries concerning knee, tibia and ankle region. The use of protective devices varied from 41 % (wrist guards) to 94 % (knee pads), with an average of 69 %. Only 32 % of skaters wore all protective devices. As the personal thrill is an important motivation for aggressive skating, safer skating campaigns are quite unlikely to decrease the risk of injury in aggressive skaters.

  2. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  3. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  4. Optimal topotactic conversion of layered octosilicate to RWR-type zeolite by separating the formation stages of interlayer condensation and elimination of organic guest molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Osada, Shimon; Hosaka, Nami; Terasawa, Taichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate that the separation of two stages of interlayer condensation under refluxing and elimination of organic guests provides the optimal conditions for the formation of RWR-type zeolite from layered octosilicate. The obtained RWR-type zeolite has higher quality than any other RWR-type zeolite reported previously.

  5. LARGE-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF A SEPARATION/REATTACHMENT BUBBLE IN A TURBULENT-BOUNDARY-LAYER SUBJECTED TO A PRESCRIBED UPPER-BOUNDARY, VERTICAL-VELOCITY PROFILE

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Wan; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used

  6. Effect of Reynolds Number and Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow Condition on Boundary Layer Development, Separation, and Intermittency Behavior Along the Suction Surface of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Ozturk, B.; Ashpis, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper experimentally studies the effects of periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds numbers on boundary layer development, separation and re-attachment along the suction surface of a low pressure turbine blade. The experimental investigations were performed on a large scale, subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility at Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory (TPFL) of Texas A&M University. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers of 110,000 and 150,000 (based on suction surface length and exit velocity). One steady and two different unsteady inlet flow conditions with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities were investigated. The reduced frequencies chosen cover the operating range of LP turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, surface pressure measurements were performed. The inception, onset, and the extent of the separation bubble information collected from the pressure measurements were compared with the hot wire measurements. The results presented in ensemble-averaged, and the contour plot forms help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow and different Reynolds number. It was found that the suction surface displayed a strong separation bubble for these three different reduced frequencies. For each condition, the locations defining the separation bubble were determined carefully analyzing and examining the pressure and mean velocity profile data. The location of the boundary layer separation was dependent of the Reynolds number. It is observed that starting point of the separation bubble and the re-attachment point move further downstream by increasing Reynolds number from 110,000 to 150,000. Also, the size of the separation bubble is smaller when compared to that for Re=110,000.

  7. Separation of the Stern and diffuse layer in coarse-grained models: the cases of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and PIP2 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangaveti, S; Travesset, A

    2014-12-28

    We present here a method to separate the Stern and diffuse layer in general systems into two regions that can be analyzed separately. The Stern layer can be described in terms of Bjerrum pairing and the diffuse layer in terms of Poisson-Boltzmann theory (monovalent) or strong coupling theory plus a slowly decaying tail (divalent). We consider three anionic phospholipids: phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2), which we describe within a minimal coarse-grained model as a function of ionic concentration. The case of mixed lipid systems is also considered, which shows a high level of binding cooperativity as a function of PIP2 localization. Implications for existing experimental systems of lipid heterogeneities are also discussed.

  8. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  9. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  10. A supermolecular building layer approach for gas separation and storage applications: the eea and rtl MOF platforms for CO 2 capture and hydrocarbon separation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhijie

    2015-02-11

    The supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach was employed to deliberately synthesize five novel metal–organic frameworks (1–5) with an exposed array of amide or amine functionalities within their pore system. The ability to decorate the pores with nitrogen donor moieties offers potential to evaluate/elucidate the structure–adsorption property relationship. Two MOF platforms, eea-MOF and rtl-MOF, based on pillaring of kgm-a or sql-a layers with heterofunctional 3-connected organic building blocks were targeted and constructed to purposely introduce and expose the desired amide or amine functionalities. Interestingly, gas adsorption properties of eea-MOF-4 (1) and eea-MOF-5 (2) showed that by simply altering the nitrogen donor position within the ligand, it is possible to relatively reduce the pore size of the related eea-MOF material and subsequently increase the associated CO2 uptake. The slightly confined pore space in 2, relative to 1, has enabled an enhancement of the pore local charge density and thus the observed relative increase in the CO2 and H2 isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst). In addition, light hydrocarbon adsorption studies revealed that 2 is more selective toward C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 than 1, as exemplified for C2H6 : CH4 (5 : 95) or C3H8 : CH4 (5 : 95) binary gas mixtures.

  11. Industrial inline PVD metallization for silicon solar cells with laser fired contacts leading to 21.8% efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nekarda, J.; Reinwand, D.; Hartmann, P.; Preu, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present the latest results of our experiments in regard to an industrially feasible inline physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization method for the rear side of passivated solar cells. In an earlier publication, the quality of such processed layers and the feasibility of the tool was already shown and compared with a commonly used laboratory process based on electron beam evaporation. Since then a difference in the Voc potential in the range of ~ 4 mV between both ...

  12. Feasibility of correlating separation of ternary mixtures of neutral analytes via thin layer chromatography with supercritical fluid chromatography in support of green flash separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yan, Q; Akin, A; Riley, F; Aurigemma, C; Taylor, L T

    2015-10-30

    Method development for normal phase flash liquid chromatography traditionally employs preliminary screening using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with conventional solvents on bare silica. Extension to green flash chromatography via correlation of TLC migration results, with conventional polar/nonpolar liquid mixtures, and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) retention times, via gradient elution on bare silica with a suite of carbon dioxide mobile phase modifiers, is reported. Feasibility of TLC/SFC correlation is individually described for eight ternary mixtures for a total of 24 neutral analytes. The experimental criteria for TLC/SFC correlation was assumed to be as follows: SFC/UV/MS retention (tR) increases among each of the three resolved mixture components; while, TLC migration (Rf) decreases among the same resolved mixture components. Successful correlation of TLC to SFC was observed for most of the polar organic solvents tested, with the best results observed via SFC on bare silica with methanol as the CO2 modifier and TLC on bare silica with a methanol/dichloromethane mixture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of parameters for the inline-injection system at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.; Ko, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    We present some of our parameter optimization results utilizing code PARMLEA, for the ATF Inline-Injection System. The new solenoid-Gun-Solenoid -- Drift-Linac Scheme would improve the beam quality needed for FEL and other experiments at ATF as compared to the beam quality of the original design injection system. To optimize the gain in the beam quality we have considered various parameters including the accelerating field gradient on the photoathode, the Solenoid field strengths, separation between the gun and entrance to the linac as well as the (type size) initial charge distributions. The effect of the changes in the parameters on the beam emittance is also given

  14. Comparison Of Several Metrology Techniques For In-line Process Monitoring Of Porous SiOCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, D.; Imbert, G.; Beitia, C.; Yu, L.; Plantier, L.; Volpi, F.; Royer, J.-C.

    2007-01-01

    As porous SiOCH is a widely used inter-metal dielectric for 65 nm nodes and below, the control of its elaboration process by in-line monitoring is necessary to guarantee successful integration of the material. In this paper, the sensitivities of several non-destructive metrology techniques towards the film elaboration process drifts are investigated. It appears that the two steps of the process should be monitored separately and that corona charge method is the most sensitive technique of the review for this application

  15. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 768, 21 JAN (2013), s. 82-89 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * in-line microdialysis * methanol intoxication Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  16. In-line coupling of supported liquid membrane extraction to capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous analysis of basic and acidic drugs in urine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1519, OCT (2017), s. 137-144 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : supported liquid membrane extraction * capillary electrophoresis * in-line sample treatment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  17. Lagrangian transport characteristics of a class of three-dimensional inline-mixing flows with fluid inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speetjens, M. F. M.; Demissie, E. A.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixing by the inline-mixing principle is a key to many industrial fluids-engineering systems of size extending from micrometers to meters. However, insight into fundamental transport phenomena particularly under the realistic conditions of three-dimensionality (3D) and fluid inertia remains limited. This study addresses these issues for inline mixers with cylindrical geometries and adopts the Rotated Arc Mixer (RAM) as a representative system. Transport is investigated from a Lagrangian perspective by identifying and examining coherent structures that form in the 3D streamline portrait. 3D effects and fluid inertia introduce three key features that are not found in simplified configurations: transition zones between consecutive mixing cells of the inline-mixing flow; local upstream flow (in certain parameter regimes); transition/inertia-induced breaking of symmetries in the Lagrangian equations of motion (causing topological changes in coherent structures). Topological considerations strongly suggest that there nonetheless always exists a net throughflow region between inlet and outlet of the inline-mixing flow that is strictly separated from possible internal regions. The Lagrangian dynamics in this region admits representation by a 2D time-periodic Hamiltonian system. This establishes one fundamental kinematic structure for the present class of inline-mixing flows and implies universal behavior in that all states follow from the Hamiltonian breakdown of one common integrable state. A so-called period-doubling bifurcation is the only way to eliminate transport barriers originating from this state and thus is a necessary (yet not sufficient) condition for global chaos. Important in a practical context is that a common simplification in literature, i.e., cell-wise fully-developed Stokes flow (“2.5D approach”), retains these fundamental kinematic properties and deviates from the generic 3D inertial case only in a quantitative sense. This substantiates its

  18. Wetting-layer formation mechanisms of surface-directed phase separation under different quench depths with off-critical compositions in polymer binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Tang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2007-02-01

    Focusing on the off-critical condition, the quench depth dependence of surface-directed phase separation in the polymer binary mixture is numerically investigated by combination of the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook theory and the Flory-Huggins-de Gennes theory. Two distinct situations, i.e., for the wetting, the minority component is preferred by the surface and the majority component is preferred by the surface, are discussed in detail. The simulated results show that the formation mechanism of the wetting layer is affected by both the quench depth and the off-critical extent. Moreover, a diagram, illustrating the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer with various quench depths and compositions, is obtained on the basis of the simulated results. It is found that, when the minority component is preferred by the surface, the growth of the wetting layer can exhibit pure diffusion limited growth law, logarithmic growth law, and Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law. However, when the majority component is preferred by the surface, the wetting layer always grows logarithmically, regardless of the quench depth and the off-critical extent. It is interesting that the surface-induced nucleation can be observed in this case. The simulated results demonstrate that the surface-induced nucleation only occurs below a certain value of the quench depth, and a detailed range about it is calculated and indicated. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of the wetting layer are theoretically analyzed in depth by the chemical potential gradient.

  19. Stochastic rocket dynamics under random nozzle side loads: Ornstein-Uhlenbeck boundary layer separation and its coarse grained connection to side loading and rocket response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keanini, R.G.; Srivastava, N.; Tkacik, P.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28078 (United States); Weggel, D.C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28078 (United States); Knight, P.D. [Mitchell Aerospace and Engineering, Statesville, North Carolina 28677 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A long-standing, though ill-understood problem in rocket dynamics, rocket response to random, altitude-dependent nozzle side-loads, is investigated. Side loads arise during low altitude flight due to random, asymmetric, shock-induced separation of in-nozzle boundary layers. In this paper, stochastic evolution of the in-nozzle boundary layer separation line, an essential feature underlying side load generation, is connected to random, altitude-dependent rotational and translational rocket response via a set of simple analytical models. Separation line motion, extant on a fast boundary layer time scale, is modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Pitch and yaw responses, taking place on a long, rocket dynamics time scale, are shown to likewise evolve as OU processes. Stochastic, altitude-dependent rocket translational motion follows from linear, asymptotic versions of the full nonlinear equations of motion; the model is valid in the practical limit where random pitch, yaw, and roll rates all remain small. Computed altitude-dependent rotational and translational velocity and displacement statistics are compared against those obtained using recently reported high fidelity simulations [Srivastava, Tkacik, and Keanini, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 044911 (2010)]; in every case, reasonable agreement is observed. As an important prelude, evidence indicating the physical consistency of the model introduced in the above article is first presented: it is shown that the study's separation line model allows direct derivation of experimentally observed side load amplitude and direction densities. Finally, it is found that the analytical models proposed in this paper allow straightforward identification of practical approaches for: (i) reducing pitch/yaw response to side loads, and (ii) enhancing pitch/yaw damping once side loads cease. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  1. Microstructural study by XPS and GISAXS of surface layers formed via phase separation and percolation in polystyren/tetrabutyl titanate/alumina composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yanwei; Tian Changan; Liu Junliang

    2006-01-01

    The XPS and GISAXS have been employed as useful tools to probe the chemical compositional and microstructural evolutions in the surface layers formed via phase separation and percolation in polystyren/Ti(OBut) 4 /alumina composite thick films. The surface enrichment of Ti species due to the migration of Ti(OBut) 4 molecules in the films was found to show an incubation period of ∼15 h while the samples were treated at 100 deg. C before a remarkable progress can be identified. According to the XPS and GISAXS data, Key mechanism to govern this surface process is phenomenologically considered to be the specific phase separation behavior in Ti(OBut) 4 /PS blend and the subsequent percolating process. The extended thermal treatment was found to make the surface layer microstructure evolve from local phase separation featured with an increasing population of individual microbeads of Ti(OBut) 4 (∼1.5 nm in radius) to the formation of large size clusters of microbeads due to their interconnections, accompanied by the growth of every microbead itself to ∼10 nm on the average, which provokes and then enhances the surface enrichment of Ti(OBut) 4 since these clusters act as a fast diffusion network due to percolation effect

  2. Two-Ply Composite Membranes with Separation Layers from Chitosan and Sulfoethylcellulose on a Microporous Support Based on Poly(diphenylsulfone-N-phenylphthalimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kononova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-ply composite membranes with separation layers from chitosan and sulfoethylcellulose were developed on a microporous support based on poly(diphenylsulfone-N-phenylphthalimide and investigated by use of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The pervaporation properties of the membranes were studied for the separation of aqueous alcohol (ethanol, propan-2-ol mixtures of different compositions. When the mixtures to be separated consist of less than 15 wt % water in propan-2-ol, the membranes composed of polyelectrolytes with the same molar fraction of ionogenic groups (-NH3+ for chitosan and -SO3− for sulfoethylcellulose show high permselectivity (the water content in the permeate was 100%. Factors affecting the structure of a non-porous layer of the polyelectrolyte complex formed on the substrate surface and the contribution of that complex to changes in the transport properties of membranes are discussed. The results indicate significant prospects for the use of chitosan and sulfoethylcellulose for the formation of highly selective pervaporation membranes.

  3. Dental injuries in inline skating - level of information and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciglione, Daniele; Persic, Robert; Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    Inline skating belongs like ice hockey, rugby, and boxing to sporting activities with high-risk of suffering tooth accidents. Because of high velocity and loss of balance, especially on uneven ground, the injury potential in inline skating is higher. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative study between Switzerland and Germany. The questions focussed on the frequency of tooth accidents, their prevention by mouthguard and the level of information about emergency measures after dental trauma and the resulting consequences for athletes. Using a standardized questionnaire totally 612 individuals, 324 men and 288 women, in two countries belonging to three different divisions (fun, fitness and speed) were surveyed. Fifty-six (9.2%) of these 612 interviewees have already experienced a tooth injury while inline skating. More than half of all interviewed players (68.3%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Only 32.4% were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Just 65.4% knew mouthguard and only 1.9% of those athletes (n = 12) wore a mouthguard while inline skating. The results show that the area of inline skating requires more information about preventing dental trauma through sports associations and dentists.

  4. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  5. Thin-layer chromatography with stationary phase gradient as a method for separation of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia; Hosu, Anamaria; Puscas, Anitta

    2012-02-03

    The group of hydrophilic vitamins play an important role in human health, and their lack or excess produces specific diseases. Therefore, the analysis of these compounds is indispensable for monitoring their content in pharmaceuticals and food in order to prevent some human diseases. TLC was successfully applied in the analysis of hydrophilic vitamins, but the most difficult problem in the simultaneous analysis of all these compounds is to find an optimum stationary phase-mobile phase system due to different chemical characteristics of analytes. Unfortunately structural analogues are difficult to separate in one chromatographic run, and this is the case in hydrophilic vitamins investigations. TLC gives the possibility to perform two-dimensional separations by using stationary phase gradient achieving the highest resolution by combining two systems with different selectivity. The goal of this work was to develop a method of analysis enabling separation of hydrophilic vitamins using TLC with adsorbent gradient. The developed method was used for identifying the water-soluble vitamins in alcoholic extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides and of Ribes nigrum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical and experimental modelling of transition in a separated boundary layer on the NACA63A421 Airfiol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďuriš, M.; Popelka, Lukáš; Příhoda, Jaromír; Šimurda, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2010), s. 47-53 ISSN 1210-0471. [International Meeting of Departments of Fluid Mechanics and Thermomechanics held in Rožnov pod Radhoštěm /29./. Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, 23.06.2010-25.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA ČR GA103/09/0977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary layer transition * CFD * airfoil Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Ultra-low-energy ion-beam synthesis of nanometer-separated Si nanoparticles and Ag nanocrystals 2D layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada, M.; Haj Salem, A.; Pecassou, B.; Paillard, V.; Ben Assayag, G.

    2018-03-01

    2D networks of Si and Ag nanocrystals have been fabricated in the same SiO2 matrix by Ultra-Low-Energy Ion-Beam-Synthesis. Our synthesis scheme differs from a simple sequential ion implantation and its key point is the control of the matrix integrity through an appropriate intermediate thermal annealing. Si nanocrystal layer is synthesised first due to high thermal budget required for nucleation, while the second Ag nanocrystal plane is formed during a subsequent implantation due to the high diffusivity of Ag in silica. The aim of this work is to show how it is possible to overcome the limitation related to ion mixing and implantation damage to obtain double layers of Si-NCs and Ag-NCs with controlled characteristics. For this, we take advantage of annealing under slight oxidizing ambient to control the oxidation of Si-NCs and the Si excess in the matrix. The nanocrystal characteristics and in particular their position and size can be adjusted thanks to a compromise between the implantation energy, the implanted dose for both Si and Ag ions and the intermediate annealing conditions (atmosphere, temperature and duration).

  8. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class II...

  9. Large field SPIV with separated sheets in a spanwise plane of a turbulent boundary layer with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foucaut, J.M.; Coudert, S.; Braud, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stereoscopic PIV is nowadays a well established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out of plane motions. To give guidelines for both setup and meas......The Stereoscopic PIV is nowadays a well established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out of plane motions. To give guidelines for both setup...... of measurements by increasing the velocity dynamic range especially. It also presents the enhancement of accuracy due to the light sheets separation for characterizing streamwise vortices (i.e. perpendicular to the sheet). The present experiment was performed in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel...

  10. Separation, identification and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls in dietary supplements containing Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynstova, Veronika; Sterbova, Dagmar; Klejdus, Borivoj; Hedbavny, Josef; Huska, Dalibor; Adam, Vojtech

    2018-01-30

    In this study, 14 commercial products (dietary supplements) containing alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis, originated from China and Japan, were analysed. UV-vis spectrophotometric method was applied for rapid determination of chlorophylls, carotenoids and pheophytins; as degradation products of chlorophylls. High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was used for effective separation of these compounds, and also Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for determination of heavy metals as indicator of environmental pollution. Based on the results obtained from UV-vis spectrophotometric determination of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), it was confirmed that Chlorella vulgaris contains more of all these pigments compared to the cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis. The fastest mobility compound identified in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis using HPTLC method was β-carotene. Spectral analysis and standard calibration curve method were used for identification and quantification of separated substances on Thin-Layer Chromatographic plate. Quantification of copper (Cu 2+ , at 324.7 nm) and zinc (Zn 2+ , at 213.9nm) was performed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with air-acetylene flame atomization. Quantification of cadmium (Cd 2+ , at 228.8 nm), nickel (Ni 2+ , at 232.0nm) and lead (Pb 2+ , at 283.3nm) by Electrothermal Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; and quantification of mercury (Hg 2+ , at 254nm) by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques VI. The efficiency of various kinds of chromatography paper and thin-layer cellulose powder for the separation of amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Kok, E.C.M.

    1968-01-01

    The efficiency of several chromatography papers and thin-layer cellulose powders for the separation of amino acids is investigated, using the minimum elution time for a given resolution as the criterion.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Modelling of Transition in a Separated Boundary Layer on the NACA63A421 Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav ĎURIŠ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with design and numerical calculation of a variable test section for small supersonic wind tunnel. The supersonic wind tunnel is designed to be driven by a supersonic ejector. The test section, which is in focus, is considered to by placed on its suction inlet. Schlieren method will be used to investigate the flow within. The purpose of the test section is to demonstrate effects, which occur in supersonic flows, e.g. shock waves, interactions of shock waves with boundary layers etc. Proper demonstration of such phenomenon requires different conditions gained within test section. Internal parts of the device are designed to be interchangeable or variable to provide this capability. The work deals with investigation and design of construction of the variable test section. Consequently, shape of the supersonic inlet nozzles for chosen Mach numbers are carried out. Methods of characteristics and CFD are employed to manage this task. The construction of the test section and obtained numerical results are presented.

  13. Pilot experimental study on continual spectrum thermal neutron in-line phase contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Huo Heyong; Wu Yang

    2009-01-01

    The in-line phase contrast radiography is one of phase contrast imaging methods. The neutron in-line phase contrast is developed with X-rays phase contrast radiography. In the paper, the principle of in-line phase contrast is introduced briefly and the experimental result of thermal neutron in-line contrast at SPRR-300 is analysed. It shows that thermal neutron can be used as in-line phase contrast radiography and enhances the edge of some sample in radiography and complements the disadvantage of conventional neutron radiography. (authors)

  14. Some regularities of separate and simultaneous radiation polymerization of vinyl acetate and acrylonitrile in adsorption layer on aerosil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, S.L.; Bruk, M.A.; Abkin, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics has been studied of initial stage radiation copolymerization and separate radiation polymerization of aerosil adsorbed vinylacetate (VA) and acrylonitrile (AN). The monomers were irradiated using a Co 60 gamma source or a RUP-400 X-ray unit. Infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and gravimetry were used in the study. It has been found that in the dose rate interval studied (over 60-450 rad./sec) the break of kinetic chains during the polymerization of VA and its mixtures with AN is due to the reaction of degenerate transfer of the chains to the surface hydroxyl groups. When AN is polymerized, biomolecular break of chains prevails. The effective activation energy of polymerization is 1.5 kcal/mol for VA and 2.5 kcal/mol for AN. The order of polymerization rates by the concentration of adsorbed monomers at 50 deg, as well as by the irradiation dose rate is equal to 1 and 1 for VA and 3/2 and 0.7 for AN, respectively. The calculated values of copolymerization constants coincide with those characteristic of their radical polymerization in liquid phase. Isotherms for adsorption of VA and AN on aerosil at 30, 50 and 70 deg have been studied [ru

  15. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejka Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  16. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  17. Inline pressure sensing mechanisms enabling scalable range and sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alveringh, Dennis; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2015-01-01

    We report on two novel capacitive pressure sensing mechanisms that allow measurements inline with other fluidic devices on one chip, without introducing a large internal volume to the fluid path. The first sensing mechanism is based on out-of-plane bending of a U-shaped channel and the same

  18. Updates to In-Line Calculation of Photolysis Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    How photolysis rates are calculated affects ozone and aerosol concentrations predicted by the CMAQ model and the model?s run-time. The standard configuration of CMAQ uses the inline option that calculates photolysis rates by solving the radiative transfer equation for the needed ...

  19. Effects of ovarian steroids upon responses mediated by adrenoceptors in separated layers of the myometrium and in the costo-uterine muscle of the guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret L.; Pennefather, Jocelyn N.; Story, Margot E.

    1983-01-01

    1 This study describes the effects of ovarian steroid hormones upon the responses to adrenoceptor agonists of isolated myometrium, separated into its longitudinal and circular layers, and of costo-uterine muscle from guinea-pigs. The preparations were field-stimulated at 100 s intervals, and the adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine and isoprenaline produced enhancement or inhibition of the evoked contractions. 2 Isoprenaline produced propranolol-sensitive inhibitory effects in longitudinal and circular myometrium and costo-uterine muscle preparations from animals from all experimental groups: i.e. from nonsteroid-treated animals (ovariectomized and intact); intact animals treated with either oestrogen or progesterone alone; ovariectomized animals treated with oestrogen; ovariectomized and intact animals treated with progesterone following oestrogen priming; and from animals 1-4 days post-partum. Longitudinal myometrial preparations from progesterone-treated oestrogen-primed and from post-partum animals were most sensitive to this agonist. 3 Phenylephrine produced phentolamine-sensitive excitatory effects in circular myometrial and costo-uterine muscle preparations from animals from all the experimental groups. In contrast, propranolol-sensitive inhibitory responses to phenylephrine occurred in longitudinal myometrial preparations taken from animals treated with progesterone following oestrogen priming, and from post-partum animals. Longitudinal myometrium from animals from the remaining experimental groups exhibited phentolamine-sensitive excitatory responses to phenylephrine. 4 The basis for the selective effect upon the longitudinal myometrium of exposure to progesterone following a period of oestrogen priming, is discussed. The results described are consistent with the possibility that in the longitudinal layer of guinea-pig uterus exposed to progesterone following oestrogen priming there is an increase in the proportion of β-adrenoceptors in this layer. This

  20. pH triggered superior selective adsorption and separation of both cationic and anionic dyes and photocatalytic activity on a fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer based nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Saha, Arka; Panda, Asit Baran; Pal, Sagar

    2015-11-18

    A fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer amylopectin based nanocomposite, with pH responsive superior selective adsorption, separation of both cationic (MB: 599 mg g(-1) at pH 9) and anionic (MO: 558 mg g(-1) at pH 3) dyes and photodegradation properties, has been realized through simultaneous in situ layered titanate formation, exfoliation and polymerization.

  1. Coating process optimization through in-line monitoring for coating weight gain using Raman spectroscopy and design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungsuk; Woo, Young-Ah

    2018-05-30

    In this study the authors developed a real-time Process Analytical Technology (PAT) of a coating process by applying in-line Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the coating weight gain, which is a quantitative analysis of the film coating layer. The wide area illumination (WAI) Raman probe was connected to the pan coater for real-time monitoring of changes in the weight gain of coating layers. Under the proposed in-line Raman scheme, a non-contact, non-destructive analysis was performed using WAI Raman probes with a spot size of 6 mm. The in-line Raman probe maintained a focal length of 250 mm, and a compressed air line was designed to protect the lens surface from spray droplets. The Design of Experiment (DOE) was applied to identify factors affecting the Raman spectra background of laser irradiation. The factors selected for DOE were the strength of compressed air connected to the probe, and the shielding of light by the transparent door connecting the probe to the pan coater. To develop a quantitative model, partial least squares (PLS) models as multivariate calibration were developed based on the three regions showing the specificity of TiO 2 individually or in combination. For the three single peaks (636 cm -1 , 512 cm -1 , 398 cm -1 ), least squares method (LSM) was applied to develop three univariate quantitative analysis models. One of best multivariate quantitative model having a factor of 1 gave the lowest RMSEP of 0.128, 0.129, and 0.125, respectively for prediction batches. When LSM was applied to the single peak at 636 cm -1 , the univariate quantitative model with an R 2 of 0.9863, slope of 0.5851, and y-intercept of 0.8066 had the lowest RMSEP of 0.138, 0.144, and 0.153, respectively for prediction batches. The in-line Raman spectroscopic method for the analysis of coating weight gain was verified by considering system suitability and parameters such as specificity, range, linearity, accuracy, and precision in accordance with ICH Q2 regarding

  2. Thin-layer chromatography of 49 metal ions on stannic antimonate in aqueous and mixed solvent systems containing dimethylsulfoxide: quantitative separation of uranium from numerous metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.; Varshney, K.G.; Rajput, R.P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography of 40 metal ions in 31 aqueous and mixed solvent systems has been performed on stannic antimonate ion-exchange material. Dimethylsulfoxide has been utilized to resolve such binary mixtures as La 3+ and Ce 3+ from Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Sm 3+ ; VO 2+ from Ti 4+ , Nb 5+ , and Ta 5+ ; Ga 3+ from In 3+ , Tl + , and Y 3+ ; Fe 3+ from VO 2+ ; and Mg 2+ from Al 3+ . Quantitative separation of 200 to 800 μg U from its binary mixtures and from the synthetic mixtures containing Mg 2+ , Bi 3+ , Fe 3+ , Th 4+ , Ce 4+ , Cr 3+ , Zr 4+ , Hf 4+ , Ti 4+ Mn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ce 3+ , In 3+ , Y 3+ , Ca 2+ , Co 2+ , Tl + , Nb 5+ , and Ag + has been obtained

  3. A sensitive biosensor using double-layer capillary based immunomagnetic separation and invertase-nanocluster based signal amplification for rapid detection of foodborne pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fengchun; Zhang, Huilin; Wang, Lei; Lai, Weihua; Lin, Jianhan

    2018-02-15

    Combining double-layer capillary based high gradient immunomagnetic separation, invertase-nanocluster based signal amplification and glucose meter based signal detection, a novel biosensor was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in this study. The streptavidin modified magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) were conjugated with the biotinylated polyclonal antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to form the immune MNBs, which were captured by the high gradient magnetic field in the double-layer capillary to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate the target bacteria. Calcium chloride was used with the monoclonal antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 and the invertase to form the immune invertase-nanoclusters (INCs), which were used to react with the target bacteria to form the MNB-bacteria-INC complexes in the capillary. The sucrose was then injected into the capillary and catalyzed by the invertase on the complexes into the glucose, which was detected using the glucose meter to obtain the concentration of the glucose for final determination of the E. coli O157:H7 cells in the sample. A linear relationship between the readout of the glucose meter and the concentration of the E. coli O157:H7 cells (from 10 2 to 10 7 CFU/mL) was found and the lower detection limit of this biosensor was 79 CFU/mL. This biosensor might be extended for the detection of other foodborne pathogens by changing the antibodies and has shown the potential for the detection of foodborne pathogens in a large volume of sample to further increase the sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing the Drag and Damage of a High-Speed Train by Analyzing and Optimizing its Boundary Layer Separation and Roll-up into Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip

    2012-11-01

    We present numerical calculations of the boundary layers and shed wake vortices behind several aerodynamic bodies and generic models of high-speed trains. Our calculations illustrate new visual diagnostics that we developed that clearly show where the separation of a boundary layer occurs and where, how, and with what angles (with respect to the stream-wise direction) the wake vortices form. The calculations also illustrate novel 3D morphing and mesh ``pushing and pulling'' techniques that allow us to change the shapes of aerodynamic bodies and models in a controlled and automated manner without spurious features appearing. Using these tools we have examined the patterns of the shed vortices behind generic bodies and trains and correlated them with the changes in the drag as well as with the effects of the shed vortices on the environment. In particular, we have applied these techniques to the end car of a next-generation, high-speed train in order to minimize the drag and to minimize the adverse effects of the shed vortices on the track ballast.

  5. A separable surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate modified with MIL-101 for detection of overlapping and invisible compounds after thin-layer chromatography development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin Bin; Shi, Yi; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Qing Xia; Lu, Feng; Li, Ying Wei

    2018-01-02

    By coupling surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with thin-layer chromatography (TLC), a powerful method for detecting complex samples was successfully developed. However, in the TLC-SERS method, metal nanoparticles serving as the SERS-active substrate are likely to disturb the detection of target compounds, particularly in overlapping compounds after TLC development. In addition, the SERS detection of compounds that are invisible under both visible light and UV 254/365 after TLC development is still a significant challenge. In this study, we demonstrated a facile strategy to fabricate a TLC plate with metal-organic framework-modified gold nanoparticles as a separable SERS substrate, on which all separated components, including overlapping and invisible compounds, could be detected by a point-by-point SERS scan along the developing direction. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as a probe to evaluate the performance of the substrate. The results indicated that the substrate provided good sensitivity and reproducibility, and optimal SERS signals could be collected in 5 s. Furthermore, this new substrate exhibited a long shelf life. Thus, our method has great potential for the sensitive and rapid detection of overlapping and invisible compounds in complex samples after TLC development. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Off-axis and inline electron holography: Experimental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Formanek, Petr; Koch, C.T.; Lubk, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Electron holography is a very powerful technique for mapping static electric and magnetic potentials down to atomic resolution. While electron holography is commonly considered synonymous with its off-axis variant in the high energy electron microscopy community, inline electron holography is widely applied in low-energy electron microscopy, where the realization of the off-axis setup is still an experimental challenge. This paper demonstrates that both inline and off-axis holography may be used to recover amplitude and phase shift of the very same object, in our example latex spheres of 90 and 200 nm in diameter, producing very similar results, provided the object does not charge under the electron beam.

  7. Shortening of the process chain by tactile inline measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Lutz; Thronicke, Nicole; Löbner, Christian; Frank, Thomas; Reich, Steffen; Völlmeke, Stefan; Steinke, Arndt

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the application of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) with a beam-shaped cantilever and an integrated piezo-resistive measuring bridge. This device is used for a quick inline control of building panels, which consist of different materials (e.g. metals, polymers and elastomers). The micro sensing device distinguishes itself by a comparatively very low probing force (floor Δf = 1,6 kHz).

  8. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Wei, Tao; Han, Qun; Wang, Hanzheng; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai

    2012-11-01

    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer was fabricated by micromachining a step structure at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The step structure splits the fiber core into two reflection paths and produces an interference signal. A fringe visibility of 18 dB was achieved. Temperature sensing up to 1000°C was demonstrated using the fabricated assembly-free device.

  9. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  10. Genetic analysis of processed in-line mastitis indicator data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Løvendahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    indicates high risk of mastitis. The EMR values were summarized for each cow using the log-transformed median EMR. A second trait was defined as the median of the log-transformed SCC values from 5 to 305 d in milk. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of co-variance components for the 2 traits......The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of elevated mastitis risk (EMR), a trait derived from in-line measurements of cell counts expressing risk of mastitis on a continuous scale, and its genetic correlation with in-line somatic cell counts. Log-transformed somatic cell counts (SCC; n...... = 855,181) based on in-line measurements (OCC, DeLaval, Sweden) in automatic milking systems were collected from 2007 to2013 in 7 herds from a total of 1986 first and second parity cows (5 to 305 d in milk). Only data from the lactation with most measurements was used from each cow. A bio-model based...

  11. In-line coupling of microextractions across polymer inclusion membranes to capillary zone electrophoresis for rapid determination of formate in blood samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 887, AUG (2015), s. 111-117 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) R200311404 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * in-line coupling * polymer inclusion membrane extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.712, year: 2015

  12. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  13. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-05-01

    In this research, a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype was developed and characterized through quantitative investigations and phantom studies. The prototype system consists of an x-ray source, a motorized rotation stage, and a CMOS detector with a pixel pitch of 0.05 mm. The x-ray source was operated at 120 kVp for this study, and the objects were mounted on the rotation stage 76.2 cm (R1) from the source and 114.3 cm (R2) from the detector. The large air gap between the object and detector guarantees sufficient phase-shift effects. The quantitative evaluation of this prototype included modulation transfer function and noise power spectrum measurements conducted under both projection mode and tomosynthesis mode. Phantom studies were performed including three custom designed phantoms with complex structures: a five-layer bubble wrap phantom, a fishbone phantom, and a chicken breast phantom with embedded fibrils and mass structures extracted from an ACR phantom. In-plane images of the phantoms were acquired to investigate their image qualities through observation, intensity profile plots, edge enhancement evaluations, and/or contrast-to-noise ratio calculations. In addition, the robust phase-attenuation duality (PAD)-based phase retrieval method was applied to tomosynthesis for the first time in this research. It was utilized as a preprocessing method to fully exhibit phase contrast on the angular projection before reconstruction. The resolution and noise characteristics of this high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype were successfully investigated and demonstrated. The phantom studies demonstrated that this imaging prototype can successfully remove the structure overlapping in phantom projections, obtain delineate interfaces, and achieve better contrast-to-noise ratio after applying phase retrieval to the angular projections. This research successfully demonstrated a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis

  14. Slantingly cross loading sample system enables simultaneous performance of separation and mixture to detect molecular interactions on thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Yumoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Ichimura, Kazuo; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2012-07-06

    Anthocyanins are major flower pigments that can be affected by copigments, colorless compounds that can modify anthocyanin coloration to more intense and bluer. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is an available technique to separate and analyze anthocyanins and copigments. To easily and comprehensively detect copigments, we added function of mixture of compounds to TLC; by slantingly cross loading samples on TLC, compounds are symmetrically developed at various angle lines from the upper origin to individual R(f) values and cross each other in an orderly fashion, where mixture is simultaneously performed with separation. Occurrence of copigments can be detected as a coloration change on the developed line of anthocyanin. Pink sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) petals were analyzed by the cross-TLC and a more intense spot and a paler spot on the anthocyanin line were detected. As each spot overlapped with an ultraviolet absorbance line, each of these ultraviolet absorption compounds was purified and identified as kaempferol 3-rhamnoside and 2-cyanoethyl-isoxazolin-5-one, respectively. Whereas kaempferol 3-rhamnoside is a flavonoid and had a general copigment effect of more intense and bluer coloration change, 2-cyanoethyl-isoxazolin-5-one is a compound whose structure is outside of conventional categories of copigments and had a novel effect to change anthocyanin coloration paler while maintaining color tone. We determined that the search for copigments should be carried out without pre-existing prediction of structures and effects. We have shown that slantingly cross loading samples system on plate-type chromatography is an effective technique for such comprehensive analysis of molecular interaction. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, M; Budkin, G; Reznitsky, A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings. (paper)

  16. Hot exciton relaxation in multiple layers CdSe/ZnSe self-assembled quantum dots separated by thick ZnSe barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, M.; Budkin, G.; Reznitsky, A.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied PL and PLE spectra of two samples (A and B) of MBE grown CdSe/ZnSe asymmetric double quantum wells with different amount of deposited CdSe layers separated by 14 nm ZnSe barrier. It has been found that PLE spectra of the states forming short wavelength side of the PL spectra of both deep and shallow QWs of the sample A as well as that of deep QW of the sample B demonstrate oscillating structure in the spectral ranges corresponding to exciton states of self-assembled quantum dots only. Meanwhile PLE spectra of the short wavelength states of shallow QW the sample B revealed pronounced oscillating structure with energy period of ZnSe LO phonon under excitation with photons in a wide energy range both in the regions of quantum-dot states and in that of free states in the ZnSe barrier. In these spectra creating of excitons with kinetic energies more than 0.3 eV was observed which considerably exceed the exciton binding energy as well as LO phonon energy (both appr. 0.03 eV). It has been concluded that oscillating structure of the PLE spectra arises due to cascade relaxation of hot excitons. We discuss the model which explains these experimental findings.

  17. Ultrasound imaging for quantitative evaluation of magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanaee, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to an investigation of the potential and technological possibilities of an inline ultrasound system as a quality control system for wet recycling of solid waste. The main targeted recycling technology is magnetic density separation (MDS), a novel technique that was

  18. Validity of Lactate Thresholds in Inline Speed Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Heinze, Tobias; Faude, Oliver; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Lactate thresholds are commonly used as estimates of the highest workload where lactate production and elimination are in equilibrium (maximum lactate steady state [MLSS]). However, because of the high static load on propulsive muscles, lactate kinetics in inline speed skating may differ significantly from other endurance exercise modes. Therefore, the discipline-specific validity of lactate thresholds has to be verified. Sixteen competitive inline-speed skaters (age: 30 ± 10 years; training per week: 10 ± 4 hours) completed an exhaustive stepwise incremental exercise test (start 24 km·h, step duration 3 minutes, increment 2 km·h) to determine individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and the workload corresponding to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L (LT4) and 2-5 continuous load tests of (up to) 30 minutes to determine MLSS. The IAT and LT4 correlated significantly with MLSS, and the mean differences were almost negligible (MLSS 29.5 ± 2.5 km·h; IAT 29.2 ± 2.0 km·h; LT4 29.6 ± 2.3 km·h; p > 0.1 for all differences). However, the variability of differences was considerable resulting in 95% limits of agreement in the upper range of values known from other endurance disciplines (2.6 km·h [8.8%] for IAT and 3.1 km·h [10.3%] for LT4). Consequently, IAT and LT4 may be considered as valid estimates of the MLSS in inline speed skating, but verification by means of a constant load test should be considered in cases of doubt or when optimal accuracy is needed (e.g., in elite athletes or scientific studies).

  19. Final Technical Report - In-line Uranium Immunosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    In this project, personnel at Tulane University and Sapidyne Instruments Inc. developed an in-line uranium immunosensor that could be used to determine the efficacy of specific in situ biostimulation approaches. This sensor was designed to operate autonomously over relatively long periods of time (2-10 days) and was able to provide near real-time data about uranium immobilization in the absence of personnel at the site of the biostimulation experiments. An alpha prototype of the in-line immmunosensor was delivered from Sapidyne Instruments to Tulane University in December of 2002 and a beta prototype was delivered in November of 2003. The beta prototype of this instrument (now available commercially from Sapidyne Instruments) was programmed to autonomously dilute standard uranium to final concentrations of 2.5 to 100 nM (0.6 to 24 ppb) in buffer containing a fluorescently labeled anti-uranium antibody and the uranium chelator, 2,9-dicarboxyl-1,10-phenanthroline. The assay limit of detection for hexavalent uranium was 5.8 nM or 1.38 ppb. This limit of detection is well below the drinking water standard of 30 ppb recently promulgated by the EPA. The assay showed excellent precision; the coefficients of variation (CV's) in the linear range of the assay were less than 5% and CV?s never rose above 14%. Analytical recovery in the immunosensors-based assay was assessed by adding variable known quantities of uranium to purified water samples. A quantitative recovery (93.75% - 108.17%) was obtained for sample with concentrations from 7.5 to 20 nM (2-4.75 ppb). In August of 2005 the sensor was transported to Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for testing of water samples at the Criddle test site (see Wu et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:3978-3985 2006 for a description of this site). In this first on-site test, the in-line sensor was able to accurately detect changes in the concentrations of uranium in effluent samples from this site. Although the absolute values for the uranium

  20. Basic performance metrics of in-line inspection tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timashev, Sviatoslav A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Ural Branch. Science and Engineering Center

    2003-07-01

    The paper discusses current possibilities and drawbacks of in-line inspection (ILI) in detecting, identifying, locating and sizing of all types of defects in oil and gas pipelines. A full set of consistent and universal ILI tool performance metrics is constructed. A holistic methodology that extracts maximum value from the ILI measurements in defect detecting, locating, identifying, sizing and verifying the results of ILI is presented. The outlined approach is being implemented as a software component of a multi-purpose HR MFL ILI tool and is proposed for the new API 1163 ILI Qualification Standard. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../raw mills. 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1343 Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills. (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln, each in-line kiln/raw mill, and any...

  2. Acute physiological responses to recreational in-line skating in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orepic, Paula; Mikulic, Pavle; Soric, Maroje; Ruzic, Lana; Markovic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    We examined the physiological responses to in-line skating exercise at self-selected paces in recreationally trained adults. Seven men and 10 women performed in-line skating exercise during which oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration were also obtained at the end of exercise. Furthermore, subjects' peak VO2, peak HR, RPE and gas-exchange thresholds were determined in laboratory settings. The average exercise intensity during in-line skating was 90% of peak HR, 67% of peak VO2, 84% of HR reserve and 64% of VO2 reserve. When expressed as RPE and as metabolic equivalents (METs), the average exercise intensity was 13.1 RPE and 9.4 METs. Overall, these indicators of exercise intensity categorise in-line skating at self-selected paces as a vigorous physical activity. Notably, at similar VO2 values, significantly higher HR (174 ± 16 vs. 156 ± 6 bpm; pskating compared with treadmill running. We conclude that 1. recreational in-line skating induces physiological responses that are sufficient for improving and maintaining cardiovascular fitness in healthy adults, 2. HR- and RPE-based methods for quantifying the exercise intensity during in-line skating may overestimate the actual metabolic load and 3. the derivation of exercise prescriptions for in-line skating should be preferably based on specific (i.e. in-line skating) graded exhaustive exercise test.

  3. Development of an in-line Raman spectroscopic method for continuous API quantification during twin-screw wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Julia; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for continuous API quantification during twin-screw wet granulation. Therefore, a Raman probe was implemented in front of the granulator barrel. This setup enabled the collection of Raman spectra upon a constant granule flow. To develop an in-line PLS calibration model, eight binary mixtures of the API and lactose monohydrate with API contents between 5 and 50% were pre-blended and granulated in a twin-screw granulator with a screw speed of 150 rpm and a powder feed rate of 40 g/min. Water was used as a granulation liquid with different liquid to solid ratios depending on the API content. Ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium were chosen as model drugs and separated PLS models were built for each API. The predictive performance of the developed PLS models was determined by granulating and monitoring new test samples containing different API concentrations. This evaluation showed that the models were able to predict the API concentration with an RMSEP of 0.59% for ibuprofen and 1.5% for diclofenac sodium. In a second part, the developed in-line Raman spectroscopic method was used to determine the API concentration during a split feeding process. Therefore, the API and lactose monohydrate were added by two independently adjustable feeders into the twin-screw granulator barrel. The in-line spectroscopy analysis which was verified by UV-analysis indicated that the mixing ability of the twin-screw granulator was good for the used settings and all adjusted API concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mortadella sausage formulations with mechanically separated layer hen meat preblended with antioxidants Mortadela elaborada com cms de galinhas poedeiras pré-misturada com antioxidantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Trindade

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the laying cycle, layer hens can be used for production of mechanically separated meat (MSML for sausage manufacture. However, mechanically separated meats are susceptible to lipid and pigment oxidation during storage, problems that could be prevented by the use of antioxidants present in curing additives traditionally used in meat processing. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality and stability of Mortadella produced with MSML added of sodium erythorbate (1000 ppm and sodium nitrite (150 ppm through preblending or during chopper processing (control treatment, after long term frozen storage of raw meat ingredient. The products were stored for 40 days at 7ºC and evaluated in regard to the oxidative stability of lipids (TBARS values, objective color, and microbiological and sensory attributes. Preblending MSML lessened rancidity of the final product in comparison to the control (0.2 and 2.2 mg malonaldehyde per kg, respectively, and elicited better color (a* = 7.5 and 10.5, respectively. Total counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were similar for both treatments (2 log CFU g-1. Previous blending of nitrite (150 ppm and erythorbate (1000 ppm in mechanically separated meat soon after the extraction is recommended when the raw material will eventually go through prolonged frozen storage before its use in Mortadella sausage processing.Uma das formas de utilização das galinhas poedeiras ao final do ciclo de postura é a obtenção de carne mecanicamente separada (MSML para a elaboração de embutidos. Entretanto, carnes mecanicamente separadas apresentam alta susceptibilidade à oxidação lipídica e dos pigmentos. O uso de antioxidantes tradicionalmente utilizados na cura de carne para incorporação prévia à matéria prima poderia evitar estes problemas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade e a estabilidade de mortadelas elaboradas com MSML com adição de eritorbato (1000 ppm e nitrito (150

  5. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  6. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teutsch U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Teutsch,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009.Methods: The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed.Results: Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years.Conclusion: To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races.Keywords: endurance, men, women, gender

  7. Experimental results of the ATF in-line injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Batchelor, K.

    1995-01-01

    The initial experimental results of the Brookhaven accelerator test facility (ATF) in-line injector is presented. The ATF in-line injector employed a full copper RF gun with a pair of solenoid magnets for emittance compensation. The maximum acceleration field of the RF gun was measured to be 130 MV/m. The electron yield from the copper cathode was maximized using p- polarized laser and the Schottky effect. The quantum efficiency under optimum conditions was measured to be 0.04%. The measured electron bunch length was less than 11 ps, which agreed with the laser pulse length measurement using a streak camera. The normalized rms. emittance for 0.25 nC charge is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm-mrad, which is almost four times smaller than the emittance predicted by the space-charge effect for a non-emittance compensation photocathode RF gun. The normalized rms for 0.6 nC charge was measured range from 1 to 3 mm-mrad. This measurement was first experimental demonstration of emittance compensation in a high-gradient, S-band photocathode RF gun

  8. Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)

  9. Microfabrication, separations, and detection by mass spectrometry on ultrathin-layer chromatography plates prepared via the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride onto carbon nanotube templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyal, Supriya S; Häbe, Tim T; Cushman, Cody V; Dhunna, Manan; Roychowdhury, Tuhin; Farnsworth, Paul B; Morlock, Gertrud E; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-07-24

    Microfabrication of ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC) plates via conformal deposition of silicon nitride by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition onto patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds was demonstrated. After removal of the CNTs and hydroxylation, the resulting UTLC phase showed no expansion or distortion of their microfeatures and the absence/reduction of remaining nitrogenic species. Developing time of a mixture of lipophilic dyes on this UTLC plates was 86% shorter than on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates. A water-soluble food dye mixture was also separated resulting in low band broadening and reduced developing time compared to HPTLC. For the latter example, mobile phase optimization on a single UTLC plate consisted of 14 developments with different mobile phases, each preceded by a plate prewashing step. The same plate was again reused for additional 11 separations under varying conditions resulting in a development procedure with a mean separation efficiency of 233,000theoretical plates/m and a reduced mobile phase consumption of only 400μL. This repeated use proved the physical robustness of the ultrathin layer and its resistance to damage. The layer was highly suited for hyphenation to ambient mass spectrometry, including desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging and direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins on Chromarods-SIII by thin-layer chromatography with the Iatroscan (mark 5) and flame thermionic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasena, W M; Ackman, R G; Gill, T A

    1999-09-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on Chromarods-SIII with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) and a flame thermionic detector (FTID) was used to develop a rapid method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The effect of variation in hydrogen (H2) flow, air flow, scan time and detector current on the FTID peak response for both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PSP were studied in order to define optimum detection conditions. A combination of hydrogen and air flow-rates of 50 ml/min and 1.5-2.0 l/min respectively, along with a scan time of 40 s/rod and detector current of 3.0 A (ampere) or above were found to yield the best results for the detection of PSP compounds. Increasing the detector current level to as high as 3.3 A gave about 130 times more FTID response than did flame ionization detection (FID), for PSP components. Quantities of standards as small as 1 ng neosaxitoxin (NEO), 5 ng saxitoxin (STX), 5 ng B1-toxins (B1), 2 ng gonyautoxin (GTX) 2/3, 6 ng GTX 1/4 and 6 ng C-toxins (C1/C2) could be detected with the FTID. The method detection limits for toxic shellfish tissues using the FTID were 0.4, 2.1, 0.8 and 2.5 micrograms per g tissue for GTX 2/3, STX, NEO and C toxins, respectively. The FTID response increased with increasing detector current and with increasing the scan time. Increasing hydrogen and air flow-rates resulted in decreasing sensitivity within defined limits. Numerous solvent systems were tested, and, solvent consisting of chloroform: methanol-water-acetic acid (30:50:8:2) could separate C toxins from GTX, which eluted ahead of NEO and STX. Accordingly, TLC/FTID with the Iatroscan (Mark-5) seems to be a promising, relatively inexpensive and rapid method of screening plant and animal tissues for PSP toxins.

  11. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  12. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, 2000 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Radman, Lana Ruzic, Viktoria Padovan, Vjekoslav Cigrovski, Hrvoje Podnar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level. They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8–2.6%] – 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0–4.5%]. In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2–2.4%] – 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1–4.0%] and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92–0.99] – 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98–1.00]. The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2 revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters’ performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4–26.4%, all p < 0.01 to complete the test in comparison to recreational-level skaters. Moreover, moderate correlation (ρ = 0.80–0.82; all p < 0.01 was observed between the participant’s self-rating and achieved performance times. In conclusion, the proposed test is a reliable and valid method to evaluate inline skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters.

  14. In-line balanced detection stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Crisafi, Francesco

    2017-08-31

    We introduce a novel configuration for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, called In-line Balanced Detection (IBD), which employs a birefringent plate to generate a time-delayed polarization-multiplexed collinear replica of the probe, acting as a reference. Probe and reference cross the sample at the same position, thus maintaining their balance during image acquisition. IBD can be implemented in any conventional SRS setup, by adding a few simple elements, bringing its sensitivity close to the shot-noise limit even with a noisy laser. We tested IBD with a fiber-format laser system and observed signal-to-noise ratio improvement by up to 30 dB.

  15. In-line balanced detection stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Crisafi, Francesco; Kumar, Vikas; Scopigno, Tullio; Marangoni, Marco; Cerullo, Giulio; Polli, Dario

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel configuration for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, called In-line Balanced Detection (IBD), which employs a birefringent plate to generate a time-delayed polarization-multiplexed collinear replica of the probe, acting as a reference. Probe and reference cross the sample at the same position, thus maintaining their balance during image acquisition. IBD can be implemented in any conventional SRS setup, by adding a few simple elements, bringing its sensitivity close to the shot-noise limit even with a noisy laser. We tested IBD with a fiber-format laser system and observed signal-to-noise ratio improvement by up to 30 dB.

  16. In-line metallurgical process control in the steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanin, M.

    1993-01-01

    The steel products manufacturing involves a long line of complex processes: liquid metal elaboration, solidification, hot and cold transformation by rolling surface protection by coating. The Process Control aims at improving global productivity and quality of the resulting products by optimizing each elementary process as well as management of tools or workshops interfaces. Complex processes, involving generally many variables, require for their control more or less sophisticated models. These process models are either analytical when physical and thermodynamical mechanisms are known or statistical or knowledge based, according to circumstances. In any case, it is necessary to have a reliable and precise instrumentation to adjust undetermined parameters during model development and to be able to take into account external parameters variability during current working. This instrumentation concerns both running of machines and testing of manufactured materials under harsh environment conditions of Iron and Steel industry: temperature, dusts, steam, electromagnetic interferences, vibrations, .. . In this context, in-line Non Destructive Testing methods contribute efficienly because they may give directly and in real time products characteristics, integrating both drifts of machines and sensors due to their ageing and the abnormal spread of material entering the process. These methods induce the development of sophisticated inspection equipments whose strategic significance is such that their failure to operate can require production shutdown. The paper gives some representative examples of improvement of the accuracy of an in-line measurement or controlling of elementary processes or processes interfaces: temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry, thickness profile determination by X-ray array sensor, recrystallization control in continuous by X-ray and ultrasonic methods, automatic detection and indentification of surface defects by optics, cracks detection on

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Ivan; Ruzic, Lana; Padovan, Viktoria; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav; Podnar, Hrvoje

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male) were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level). They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8-2.6%] - 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0-4.5%]). In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2-2.4%] - 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1-4.0%]) and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92-0.99] - 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00]). The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2) revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters' performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4-26.4%, all p skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters.

  18. Broadband Light Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation Using a Light Scattering Layer with Mixed Cavities for High-Performance Perovskite Photovoltaic Cells with Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byeong Cheul; Park, Jung Hyo; Lee, Dong Ki; Tsvetkov, Nikolai; Ock, Ilwoo; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2017-08-01

    CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 is one of the promising light sensitizers for perovskite photovoltaic cells, but a thick layer is required to enhance light absorption in the long-wavelength regime ranging from PbI 2 absorption edge (500 nm) to its optical band-gap edge (780 nm) in visible light. Meanwhile, the thick perovskite layer suppresses visible-light absorption in the short wavelengths below 500 nm and charge extraction capability of electron-hole pairs produced upon light absorption. Herein, we find that a new light scattering layer with the mixed cavities of sizes in 100 and 200 nm between transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide and mesoporous titanium dioxide electron transport layer enables full absorption of short-wavelength photons (λ cell with a light scattering layer of mixed cavities is stabilized due to suppressed charge accumulation. Consequently, this work provides a new route to realize broadband light harvesting of visible light for high-performance perovskite photovoltaic cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A feasibility study of in-line rheological characterisation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-04

    Sep 4, 2014 ... to obtain in-line rheological parameters of opaque fluids with suspended ... ing, e.g., paper pulp, foods, transient flows and model mineral suspensions. ..... on Ultrasonic Doppler Methods for Fluid Mechanics and Fluid.

  20. In-line estimation of sulfur and nitrogen contents during hydrotreating of middle distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is analyzing whether it is possible to develop an empirical correlation for in-line estimation of the sulfur and nitrogen contents of the middle distillates Hydrotreating (HDT products for control purposes. Correlations are based only on readily available in-line information of specific gravity variation between feedstock and products, without considering any piece of information about the kinetic behavior of the catalyst. Experimental data were obtained in pilot plants under operating conditions that are representative of refinery operations. Results indicate that the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds during middle distillates HDT can be monitored in-line in real time, based on the available measurements of specific gravity. This allows for development and implementation of advanced in-line procedures for monitoring and control of the HDT process in real time.

  1. Effect of separated layer thickness on magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnyk, T. M.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Vorobiov, S. I.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Co(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Co(20 nm)/S and Ni(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Ni(20 nm)/S trilayer films are prepared by electron-beam sputtering to investigate the influence of dysprosium layer thickness (tDy) and thermal annealing on the crystal structure, magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic properties of thin films. The thickness of Dy layer changed in the range from 1 nm to 20 nm. The samples annealed for 20 min at 700 K. Electron diffraction patterns reveal that the as-deposited and annealed systems Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni had fcc-Co + hcp-Dy and fcc-Ni + hcp-Dy phase state, respectively. It is also shown that at the tDy = 15 nm the transition from amorphous to crystalline structures of Dy layer is observed. An increase in the Dy layer thickness results in changes in the MR and magnetic properties of the trilayer systems. It is shown that MR is most thermally stable against annealing to 700 K at tDy = 15 nm for Co/Dy/Co as well as for Ni/Dy/Ni. For tDy = 15 nm the, value of MR for both system increases by two times compared to those of pure ferromagnetic (FM) samples. The coercivity (Bc), remanent (Mr) and saturation (Ms) magnetization of the in-plain magnetization hysteresis loops are related to the Dy layer thickness too. The coercivity depends on the FM materials type and diffusion processes at the layer boundary. Accordingly, Mr and Ms are reduced with tDy increasing before and after annealing for both trilayer systems.

  2. Phase separated thermotropic layers based on UV cured acrylate resins. Effect of material formulation on overheating protection properties and application in a solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Katharina [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Roseggerstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Wallner, Gernot M. [Institute of Materials Science and Testing of Plastics, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hausner, Robert [AEE - Institut fuer Nachhaltige Technologien (AEE-INTEC), Feldgasse 19, 8200 Gleisdorf (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This paper focuses on the effect of material composition on the overheating protection properties of thermotropic systems with fixed domains for solar thermal collectors. Numerous functional layers were prepared by a variation of base resin (polyester-, epoxy- or urethane-acrylate) and of thermotropic additives (non-polar and polar waxes) as well as by additive concentration (5 and 7 wt%). A detailed investigation of optical properties, switching temperature and switching process was performed applying UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Thermal transitions of both the thermotropic layers and the additives used were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The capability of the produced thermotropic layers to reduce stagnation temperatures in an all-polymeric flat plate collector was evaluated by theoretical modeling. The thermotropic layers showed a hemispheric solar transmittance between 76% and 87% in clear state. Above the switching threshold this transmittance changed by 1-16% to values between 62% and 85%. The layers exhibited switching temperatures between 33 and 80 C. The transition is fully completed within a temperature frame of 10-25 C. Resin types with higher glass transition temperatures were detected to benefit the reduction of the hemispheric solar transmittance above the switching threshold. This reduction was also found to increase with increasing molecular weight of the non-polar additive types. The comparison of the switching performance with the thermal transitions of the additives revealed a good correlation. Theoretical modeling showed that by the use of selected thermotropic layers in the glazing the maximum absorber temperatures can be limited to temperatures below 130 C. (author)

  3. RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations: 3. Separation of Parameterization Biases in Single-Column Model CAM5 Simulations of Shallow Cumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wuyin; Liu, Yangang; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann; Endo, Satoshi; Song, Hua; Feng, Sha; Toto, Tami; Li, Zhijin; Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    Climatically important low-level clouds are commonly misrepresented in climate models. The FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) Project has constructed case studies from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plain site during the RACORO aircraft campaign to facilitate research on model representation of boundary-layer clouds. This paper focuses on using the single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (SCAM5) simulations of a multi-day continental shallow cumulus case to identify specific parameterization causes of low-cloud biases. Consistent model biases among the simulations driven by a set of alternative forcings suggest that uncertainty in the forcing plays only a relatively minor role. In-depth analysis reveals that the model's shallow cumulus convection scheme tends to significantly under-produce clouds during the times when shallow cumuli exist in the observations, while the deep convective and stratiform cloud schemes significantly over-produce low-level clouds throughout the day. The links between model biases and the underlying assumptions of the shallow cumulus scheme are further diagnosed with the aid of large-eddy simulations and aircraft measurements, and by suppressing the triggering of the deep convection scheme. It is found that the weak boundary layer turbulence simulated is directly responsible for the weak cumulus activity and the simulated boundary layer stratiform clouds. Increased vertical and temporal resolutions are shown to lead to stronger boundary layer turbulence and reduction of low-cloud biases.

  4. Seeing Beyond the Painting Surface with Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): a signal separation method for extracting images of buried individual layers in paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Skou-Hansen, Jakob; Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    and denoising methods used to resolve temporal features of THz reflected signals, they result impractical if applied to large images analysis. Therefore, we presented a simple, fast and effective method to separate single THz pulses of interest from the entire signal recorded at each spatial coordinate...

  5. Interplay between mesoscopic phase separation and bulk magnetism in the layered Na.sub.x./sub.CoO.sub.2./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorkovská, A.; Orendáč, M.; Šebek, Josef; Šantavá, Eva; Svoboda, P.; Bradaric, I.; Savič, I.; Feher, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 13 (2005), 132412/1-132412/4 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Na x CoO 2 * mesoscopic phase separation * bulk magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  6. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  7. Towards an inline reconstruction architecture for micro-CT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, David; Humbert, Bernard; Mathelin, Carole; Rio, Marie-Christine; Guyonnet, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in micro-CT have revolutionized the ability to examine in vivo living experimental animal models such as mouse with a spatial resolution less than 50 μm. The main requirements of in vivo imaging for biological researchers are a good spatial resolution, a low dose induced to the animal during the full examination and a reduced acquisition and reconstruction time for screening purposes. We introduce inline acquisition and reconstruction architecture to obtain in real time the 3D attenuation map of the animal fulfilling the three previous requirements. The micro-CT system is based on commercially available x-ray detector and micro-focus x-ray source. The reconstruction architecture is based on a cluster of PCs where a dedicated communication scheme combining serial and parallel treatments is implemented. In order to obtain high performance transmission rate between the detector and the reconstruction architecture, a dedicated data acquisition system is also developed. With the proposed solution, the time required to filter and backproject a projection of 2048 x 2048 pixels inside a volume of 140 mega voxels using the Feldkamp algorithm is similar to 500 ms, the time needed to acquire the same projection

  8. Full Ka Band Waveguide-to-Microstrip Inline Transition Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxing; Li, Lei; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Juan; Chen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Anxue

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a compact and broadband inline waveguide-to-microstrip transition is proposed to cover the full Ka band. The transition can be segmented from the electric point of view into three building blocks, comprising a microstrip line to rectangular coaxial line, a wedged rectangular coaxial line to ridged waveguide, and a final tapered ridged waveguide impedance transformer to standard waveguide. Both good electrical performance and simple modular assembly without any soldering have been simultaneously obtained. The validation of the design concept has been conducted by numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The experimental results of a fabricated back-to-back transition prototype coincide with the simulated results. It shows that the proposed transition achieves good return loss of lower than 15.5 dB and low insertion loss with a fluctuation between 0.23 to 0.60 dB across the entire Ka band. Details of design considerations and operation mechanism as well as simulation and measurement results are presented.

  9. New concept for in-line OLED manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Landgraf, H.; Campo, M.; Keller, S.; Koening, M.

    2011-03-01

    A new concept of a vertical In-Line deposition machine for large area white OLED production has been developed. The concept targets manufacturing on large substrates (>= Gen 4, 750 x 920 mm2) using linear deposition source achieving a total material utilization of >= 50 % and tact time down to 80 seconds. The continuously improved linear evaporation sources for the organic material achieve thickness uniformity on Gen 4 substrate of better than +/- 3 % and stable deposition rates down to less than 0.1 nm m/min and up to more than 100 nm m/min. For Lithium-Fluoride but also for other high evaporation temperature materials like Magnesium or Silver a linear source with uniformity better than +/- 3 % has been developed. For Aluminum we integrated a vertical oriented point source using wire feed to achieve high (> 150 nm m/min) and stable deposition rates. The machine concept includes a new vertical vacuum handling and alignment system for Gen 4 shadow masks. A complete alignment cycle for the mask can be done in less than one minute achieving alignment accuracy in the range of several 10 μm.

  10. Improved pinning by multiple in-line damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gandini, Alberto [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Columnar pinning centres provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinnable field, B{sub pin}. Characteristics of ion-generated columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of the percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centres limit B{sub pin} to less than 4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. The goal of maximizing U{sub pin}, via columnar centres, appears to have obscured a more rewarding approach and resulted in neglect of a large regime of ion interactions. Evidence is reviewed that multiple in-line damage (MILD), described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c} and B{sub pin}, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. The MILD pinning centre morphology is discussed, and it is estimated that for present-day large grain high T{sub c} superconductors, a J{sub c} value of {approx}10{sup 6}Acm{sup -2} is obtainable at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. In addition, the pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these calculations, directly compare MILD pinning to continuous columnar pinning, and determine the optimum MILD structure. Applications of MILD pinning are discussed.

  11. Predictor variables of performance in recreational male long-distance inline skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the associations between selected anthropometric and training characteristics with race time in 84 recreational male long-distance inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe, the 'Inline One-eleven' over 111 km in Switzerland, using bi- and multivariate analysis. The mean (s) race time was 264 (41) min. The bivariate analysis showed that age (r = 0.30), body mass (r = 0.42), body mass index (r = 0.35), circumference of upper arm (r = 0.32), circumference of thigh (r = 0.29), circumference of calf (r = 0.38), skin-fold of thigh (r = 0.22), skin-fold of calf (r = 0.27), the sum of skin-folds (r = 0.43), percent body fat (r = 0.45), duration per training unit in inline skating (r = 0.33), and speed during training (r = -0.46) were significantly and positively correlated to race time. Stepwise multiple regression showed that duration per training unit (P = 0.003), age (P = 0.029) and percent body fat (P = 0.016) were the best correlated with race time. Race time in a long-distance inline race such as the 'Inline One-eleven' over 111 km with a mean race time of ∼260 min might be predicted by the following equation (r(2) = 0.41): Race time (min) = 114.91 + 0:51* (duration per training unit, min) + 0:85* (age, years) +3:78* (body fat, %) for recreational long-distance inline skaters.

  12. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing; Plume, Stephan; Ernst, Mathias; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Jekel, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. The offline combination of thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry for the separation and identification of spinochromes from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Ossipov, Vladimir I; Martiskainen, Olli; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Makarov, Valery G

    2011-12-16

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with off-line high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) resulted in the successful fractionation, separation and identification of spinochrome pigments from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) shells. Two fractions of pigments were separated by TLC and eluted with methanol using a TLC-MS interface. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the fractions indicated the presence of six sea urchin pigments: spinochrome monomers B and D, three spinochrome dimers (anhydroethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin) and its isomer and ethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin)), and one pigment that was preliminary identified as a spinochrome dimer with the structural formula C(22)H(16)O(16). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The mechanism of 'solid-body' rotation of superfluid and normal components in the process of separation into layers of the over saturated 3He-4He solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashitskij, Eh.A.; Mal'nev, V.N.; Naryshkin, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that unstable hydrodynamic vortices may be formed inside subcritical nuclei of separation in the normal component of the decaying over saturated 3 He- 4 He solution. We consider the mechanism of drag of the superfluid component of the 3 He- 4 He solution by the normal component into the 'solid-body' rotation due to the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov forces in the equations of two-fluid hydrodynamics, resulting in the formation of quantized vortices. An increase in the average density of the quantized vortices may accelerate the process of heterogeneous decomposition of the 3 He- 4 He solution

  16. In-line Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as a versatile process analytical technology for preparative protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großhans, Steffen; Rüdt, Matthias; Sanden, Adrian; Brestrich, Nina; Morgenstern, Josefine; Heissler, Stefan; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2018-04-27

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a well-established spectroscopic method in the analysis of small molecules and protein secondary structure. However, FTIR is not commonly applied for in-line monitoring of protein chromatography. Here, the potential of in-line FTIR as a process analytical technology (PAT) in downstream processing was investigated in three case studies addressing the limits of currently applied spectroscopic PAT methods. A first case study exploited the secondary structural differences of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and lysozyme to selectively quantify the two proteins with partial least squares regression (PLS) giving root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.42 g/l and 1.67 g/l, respectively. The corresponding Q 2 values are 0.92 and, respectively, 0.99, indicating robust models in the calibration range. Second, a process separating lysozyme and PEGylated lysozyme species was monitored giving an estimate of the PEGylation degree of currently eluting species with RMSECV of 2.35 g/l for lysozyme and 1.24 g/l for PEG with Q 2 of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. Finally, Triton X-100 was added to a feed of lysozyme as a typical process-related impurity. It was shown that the species could be selectively quantified from the FTIR 3D field without PLS calibration. In summary, the proposed PAT tool has the potential to be used as a versatile option for monitoring protein chromatography. It may help to achieve a more complete implementation of the PAT initiative by mitigating limitations of currently used techniques. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation-induced boundary layer transition: Modeling with a non-linear eddy-viscosity model coupled with the laminar kinetic energy equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahostergios, Z.; Yakinthos, K.; Goulas, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present an effort to model the separation-induced transition on a flat plate with a semi-circular leading edge, using a cubic non-linear eddy-viscosity model combined with the laminar kinetic energy. A non-linear model, compared to a linear one, has the advantage to resolve the anisotropic behavior of the Reynolds-stresses in the near-wall region and it provides a more accurate expression for the generation of turbulence in the transport equation of the turbulence kinetic energy. Although in its original formulation the model is not able to accurately predict the separation-induced transition, the inclusion of the laminar kinetic energy increases its accuracy. The adoption of the laminar kinetic energy by the non-linear model is presented in detail, together with some additional modifications required for the adaption of the laminar kinetic energy into the basic concepts of the non-linear eddy-viscosity model. The computational results using the proposed combined model are shown together with the ones obtained using an isotropic linear eddy-viscosity model, which adopts also the laminar kinetic energy concept and in comparison with the existing experimental data.

  18. Age, training, and previous experience predict race performance in long-distance inline skaters, not anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-02-01

    The association of characteristics of anthropometry, training, and previous experience with race time in 84 recreational, long-distance, inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe (111 km), the Inline One-eleven in Switzerland, was investigated to identify predictor variables for performance. Age, duration per training unit, and personal best time were the only three variables related to race time in a multiple regression, while none of the 16 anthropometric variables were related. Anthropometric characteristics seem to be of no importance for a fast race time in a long-distance inline skating race in contrast to training volume and previous experience, when controlled with covariates. Improving performance in a long-distance inline skating race might be related to a high training volume and previous race experience. Also, doing such a race requires a parallel psychological effort, mental stamina, focus, and persistence. This may be reflected in the preparation and training for the event. Future studies should investigate what motivates these athletes to train and compete.

  19. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  20. In-line, roll-to-roll morphology analysis of organic solar cell active layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossander, Lea Hildebrandt; Dam, Henrik Friis; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2017-01-01

    We present the first comparative in situ small and wide angle X-ray scattering study of two polymers that are relevant for organic photovoltaics, during coating on a flexible substrate. From the obtained measurements we identified several differences between the drying of the two polymers...

  1. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarcia, C.A.; Johnson, D.E.; Sorenson, D.S.; Frederickson, R.H.; Delanoy, A.D.; Malone, R.M.; Tunnel, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set

  2. Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Clifton, Vicki L; Adamski, Jerzy; Głód, Bronisław K

    2011-08-19

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of eco-friendly micro-TLC technique for the classification of spirulina and selected herbs from pharmaceutical and food products. Target compounds were extracted using relatively low-parachor liquids. A number of the spirulina samples which originated from pharmaceutical formulations and food products, were isolated using a simple one step extraction with small volume of methanol, acetone or tetrahydrofuran. Herb samples rich in chlorophyll dyes were analyzed as reference materials. Quantitative data derived from micro-plates under visible light conditions and after iodine staining were explored using chemometrics tools including cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Using this method we could easily distinguish genuine spirulina and non-spirulina samples as well as fresh from expired commercial products and furthermore, we could identify some biodegradation peaks appearing on micro-TLC profiles. This methodology can be applied as a fast screening or fingerprinting tool for the classification of genuine spirulina and herb samples and in particular may be used commercially for the rapid quality control screening of products. Furthermore, this approach allows low-cost fractionation of target substances including cyanobacteria pigments in raw biological or environmental samples for preliminary chemotaxonomic investigations. Due to the low consumption of the mobile phase (usually less than 1 mL per run), this method can be considered as environmentally friendly analytical tool, which may be an alternative for fingerprinting protocols based on HPLC machines and simple separation systems involving planar micro-fluidic or micro-chip devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Resolution and isolation of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine using thin silica gel layers impregnated with L-glutamic acid, comparison of separation of its diastereomers prepared with chiral derivatizing reagents having L-amino acids as chiral auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Ravi; Nagar, Hariom

    2015-03-01

    Thin silica gel layers impregnated with optically pure l-glutamic acid were used for direct resolution of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine in their native form. Three chiral derivatizing reagents, based on DFDNB moiety, were synthesized having l-alanine, l-valine and S-benzyl-l-cysteine as chiral auxiliaries. These were used to prepare diastereomers under microwave irradiation and conventional heating. The diastereomers were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column with detection at 340 nm using gradient elution with mobile phase containing aqueous trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile in different compositions and by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on reversed phase (RP) C18 plates. Diastereomers prepared with enantiomerically pure (+)-isoxsuprine were used as standards for the determination of the elution order of diastereomers of (±)-isoxsuprine. The elution order in the experimental study of RP-TLC and RP-HPLC supported the developed optimized structures of diastereomers based on density functional theory. The limit of detection was 0.1-0.09 µg/mL in TLC while it was in the range of 22-23 pg/mL in HPLC and 11-13 ng/mL in RP-TLC for each enantiomer. The conditions of derivatization and chromatographic separation were optimized. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An evaluation of phase separated, self-assembled LaMnO3-MgO nanocomposite films directly on IBAD-MgO as buffer layers for flux pinning enhancements in YBa2YCu3O7-& coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Kim, Kyunghoon [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Xiong, X. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2010-01-01

    Technological applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS) require high critical current density, Jc, under operation at high magnetic field strengths. This requires effective flux pinning by introducing artificial defects through creative processing. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility of mixed-phase LaMnO3:MgO (LMO:MgO) films as a potential cap buffer layer for the epitaxial growth and enhanced performance of YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) films. Such composite films were sputter deposited directly on IBAD-MgO templates (with no additional homo-epitaxial MgO layer) and revealed the formation of two phase-separated, but at the same time vertically aligned, self-assembled composite nanostructures that extend throughout the entire thickness of the film. The YBCO coatings deposited on these nanostructured cap layers showed correlated c-axis pinning and improved in-field Jc performance compared to those of YBCO films fabricated on standard LMO buffers. Microstructural characterization revealed additional extended disorder in the YBCO matrix. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of novel and potentially practical approaches in the pursuit of more efficient, economical, and high performance superconducting devices.

  5. In-line digital holography with phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Shenlei; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2018-04-01

    Phase shifting is the key technique in in-line digital holography, but traditional phase shifters have their own limitations in short wavelength regions. Here, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves with amplitude-only modulation are introduced into in-line digital holography, which are essentially a kind of diffraction lens with three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci. In the in-line digital holographic experiment, we design two kinds of sieves by lithography and verify the validity of their phase-shifting function by measuring a 1951 U.S. Air Force resolution test target and three-dimensional array foci. With advantages of high resolving power, low cost, and no limitations at shorter wavelengths, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves have great potential in X-ray holography or biochemical microscopy for the next generation of synchrotron light sources.

  6. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  7. Inline skating for balance and strength promotion in children during physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Kuehnen, Matthias; Granacher, Urs

    2013-12-01

    Deficiencies in balance and strength are common in children and they may lead to injuries. This study investigated the effects of inline skating exercise on balance and strength performance in healthy children. Twenty 11-12-year-old children (8 girls, 12 boys) were assigned to an intervention (n = 10) or a control (n = 10) group. Participants in the intervention group underwent a 4-week inline skating program (2 times/week, 90 min. each) integrated in their physical education lessons. Balance and strength were measured using the Star Excursion Balance test and the countermovement jump test. As compared to the control group, the intervention group significantly improved balance (17-48%, Cohen's d = 0.00-1.49) and jump height (8%, Cohen's d = 0.48). In children, inline skating is a safe, feasible (90% adherence rate), and effective program that can be integrated in physical education lessons to promote balance and strength.

  8. Single-shot dual-wavelength in-line and off-axis hybrid digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2018-02-01

    We propose an in-line and off-axis hybrid holographic real-time imaging technique. The in-line and off-axis digital holograms are generated simultaneously by two lasers with different wavelengths, and they are recorded using a color camera with a single shot. The reconstruction is carried using an iterative algorithm in which the initial input is designed to include the intensity of the in-line hologram and the approximate phase distributions obtained from the off-axis hologram. In this way, the complex field in the object plane and the output by the iterative procedure can produce higher quality amplitude and phase images compared to traditional iterative phase retrieval. The performance of the technique has been demonstrated by acquiring the amplitude and phase images of a green lacewing's wing and a living moon jellyfish.

  9. Partition calculation for zero-order and conjugate image removal in digital in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lihong; Wang, Hui; Li, Yong; Jin, Hongzhen

    2012-01-16

    Conventional digital in-line holography requires at least two phase-shifting holograms to reconstruct an original object without zero-order and conjugate image noise. We present a novel approach in which only one in-line hologram and two intensity values (namely the object wave intensity and the reference wave intensity) are required. First, by subtracting the two intensity values the zero-order diffraction can be completely eliminated. Then, an algorithm, called partition calculation, is proposed to numerically remove the conjugate image. A preliminary experimental result is given to confirm the proposed method. The method can simplify the procedure of phase-shifting digital holography and improve the practical feasibility for digital in-line holography.

  10. Molybdenum thin film deposited by in-line DC magnetron sputtering as a back contact for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhaohui; Cho, Eou-Sik [Department of Electronics Engineering, Kyungwon University, San 65, Bokjung-dong, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city, Kyunggi-do, 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Jik, E-mail: sjkwon@kyungwon.ac.kr [Department of Electronics Engineering, Kyungwon University, San 65, Bokjung-dong, Soojung-gu, Seongnam city, Kyunggi-do, 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we reported the effect of the power and the working pressure on the molybdenum (Mo) films deposited using an in-line direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. The electrical and the structural properties of Mo film were improved by increasing DC power from 1 to 3 kW. On the other side, the resistivity of the Mo films became higher with the increasing working pressure. However, the adhesion property was improved when the working pressure was higher. In this work, in order to obtain an optimal Mo film as a back metal contact of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells, a bilayer Mo film was formed through the different film structures depending on the working pressure. The first layer was formed at a high pressure of 12 mTorr for a better adhesion and the second layer was formed at a low pressure of 3 mTorr for a lower resistivity.

  11. Industrial application of ultrasound based in-line rheometry: Visualization of steady shear pipe flow of chocolate suspension in pre-crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriev, Boris; Windhab, Erich; Braun, Peter; Zeng, Yuantong; Birkhofer, Beat

    2003-12-01

    In the present work an in-line ultrasonic method for investigation of the rheological flow behavior of concentrated suspensions was created. It is based on a nondestructive rheological measuring technique for pilot plant and industrial scale applications. Elsewhere the author discusses a tremendous need for in-line rheological characterization of highly concentrated suspensions exposed to pressure driven shear flow conditions. Most existing on-line methods are based on destructive macro actuators, which are not suitable for materials with sensitive to applied deformation structure. Since the process of our basic interest influences the structure of suspension it would be difficult to separate the effects of rheometric measurement and weakly pronounced structural changes arising from a fine adjustment of the process parameters. The magnitude of these effects is usually associated with the complex flow dynamics of structured liquids and is sensitive to density or temperature fluctuations around the moving rheometric actuator. Interpretation of the results of such measurements can be hindered by process parameter influences on liquid product structure. Therefore, the author introduces an in-line noninvasive rheometric method, which is implemented in a pre-crystallization process of chocolate suspension. Use of ultrasound velocity profile pressure difference (UVP-PD) technique enabled process monitoring of the chocolate pre-crystallization process. Influence of seeded crystals on Rheology of chocolate suspension was recorded and monitored on line. It was shown that even slight velocity pulsations in chocolate mainstream can strongly influence rheological properties besides influencing flow velocity profiles. Based on calculations of power law fit in raw velocity profiles and calculation of wall shear stress from pressure difference measurement, a viscosity function was calculated and monitored on line. On-line results were found to be in a good agreement with off

  12. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Results: Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Conclusion: Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Clinical Relevance: Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant. PMID:24790688

  13. Relationship of the functional movement screen in-line lunge to power, speed, and balance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Erin H; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C

    2014-05-01

    The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time and (2) there will be no differences between limbs on lunge scores, MJH, or COP. Descriptive laboratory study. Level 3. Thirty-seven healthy, active participants completed the first 3 tasks of the FMS (eg, deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge), unilateral drop jumps, and 36.6-meter sprints. A 3-dimensional motion analysis system captured MJH. Force platforms measured COP excursion. A laser timing system measured 36.6-m sprint time. Statistical analyses were used to determine whether a relationship existed between lunge scores and COP, MJH, and 36.6-m speed (Spearman rho tests) and whether differences existed between limbs in lunge scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test), MJH, and COP (paired t tests). Lunge scores were not significantly correlated with COP, MJH, or 36.6-m sprint time. Lunge scores, COP excursion, and MJH were not statistically different between limbs. Performance on the FMS in-line lunge was not related to balance, power, or speed. Healthy participants were symmetrical in lunging measures and MJH. Scores on the FMS in-line lunge should not be attributed to power, speed, or balance performance without further examination. However, assessing limb symmetry appears to be clinically relevant.

  14. Skateboarding: more dangerous than roller skating or in-line skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberg, J S; Schneps, S E; Di Scala, C; Li, G

    1998-10-01

    To describe the circumstances, severity, and outcomes of skating-related injuries among children admitted to trauma centers. A cross-sectional comparison of roller skaters (n = 154), in-line skaters (n = 190), and skateboarders (n = 254) aged 5 to 19 years who were hospitalized with injuries. Seventy-nine hospitals and pediatric trauma centers participating in the National Pediatric Trauma Registry between October 1988 and April 1997. Three quarters (75.8%) of the study sample were male, nearly half (47.8%) were injured on roads, and more than one third (37.1%) had head injuries. Among skateboarders, 50.8% had head injuries compared with 33.7% of in-line skaters and 18.8% of roller skaters (Pskateboarders were 8 times more likely to be severe or critical compared with roller skaters' injuries and more than 2 times as likely to be severe or critical compared with in-line skaters' injuries. Mean hospital length of stay was 6.0 days for skateboarders, 3.4 days for in-line skaters, and 2.4 days for roller skaters (PSkateboarders were more likely to be male and to be injured on roads than were in-line skaters or roller skaters. Skateboarding-related injuries are more severe and have more serious consequences than roller skating or in-line skating injuries. Research is needed to identify ergonomic and behavioral factors responsible for higher head injury risk to skateboarders, and interventions are needed to reduce the risk.

  15. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  16. Comparison of an Inductance In-Line Oil Debris Sensor and Magnetic Plug Oil Debris Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Tuck, Roger; Showalter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the performance of an inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor when detecting transmission component health in the same system under the same operating conditions. Both sensors were installed in series in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig during tests performed on 5 gear sets (pinion/gear) when different levels of damage occurred on the gear teeth. Results of this analysis found both the inductance in-line oil debris sensor and magnetic plug oil debris sensor have benefits and limitations when detecting gearbox component damage.

  17. Study of effect of in-line hydropneumatic accumulators on output characteristics of hydraulic hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelin, R. A.; Kravchenko, V. A.; Kamanin, Y. N.; Panichkin, A. V.; Bozhanov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the effect of in-line hydropneumatic accumulators on the output parameters of a hydraulic hammer during their joint operation. Based on mathematical modeling, computational experiments were performed and the output characteristics of the hammer, depending on the design and operating parameters of the in-line hydropneumatic accumulators, were obtained. It was established that for the most effective operation of the hammer, the precharge pressure of the pressure line hydropneumatic accumulator should be 70-80% of the working pressure of the hydraulic system. The utilization of a hydropneumatic accumulator without special additional devices in the discharge line is impractical.

  18. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  19. Innovative technologies for emitter formation of crystalline silicon solar cells using in-line diffusion; Innovative Technologien zur Emittererzeugung fuer kristalline Silizium-Solarzellen mittels Durchlaufdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyer, Catherine

    2009-04-20

    An in-line emitter formation process for crystalline silicon solar cells was developed. The wafers were coated at room temperature with dilute phosphoric acid (2.5 w/w% in water) using ultrasonic spraying and then heated up to temperatures around 900 C in a metal-contamination-free in-line furnace. In the first zones of the furnace, a phosphosilicate glass (PSG) is formed on the silicon surface and serves as the doping source. The PSG thickness was adjusted by varying the flow rate of dilute phosphoric acid to the spray nozzle and took on values appropriate for emitter formation, in the range of {proportional_to}40-120 nm. A surfactant mixture was added to the dilute phosphoric acid in order to obtain complete wetting of the silicon surface. The mixture, which was composed of a hydrocarbon surfactant and of a fluorosurfactant, achieved better wetting properties than would be possible when using only one of the two surfactants. The spray solution containing only the hydrocarbon surfactant achieved a faster drop flattening, while the spray solution containing only the fluorosurfactant achieved a lower static surface tension. The mixture allowed for a combination of these desired properties: The drops coalesced together sufficiently rapidly (before drying) on the silicon surface to form a complete dopant source liquid layer and this layer remains sufficiently homogeneous during the layer drying. The sprayed-on layer is thicker ({proportional_to}15 microns) than the height of the surface texture ({proportional_to}5-10 microns). The liquid strives for a state of equilibrium, a convex meniscus. The topography of the liquid surface at the time at which the increase in viscosity puts an end to the liquid flow is reflected in the topography of the PSG thickness. The corresponding variations in sheet resistance across a wafer are sufficiently small for solar cells. Furthermore, the liquid layer conforms itself, during the drying, to the surface texture on a microscopic scale

  20. Determination of the recognition site for adenine-specific methylase of Shigella sonnei 47 by hydazinolysis of DNA, followed by separation of the purine oligonucleotides by thin-layer chromatography on DEAE-cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatina, N.G.; Kirnos, M.D.; Suchkov, S.V.; Vanyushin, B.F.; Nikol'skaya, I.I.; Debov, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for the separation of oligopurine units according to length and composition by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on plates with DEAE-cellulose, permitting a comparative analysis of the content of various purine isopliths in DNA of different origin. In the case of the analysis of methylated DNA, the method permits a comparison of the substrate specificity of various enzymes of methylation of the adenine residues in DNA. In conjunction with enzymatic treatment of labeled methylated isopliths, the method permits determination of the methylatable sequence and in a number of cases an ascertainment of the recognition site for adenine-specific methylase as a whole. The proposed method was used to establish the fact that the methylase Ssol recognizes the sequence 5'...G-A-A-T-T-C...3' and methylates the adenine residue closest to its 5'-end

  1. Validation of in-line surface characterization by light scattering in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of a commercial scattered light sensor for in-line characterization of fine surfaces in the roughness range Sa 1 – 30 nm generated by the Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) was investigated and validated. A number of surfaces were generated and directly measured with the scattered light...

  2. In-line instrumentation and computer-controlled process supervision in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mache, H.R.; Groll, P.

    Measuring equipment is needed for continuous monitoring of concentration in radioactive process solutions. A review is given of existing in-line apparatus and of computer-controlled data processing. A process control system is described for TAMARA, a model extraction facility for the U/HNO 3 /TBP system

  3. In-Line Filtration Reduces Postoperative Venous Peripheral Phlebitis Associated With Cannulation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Giua, Rosa; Tofani, Lorenzo; Zagli, Giovanni; Boninsegni, Paolo; Pinelli, Fulvio; De Gaudio, A Raffaele; Romagnoli, Stefano

    2018-04-23

    Peripheral venous cannulation is an everyday practice of care for patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Particles infused with intravenous fluids (eg, plastic/glass/drugs particulate) contribute to the pathogenesis of peripheral phlebitis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of in-line filtration in reducing the incidence of postoperative phlebitis associated with peripheral short-term vascular access. In this controlled trial, 268 surgical patients were randomly assigned to in-line filtration and standard care (NCT03193827). The incidence of phlebitis (defined as visual infusion phlebitis [VIP] score, ≥2) within 48 hours was compared between the 2 groups, as well as the onset and severity of phlebitis and the reasons for removal of the cannula. The lifespan of venous cannulae was compared for the in-line filter and no-filter groups through a Kaplan-Meier curve. The incidence of phlebitis within 48 hours postoperatively was 2.2% and 26.9% (difference, 25% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 12%-36%]; odds ratio, 0.05 [0.01-0.15]), respectively, for the in-line filter and no-filter groups (P phlebitis (hazard ratio, 0.05 [95% CI, 0.014-0.15]; P phlebitis and prolongs cannula lifespan during peripheral venous cannulation in surgical patients.

  4. Filtration of lager beer with microsieves: Flux, permeate haze and in-line microscope observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Raspe, Onno; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fouling during filtration of lager beer with microsieves was studied through in-line microscope observations. It was observed that the main fouling was caused by micrometre-sized particles, presumably aggregated proteins. These particles formed flocks covering parts of the membrane surface.

  5. Automatic detection of clinical mastitis is improved by in-line monitoring of somatic cell count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.; Sherlock, R.; Jago, J.; Mein, G.; Hogeveen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the potential value of in-line composite somatic cell count (ISCC) sensing as a sole criterion or in combination with quarter-based electrical conductivity (EC) of milk, for automatic detection of clinical mastitis (CM) during automatic milking. Data generated from a New Zealand

  6. Storage and Retrieval of Encrypted Data Blocks with In-Line Message Authentication Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; McLellan Jr, Hubert Rae; Mullender, Sape J.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques are disclosed for in-line storage of message authentication codes with respective encrypted data blocks. In one aspect, a given data block is encrypted and a message authentication code is generated for the encrypted data block. A target address is determined for storage of the encrypted

  7. An Automated Statistical Process Control Study of Inline Mixing Using Spectrophotometric Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D.; Stewart, Michael D.; Willson, C. Grant

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is described, which is designed for a junior-level chemical engineering "fundamentals of measurements and data analysis" course, where students are introduced to the concept of statistical process control (SPC) through a simple inline mixing experiment. The students learn how to create and analyze control charts in an effort to…

  8. A non-iterative twin image elimination method with two in-line digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwu; Lee, Heejung; Jeon, Philjun; Kim, Dug Young

    2018-02-01

    We propose a simple non-iterative in-line holographic measurement method which can effectively eliminate a twin image in digital holographic 3D imaging. It is shown that a twin image can be effectively eliminated with only two measured holograms by using a simple numerical propagation algorithm and arithmetic calculations.

  9. Digital in-line holography assessment for general phase and opaque particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coëtmellec, S.; Wichitwong, W.; Gréhan, G.; Lebrun, D.; Brunel, M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the circle polynomials to describe a particle’s transmission function in a digital holography setup. This allows both opaque and phase particles to be determined. By means of this description, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the digital in-line hologram produced by a

  10. Manual In-Line Stabilization of the Cervical Spine Increases the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    injury present with loss of consciousness and suspected cervical fracture. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of difficult orotracheal intubation in surgical patients undergoing various procedures when manual in-line neck immobilization technique was applied. Methods: This was a randomized prospective study ...

  11. Estimating genetic parameters for fertility in dairy cows from in-line milk progesterone profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenghe, A.M.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Berglund, B.; Strandberg, E.; Blom, J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define endocrine fertility traits from in-line milk progesterone (P4) records and to estimate genetic parameters for these traits. Correlations of classical fertility (calving interval and calving to first service) and milk production traits with endocrine fertility

  12. Patterned deposition by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.; Kniknie, B.J.; Branca, A.; Winands, G.J.J.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor has been developed, to deposit Al2O3 films from trimethyl aluminum and an He/O2 plasma. This technique can be used for 2D patterned deposition in a single in-line process by making use of switched localized plasma sources. It

  13. Phase-Separated, Epitaxial, Nanostructured LaMnO3+MgO Composite Cap Layer Films for Propagation of Pinning Defects in YBa2Cu3O7-x Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Xiong, Xuming [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Goyal, Amit [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructural modulation in the cap layer used in coated conductors can be a potential source for nucleating microstructural defects into the superconducting layer for improving the flux-pinning. We report on the successful fabrication of phase separated, epitaxial, nanostructured films comprised of LaMnO{sub 3} (LMO) and MgO via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on biaxially-textured MgO metallic templates with a LMO buffer layer. Scanning Auger compositional mapping and transmission electron microscopy cross sectional images confirm the nanoscale, spatial modulation corresponding to the nanostructured phase separation in the film. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films (0.8 {micro}m thick) grown using PLD on such phase separated, nanostructured cap layers show reduced field dependence of the critical current density with an ? value of -0.38 (in J{sub c}-H{sup -{alpha}}).

  14. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Dragoş E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  15. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liney, G. P., E-mail: gary.liney@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); Dong, B.; Zhang, K. [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. Methods: The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Results: (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. Conclusions: A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the technical

  16. Odlišnosti a identita in-line bruslení a bruslení na ledě

    OpenAIRE

    Rampich, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare two types of skating - in-line skating and ice skating. An experiment method was used to evaluate an impact of in-line skating lessons on ice-skating skills in 12 and 13 years old children. We tried to find out which skills were transferable and which were not. The secondary aim was to suggest teaching methods of both above mentioned types of skating, point out uniquenesses of in-line skating, and apply them to improve the ice skating skills. T...

  17. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  18. Measurements of a Separating Turbulent Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    2O 3.7402, 1!145 2 .,? , _, 3030 1.5^203 0 01 R;, L 3.2C742 I.?34P 2.t 172 1.:0000 .5nODD .,4 t 5 0 . tD ?;g -.1 421 4. .02 c; 3.50030 t .S...972 ., 5;o -. 193U 󈧣’i .4852 .1𔃺!! -. 093.. 2.Qg737 -,34513 3,S� ,53.1? .35033 . l53 !:.’,; 15 !’ .77& .7 ,C23 4 .420’. 5.67722 -.45!e7 5.7343e .40

  19. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  20. Embedded vision equipment of industrial robot for inline detection of product errors by clustering–classification algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Zidek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the design of embedded vision equipment of industrial robots for inline diagnosis of product error during manipulation process. The vision equipment can be attached to the end effector of robots or manipulators, and it provides an image snapshot of part surface before grasp, searches for error during manipulation, and separates products with error from the next operation of manufacturing. The new approach is a methodology based on machine teaching for the automated identification, localization, and diagnosis of systematic errors in products of high-volume production. To achieve this, we used two main data mining algorithms: clustering for accumulation of similar errors and classification methods for the prediction of any new error to proposed class. The presented methodology consists of three separate processing levels: image acquisition for fail parameterization, data clustering for categorizing errors to separate classes, and new pattern prediction with a proposed class model. We choose main representatives of clustering algorithms, for example, K-mean from quantization of vectors, fast library for approximate nearest neighbor from hierarchical clustering, and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise from algorithm based on the density of the data. For machine learning, we selected six major algorithms of classification: support vector machines, normal Bayesian classifier, K-nearest neighbor, gradient boosted trees, random trees, and neural networks. The selected algorithms were compared for speed and reliability and tested on two platforms: desktop-based computer system and embedded system based on System on Chip (SoC with vision equipment.

  1. Flexible CIGS solar cells on large area polymer foils with in-line deposition methods and application of alternative back contacts - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.

    2009-08-15

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work performed within this project and also reports on synergies with other projects that helped to make a significant contribution to the development of CIGS thin film solar cells on flexible substrates such as polymer foils. The project's aims were to learn more about up-scaling issues and to demonstrate the abilities required for the processing of layers on large area polyimide foils for flexible CIGS solar cells. Custom-built evaporators that were designed and constructed in-house are described. A CIGS system for in-line deposition was also modified for roll-to-roll deposition and alternative electrical back contacts to conventional ones were evaluated on flexible polyimide foils. The objectives of the project and the results obtained are looked at and commented on in detail.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic-supported and metal-supported membrane layers for the separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil-fuel power plants; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von keramik- und metallgestuetzten Membranschichten fuer die CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung in fossilen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauler, Felix

    2010-07-01

    The separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil fuel power plants has become a very important issue due to the contribution of this greenhouse gas to global warming. Thin microporous membranes are promising candidates for separating CO{sub 2} from gas flow before being exhausted into the atmosphere. The membrane demands are good permeation and separation properties and high stability under operation conditions. Novel sol-gel derived materials composed of TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and stabilized SiO{sub 2} seem to be promising due to their good chemical stability and microporous character, especially for the separation of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Metallic substrates should be preferred as membrane support because they exhibit practical advantages combining good mechanical stability and the benefit of facilitated joining. The present thesis deals with the development of sol-gel derived microporous membrane layers on ceramic and metallic supports for the separation of CO{sub 2}. In this context, the optimized preparation of high-quality membranes with TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni, Co, Zr, Ti doped SiO{sub 2} top layers is presented. These multilayered membranes consist of a graded pore structure to provide a smooth transition of the pore size from the support to the functional layer. Due to the good surface properties, the ceramic substrates only need one interlayer, whereas the rough metallic substrates exhibiting larger pores require a total of three interlayers to obtain an enhanced surface quality. On both types of supports, crack-free functional layers with a thickness below 100 nm were deposited by dip-coating. The unsupported and supported sol-gel materials used for the top layers were investigated in terms of structural properties by thermal analysis, sorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Gas permeation tests with He, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} und N{sub 2} were carried out to determine the membrane performance with regard to permeation rates and

  3. Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, Danny S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pazuchanics, Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Randall P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Malone, R. M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaufman, M. I. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tibbitts, A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tunnell, T. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marks, D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Capelle, G. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Grover, M. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marshall, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Stevens, G. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States); LaLone, B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-06-25

    An Ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/μsec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles will also be described. Finally, results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn ejecta experiments will be presented. Particle size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double pulsed experiment will be described.

  4. In-line measurement of transparent micro membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Jimmy; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a new measuring principle to bring down the time for quality assurance, and obtain larger uniformity of the end product, in a specific production line. The production concerns thin transparent micro membranes (approx 35 micron thickness) dispensed...... in micro cavities, each membrane consisting of several membrane layers. A quality control should be performed every time a new layer is dispensed. The paper describes a new way of measuring membrane thickness. The method was achieved through the use of a vision system, whereby the thickness of the thin...... transparent micro membrane is determined in terms of the light absorbance of the membrane substrate. The new and faster measuring method makes is possible to measure the thickness of individual membranes and perform a 100% quality control....

  5. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  6. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  7. An integrated in-line fluid characterization system for industrial applications(In-situ fluid mechanics experiments)

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Wiklund; Reinhardt, Kotze; Beat, Birkhofer; Stefano, Ricci; Valentino, Meacci; Mats, Stading; Rainer, Haldenwang; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology; Sika Services AG; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; Information Engineering Department - University of Florence; SP-Technical Research Institute of Sweden; FPRC, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have presented the world's first commercially available embedded in-line fluids characterization system, "Flow-Viz". It has been specifically designed for the non-invasive, in-line, continuous, real-time velocity profile and rheological assessment of opaque, non-Newtonian industrial fluids. The Flow-Viz system has been successfully installed in pilot plants of international companies and used also for academic research. The technology has been applied to a wide range of fluids...

  8. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  9. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  10. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  11. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  12. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  13. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  14. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  15. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  16. Evaluation on correction factor for in-line X-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Mingli; Huang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ran [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Yunfu; Wang, Zhenchang [Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China). Medical Imaging Center; Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics

    2011-07-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast computed tomography (CT) is an effective nondestructive tool, providing 3D distribution of the refractive index of weakly absorbing low-Z object with high resolution and image contrast, especially with high-brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. Modified Bronnikov's algorithm (MBA), one of the in-line phase contrast CT reconstruction algorithms, can reconstruct the refractive index distribution of a pure phase object with a single computed tomographic data set. The key idea of the MBA is to use a correction factor in the filter function to stabilize the behavior at low frequencies. In this paper, we evaluate the influences of the correction factor to the final reconstruction results of the absorption-phase-mixed objects with analytical simulation and actual experiments. The limitations of the MBA are discussed finally. (orig.)

  17. Micro-Injection Moulding In-Line Quality Assurance Based on Product and Process Fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    2018-01-01

    significant dimensional features of the micro part were measured using a focus variation microscope. Their dependency on the variation of µIM process parameters was studied with a Design of Experiments (DoE) statistical approach. A correlation study allowed the identification of the product fingerprint, i...... of the study showed that the dimensional quality of the micro component could be effectively controlled in-line by combining the two fingerprints, thus opening the door for future µIM in-line process optimization and quality assessment.......Micro-injection moulding (μIM) is a replication-based process enabling the cost-effective production of complex and net-shaped miniaturized plastic components. The micro-scaled size of such parts poses great challenges in assessing their dimensional quality and often leads to time...

  18. Modelling of sedimentation and remobilization in in-line storage sewers for stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehmann, T; Flores, C; Luekewille, F; Mietzel, T; Spengler, B; Geiger, W F

    2005-01-01

    A special arrangement of combined sewer overflow tanks is the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge (ISS-down). This layout has the advantage that, besides the sewer system, no other structures are required for stormwater treatment. The verification of the efficiency with respect to the processes of sedimentation and remobilization of sediment within the in-line storage sewer with downstream discharge is carried out in a combination of a field and a pilot plant study. The model study was carried out using a pilot plant model scaled 1:13. The following is intended to present some results of the pilot plant study and the mathematical empirical modelling of the sedimentation and remobilization process.

  19. Effect of alternate-vortex on flow-induced in-line oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Anoda, Yoshinari

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the in-line oscillations of a flexible cylinder in a water crossflow to estimate the effects of alternate-vortex. The measured oscillations were analyzed using the Gabor wavelet function to define the temporal phase relation between the in-line displacement and the vortex-induced force. The analysis shows that 1) the stability region located between two excited regions is generated by alternate vortex effect, 2) the phase relation, which was changed as the crossflow velocity increased, can be classified into three categories, 3) though the contribution of the alternate vortex at the excited region was positive, the contribution at the stability region was negative. (author)

  20. Digital twin image elimination in soft x-ray in-line holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, G.; Joyeux, D.

    1993-01-01

    In-line holography is attractive for X-ray microscopy due to its recording simplicity. A drawback of this method is the superposition of the virtual and real images, in which structures and details can be modified or lost. This superposition effectively limits the application of in-line holography to X-ray microscopy. The authors present an iterative constrained algorithm for twin image elimination from Gabor holograms of finite support objects. It is based in the different spatial extent of both images, together with a finite support constraint. The conditions under which the algorithm is applicable will be presented, together with an alternative Monte Carlo method for holograms of complex objects recorded in the shadow region

  1. Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmar, Marco; Cloetens, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Enders, Bjoern; Dierolf, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inline holography is a common phase-contrast imaging method which uses free-space propagation to encode the phase signal into measured intensities. However, quantitative retrieval of the sample's image remains challenging, imposing constraints on the nature of the sample or on the propagation distance. Here, we present a way of simultaneously retrieving the sample's complex-valued transmission function and the incident illumination function from near-field diffraction patterns. The procedure relies on the measurement diversity created by lateral translations of the sample with respect to a structured illumination. The reconstruction approach, in essence identical to that employed in ptychography, is applied to hard X-ray synchrotron measurements and to simulations. Compared to other inline holography techniques, we expect near-field ptychography to reduce reconstruction artefacts by factoring out wavefront imperfections and relaxing constraints on the sample's scattering properties, thus ultimately improving the robustness of propagation-based X-ray phase tomography.

  2. Development of an in-line grout meter for improved quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Gilliam, T.M.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents progress to date on the development of an in-line grout meter and demonstration of its applicability at operating temperature of 50 degree C. The grout meter, which is based on measurement of grout electrical resistance/capacitance, is intended to provide real-time measurements of grout mix ratio (ratio of dry-solids-blend materials to waste). 4 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  3. A comparison and assessment of approaches for modelling flow over in-line tube banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovides, Hector; Launder, Brian; West, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present wall-resolved LES and URANS simulations of periodic flow in heated in-line tube banks. • Simulations of flow in a confined in-line tube-bank are compared with experimental data. • When pitch-to-diameter (P/D) ratio becomes less than 1.6, the periodic flow becomes skewed. • URANS tested here unable to mimic the periodic flow at P/D = 1.6. • In confined tube banks URANS suggest alternate, in the axial direction, flow deflection. - Abstract: The paper reports experiences from applying alternative strategies for modelling turbulent flow and local heat-transfer coefficients around in-line tube banks. The motivation is the simulation of conditions in the closely packed cross-flow heat exchangers used in advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactors (AGRs). The main objective is the flow simulation in large-scale tube banks with confining walls. The suitability and accuracy of wall-resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approaches are examined for generic, square, in-line tube banks, where experimental data are limited but available. Within the latter approach, both eddy-viscosity and Reynolds-stress-transport models have been tested. The assumption of flow periodicity in all three directions is investigated by varying the domain size. It is found that the path taken by the fluid through the tube-bank configuration differs according to the treatment of turbulence and whether the flow is treated as two- or three-dimensional. Finally, the important effect of confining walls has been examined by making direct comparison with the experiments of the complete test rig of Aiba et al. (1982)

  4. Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) Instruction Manual-Version 4.00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferink, Steven M.; Farnham, Joel E.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Wong, Amy S.

    2002-01-01

    The Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) provides near real-time alpha activity measurements of aqueous solutions in gloveboxes located in the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SILAC detector and its interface software were first developed by Joel Farnham at LANL [1]. This instruction manual describes the features of the SILAC interface software and contains the schematic and fabrication instructions for the detector

  5. Status of a reformer design for a modular HTGR in an in-line configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluck, R.; Whitling, W.H.; Lipps, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the past several years the General Electric Company has had the technical lead on advanced concept studies for the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) programs sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The focus of the Modular Reactor System (MRS) effort is the development of a generic nuclear heat source capable of supplying heat to either a steam generator/electric cycle or a high temperature steam /methane reforming cycle. Some early ground rules for this study were that the reactor be designed for 950 deg. C direct cycle reforming and that the core be of the prismatic type. Since the prismatic core required control rods near the center of the core, the vertical in-line concept was selected to promote natural circulation cooling of the core for all potential transients except the depressurized core heatup transient. Although the requirement for a prismatic core has been eliminated for recent cost reduction studies, the vertical in-line configuration has been retained for its potential as the lowest cost configuration. This paper presents the results of recent design and analytical studies conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a steam/methane reformer in a Vertical In-Line (VIL) arrangement with the generic nuclear heat source

  6. Validation of the Sensewear Armband during recreational in-line skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Mikulic, Pavle; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Ruzic, Lana; Markovic, Goran

    2012-03-01

    Multi-sensor body monitors that combine accelerometry with other physiological data are designed to overcome drawbacks of accelerometers in assessing activities with little or no vertical movement. One of such devices is the Sensewear Armband (SWA) which has been extensively validated during various activities. However, very few of the validation studies included activities other than walking and running. The aim of this investigation was to assess the validity of the SWA during recreational in-line skating. Nineteen participants (11 females and 8 males), 28 (±6) years of age, performed in-line skating exercise on a circular track at a self-selected pace. Energy expenditure was measured with the SWA and the Cosmed K4b(2) breath-by-breath portable metabolic unit. The mean (SD) energy expenditure during in-line skating estimated by the SWA [25.5 (5.8) kJ/min] was significantly lower compared with indirect calorimetry [44.2 (9.7) kJ/min, P skating by as much as 24-56% compared with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the SWA is not able to overcome the drawbacks of accelerometry in assessing activities with limited vertical movement.

  7. Neural network Hilbert transform based filtered backprojection for fast inline x-ray inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Eline; De Beenhouwer, Jan; Van Dael, Mattias; De Schryver, Thomas; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart; Sijbers, Jan

    2018-03-01

    X-ray imaging is an important tool for quality control since it allows to inspect the interior of products in a non-destructive way. Conventional x-ray imaging, however, is slow and expensive. Inline x-ray inspection, on the other hand, can pave the way towards fast and individual quality control, provided that a sufficiently high throughput can be achieved at a minimal cost. To meet these criteria, an inline inspection acquisition geometry is proposed where the object moves and rotates on a conveyor belt while it passes a fixed source and detector. Moreover, for this acquisition geometry, a new neural-network-based reconstruction algorithm is introduced: the neural network Hilbert transform based filtered backprojection. The proposed algorithm is evaluated both on simulated and real inline x-ray data and has shown to generate high quality reconstructions of 400  ×  400 reconstruction pixels within 200 ms, thereby meeting the high throughput criteria.

  8. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  9. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  10. fibre separator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    sharp edged spiral worm and four fixed blades, a pair of adjustable blades, ... energy and/or for the production of other products. ... 388 Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. Figure 1. Layers of the palm fruit. planting. ... a skeleton of hard fibre running lengthwise through the ... maximum temperature of 28 - 32°C which is peculiar to.

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  12. An inline ion-exchange system in a chemiluminescence-based analyzer for direct analysis of N-nitrosamines in treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Roback, Shannon L; Plumlee, Megan H; Ishida, Kenneth P; Masunaga, Hiroto; Maruyama, Noboru; Fujioka, Takahiro

    2018-04-13

    A newly developed, ion exchange-based inline pretreatment system was used to mitigate the effect of background constituents in natural water and treated wastewater to achieve rapid, reliable, and sensitive analysis of N-nitrosamines. The pretreatment system (anion exchange module, AEM) was incorporated into a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) coupled with a photochemical reactor (PR) and chemiluminescence (CL) detector (HPLC-PR-CL), which can analyze four hydrophilic N-nitrosamines at ng/L levels. This system requires no pre-concentration of the water sample nor the use of deuterated surrogates, unlike other conventional N-nitrosamine analytical techniques. The AEM converted anions in the eluent to hydroxide ions after HPLC separation and increased eluent pH, allowing for the subsequent photochemical reactions, which are otherwise achieved by pH conditioning with an additional dosing pump of basic chemical. The AEM also removed anionic interfering compounds (e.g. nitrate) from the samples, allowing for improved N-nitrosamine analysis in treated wastewater. The operating conditions of the AEM and PR were optimized to obtain sensitive and stable analytical performance. As a result, the lowest-concentration minimum reporting levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine, N-nitrosomethylethylamine, and N- nitrosopyrrolidine using the optimized system were 0.42, 0.54, 0.58, and 1.4 ng/L, respectively. The improved analytical method was validated by comparing the results with a conventional method based on gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometric ion trap detector. These results indicated that HPLC-PR-CL equipped with an inline AEM can be competitively applied as a rapid analytical technique for the determination of N-nitrosamines in various water matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fiber optic refractive index and magnetic field sensors based on microhole-induced inline Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Liuchao; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Sumei

    2018-04-01

    A compact microhole-induced fiber optic inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is demonstrated for measurements of refractive index (RI) and magnetic field. Inline MZIs with different etched diameters, different interaction lengths and different sizes of microholes are fabricated and assessed. The optical transmission spectra of the inline MZIs immersed into a series of liquids are characterized and analysed. Experimental results show that liquid RI sensitivity as high as 539.8436 nm RIU-1 in the RI range of 1.3352-1.4113 RIU is achieved and also exhibits good linearity with a correlation coefficient  >93%. An inline MZI is also fabricated to be a magnetic field sensor by using magnetic fluid material. The experimental results show that this magnetic field sensor has a high sensitivity of  -275.6 pm Oe-1. The inline MZI-based fiber optic sensors possess many advantages, such as small size, simple fabrication, high sensitivity and good linearity, which has a wide application potential in chemical, biological and environmental sensing fields.

  14. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  15. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  16. Experimental Study of Thermo-hydraulic Characteristics of Surfaces with In-line Dimple Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted experimental study of the heat exchange intensification on the surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief that is an in-line array of the shallow hemispherical dimples. Using 12 configuration options with the Reynolds numbers in the range of (0.2-7.0 106 as an example, it analyses how a longitudinal and cross step of the in-line dimple array (density dimples effects on the processes of heat exchange intensification and resistance.The monocomponent strain-gauge balance allows us to define a value of the resistance coefficient by direct weighing of models (located in parallel in a flow of "relief" and smooth "reference" ones being under study. Distribution fields of heat – transfer factor are determined by recording a cooling process of the surface of studied models having high spatial and temporary resolution. All researches were conducted with one-shot data record of these thermal and hydraulic measurements for the smooth (reference surfaces and the studied surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief (dimples. The error of determined parameters was no more than ±5%.The oil-sooty method allows us to visualize flow around a regular relief and obtain a flow pattern for 12 options of dimples configuration. The analysis has been carried out and a compliance of the flow patterns with the field of heat-transfer factors has been obtained.It has been found that for the in-line configuration a Reynolds analogy factor for most models is nonlinearly dependent on the Reynolds number. The friction intensification, at first, falls (to some Reynolds number and, further, starts increasing, tending to the friction intensification value with self-similarity flow around. Thus with increasing Reynolds number, the heattransfer factor intensification falls (more slowly than resistance intensification.

  17. In-line bulk supersaturation measurement by electrical conductometry in KDP crystal growth from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordui, P. F.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1984-07-01

    A method is presented for in-line bulk supersaturation measurement in crystal growth from aqueous solution. The method is based on a computer-controlled concentration measurement exploiting an experimentally predetermined cross-correlation between the concentration, electrical conductivity, and temperature of the growth solution. The method was applied to Holden crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). An extensive conductivity-temperature-concentration data base was generated for this system over a temperature range of 31 to 41°C. The method yielded continous, automated bulk supersaturation output accurate to within ±0.05 g KDP100 g water (±0.15% relative supersaturation).

  18. Twin-image reduction in inline digital holography using an object segmentation heuristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhinney, Conor P; Hennelly, Bryan M; Naughton, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    We present a digital image processing heuristic for the removal of the twin-image in inline digital holograms. Typically, the unwanted twin manifests itself as visible corruptive noise in the reconstruction plane. We reconstruct the unwanted twin-image at its in-focus plane and suppress it by first finding the boundary of the object, and then removing the optical energy within this boundary. In this plane, the wanted twin-image optical energy is largely dispersed outside this boundary and so it is retained. The heuristic's effectiveness is demonstrated using a digital hologram of a real-world object.

  19. Advanced diffusion system for low contamination in-line rapid thermal processing of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Schultz, O.; Peters, S.; Huljic, D.M.; Zickermann, D.; Schindler, R.; Luedemann, R.; Willeke, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    A novel diffusion system for in-line rapid thermal diffusion is presented. The lamp-heated furnace has a low thermal mass and a metal free transport system based on the walking beam principle. The furnace has been used to process first solar cells with lightly and highly doped emitters respectively. Solar cells with shallow lightly doped emitters show that the emitters processed in the new device can be well passivated. Shallow emitters with sheet resistances of up to 40/sq. have been contacted successfully by means of screen printing and firing through a SiN{sub x} antireflection coating. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional Effects of Turburlent Flow in an In-Line Tube Bundle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Velocities have been measured with laser Doppler anemometry between tubes in cross-flow in a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of 1.5Dx1.8D and a Reynolds number based on mean velocity in minimum flow section of Re=30000. At most locations a single recirculation zone...... is found behind each tube. However, the direction of circulation changes sign along the tube with a period of about 2~tube diameters. Three different patterns of such recirculation zones have been observed. Each pattern is very stable and does not change under undisturbed flow conditions....

  1. Field validation of protocols developed to evaluate in-line mastitis detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, C; Dela Rue, B T; Eastwood, C R

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on a field validation of previously developed protocols for evaluating the performance of in-line mastitis-detection systems. The protocols outlined 2 requirements of these systems: (1) to detect cows with clinical mastitis (CM) promptly and accurately to enable timely and appropriate treatment and (2) to identify cows with high somatic cell count (SCC) to manage bulk milk SCC levels. Gold standard measures, evaluation tests, performance measures, and performance targets were proposed. The current study validated the protocols on commercial dairy farms with automated in-line mastitis-detection systems using both electrical conductivity (EC) and SCC sensor systems that both monitor at whole-udder level. The protocol for requirement 1 was applied on 3 commercial farms. For requirement 2, the protocol was applied on 6 farms; 3 of them had low bulk milk SCC (128×10(3) cells/mL) and were the same farms as used for field evaluation of requirement 1. Three farms with high bulk milk SCC (270×10(3) cells/mL) were additionally enrolled. The field evaluation methodology and results were presented at a workshop including representation from 7 international suppliers of in-line mastitis-detection systems. Feedback was sought on the acceptance of standardized performance evaluation protocols and recommended refinements to the protocols. Although the methodology for requirement 1 was relatively labor intensive and required organizational skills over an extended period, no major issues were encountered during the field validation of both protocols. The validation, thus, proved the protocols to be practical. Also, no changes to the data collection process were recommended by the technology supplier representatives. However, 4 recommendations were made to refine the protocols: inclusion of an additional analysis that ignores small (low-density) clot observations in the definition of CM, extension of the time window from 4 to 5 milkings for timely alerts for CM

  2. Statistical analysis of real ILI (In-Line Inspection) data: implications, inferences and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timashev, Svyatoslav A.; Bushinskaya, Anna V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Ural Branch. Sciences and Engineering Center ' Reliability and Safety of Large Systems and Machines'

    2009-07-01

    The paper discusses current possibilities and drawbacks of in-line inspection (ILI) in sizing defects in oil and gas pipelines. A methodology based on analysis of variances (ANOVA) is presented that extracts maximum possible information from the ILI measurements of defects and subsequent verification results. This full statistical analysis (FSA) methodology was extensively tested by using the Monte Carlo simulation method. It was then applied to analyze the content of sections 7, 9 and appendix E of the API 1163 RP Standard. (author)

  3. In-line femtosecond common-path interferometer in reflection mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandezon, J; Rampnoux, J-M; Dilhaire, S; Audoin, B; Guillet, Y

    2015-10-19

    An innovative method to perform femtosecond time-resolved interferometry in reflection mode is proposed. The experiment consists in the combined use of a pump-probe setup and of a fully passive in-line femtosecond common-path interferometer. The originality of this interferometer relies on the use of a single birefringent crystal first to generate a pair of phase-locked pulses and second to recombine them to interfere. As predicted by analytical modeling, this interferometer measures the temporal derivative of the ultrafast changes of the complex optical reflection coefficient of the sample. Working conditions are illustrated through picosecond opto-acoustic experiments on a thin film.

  4. Practical algorithms for simulation and reconstruction of digital in-line holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-03-20

    Here we present practical methods for simulation and reconstruction of in-line digital holograms recorded with plane and spherical waves. The algorithms described here are applicable to holographic imaging of an object exhibiting absorption as well as phase-shifting properties. Optimal parameters, related to distances, sampling rate, and other factors for successful simulation and reconstruction of holograms are evaluated and criteria for the achievable resolution are worked out. Moreover, we show that the numerical procedures for the reconstruction of holograms recorded with plane and spherical waves are identical under certain conditions. Experimental examples of holograms and their reconstructions are also discussed.

  5. Twin-image reduction in inline digital holography using an object segmentation heuristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhinney, Conor P; Hennelly, Bryan M [Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare (Ireland); Naughton, Thomas J [University of Oulu, RFMedia Laboratory, Oulu Southern Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska (Finland)], E-mail: conormce@cs.nuim.ie, E-mail: tomn@cs.nuim.ie

    2008-11-01

    We present a digital image processing heuristic for the removal of the twin-image in inline digital holograms. Typically, the unwanted twin manifests itself as visible corruptive noise in the reconstruction plane. We reconstruct the unwanted twin-image at its in-focus plane and suppress it by first finding the boundary of the object, and then removing the optical energy within this boundary. In this plane, the wanted twin-image optical energy is largely dispersed outside this boundary and so it is retained. The heuristic's effectiveness is demonstrated using a digital hologram of a real-world object.

  6. Effects of Cycling vs. Running Training on Endurance Performance in Preparation for Inline Speed Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-06-01

    Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed skating technique. Therefore, athletes would benefit from a focus on technique training in the subsequent period.

  7. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  8. Combining spanwise morphing, inline motion and model based optimization for force magnitude and direction control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Johannes; Braza, Marianna; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bats and other animals rapidly change their wingspan in order to control the aerodynamic forces. A NACA0013 type airfoil with dynamically changing span is proposed as a simple model to experimentally study these biomimetic morphing wings. Combining this large-scale morphing with inline motion allows to control both force magnitude and direction. Force measurements are conducted in order to analyze the impact of the 4 degree of freedom flapping motion on the flow. A blade-element theory augmented unsteady aerodynamic model is then used to derive optimal flapping trajectories.

  9. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  10. Measuring the light scattering and orientation of a spheroidal particle using in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Byeon, Hyeok Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-07-01

    The light scattering properties of a horizontally and vertically oriented spheroidal particle under laser illumination are experimentally investigated using digital in-line holography. The reconstructed wave field shows the bright singular points as a result of the condensed beam formed by a transparent spheroidal particle acting as a lens. The in-plane (θ) and out-of-plane (ϕ) rotating angles of an arbitrarily oriented spheroidal particle are measured by using these scattering properties. As a feasibility test, the 3D orientation of a transparent spheroidal particle suspended in a microscale pipe flow is successfully reconstructed by adapting the proposed method.

  11. Simultaneous Multiple-Location Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of controlling a shear layer for a fluid dynamic body introduces first periodic disturbances into the fluid medium at a first flow separation location. Simultaneously, second periodic disturbances are introduced into the fluid medium at a second flow separation location. A phase difference between the first and second periodic disturbances is adjusted to control flow separation of the shear layer as the fluid medium moves over the fluid dynamic body.

  12. Structural design of an in-line bolted joint for the space shuttle solid rocket motor case segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Stein, Peter A.; Bush, Harold G.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a structural design study of an in-line bolted joint concept which can be used to assemble Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) case segments are presented. Numerous parametric studies are performed to characterize the in-line bolted joint behavior as major design variables are altered, with the primary objective always being to keep the inside of the joint (where the O-rings are located) closed during the SRM firing. The resulting design has 180 1-inch studs, an eccentricity of -0.5 inch, a flange thickness of 3/4 inch, a bearing plate thickness of 1/4 inch, and the studs are subjected to a preload which is 70% of ultimate. The mass penalty per case segment joint for the in-line design is 346 lbm more than the weight penalty for the proposed capture tang fix.

  13. Dehydration studies using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed dryer with in-line near-infrared measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räsänen, Eetu; Rantanen, Jukka; Mannermaa, Jukka-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of two process parameters (temperature and moisture content) on dehydration behavior of different materials using a novel multichamber microscale fluid bed dryer with a process air control unit and in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy....... The materials studied were disodium hydrogen phosphates with three different levels of hydrate water and wet theophylline granules. Measured process parameters of fluid bed drying were logged, including in-line NIR signals. Off-line analyses consisted of X-ray powder diffraction patterns, Fourier transform NIR...... spectra and moisture contents of studied materials. During fluid bed drying, the stepwise dehydration of materials was observed by the water content difference of inlet and outlet air, the pressure difference over the bed, and the in-line NIR spectroscopy. The off-line analysis confirmed the state...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and finish mills. 63.1348 Section 63.1348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and...

  15. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different...... is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external...

  16. A new approach to group separation of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Hong Qin; Zhi-Min Zong; Chun Jiang; Hao Sun; Li-Li Zhou; Xian-Yong Wei [China University of Mining and University, Jiangsu (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Three coal samples were extracted with carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. The extraction solutions were separated to three layers: insoluble fraction (under layer), CS{sub 2} solution (middle layer) and water/NMP solution (upper layer) by water addition. Most of NMP was concentrated to the upper layer. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer.

  18. Applying ultrasonic in-line inspection technology in a deep water environment: exploring the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielager, N.; Nadler, M.; Pieske, M.; Beller, M. [NDT Systems and Services AG, Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-12-19

    The demand for higher inspection accuracies of in-line inspection tools (ILI tools) is permanently growing. As integrity assessment procedures are being refined, detection performances, sizing accuracies and confidence levels regarding detection and sizing play an ever increasing role. ILI tools utilizing conventional ultrasound technology are at the forefront of technology and fulfill the market requirements regarding sizing accuracies and the ability to provide quantitative measurements of wall thickness as well as crack inspection capabilities. Data from ultrasonic tools is ideally suited for advanced integrity assessment applications and run comparisons. Making this technology available for a deep-water environment of heavy wall, high pressures and temperatures comes with a wide range of challenges which have to be addressed. This paper will introduce developments recently made in order to adapt and modify ultrasonic in-line inspection tools for the application in a heavy wall, high pressure and high temperature environment as encountered in deep offshore pipelines. The paper will describe necessary design modifications and new conceptual approaches especially regarding tool electronics, cables, connectors and the sensor carrier. A tool capable of deep-water inspection with a pressure bearing capability of 275 bar will be introduced and data from inspection runs will be presented. As an outlook, the paper will also discuss future inspection requirements for offshore pipelines with maximum pressure values of up to 500 bar. (author)

  19. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring — Instrumentation and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyun; Deen, M. Jamal; Kumar, Shiva; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. PMID:25230309

  20. A method for the inline measurement of milk gel firmness using an optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, O; Castillo, M

    2018-05-01

    At present, selection of cutting time during cheesemaking is made based on subjective methods, which has effects on product homogeneity and has prevented complete automation of cheesemaking. In this work, a new method for inline monitoring of curd firmness is presented. The method consisted of developing a model that correlates the backscatter ratio of near infrared light during milk coagulation with the rheological storage modulus. The model was developed through a factorial design with 2 factors: protein concentration (3.4 and 5.1%) and coagulation temperature (30 and 40°C). Each treatment was replicated 3 times; the model was calibrated with the first replicate and validated using the remaining 2 replicates. The coagulation process was simultaneously monitored using an optical sensor and small-amplitude oscillatory rheology. The model was calibrated and successfully validated at the different protein concentrations and coagulation temperatures studied, predicting the evolution of storage modulus during milk coagulation with coefficient of determination values >0.998 and standard error of prediction values <3.4 Pa. The results demonstrated that the proposed method allows inline monitoring of curd firming in cheesemaking and cutting the curd at a proper firmness to each type of cheese. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inline UV/Vis spectroscopy as PAT tool for hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesholowski, Jens; Prill, Sebastian; Berghaus, Andreas; Thommes, Markus

    2018-01-11

    Hot-melt extrusion on co-rotating twin screw extruders is a focused technology for the production of pharmaceuticals in the context of Quality by Design. Since it is a continuous process, the potential for minimizing product quality fluctuation is enhanced. A typical application of hot-melt extrusion is the production of solid dispersions, where an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is distributed within a polymer matrix carrier. For this dosage form, the product quality is related amongst others to the drug content. This can be monitored on- or inline as critical quality attribute by a process analytical technology (PAT) in order to meet the specific requirements of Quality by Design. In this study, an inline UV/Vis spectrometer from ColVisTec was implemented in an early development twin screw extruder and the performance tested in accordance to the ICH Q2 guideline. Therefore, two API (carbamazepine and theophylline) and one polymer matrix (copovidone) were considered with the main focus on the quantification of the drug load. The obtained results revealed the suitability of the implemented PAT tool to quantify the drug load in a typical range for pharmaceutical applications. The effort for data evaluation was minimal due to univariate data analysis, and in combination with a measurement frequency of 1 Hz, the system is sufficient for real-time data acquisition.

  2. Optimization of X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on in-line holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong; Yan Aimin

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a newly conceived formalism for clinical in-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging. The new formalism applies not only to ideal 'thin' objects analyzed in previous studies, but also applies to the real-world tissues used in actual clinical practice. Moreover we have identified the four clinically important factors that affect phase-contrast characteristics. These factors are: (1) body part attenuation (2) the spatial coherence of incident X-rays from an X-ray tube (3) the polychromatic nature of the X-ray source and (4) radiation dose to patients for clinical applications. Techniques of phase image-reconstruction based on the new X-ray in-line holography theory are discussed. Numerical simulations are described which were used to validate the theory. The design parameters of an optimal clinical phase-contrast mammographic imaging system which were determined based on the new theory, and validated in the simulations, are presented. The theory, image reconstruction algorithms, and numerical simulation techniques presented in this paper can be applied widely to clinical diagnostic X-ray imaging applications

  3. Inline monitoring and a PAT strategy for pharmaceutical hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick R; Treffer, Daniel; Mohr, Stefan; Roblegg, Eva; Koscher, Gerold; Khinast, Johannes G

    2013-10-15

    Implementation of continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry requires tight process control. This study focuses on a PAT strategy for hot melt extrusion of vegetable calcium stearate (CaSt) as matrix carrier and paracetamol as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The extrusion was monitored using in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A NIR probe was located in the section between the extrusion screws and the die, using a novel design of the die channel. A chemometric model was developed based on premixes at defined concentrations and was implemented in SIPAT for real time API concentration monitoring. Subsequently, step experiments were performed for different API concentrations, screw speeds and screw designs. The predicted API concentration was in good agreement with the pre-set concentrations. The transition from one API plateau to another was a smooth curve due to the mixing behaviour of the extruder. The accuracy of the model was confirmed via offline HPLC analysis. The screw design was determined as the main influential factor on content uniformity (CU). Additionally the influence of multiple feeders had a significant impact on CU. The results demonstrate that in-line NIR measurements is a powerful tool for process development (e.g., mixing characterization), monitoring and further control strategies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Firdaus Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05. The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  5. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa'ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-10-27

    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t -test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass.

  6. In-line digital holographic sensor for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Zozulya, Alex A.

    2000-01-01

    We report an in-line digital holographic sensor (DHS) for monitoring and characterizing marine particulates. This system images individual particles over a deep depth of field (>25 cm) with a resolution of 5 μm. The DHS projects a collimated beam through the water column and onto a lensless CCD array. Some light is diffracted by particulates and forms an object beam; the undeflected remainder constitutes the reference beam. The two beams combine at the CCD array and create an in-line hologram, which is then numerically reconstructed. The DHS eliminates many problems traditionally associated with holography. The CCD recording material considerably lowers the exposure time and eliminates most vibration problems. The laser power needs are low; the DHS uses a small 10-mW diode laser. Rapid numerical reconstruction eliminates photographic processing and optical reconstruction. We successfully operated the DHS underwater on a remotely operated vehicle; our test results include tracing a single particle from one hologram to the next, thus deriving a velocity vector for marine mass transport. We outline our digital holographic reconstruction procedure, and present our graphical user interface and user software tools. The DHS is particularly useful for providing in situ ground-truth measurements for environmental remote sensing. (c) 2000 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  7. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring.

  8. Hybrid phase retrieval algorithm for solving the twin image problem in in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Fucai; Wang, Yunxin

    2010-10-01

    For the reconstruction in the in-line digital holography, there are three terms overlapping with each other on the image plane, named the zero order term, the real image and the twin image respectively. The unwanted twin image degrades the real image seriously. A hybrid phase retrieval algorithm is presented to address this problem, which combines the advantages of two popular phase retrieval algorithms. One is the improved version of the universal iterative algorithm (UIA), called the phase flipping-based UIA (PFB-UIA). The key point of this algorithm is to flip the phase of the object iteratively. It is proved that the PFB-UIA is able to find the support of the complicated object. Another one is the Fienup algorithm, which is a kind of well-developed algorithm and uses the support of the object as the constraint among the iteration procedure. Thus, by following the Fienup algorithm immediately after the PFB-UIA, it is possible to produce the amplitude and the phase distributions of the object with high fidelity. The primary simulated results showed that the proposed algorithm is powerful for solving the twin image problem in the in-line digital holography.

  9. In-Line Sorting of Harumanis Mango Based on External Quality Using Visible Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus; Ahmad Sa’ad, Fathinul Syahir; Zakaria, Ammar; Md Shakaff, Ali Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The conventional method of grading Harumanis mango is time-consuming, costly and affected by human bias. In this research, an in-line system was developed to classify Harumanis mango using computer vision. The system was able to identify the irregularity of mango shape and its estimated mass. A group of images of mangoes of different size and shape was used as database set. Some important features such as length, height, centroid and parameter were extracted from each image. Fourier descriptor and size-shape parameters were used to describe the mango shape while the disk method was used to estimate the mass of the mango. Four features have been selected by stepwise discriminant analysis which was effective in sorting regular and misshapen mango. The volume from water displacement method was compared with the volume estimated by image processing using paired t-test and Bland-Altman method. The result between both measurements was not significantly different (P > 0.05). The average correct classification for shape classification was 98% for a training set composed of 180 mangoes. The data was validated with another testing set consist of 140 mangoes which have the success rate of 92%. The same set was used for evaluating the performance of mass estimation. The average success rate of the classification for grading based on its mass was 94%. The results indicate that the in-line sorting system using machine vision has a great potential in automatic fruit sorting according to its shape and mass. PMID:27801799

  10. Simultaneous in-line concentration for spectrophotometric determination of cations and anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Fábio R. P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow system is proposed for simultaneous in-line concentration of cations and anions. A sliding-bar commutator was employed to insert an anion and a cation exchange column into a flowing sample stream for serial retention of the analytes. In the injector alternative position, different solutions flowed through the columns for parallel elution of the species in different analytical paths. Three-way solenoid valves allowed the intermittent reagent introduction in the sample zones. Signals were measured by employing two flow-through LED-based detectors. The simultaneous retention of the sample zones in coiled reactors can be also performed to increase the residence time and the analyte conversion rate. The analytical potentiality was demonstrated by the in-line concentration of ammonium and phosphate followed by spectrophotometric detection. For a 90 s loading time, the sampling rate was estimated as 40 determinations per hour, which is three-fold higher than the obtained without performing the tasks simultaneously. Enrichment factors of 8.0 and 18 were estimated for phosphate and ammonium, respectively, yielding detection limits of 1 mg L-1 PO4(3- and 1 mg L-1 NH4+ (99.7% confidence level. The reagent consumption was lower than 2 mg per determination. Results for freshwater samples agreed with the obtained by reference APHA procedures at the 95% confidence level.

  11. Cardiorespiratory demands during an inline speed skating marathon race: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the intensity profile during an inline speed skating marathon road race. A highly-trained male athlete (20 y, 73.4 kg, 178 cm, V̇O2 peak: 60.8 mL·kg-1·min-1) participated in a marathon road race. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and speed were measured using a portable gas analysis system with a HR monitor and GPS-Sensor integrated. The athlete´s peak V̇O2, HR and speed at ventilatory thresholds were assessed during an incremental field test (22 km·h-1, increase 2 km·h-1 every 5 min) one week before the race. During the race, the absolute time spent in the "easy intensity zone" (V̇O2 below VT1) was 1 min, 49 min "moderate intensity zone" (V̇O2 between VT1 and VT2), and 26 min in the "hard intensity zone" (V̇O2 above VT2). The average HR was 171±6 bpm, corresponding to 95% of the maximum. This study shows that inline speed skating road races over a marathon are conducted at moderate to high V̇O2 and heart rate levels. The physiological racing pattern is very intermittent, requiring both a high level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity.

  12. Selected plantar pressure characteristics associated with the skating performance of national in-line speed skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Hsu, Hsiu-Tao; Chu, I-Hua; Tsai, Feng-Hua; Liang, Jing-Min

    2017-06-01

    In order to help coaches analyse the techniques of professional in-line speed skaters for making the required fine adjustments and corrections in their push-off work, this study analysed the specific plantar pressure characteristics during a 300-m time-trial test. Fourteen elite in-line speed skaters from the national team were recruited in this study. The total completion time of the 300-m time-trial test, duration of each skating phase, and plantar pressure distribution were measured. The correlation between plantar pressure distribution and skating performance was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses. The results showed that the contact time of the total foot and force-time integral (FTI) in the medial forefoot were significantly correlated with the duration of the start phase, and the FTIs in the medial forefoot of the gliding (left) leg and lateral forefoot of the pushing (right) leg were significantly correlated with the duration of the turning phase. The maximum force in the medial heel, medial forefoot, and median forefoot and the FTI in the medial heel and medial forefoot were significantly correlated with the duration of the linear acceleration phase. The results suggest that a correct plantar loading area and push-off strategy can enhance the skating performance.

  13. Fatigue failure by in-line flow-induced vibration and fatigue life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odahara, Satoru; Murakami, Yukitaka; Inoue, Masahiro; Sueoka, Atsuo

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of fatigue failure by the In-line flow-induced vibration was studied. A newly water-flow-induced vibration system was made and used to reproduce fatigue failure by flow-induced vibration. A medium carbon steel specimen was fixed to the experimental equipment. A small artificial hole was introduced onto the specimen surface. Fatigue crack initiated from the artificial hole. A small portable strain histogram recorder (Mini Rainflow Corder, MRC) developed in another project of the authors' team was used to acquire the service strain hisogram at a critical point of the specimen and to measure the variation of natural frequency. Cumulative fatigue damage D defined by the Modified Miner Rule was calculated by using the strain histogram at the initial stage of test. The value of D was almost unity in the case of In-line vibration, while the values of D in the case of the Cross-flow vibration ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. (author)

  14. Protein Adsorption to In-Line Filters of Intravenous Administration Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Ensuring compatibility of administered therapeutic proteins with intravenous administration sets is an important regulatory requirement. A low-dose recovery during administration of low protein concentrations is among the commonly observed incompatibilities, and it is mainly due to adsorption to in-line filters. To better understand this phenomenon, we studied the adsorption of 4 different therapeutic proteins (2 IgG1s, 1 IgG4, and 1 Fc fusion protein) diluted to 0.01 mg/mL in 5% glucose (B. Braun EcoFlac; B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) or 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl; Freeflex; Fresenius Kabi, Friedberg, Germany) solutions to 8 in-line filters (5 positively charged and 3 neutral filters made of different polymers and by different suppliers). The results show certain patterns of protein adsorption, which depend to a large extent on the dilution solution and filter material, and to a much lower extent on the proteins' biophysical properties. Investigation of the filter membranes' zeta potential showed a correlation between the observed adsorption pattern in 5% glucose solution and the filter's surface charge, with higher protein adsorption for the strongly negatively charged membranes. In 0.9% NaCl solution, the surface charges are masked, leading to different adsorption patterns. These results contribute to the general understanding of the protein adsorption to IV infusion filters and allow the design of more efficient compatibility studies. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. HELIOS-CR - A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Golovkin, I.E.; Woodruff, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers. The energy equations employed include models for laser energy deposition, radiation from external sources, and high-current discharges. Radiative transport can be calculated using either a multi-frequency flux-limited diffusion model, or a multi-frequency, multi-angle short characteristics model. HELIOS-CR supports the use of SESAME equation of state (EOS) tables, PROPACEOS EOS/multi-group opacity data tables, and non-LTE plasma properties computed using the inline CR modeling. Time-, space-, and frequency-dependent results from HELIOS-CR calculations are readily displayed with the HydroPLOT graphics tool. In addition, the results of HELIOS simulations can be post-processed using the SPECT3D Imaging and Spectral Analysis Suite to generate images and spectra that can be directly compared with experimental measurements. The HELIOS-CR package runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX platforms, and includes online documentation. We will discuss the major features of HELIOS-CR, and present example results from simulations

  16. Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2015-12-01

    The determination of state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) is challenging and remains as an active research area in academia and industry due to its importance for Li-ion battery applications. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper presents an inline SOH and SOC estimation method for Li-ion battery packs, specifically for those based on LiFePO4 chemistry. This new hybridized SOC and SOH estimator can be used for battery packs. Inline estimated model parameters were used in a compounded SOC + SOH estimator consisting of the SOC calculation based on coulomb counting method as an expedient approach and an SOH observer using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique for calibrating the estimates from the coulomb counting method. The algorithm's low SOC and SOH estimation error, fast response time, and less-demanding computational requirement make it practical for on-board estimations. The simulation and experimental results, along with the test bed structure, are presented to validate the proposed methodology on a single cell and a 3S1P LiFePO4 battery pack.

  17. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-02-13

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer.

  18. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  19. Application Of The SPV-based Surface Lifetime Technique To In-Line Monitoring Of Surface Cu Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, John; Savtchouk, Alexandre; Wilson, Matthew; Kim, Chul Hong; Yoo, Hyung Won; Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Son, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    Implementation of Cu interconnects into Silicon Integrated Circuits (IC's) has been instrumental in the continuing improvement of IC device performance. Copper as a well known Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) killer [1, 2] requires extensive protocols to minimize the possibility of cross contamination. Despite such protocols the risk for cross contamination exists, and consequently there is the need for in-line Cu cross-contamination detection metrology. Preferably the metrology will be non-destructive, fast, and capable of mapping on product wafers. Up to now the most common approaches for monitoring Cu contamination in IC fabrication lines either measure Cu in the bulk Si, which is not applicable to Cu cross-contamination monitoring because Back-End-of-the-Line thermal budgets restrict the ability to diffuse the surface Cu into the bulk Si; or the techniques are not optimal for in-line monitoring due to their destructive, time-consuming, or costly nature. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the application of the ac-Surface Photo Voltage (ac-SPV) surface lifetime approach [3] to in-line, full wafer coverage mapping of low level (metrology system. Furthermore, because the metrology is non-contact (utilizing edge-grip handling) and non-destructive, it is directly applicable to measurement of production wafers. In-line fab data acquired using this metrology is presented and compared to data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS).

  20. Industrial complex in organizing the high-speed in-line construction of reactor compartments at the Balakovo NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksakov, A.I.; Kovrigin, Yu.K.; Zhila, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Qualitatively new technology of reactor compartment construction presupposing organizing of an industrial-mounting in-line complex is described. Maximum level of construction industrialization and noticeable reduction of construction duration are noted to be ensured by means of this technology

  1. 47 CFR 25.261 - Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for avoidance of in-line interference events for Non Geostationary Satellite Orbit (NGSO) Satellite Network Operations in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) Bands. 25.261 Section 25.261 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  2. Lagrangian transport characteristics of a class of three-dimensional inline-mixing flows with fluid inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, M.F.M.; Demissie, E.A.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixing by the inline-mixing principle is key to many industrial fluids-engineering systems of size extending from microns to meters. However, insight into fundamental transport phenomena particularly under the realistic conditions of three-dimensionality (3D) and fluid inertia remains

  3. Inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to monitor and optimize cleaning-in-place (CIP) of whey filtration plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander; Ottosen, Niels; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J.

    2017-01-01

    used for every day. We investigated the capability of inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to elucidate the dynamics of CIP of membrane filtration plants as a gateway to control and optimize the process. For this investigation aged membranes that had been used for industrial ultrafiltration of whey were...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1344 - Operating limits for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kiln/raw mills. 63.1344 Section 63.1344 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... mills. (a) The owner or operator of a kiln subject to a D/F emission limitation under § 63.1343 must... specified in paragraph (b) of this section. The owner or operator of an in-line kiln/raw mill subject to a D...

  5. Process measuring techniques applying in-line and on-line analyzers. Betriebsmesstechnik unter Einsatz von in-line und on-line Analysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehme, F; Jola, M

    1982-01-01

    The measurement and control of classical physical parameters such as pressure, temperature etc, is frequently not sufficient now for optimum process control in chemistry and associated fields. Only the use of inline and online analysers makes it possible to maintain the narrow limits of chemical reaction conditions. This ABC pocket book should help the user to select the best from the large number of available methods of measurement. Using 120 alphabetically arranged key words with many cross-references, it has a well-thought-out treatment of basic measurements and descriptions of apparatus, and on the other hand, it contains selected typical examples of applications. Width rather than depth of information is aimed at. The electrochemical methods discussed are potentiometry (pH value, redox potential, direct potentiometry with ion selective electrodes), conductometry (measurement of conductivity) and voltammetry (polarography, ammetry). Photometry, the measurement of density, the refractive index, surface tension and viscosity are described. From the large number of applications, the examples of textile processing, the cellulose and paper industry, the surface treatment of materials and petrochemicals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the treatment of service water, drinking water and boiler feed water. In connection with questions of work and environmental protection, emission control and the treatment of domestic and industrial waste water are described. With 119 figs.

  6. Development of an Inline Dry Power Inhaler That Requires Low Air Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Dale; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2017-12-20

    Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are actuated by an external air source and have distinct advantages for delivering aerosols to infants and children, and to individuals with compromised lung function or who require ventilator support. However, current inline DPIs either perform poorly, are difficult to operate, and/or require large volumes (∼1 L) of air. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a new inline DPI for aerosolizing spray-dried formulations with powder masses of 10 mg and higher using a dispersion air volume of 10 mL per actuation that is easy to load (capsule-based) and operate. Primary features of the new low air volume (LV) DPIs are fixed hollow capillaries that both pierce the capsule and provide a continuous flow path for air and aerosol passing through the device. Two different configurations were evaluated, which were a straight-through (ST) device, with the inlet and outlet capillaries on opposite ends of the capsule, and a single-sided (SS) device, with both the inlet and outlet capillaries on the same side of the capsule. The devices were operated with five actuations of a 10 mL air syringe using an albuterol sulfate (AS) excipient-enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. Device emptying and aerosol characteristics were evaluated for multiple device outlet configurations. Each device had specific advantages. The best case ST device produced the smallest aerosol [mean mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) = 1.57 μm; fine particle fraction <5 μm (FPF <5μm ) = 95.2%)] but the mean emitted dose (ED) was 61.9%. The best case SS device improved ED (84.8%), but produced a larger aerosol (MMAD = 2.13 μm; FPF <5μm  = 89.3%) that was marginally higher than the initial deaggregation target. The new LV-DPIs produced an acceptable high-quality aerosol with only 10 mL of dispersion air per actuation and were easy to load and operate. This performance should enable application in high and low flow

  7. Separation of contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakiewicz, J.L.; Reymer, A.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Separating the contaminated parts from the non-contaminated parts from decommissioned nuclear facilities may strongly reduce the amount of contaminated concrete. The reduction in volume of the radioactive contaminated concrete is dependent on how much cementstone is in the concrete. This research program shows that the radioactive contamination is mostly in the cementstone. However the choice that the cementstone parts, (or better said the radioactive parts) are smaller than 1 mm may not always be true. Normally the cementstone takes about 30% of the total concrete volume. A separation procedure composed by a combination of milling and thermal shock has been assessed. Both the cold and hot thermal shock in combination with milling are not able to separate the cementstone from the larger aggregates completely. However, the cementstone from the concrete with a low nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination cold thermal shock/milling, while the cementstone from the concrete with a high nominal grain size seems to be almost completely removed by the combination hot thermal shock/milling. After both methods a layer of cementstone was still visible on the aggregates. Washing followed by a nitric acid treatment removed each 2 wt% of cementstone

  8. TH-AB-BRA-12: Experimental Results From the First High-Field Inline MRI-Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, P [University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Dong, B; Zhang, K; Liney, G [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Vial, P; Walker, A; Begg, J; Rai, R [Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, L; Barton, M [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Crozier, S [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid MRI-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-Linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-Linac system. This work describes our experimental results from the first high-field inline MRI-Linac. Methods: A 1.5 Tesla magnet (Sonata, Siemens) was located in a purpose built RF cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multi-leaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-Linac experiments was performed to investigate: (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array and; (3) electron focusing measured using GafChromic film. Results: (1) The macropodine phantom image quality with the beam on was almost identical to that with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background noise when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring at the center of the radiation field. Conclusion: The first high-field MRI-Linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field in-line MRI-Linac and study a number of the technical challenges and solutions. Supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, the Australian Research Council, the Australian Cancer Research Foundation and the Health and Hospitals Fund.

  9. Optimization of a reversed-phase-high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for the separation of isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide in fixed-dose combination antituberculosis tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewiyo, D H; Kaale, E; Risha, P G; Dejaegher, B; Smeyers-Verbeke, J; Vander Heyden, Y

    2012-10-19

    This paper presents the development of a new RP-HPTLC method for the separation of pyrazinamide, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol in a four fixed-dose combination (4 FDC) tablet formulation. It is a single method with two steps in which after plate development pyrazinamide, isoniazid and rifampicin are detected at an UV wavelength of 280 nm. Then ethambutol is derivatized and detected at a VIS wavelength of 450 nm. Methanol, ethanol and propan-1-ol were evaluated modifiers to form alcohol-water mobile phases. Systematic optimization of the composition of each alcohol in the mobile phase was carried out using the window diagramming concept to obtain the best separation. Examination of the Rf distribution of the separated compounds showed that separation of the compounds with the mobile phase containing ethanol at the optimal fraction was almost situated within the optimal Rf-values region of 0.20-0.80. Therefore, ethanol was selected as organic modifier and the optimal mobile phase composition was found to be ethanol, water, glacial acetic acid (>99% acetic acid) and 37% ammonia solution (70/30/5/1, v/v/v/v). The method is new, quick and cheap compared to the actual method in the International Pharmacopoeia for the assay of the 4 FDC tablets, which involves the use of two separate HPLC methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.king2@ngc.com [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); El-Hinnawy, Nabil [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty [Evans Analytical Group, 628 Hutton St., Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States); Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M. [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Borodulin, Pavel [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.

  11. In-line CD metrology with combined use of scatterometry and CD-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Masafumi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Koike, Toru; Abe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    Measurement characteristics in scatterometry and CD-SEM for lot acceptance sampling of inline critical dimension (CD) metrology were investigated by using a statistical approach with Monte Carlo simulation. By operation characteristics curve analysis, producer's risk and consumer's risk arising from sampling were clarified. Single use of scatterometry involves a higher risk, such risk being particularly acute in the case of large intra-chip CD variation because it is unable to sufficiently monitor intra-chip CD variation including local CD error. Substituting scatterometry for conventional SEM metrology is accompanied with risks, resulting in the increase of unnecessary cost. The combined use of scatterometry and SEM metrology in which the sampling plan for SEM is controlled by scatterometry is a promising metrology from the viewpoint of the suppression of risks and cost. This is due to the effect that CD errors existing in the distribution tails are efficiently caught.

  12. Principal State Analysis for a Compact in-Line Fiber Polarization Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng-Yong; Wu Chong-Qing; Wang Zhi-Hao; Qin Tao; Wang Yi-Xu

    2013-01-01

    A compact in-line fiber-based polarization controller (FPC) made of a rotatable fiber squeezer is investigated in detail with the Mueller matrix model established based on the generalized principal state of polarization (PSP). The PSP caused by the fiber squeezing is in the equator plane, which turns around S 3 axis on the Poincaré sphere when rotating the squeezer. Subsequently, a programmable polarization control method is proposed to realize the polarization conversion between arbitrary polarization states, in which only two parameters of phase shift and rotation angle need to be controlled. This type of FPC, which has a highly compact structure, lower insertion loss, and can be directly embedded into any fiber devices without any extra delay, will be an ideal PC for high-speed optical communication and all-optical signal processing

  13. Evaluation of fiber optics for in-line photometry in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, D.A.; Strain, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial fiber optics cables, both bundled and single-fiber, were evaluated for application in an in-line photometer being developed for monitoring uranium and plutonium concentrations in high radiation environments in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The relative attenuation of the optical signals due to both the radiation damage and to the couplings between lengths of optical cable was determined for specimen cables. An ultraviolet-enhanced fiber bundle demonstrated good radiation resistance to a total dose of 10 8 rads, which is the dose estimated to be received during a 1-y lifetime of the in-cell portion of the photometer. The photometer was designed to use a single-fiber optical cable with adequate radiation shielding

  14. Compressive sensing sectional imaging for single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Clark, David C.; Kim, Myung K.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical reconstruction method based on compressive sensing (CS) for self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) is proposed to achieve sectional imaging by single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent hologram. The sensing operator is built up based on the physical mechanism of SIDH according to CS theory, and a recovery algorithm is employed for image restoration. Numerical simulation and experimental studies employing LEDs as discrete point-sources and resolution targets as extended sources are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the method. The intensity distribution and the axial resolution along the propagation direction of SIDH by angular spectrum method (ASM) and by CS are discussed. The analysis result shows that compared to ASM the reconstruction by CS can improve the axial resolution of SIDH, and achieve sectional imaging. The proposed method may be useful to 3D analysis of dynamic systems.

  15. Modeling for Friction of Four Stroke Four Cylinder In-Line Petrol Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke four cylinder in-line petrol engine is modeled to estimate various performance parameters. The solution is based on tribology and dynamics principle. The detailed parameters relating to engine friction and lubrication are computed numerically for the engine firing order 1-3-4-2. The numerical method is based on finite difference method that solves coupled Reynolds Equation and Energy Equation. Output includes the movie thickness, friction force, friction power loss and temperature rise in the ring liner conjunction in all four cylinders. Transient regime of ring liner lubrication isaddressed while the same changes from hydrodynamic to mixed in an engine cycle. Momentary cessation near the top and bottom dead center that causes boundary interaction is analyzed through asperity contact. The non - Newtonian behavior of lubricant film due to pressure and temperature is addresses using viscosity -pressure- temperature inter relationship.

  16. Quantitative, three-dimensional diagnostics of multiphase drop fragmentation via digital in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Kulkarni, Varun; Sojka, Paul E; Chen, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative application of digital in-line holography (DIH) to characterize multiphase fragmentation is demonstrated. DIH is applied to record sequential holograms of the breakup of an ethanol droplet in an aerodynamic flow field. Various stages of the breakup process are recorded, including deformation, bag growth, bag breakup, and rim breakup. A recently proposed hybrid method is applied to extract the three-dimensional (3D) location and size of secondary droplets as well as the 3D morphology of the rim. Particle matching between sequential frames is used to determine the velocity. Coincidence with the results obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurement demonstrates the accuracy of measurement by DIH and the hybrid method.

  17. Operation of automated NDA instruments for in-line HEU accounting at Y-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Sandford, E.L.; Jeter, I.W.; McCullough, E.; Bowers, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two automated nondestructive assay instruments developed at Los Alamos in support of nuclear materials accounting needs are currently operating in-line at the Y-12 Plant for recovery of highly enriched uranium. One instrument provides the HEU inventory in the secondary solvent extraction system, and the other monitors HEU concentration in the secondary intermediate evaporator. Both instruments were installed in December 1982. Operational evaluation of these instruments has been a joint effort of Y-12 and Los Alamos. This has included comparison of the solvent extraction system inventories with direct measurement performed on the dumped solution components of the solvent extraction system, as well as comparisons of concentration assay results with the external assays of samples withdrawn from the process. The function, design, and preliminary results of the operational evaluation are reported

  18. New Method to Identify Field Joint Coating Failures Based on MFL In-Line Inspection Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianshuang Dai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Above ground indirect detections and random excavations that have applied the past years for buried long distance oil and gas pipelines can only identify some damaged coating locations. Hence, large number of field joint coating (FJC failures happen unconsciously until they lead to failures of the pipelines. Based on the analysis of magnetic flux leakage (MFL in-line inspection (ILI signals, combined with the statistical results of 414 excavations from two different pipeline sections, a new method to identify the failed FJC is established. Though it can only identify FJC failures when there are signs of corrosion on pipe body, it is much more efficient and cost-saving. The concluded identification rule still needs more validations and improvements to be more applicable and accuracy.

  19. Microbubbles as contrast agent for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yan; Zhao Jun; Tang Rongbiao; Wang Yujie

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential of gas-filled microbubbles as contrast agents for in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging (PCI) in biomedical applications. When imaging parameters are optimized, the microbubbles function as microlenses that focus the incoming x-rays to form bright spots, which can significantly enhance the image contrast. Since microbubbles have been shown to be safe contrast agents in clinical ultrasonography, this contrast-enhancement procedure for PCI may have promising utility in biomedical applications, especially when the dose of radiation is a serious concern. In this study, we performed both numerical simulations and ex vivo experiments to investigate the formation of the contrast and the effectiveness of microbubbles as contrast agents in PCI.

  20. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  1. Evaluation of an in-line particle imaging tool for monitoring twin-screw granulation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dhondt, Jens; De Leersnyder, Fien

    2015-01-01

    system. Off-line sieving was used as reference particle size analysis method. A twin-screw granulator which is part of the Consigma system was used to granulate a placebo formulation composed of lactose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP; 97.5:2.5% w/w). PVP was dissolvedin water, which was used......). The volumetric size distribution obtained from the in-line measurements of the granules leaving the twin-screw granulator using the Eyecon™ camera was compared with the off-line measurements obtainedby sieving of the granule samples collected before and after the drying unit operation. For the intermediate size...... range (diameter 250–1000 μm), the Eyecon™ measurements showed to be promising as they were in agreement with off-line measurement results obtained before the drying unit. However, the image analysis algorithm and data post-processing of the Eyecon™ images for the fines and oversized ranges require...

  2. Experimental and numerical studies of turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aounalah Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an experimental and a numerical simulation of the turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles have been performed. The experiments were carried out using a subsonic wind tunnel. The pressure distributions along the tubes (22 circumferential pressure taping were determined for a variation of the azimuthal angle from 0 to 360deg. The drag and lift forces are measured using the TE 44 balance. The Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using Reynolds Stress and K-ε, turbulence models (RANS provided by Fluent CFD code. An adapted grid using static pressure, pressure coefficient and velocity gradient, furthermore, a second order upwind scheme were used. The obtained results from the experimental and numerical studies show a satisfactory agreement.

  3. A micromachined inline type microwave power sensor with working state transfer switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lei

    2011-01-01

    A wideband 8-12 GHz inline type microwave power sensor, which has both working and non-working states, is presented. The power sensor measures the microwave power coupled from a CPW line by a MEMS membrane. In order to reduce microwave losses during the non-working state, a new structure of working state transfer switches is proposed to realize the two working states. The fabrication of the power sensor with two working states is compatible with the GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) process. The experimental results show that the power sensor has an insertion loss of 0.18 dB during the non-working state and 0.24 dB during the working state at a frequency of 10 GHz. This means that no microwave power has been coupled from the CPW line during the non-working state. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. In-line photonic microcells based on the elliptical microfibers for refractive index sensors applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wa; Liu, Xuejing; Jin, Wei

    2017-10-01

    We report the fabrication of in-line photonic microcells (PMCs) by encapsulating tapered elliptical microfibers (MFs) inside glass tubes. The encapsulation does not change the optical property of the MF but protects the elliptical MF from external disturbance and contamination and makes the micro-laboratory robust. Such micro-laboratory can be easily integrated into standard fiber-optic circuits with low loss, making the elliptical MF-based devices more practical for real-world applications. Evanescent field sensing is realized by fabricating micro-channel on the PMC for ingress/egress of sample liquids/gas. Based on the encapsulated elliptical MF PMCs, we demonstrated RI sensitivity of 2024 nm per refractive index unit (nm/RIU) in gaseous environment and 21231 nm/RIU in water.

  5. Digital in-line X-ray holography with zone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, R; Gorniak, T; Nisius, T; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Staier, F; Wilhein, T; Rehbein, S; Grunze, M; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-07-01

    Single pulse imaging with radiation provided by free-electron laser sources is a promising approach towards X-ray microscopy, which is expected to provide high resolution images of biological samples unaffected by radiation damage. One fully coherent imaging technique for this purpose is digital in-line holography. Key to its successful application is the creation of X-ray point sources with high photon flux. In this study we applied zone plates to create such point sources with synchrotron radiation provided by the storage ring BESSY II. The obtained, divergent light cone is applied to holographic microscopy of biological objects such as critical point dried Navicula perminuta diatoms and human cells using photons with an energy of 250 eV. Compared to conventional experiments employing pinholes, exposure times are reduced by two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncertainty characterization of particle depth measurement using digital in-line holography and the hybrid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Guildenbecher, Daniel R; Reu, Phillip L; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-04

    In the detection of particles using digital in-line holography, measurement accuracy is substantially influenced by the hologram processing method. In particular, a number of methods have been proposed to determine the out-of-plane particle depth (z location). However, due to the lack of consistent uncertainty characterization, it has been unclear which method is best suited to a given measurement problem. In this work, depth determination accuracies of seven particle detection methods, including a recently proposed hybrid method, are systematically investigated in terms of relative depth measurement errors and uncertainties. Both synthetic and experimental holograms of particle fields are considered at conditions relevant to particle sizing and tracking. While all methods display a range of particle conditions where they are most accurate, in general the hybrid method is shown to be the most robust with depth uncertainty less than twice the particle diameter over a wide range of particle field conditions.

  7. Sparsity-Based Pixel Super Resolution for Lens-Free Digital In-line Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Leon Swisher, Christine; Im, Hyungsoon; Jeong, Sangmoo; Pathania, Divya; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Pivovarov, Misha; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2016-04-21

    Lens-free digital in-line holography (LDIH) is a promising technology for portable, wide field-of-view imaging. Its resolution, however, is limited by the inherent pixel size of an imaging device. Here we present a new computational approach to achieve sub-pixel resolution for LDIH. The developed method is a sparsity-based reconstruction with the capability to handle the non-linear nature of LDIH. We systematically characterized the algorithm through simulation and LDIH imaging studies. The method achieved the spatial resolution down to one-third of the pixel size, while requiring only single-frame imaging without any hardware modifications. This new approach can be used as a general framework to enhance the resolution in nonlinear holographic systems.

  8. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.; Borodulin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented

  9. Enhanced H2/CH4 and H2/CO2 Separation by Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane Coated on Titania Modified Alumina Support: Effects of TiO2 Intermediate Layer Preparation Variables on Interfacial Adhesion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tseng, H.-H.; Wang, Ch.-T.; Zhuang, G.-L.; Uchytil, Petr; Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Setničková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 510, JUL 15 (2016), s. 391-404 ISSN 0376-7388 Grant - others:NSC(TW) NSC100-2221-E- 040-004-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon membrane * intermediate layer * adhesion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  10. Miniaturized fiber in-line interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.N.; Ying Wang

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An in-line fiber MZI is attractive due to its simplicity and compactness. Various types of in-line fiber MZI structures have been developed, based on interference between the fundamental core mode and the higher order cladding mode, with size of typically in the order of millimeters or centimeters, and have very small effective refractive index (RI) difference between the core mode and the cladding mode ( in1 and I in2 . While I in1 remains traveling along the fiber core, I in2 has to propagate through the micro-cavity, and the interference happens when the two output beams recombine at the fiber core. The essential difference between our MZI and those reported previously lies in the fact that our device is based on the interference of the guided mode in the core and the unguided mode travelling through the micro-cavity. The RI difference between the two arms of the MZI is very large (> 0.10), which allows a dramatic reduction of the cavity length while maintaining a high RI sensitivity. Moreover, the position of the RI change can be precisely located due to the small size of the micro-cavity. The interferometer created in this work exhibits a high RI sensitivity, ∼ -9370 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) within the RI range between 1.31 and 1.335. Moreover, a precise sensing location can be ensured owing to the small size of the interferometer. Such a fiber device has high potential in chemical and biological sensor applications. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by Hong Kong SAR government through a GRF (general research fund) grant PolyU 5306/08E and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Research Grant A-SA52.

  11. A review on pipeline corrosion, in-line inspection (ILI), and corrosion growth rate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaei, H.R.; Eslami, A.; Egbewande, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pipelines are the very important energy transmission systems. Over time, pipelines can corrode. While corrosion could be detected by in-line inspection (ILI) tools, corrosion growth rate prediction in pipelines is usually done through corrosion rate models. For pipeline integrity management and planning selecting the proper corrosion ILI tool and also corrosion growth rate model is important and can lead to significant savings and safer pipe operation. In this paper common forms of pipeline corrosion, state of the art ILI tools, and also corrosion growth rate models are reviewed. The common forms of pipeline corrosion introduced in this paper are Uniform/General Corrosion, Pitting Corrosion, Cavitation and Erosion Corrosion, Stray Current Corrosion, Micro-Bacterial Influenced Corrosion (MIC). The ILI corrosion detection tools assessed in this study are Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), Circumferential MFL, Tri-axial MFL, and Ultrasonic Wall Measurement (UT). The corrosion growth rate models considered in this study are single-value corrosion rate model, linear corrosion growth rate model, non-linear corrosion growth rate model, Monte-Carlo method, Markov model, TD-GEVD, TI-GEVD model, Gamma Process, and BMWD model. Strengths and limitations of ILI detection tools, and also corrosion predictive models with some practical examples are discussed. This paper could be useful for those whom are supporting pipeline integrity management and planning. - Highlights: • Different forms of pipeline corrosion are explained. • Common In-Line Inspection (ILI) tools and corrosion growth rate models are introduced. • Strength and limitations of corrosion growth rate models/ILI tools are discussed. • For pipeline integrity management programs using more than one corrosion growth rate model/ILI tool is suggested.

  12. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  13. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Stangier, Thomas Abel, Julia Mierau, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K. Strüder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa and glucose (BGL 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01 in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71. BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02 after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04 in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group.

  14. Use of protective equipment by adolescents in inline skating, skateboarding, and snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroncke, Erica L; Niedfeldt, Mark W; Young, Craig C

    2008-01-01

    Determine the frequency of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in adolescent inline skaters, skateboarders, and snowboarders; explore factors influencing PPE use; identify factors that would influence use; and examine the association of high-risk behaviors and PPE use. Cross-sectional survey. Central/southeast Wisconsin. Participants 13-18 years-old. None. Independent variables = age, gender, sport. None. Dependent variables = PPE use, factors influencing use, and frequency of other high-risk behaviors. The mean age of 333 participiants was 14.9 years. Adolescents wore considerably less PPE than recommended. Inline skaters wore the most; snowboarders the least. The most common reasons adolescents wore PPE were parents, peers, and rule/requirement. Younger adolescents cited parents more often than older adolescents as a factor for PPE use. Discomfort and lack of perceived need were the most common reasons for nonuse. Sustaining/witnessing an accident was the most common reason that would convince adolescents to wear PPE. Almost half of adolescents reported nothing would convince them to wear PPE. Younger adolescents wore more PPE than older adolescents. An association was seen between PPE use in all sports and bicycle helmets. An inverse relationship was found for tobacco and helmet use among skaters, as well as alcohol and helmet use in skateboarders. Adolescents underuse PPE. PPE reinforcement by parents/peers, encouraging bike helmets, manufacturing more comfortable gear, educating adolescents, and instituting PPE requirements in public areas may increase compliance. This could lead to decreased injuries. Physicians should discuss PPE with their patients/families. There may be an association between PPE use in extreme sports and decreased high-risk health behaviors.

  15. Non-contact inline monitoring of thermoplastic CFRP tape quality using air-coupled ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, W.; Fey, P.; Meiler, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2017-02-01

    Beginning with the aerospace industry, fiber reinforced plastics have spread towards many applications such as automotive, civil engineering as well as sports and leisure articles. Their superior strength and stiffness to mass ratio made them the number one material for achieving high performance. Especially continuous fiber reinforced plastics allow for the construction of structures which are custom tailored to their mechanical loads by adjusting the paths of the fibers to the loading direction. The two main constituents of CFRP are carbon fibers and matrix. Two possibilities for matrix material exist: thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix. While thermosetting matrix may yield better properties with respect to thermal loads, thermoplasticity opens a wide range of applications due to weldability, shapeability, and compatibility to e.g. injection molded thermoplastic materials. Thin (0.1 mm) thermoplastic continuous fiber CFRP tapes with a width of 100 mm were examined using air-coupled ultrasound. Transducers were arranged in reflection as well as transmission setup. By slanted incidence of the ultrasound on the tape surface, guided waves were excited in the material in fiber direction and perpendicular to the fiber direction. Artificial defects - fiber cuts, matrix cuts, circular holes, low velocity impacts from tool drop, and sharp bends - were produced. Experiments on a stationary tape showed good detectability of all artificial defects by guided waves. Also the effects of variation in material properties, fiber volume content and fiber matrix adhesion being the most relevant, on guided wave propagation were examined, to allow for quality assessment. Guided wave measurements were supported by destructive analysis. Also an apparatus containing one endless loop of CFRP tape was constructed and built to simulate inline testing of CFRP tapes, as it would be employed in a CFRP tape production environment or at a CFRP tape processing facility. The influences of tape

  16. Direct, CMOS In-Line Process Flow Compatible, Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu Thermocompression Bonding Using Stress Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Asisa Kumar; Ghosh, Tamal; Kumar, C. Hemanth; Singh, Shiv Govind; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion of atoms across the boundary between two bonding layers is the key for achieving excellent thermocompression Wafer on Wafer bonding. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel mechanism to increase the diffusion across the bonding interface and also shows the CMOS in-line process flow compatible Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu bonding which is devoid of Cu surface treatment prior to bonding. The stress in sputtered Cu thin films was engineered by adjusting the Argon in-let pressure in such a way that one film had a compressive stress while the other film had tensile stress. Due to this stress gradient, a nominal pressure (2 kN) and temperature (75 °C) was enough to achieve a good quality thermocompression bonding having a bond strength of 149 MPa and very low specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. These excellent mechanical and electrical properties are resultant of a high quality Cu-Cu bonding having grain growth between the Cu films across the boundary and extended throughout the bonded region as revealed by Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy. In addition, reliability assessment of Cu-Cu bonding with stress engineering was demonstrated using multiple current stressing and temperature cycling test, suggests excellent reliable bonding without electrical performance degradation.

  17. Direct, CMOS In-Line Process Flow Compatible, Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu Thermocompression Bonding Using Stress Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Asisa Kumar; Ghosh, Tamal; Kumar, C. Hemanth; Singh, Shiv Govind; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2018-03-01

    Diffusion of atoms across the boundary between two bonding layers is the key for achieving excellent thermocompression Wafer on Wafer bonding. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel mechanism to increase the diffusion across the bonding interface and also shows the CMOS in-line process flow compatible Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu bonding which is devoid of Cu surface treatment prior to bonding. The stress in sputtered Cu thin films was engineered by adjusting the Argon in-let pressure in such a way that one film had a compressive stress while the other film had tensile stress. Due to this stress gradient, a nominal pressure (2 kN) and temperature (75 °C) was enough to achieve a good quality thermocompression bonding having a bond strength of 149 MPa and very low specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. These excellent mechanical and electrical properties are resultant of a high quality Cu-Cu bonding having grain growth between the Cu films across the boundary and extended throughout the bonded region as revealed by Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy. In addition, reliability assessment of Cu-Cu bonding with stress engineering was demonstrated using multiple current stressing and temperature cycling test, suggests excellent reliable bonding without electrical performance degradation.

  18. Transition between bulk and surface refractive index sensitivity of micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer induced by thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Bock, Wojtek J

    2017-10-16

    In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

  19. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

  20. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  1. High speed phase retrieval of in-line holograms by the assistance of corresponding off-axis holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzó, László

    2015-06-29

    Retrieving correct phase information from an in-line hologram is difficult as the object wave field and the diffractions of the zero order and the conjugate object term overlap. The existing iterative numerical phase retrieval methods are slow, especially in the case of high Fresnel number systems. Conversely, the reconstruction of the object wave field from an off-axis hologram is simple, but due to the applied spatial frequency filtering the achievable resolution is confined. Here, a new, high-speed algorithm is introduced that efficiently incorporates the data of an auxiliary off-axis hologram in the phase retrieval of the corresponding in-line hologram. The efficiency of the introduced combined phase retrieval method is demonstrated by simulated and measured holograms.

  2. Short-coherence in-line phase-shifting infrared digital holographic microscopy for measurement of internal structure in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Teli; Dou, Jiazhen; Di, Jianglei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiwei; Ma, Chaojie; Zhao, Jianlin

    2017-06-01

    Short-coherence in-line phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy based on Michelson interferometer is proposed to measure internal structure in silicon. In the configuration, a short-coherence infrared laser is used as the light source in order to avoid the interference formed by the reference wave and the reflected wave from the front surface of specimen. At the same time, in-line phase-shifting configuration is introduced to overcome the problem of poor resolution and large pixel size of the infrared camera and improve the space bandwidth product of the system. A specimen with staircase structure is measured by using the proposed configuration and the 3D shape distribution are given to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the method.

  3. Diameter and axial position measurement of micrometric particles by in-line digital holography using wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Y M; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the size and axial position of micrometric particles is obtained for an in-line Fraunhofer holography setup. The hologram reconstruction was realized using the wavelet transform. By digital image processing tools, the size distribution histogram for the particles in the sample was obtained. The contrast measurement in the amplitude reconstruction presents a peak when the axial coordinate and the register distance are equal. This fact lets the axial position in the sample be determined.

  4. Laser based thermo-conductometry as an approach to determine ribbon solid fraction off-line and in-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedey, Raphael; Šibanc, Rok; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2018-06-06

    Ribbon solid fraction is one of the most important quality attributes during roll compaction/dry granulation. Accurate and precise determination is challenging and no in-line measurement tool has been generally accepted, yet. In this study, a new analytical tool with potential off-line as well as in-line applicability is described. It is based on the thermo-conductivity of the compacted material, which is known to depend on the solid fraction. A laser diode was used to punctually heat the ribbon and the heat propagation monitored by infrared thermography. After performing a Gaussian fit of the transverse ribbon profile, the scale parameter σ showed correlation to ribbon solid fraction in off-line as well as in-line studies. Accurate predictions of the solid fraction were possible for a relevant range of process settings. Drug stability was not affected, as could be demonstrated for the model drug nifedipine. The application of this technique was limited when using certain fillers and working at higher roll speeds. This study showed the potentials of this new technique and is a starting point for additional work that has to be done to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bale Location Effects on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristics of Annual Ryegrass Bale Stored in In-line Wrapping Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In southeastern regions of the US, herbage systems are primarily based on grazing or hay feeding with low nutritive value warm-season perennial grasses. Nutritious herbage such as annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. may be more suitable for preserving as baleage for winter feeding even with more intensive production inputs. Emerging in-line wrapped baleage storage systems featuring rapid wrapping and low polyethylene film requirements need to be tested for consistency of storing nutritive value of a range of annual ryegrass herbage. A ryegrass storage trial was conducted with 24-h wilted ‘Marshall’ annual ryegrass harvested at booting, heading and anthesis stages using three replicated in-line wrapped tubes containing ten round bales per tube. After a six-month storage period, nutritive value changes and fermentation end products differed significantly by harvest stage but not by bale location. Although wilted annual ryegrass exhibited a restricted fermentation across harvest stages characterized by high pH and low fermentation end product concentrations, butyric acid concentrations were less than 1 g/kg dry matter, and lactic acid was the major organic acid in the bales. Mold coverage and bale aroma did not differ substantially with harvest stage or bale location. Booting and heading stage-harvested ryegrass baleage were superior in nutritive value to anthesis stage-harvested herbage. Based on the investigated nutritive value and fermentation characteristics, individual bale location within in-line tubes did not significantly affect preservation quality of ryegrass round bale silages.

  6. Performance Enhancement of the In-Line Fan Equipped with the Guiding Vane and the Tail Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Yen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This integrated numerical and experimental study intends to enhance the performance of an in-line fan with the implement of the guiding vane and the tail body. At first the flow flied associated with the original in-line fan is simulated and analyzed within the framework of CFD code Fluent, in which the finite volume method is applied. Next, the guiding vane is constructed based on the calculated flow characteristics, and attached in the downstream of rotor to smoothen the flow pattern. An appropriate guiding vane with high-performance and low-noise features can be achieved after several design iterations. In addition, the tail body connected to the motor is introduced for further enhancing the fan performance by reducing the sizes of wake and reversed flow behind the hub. Thereafter, to manufacture the mockup for experimental verification, the modified fan with guiding vane is plotted in the CAD/CAM format for mockup fabrication via the rapid-prototype technique. Moreover, a set of relations correlating the performance and noise of this fan prototype are executed inside AMCA test chamber and semianechoic chamber, respectively. Consequently, the feasibility of design scheme and numerical system can be verified according to these experimental results. In summary, this work provides a systematic scheme for designing and analyzing the in-line fan.

  7. In-line monitoring and interpretation of an indomethacin anti-solvent crystallization process by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Eun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Cho, Young-Sang; Choi, Guang Jin

    2011-11-28

    PAT (process analytical technology) has been emphasized as one of key elements for the full implementation of QbD (quality-by-design) in the pharmaceutical area. NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) has been studied intensively as an in-line/on-line monitoring tool in chemical and biomedical industries. A precise and reliable monitoring of the particle characteristics during crystallization along with a suitable control strategy should be highly encouraged for the conformance to new quality system of pharmaceutical products. In this study, the anti-solvent crystallization process of indomethacin (IMC) was monitored using an in-line NIRS. IMC powders were produced via anti-solvent crystallization using two schemes; 'S-to-A' (solvent-to-antisolvent) and 'A-to-S' (antisolvent-to-solvent). In-line NIR spectra were analyzed by a PCA (principal component analysis) method. Although pure α-form IMC powder was resulted under A-to-S scheme, a mixture of the α-form and γ-form was produced for S-to-A case. By integrating the PCA results with off-line characterization (SEM, XRD, DSC) data, the crystallization process under each scheme was elucidated by three distinct consecutive steps. It was demonstrated that in-line NIRS, combined with PCA, can be very useful to monitor in real time and interpret the anti-solvent crystallization process with respect to the polymorphism and particle size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a SEM-based low-energy in-line electron holography microscope for individual particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaniya, Hidehito; Cheung, Martin; Cassidy, Cathal; Yamashita, Masao; Shintake, Tsumoru

    2018-05-01

    A new SEM-based in-line electron holography microscope has been under development. The microscope utilizes conventional SEM and BF-STEM functionality to allow for rapid searching of the specimen of interest, seamless interchange between SEM, BF-STEM and holographic imaging modes, and makes use of coherent low-energy in-line electron holography to obtain low-dose, high-contrast images of light element materials. We report here an overview of the instrumentation and first experimental results on gold nano-particles and carbon nano-fibers for system performance tests. Reconstructed images obtained from the holographic imaging mode of the new microscope show substantial image contrast and resolution compared to those acquired by SEM and BF-STEM modes, demonstrating the feasibility of high-contrast imaging via low-energy in-line electron holography. The prospect of utilizing the new microscope to image purified biological specimens at the individual particle level is discussed and electron optical issues and challenges to further improve resolution and contrast are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Preliminary Comparison of Three Dimensional Particle Tracking and Sizing using Plenoptic Imaging and Digital In-line Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Munz, Elise Dahnke; Farias, Paul Abraham; Thurow, Brian S [Auburn U

    2015-12-01

    Digital in-line holography and plenoptic photography are two techniques for single-shot, volumetric measurement of 3D particle fields. Here we present a preliminary comparison of the two methods by applying plenoptic imaging to experimental configurations that have been previously investigated with digital in-line holography. These experiments include the tracking of secondary droplets from the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water and tracking of pellets from a shotgun. Both plenoptic imaging and digital in-line holography successfully quantify the 3D nature of these particle fields. This includes measurement of the 3D particle position, individual particle sizes, and three-component velocity vectors. For the initial processing methods presented here, both techniques give out-of-plane positional accuracy of approximately 1-2 particle diameters. For a fixed image sensor, digital holography achieves higher effective in-plane spatial resolutions. However, collimated and coherent illumination makes holography susceptible to image distortion through index of refraction gradients, as demonstrated in the shotgun experiments. On the other hand, plenotpic imaging allows for a simpler experimental configuration. Furthermore, due to the use of diffuse, white-light illumination, plenoptic imaging is less susceptible to image distortion in the shotgun experiments. Additional work is needed to better quantify sources of uncertainty, particularly in the plenoptic experiments, as well as develop data processing methodologies optimized for the plenoptic measurement.

  10. Physiological and technical commitment during a 300-m in-line skating trial in athletes of different age categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Pietro L; Scurati, Raffaele; Crotti, Matteo; Bosio, Andrea; Longo, Stefano; Esposito, Fabio

    2018-01-04

    This study investigated the differences in strength, technique and time performance in in-line skaters of three age categories during a 300 m trial. Possible correlations among these variables were also assessed. Thirty-six elite in-line skaters (Cadets, Juniors and Seniors, n=12 each; 14±1, 16±1, and 24±6 years of age, respectively) performed a 300-m trial on an outdoor oval track. Total time (Ttot), 100-m fractions and duration of each skating technique (initial acceleration phase, straight push and cross-over) were recorded. A squat jump (SJ) was performed before and after the trial. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration ([La-]) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected before, during and at the end of the trial. Ttot was longer and SJ lower in Cadets compared to the other groups. Seniors employed the cross-over technique for a longer period than the straight push technique, compared to Juniors and Cadets. Ttot correlated negatively with SJ in Seniors. The number of significant correlations between skating techniques' duration and both Ttot and SJ increased with age category. No differences among groups were found for heart rate, [La-] and RPE. With increasing age category, leg strength appeared to be the more related aspect to skating performance. To improve 300-m in-line skating performance, trainers should pay particular attention to the enhancement of leg strength and cross-over skating technique.

  11. Comparison of sport-specific and non-specific exercise testing in inline speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Gutmann, Boris; Hollmann, Wildor; Struder, Heiko K

    2016-04-01

    The most effective way to measure exercise performance in inline speed skating (ISS) has yet to be established. Generally most athletes are examined by means of traditional but unspecific cycling (CYC) or running (RUN) testing. The present study investigates whether a sport-specific incremental test in ISS reveals different results. Eight male top level inline speed skaters (age: 30±4 years; 65.4±6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1, training: 12-14 h/week) performed three incremental exhaustive tests in a randomized order (ergometer CYC, field RUN, field ISS). During the tests, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V̇O2, energy expenditure (EE) and blood lactate concentration (BLC) were measured. Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences for peak HR (187±9, 191±9, 190±9; P=0.75), BLC (10.9±2.3, 10.8±2.4, 8.5±3.2; P=0.25), V̇O2 (65.4±6.3, 66.8±3.5, 66.4±6.5; P=0.91) and EE (1371±165, 1335±93, 1439±196; P=0.51) between ISS and CYC or RUN test. Similar results appeared for HR and V̇O2 at submaximal intensities (2 and 4 mmol·L-1 BLC; P≥0.05). Small to moderate effect sizes 0.3-0.87 and considerable variability of differences between the exercise modes (mean bias range between 1% and 17% with 95% limits of agreement between 3% and 33%) among submaximal and maximal results limit the comparability of the three tests. Consequently, CYC and RUN tests may be considered as qualified alternatives for a challenging ISS test. However a sport-specific test should be conducted in cases of doubt, or when precision is required (e.g. for elite athletes or scientific studies).

  12. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The steam-water separator connected downstream of a steam generator consists of a vertical centrifugal separator with swirl blades between two concentric pipes and a cyclone separator located above. The water separated in the cyclone separator is collected in the inner tube of the centrifugal separator which is closed at the bottom. This design allows the overall height of the separator to be reduced. (DG) [de

  13. Intraindividuální komparace vybraných koordinačních ukazatelů bruslařského kroku na ledě a při in-line

    OpenAIRE

    Hospůdka, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    4 Summary: Title: Intraindividual comparison of selected indicators of coordinating steps on the ice skating and in-line. Objective: Assessment of coordination relationship rate of the skating forward during ice hockey and inline skating. Methods: Surface electromyography combinated with kinematography analysis used synchronized video recording. Results: Kinesiological content of movement during ice skating and inline skating is not the same. The general stereotype of the skating step is sign...

  14. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, T; Kutzner, C; Hauptmann, P; Kropp, M; Lang, W; Brokmann, G; Steinke, A; Kienle, A

    2010-01-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected

  15. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  16. Effect of transverse magnetic fields on a simulated in-line 6 MV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Aubin, J; Fallone, B G; Steciw, S

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a transverse magnetic field on an in-line side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator are given. The results are directly applicable to a linac-MR system used for real-time image guided adaptive radiotherapy. Our previously designed end-to-end linac simulation incorporated the results from the axisymmetric 2D electron gun program EGN2w. However, since the magnetic fields being investigated are non-axisymmetric in nature for the work presented here, the electron gun simulation was performed using OPERA-3d/SCALA. The simulation results from OPERA-3d/SCALA showed excellent agreement with previous results. Upon the addition of external magnetic fields to our fully 3D linac simulation, it was found that a transverse magnetic field of 6 G resulted in a 45 ± 1% beam loss, and by 14 G, no electrons were incident on the target. Transverse magnetic fields on the linac simulation produced a highly asymmetric focal spot at the target, which translated into a 13% profile asymmetry at 6 G. Upon translating the focal spot with respect to the target coordinates, profile symmetry was regained at the expense of a lateral shift in the dose profiles. It was found that all points in the penumbra failed a 1%/1 mm acceptance criterion for fields between 4 and 6 G. However, it was also found that the lateral profile shifts were corrected by adjusting the jaw positions asymmetrically.

  17. In-line characterization and identification of micro-droplets on-chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an integrated optofluidic sensor system for in-line characterization of micro-droplets. The device provides information about the droplet generation frequency, the droplet volume, and the content of the droplet. Due to its simplicity this principle can easily be implemented with other microfluidic components on one and the same device. The sensor is based on total internal reflection phenomena. Droplets are pushed through a microfluidic channel which is hit by slightly diverging monochromatic light. At the solid-liquid interface parts of the rays experience total internal reflection while another part is transmitted. The ratio of reflected to transmitted light depends on the refractive index of the solution. Both signals are recorded simultaneously and provide a very stable output signal for the droplet characterization. With the proposed system passing droplets were counted up to 320 droplets per second and droplets with different volumes could be discriminated. In a final experiment droplets with different amounts of dissolved CaCl2 were distinguished based on their reflected and transmitted light pattern. This principle can be applied for the detection of any molecules in microdroplets which significantly influence the refractive index of the buffer solution.

  18. Measurement of unsteady flow forces in inline and staggered tube bundles with fixed and vibrating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.; Heinecke, E.; Decken, C.B. von der.

    1986-01-01

    Unsteady flow forces arising in heat exchangers with cross-flow may lead to serious vibrations of the tubes. These vibrations can destroy the tubes in the end supports or in the baffles, which would require expensive repairs. The flow forces reach unexpectedly by high values if the vibration of the tube intensifies these forces. To clear up this coupling mechanism the flow forces and the vibration amplitude were measured simultaneously in a staggered and in an inline tube bundle. Considering the tube as a one-mass oscillator excited by the flow force, the main parameters can be derived, i.e. dynamic pressure, reduced mass, eigenfrequency and damping. These parameters form a dimensionless model number describing the coherence of the vibration amplitude and the force coefficient. The validity of this number has been confirmed by varying the test conditions. With the aid of this model number, the expected force coefficient can be calculated and then using a finite-element program information can be obtained about mechanical tensions and the lifetime of the heat exchanger tubes. With this model number the results of other authors, who measured the vibration amplitude only, could be confirmed in good agreement. The experiments were carried out in air with Reynolds numbers 10 4 5 . (orig.) [de

  19. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  20. Effect of transverse magnetic fields on a simulated in-line 6 MV linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Aubin, J.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-08-01

    The effects of a transverse magnetic field on an in-line side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator are given. The results are directly applicable to a linac-MR system used for real-time image guided adaptive radiotherapy. Our previously designed end-to-end linac simulation incorporated the results from the axisymmetric 2D electron gun program EGN2w. However, since the magnetic fields being investigated are non-axisymmetric in nature for the work presented here, the electron gun simulation was performed using OPERA-3d/SCALA. The simulation results from OPERA-3d/SCALA showed excellent agreement with previous results. Upon the addition of external magnetic fields to our fully 3D linac simulation, it was found that a transverse magnetic field of 6 G resulted in a 45 ± 1% beam loss, and by 14 G, no electrons were incident on the target. Transverse magnetic fields on the linac simulation produced a highly asymmetric focal spot at the target, which translated into a 13% profile asymmetry at 6 G. Upon translating the focal spot with respect to the target coordinates, profile symmetry was regained at the expense of a lateral shift in the dose profiles. It was found that all points in the penumbra failed a 1%/1 mm acceptance criterion for fields between 4 and 6 G. However, it was also found that the lateral profile shifts were corrected by adjusting the jaw positions asymmetrically.

  1. Flow over an inline oscillating circular cylinder in the wake of a stationary circular cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Keqiang, E-mail: zhukeqiang@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Maritime and Transportation, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Flow interference between an upstream stationary cylinder and an inline oscillating cylinder is studied with the lattice Boltzmann method. With a fixed Reynolds number Re  = 100 and pitch ratio L / D  = 4, the effects of oscillation amplitude A / D  = [0.25, 1] and frequency f {sub e}/ f {sub s} = [0.5, 2] are investigated. The wake response state is categorized into lock-in and non-lock-in. The lock-in zone in the bifurcation diagram of amplitude versus frequency is discontinuous. Response states of upstream and downstream wakes are similar under the conditions of small amplitude or low frequency. However, with large oscillating parameters, the two wakes are prone to be in different states as the flow field becomes irregular. Two distinct flow regimes have been identified, i.e., single-cylinder and two-cylinder shedding regimes. The presence of single-cylinder shedding regime is attributed to the low shedding frequency of the downstream cylinder at large amplitude. Hydrodynamic forces of the oscillating tandem system are discussed. The results reveal that forces on the two cylinders behave differently and that the absence of vortices in the gap flow significantly reduces the forces exerting on the tandem system. (paper)

  2. Development of a low-level, in-line alpha counter (LLILAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzo, R.E.; Farnham, J.E.; Fowler, M.M.; Wouters, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With the increasing awareness of water contamination issues and the rising consequences of any form of contamination, real-time continuous monitoring is rapidly becoming a necessity. In particular, monitoring for the presence of any radioactive material is paramount. The most difficult of such monitoring tasks is that of detecting alpha-emitting radionuclides in water. Our development of the Low Level In-Line Alpha Counter (LLILAC) addresses the need for on-line, near real-time monitoring of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aqueous streams in a wide variety of applications. Although primarily designed as an on-line instrument for real-time applications, the detector can also be used for long-term in situ/post-closure monitoring. This detection system operates by allowing the stream to be monitored to come in contact with a large number of small rods or tubes made of scintillation material. By maximizing the surface to volume ratio of the scintillator, the response to alpha particles is favored over other types of radiation. Several configurations of scintillator and light collection schemes have been investigated to optimize the detection efficiency. We have also written several Monte Carlo codes to help to predict and understand the detector performance

  3. Recent Prospects in the Inline Monitoring of Nanocomposites and Nanocoatings by Optical Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Bugnicourt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites’ potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g., for self-cleaning ability or anti-fog properties, protective effects against flame propagation, ultra violet (UV radiation or gas permeation, is highly dependent on the nanocoating’s thickness and homogeneity. In terms of recent advances in the monitoring of nanocomposites and nanocoatings, this review discusses commonly-used offline characterization approaches, as well as promising inline systems. All in all, having good control over both the dispersion and thickness of these materials would help with reaching optimal and consistent properties to allow nanocomposites to extend their use.

  4. Distributed In-Line Analysis of Water Pollution in a Spanish Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Capella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a set of novel sensor nodes designed to measure ammonium, nitrate and chloride in real time, sending the data, by means of a network, to the base station in order to control the pollution in a lake. The results obtained being compared with those provided by the corresponding reference methods. Recovery analyses with ion selective electrodes and standard methods, study of interferences, and evaluation of major sensor features have also been carried out. The use of a wireless system for monitoring purposes will not only reduce the overall monitoring system cost in term of facilities setup and labor cost, but will also provide flexibility in terms of distance. The major advantages of the proposed in-line analysis compared with the classical off-line procedures are the elimination of contaminants due to sample handling, the minimization of the overall cost of data acquisition, the possibility of real-time analysis, allowing the rapid detection of pollutants, the ability to obtain detailed spatial and temporal data sets of complete environments, obtaining the spatial distribution of the analyzed parameters, as well as its variation with the passing of time, and finally the possibility of performing measurements in locations which are difficult to access (in this case a deep lake.

  5. Recent Prospects in the Inline Monitoring of Nanocomposites and Nanocoatings by Optical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnicourt, Elodie; Kehoe, Timothy; Latorre, Marcos; Serrano, Cristina; Philippe, Séverine; Schmid, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials have emerged as a key research field in order to confer materials with unique or enhanced properties. The performance of nanocomposites depends on a number of parameters, but the suitable dispersion of nanoparticles remains the key in order to obtain the full nanocomposites’ potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier, thermal properties, etc. Likewise, the performance of nanocoatings to obtain, for example, tailored surface affinity with selected liquids (e.g., for self-cleaning ability or anti-fog properties), protective effects against flame propagation, ultra violet (UV) radiation or gas permeation, is highly dependent on the nanocoating’s thickness and homogeneity. In terms of recent advances in the monitoring of nanocomposites and nanocoatings, this review discusses commonly-used offline characterization approaches, as well as promising inline systems. All in all, having good control over both the dispersion and thickness of these materials would help with reaching optimal and consistent properties to allow nanocomposites to extend their use. PMID:28335278

  6. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.K. [National Chinyi University of Technology (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, H.C. [Point Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (Taiwan)

    2011-07-28

    In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series of burning tests, the fuel saving can be 8--15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will lead to a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, meaning the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effective. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  7. Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

  8. In-line X-ray lensless imaging with lithium fluoride film detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F.; Cecilia, A.; Bateni, S. Heidari; Nichelatti, E.; Pelliccia, D.; Somma, F.; Vagovic, P.; Vincenti, M.A.; Baumbach, T.; Montereali, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present preliminary in-line X-ray lensless projection imaging results at a synchrotron facility by using novel solid-state detectors based on non-destructive readout of photoluminescent colour centres in lithium fluoride thin films. The peculiarities of LiF radiation detectors are high spatial resolution on a large field of view, wide dynamic range, versatility and simplicity of use. These properties offered the opportunity to test a broadband X-ray synchrotron source for lensless projection imaging experiments at the TopoTomo beamline of the ANKA synchrotron facility by using a white beam spectrum (3–40 keV). Edge-enhancement effects were observed for the first time on a test object; they are discussed and compared with simulations, on the basis of the colour centre photoluminescence linear response found in the investigated irradiation conditions. -- Highlights: ► We performed broadband X-ray imaging at synchrotron by novel LiF imaging detectors. ► X-ray phase contrast experiments on LiF crystals and thin films were performed. ► Photoluminescent high-quality X-images on a LiF film only 1 μm thick were obtained. ► Edge-enhancement effects were detected and compared with simulations. ► A linearity of colour centre fluorescence response of LiF film was found

  9. In-line Kevlar filters for microfiltration of transuranic-containing liquid streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G J; Beddingfield, D H; Lieberman, J L; Curtis, J M; Ficklin, A C

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant has numerous ongoing efforts to minimize the generation of residue and waste and to improve safety and health. Spent polypropylene liquid filters held for plutonium recovery, known as "residue," or as transuranic mixed waste contribute to storage capacity problems and create radiation safety and health considerations. An in-line process-liquid filter made of Kevlar polymer fiber has been evaluated for its potential to: (1) minimize filter residue, (2) recover economically viable quantities of plutonium, (3) minimize liquid storage tank and process-stream radioactivity, and (4) reduce potential personnel radiation exposure associated with these sources. Kevlar filters were rated to less than or equal to 1 mu nominal filtration and are capable of reducing undissolved plutonium particles to more than 10 times below the economic discard limit, however produced high back-pressures and are not yet acid resistant. Kevlar filters performed independent of loaded particles serving as a sieve. Polypropylene filters removed molybdenum particles at efficiencies equal to Kevlar filters only after loading molybdenum during recirculation events. Kevlars' high-efficiency microfiltration of process-liquid streams for the removal of actinides has the potential to reduce personnel radiation exposure by a factor of 6 or greater, while simultaneously achieving a reduction in the generation of filter residue and waste by a factor of 7. Insoluble plutonium may be recoverable from Kevlar filters by incineration.

  10. Polarization-dependent in-line quasi-Michelson interferometer based on PM-PCF reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanying; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Dingyi; Wang, Ruohui; Sun, Hao; Hu, Manli; Feng, Zhongyao

    2013-05-20

    An in-line fiber quasi-Michelson interferometer (IFQMI) working on reflection is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing head is fabricated by splicing a section of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) with a lead-in single mode fiber (SMF). Some cladding modes are excited into the PM-PCF via the mismatch-core splicing interface between PM-PCF and SMF. Besides, two orthogonal polarized-modes are formed due to the inherent multiholes cladding structure of the PM-PCF. A well-defined interference pattern is obtained as the result of cladding-orthogonal modes interference. The IFQMI with 20 cm long PM-PCF is proposed for strain and torsion measurements. A strain sensitivity of -1.3 pm/με and a torsion sensitivity of -19.17 pm/deg are obtained, respectively. The proposed device with 10 cm long PM-PCF exhibits a considered temperature sensitivity of 9.9 pm/°C. The IFQMI has a compact structure and small size, making it a good candidate for multiparameter measurements.

  11. An investigation of the performance of an electronic in-line pump system for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Yun; Zhu, Yuan-Xian; Long, Wu-Qiang; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Xue, Ying-Ying

    2008-12-01

    WIT Electronic Fuel System Co., Ltd. has developed a new fuel injector, the Electronic In-line Pump (EIP) system, designed to meet China’s diesel engine emission and fuel economy regulations. It can be used on marine diesel engines and commercial vehicle engines through different EIP systems. A numerical model of the EIP system was built in the AMESim environment for the purpose of creating a design tool for engine application and system optimization. The model was used to predict key injection characteristics under different operating conditions, such as injection pressure, injection rate, and injection duration. To validate these predictions, experimental tests were conducted under the conditions that were modeled. The results were quite encouraging and in agreement with model predictions. Additional experiments were conducted to study the injection characteristics of the EIP system. These results show that injection pressure and injection quantity are insensitive to injection timing variations, this is due to the design of the constant velocity cam profile. Finally, injection quantity and pressure vs. pulse width at different cam speeds are presented, an important injection characteristic for EIP system calibration.

  12. Intrinsic speckle noise in in-line particle holography due to polydisperse and continuous particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Philip J.; Hobson, Peter R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-08-01

    In-line particle holography is subject to image deterioration due to intrinsic speckle noise. The resulting reduction in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the replayed image can become critical for applications such as holographic particle velocimetry (HPV) and 3D visualisation of marine plankton. Work has been done to extend the mono-disperse model relevant to HPV to include poly-disperse particle fields appropriate for the visualisation of marine plankton. Continuous and discrete particle fields are both considered. It is found that random walk statistics still apply for the poly-disperse case. The speckle field is simply the summation of the individual speckle patters due to each scatter size. Therefor the characteristic speckle parameter (which encompasses particle diameter, concentration and sample depth) is alos just the summation of the individual speckle parameters. This reduces the SNR calculation to the same form as for the mono-disperse case. For the continuous situation three distributions, power, exponential and Gaussian are discussed with the resulting SNR calcuated. The work presented here was performed as part of the Holomar project to produce a working underwater holographic camera for recording plankton.

  13. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  14. In-line bruslení jako tréninkový prostředek letní přípravy v ledním hokeji

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhart, Martin

    2014-01-01

    TITLE: In-line skating as a training tool for summer preparation in ice hockey AUTHOR: Martin Gebhart DEPARTMENT: Department of Physical Education SUPERVISOR: PaedDr. Ladislav Pokorný ABSTRACT: Bachelor thesis surveys the use of in-line skating in the summer preparing for ice hockey. Mapping the use of in-line skating is based on a survey questionnaire. The aim is to determine for what purpose is in-line skating used in summer training. The paper focuses on the development of motor skills in ...

  15. Three-layer magnetoconvection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.-K.; Silvers, L.J.; Proctor, M.R.E.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that some stars have two or more convection zones in close proximity near to the stellar photosphere. These zones are separated by convectively stable regions that are relatively narrow. Due to the close proximity of these regions it is important to construct mathematical models to understand the transport and mixing of passive and dynamic quantities. One key quantity of interest is a magnetic field, a dynamic vector quantity, that can drastically alter the convectively driven flows, and have an important role in coupling the different layers. In this Letter we present the first investigation into the effect of an imposed magnetic field in such a geometry. We focus our attention on the effect of field strength and show that, while there are some similarities with results for magnetic field evolution in a single layer, new and interesting phenomena are also present in a three layer system

  16. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  17. Multifunctional high-reflective and antireflective layer systems with easy-to-clean properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloess, D.; Frach, P.; Gottfried, C.; Klinkenberg, S.; Liebig, J.-S.; Hentsch, W.; Liepack, H.; Krug, M.

    2008-01-01

    High-reflective (HR) and even more antireflective (AR) layer systems are in use for widespread applications. Multifunctional layer systems providing high optical functionality with an easy-to-clean or a self-cleaning behaviour would be preferable for many applications to avoid soiling of the surface. In this paper, the feasibility of fabrication by highly productive pulse magnetron sputtering in an in-line coating plant is investigated. Easy-to-clean properties are achieved by a top layer of photocatalytic and photoinduced hydrophilic TiO 2 . Multifunctional HR layer systems were successfully deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at a low deposition temperature of 150 deg. C, demonstrating the possibility of coating certain polymer materials. Double-sided multifunctional AR layer systems with a single-sided photoinduced hydrophilic TiO 2 top coating have a resulting reflectivity of about 3% and transmittance of about 97% in the visible range of light

  18. Automated pharmaceutical tablet coating layer evaluation of optical coherence tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, Daniel; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G; Hannesschläger, Günther; Leitner, Michael; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Film coating of pharmaceutical tablets is often applied to influence the drug release behaviour. The coating characteristics such as thickness and uniformity are critical quality parameters, which need to be precisely controlled. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows not only high potential for off-line quality control of film-coated tablets but also for in-line monitoring of coating processes. However, an in-line quality control tool must be able to determine coating thickness measurements automatically and in real-time. This study proposes an automatic thickness evaluation algorithm for bi-convex tables, which provides about 1000 thickness measurements within 1 s. Beside the segmentation of the coating layer, optical distortions due to refraction of the beam by the air/coating interface are corrected. Moreover, during in-line monitoring the tablets might be in oblique orientation, which needs to be considered in the algorithm design. Experiments were conducted where the tablet was rotated to specified angles. Manual and automatic thickness measurements were compared for varying coating thicknesses, angles of rotations, and beam displacements (i.e. lateral displacement between successive depth scans). The automatic thickness determination algorithm provides highly accurate results up to an angle of rotation of 30°. The computation time was reduced to 0.53 s for 700 thickness measurements by introducing feasibility constraints in the algorithm. (paper)

  19. Evaluation and Characterization of In-Line Annealed Continuous Cast Aluminum Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Subodh K. Das

    2006-01-17

    This R&D program will develop optimized, energy-efficient thermo-mechanical processing procedures for in-line annealing of continuously cast hot bands of two 5000 series aluminum alloys (5754 and 5052). The implementation of the R&D will result in the production of sheet with improved formability at high levels of productivity consistency and quality. The proposed R&D involves the following efforts: (1) Design and build continuous in-line annealing equipment for plant-scale trials; (2) Carry out plant-scale trials at Commonwealth Aluminum Corp.'s (CAC) plant in Carson; (3) Optimize the processing variables utilizing a metallurgical model for the kinetics of microstructure and texture evolution during thermo-mechanical processing; (4) Determine the effects of processing variables on the microstructure, texture, mechanical properties, and formability of aluminum sheet; (5) Develop design parameters for commercial implementation; and (6) Conduct techno-economic studies of the recommended process equipment to identify impacts on production costs. The research and development is appropriate for the domestic industry as it will result in improved aluminum processing capabilities and thus lead to greater application of aluminum in various industries including the automotive market. A teaming approach is critical to the success of this effort as no single company alone possesses the breadth of technical and financial resources for successfully carrying out the effort. This program will enable more energy efficient aluminum sheet production technology, produce consistent high quality product, and have The proposal addresses the needs of the aluminum industry as stated in the aluminum industry roadmap by developing new and improved aluminum processes utilizing energy efficient techniques. The effort is primarily related to the subsection on Rolling and Extrusion with the R&D to address energy and environmental efficiencies in aluminum manufacturing and will provide

  20. New separation technique. Catalytically functionated separation membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgami, Tadashi [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1989-02-01

    This report introduces research examples, showing the fundamental principle of the membrane by separating the catalytically functionated separation membrane into enzyme fixing separation membrane, polymerized metal complex separation membrane and polymer catalyst separation membrane. This membrane can achieve both functions of separation and catalytic reaction simultaneously and has sufficient possibility to combine powerful functions. Enzyme fixing separation membrane is prepared by carrier combination method, bridging method or covering method and the enzyme fixing method with polymerized complex in which enzyme is controlled to prevent the activity lowering as much as possible and enzyme is fixed from an aqueous solution into polymer membrane. This membrane is applied to the continuous manufacturing of invert sugar from cane sugar and adsorption and removing of harmful substances from blood by utilizing both micro-capsuled urease and active carbon. Alginic acid-copper (II) complex membrane is used for the polymerized metal complex membrane and polystyrene sulfonate membrane is used for the polymer catalyst separation membrane. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  1. Quantitative comparison of direct phase retrieval algorithms in in-line phase tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Max; Cloetens, Peter; Guigay, Jean-Pierre; Peyrin, Francoise

    2008-01-01

    A well-known problem in x-ray microcomputed tomography is low sensitivity. Phase contrast imaging offers an increase of sensitivity of up to a factor of 10 3 in the hard x-ray region, which makes it possible to image soft tissue and small density variations. If a sufficiently coherent x-ray beam, such as that obtained from a third generation synchrotron, is used, phase contrast can be obtained by simply moving the detector downstream of the imaged object. This setup is known as in-line or propagation based phase contrast imaging. A quantitative relationship exists between the phase shift induced by the object and the recorded intensity and inversion of this relationship is called phase retrieval. Since the phase shift is proportional to projections through the three-dimensional refractive index distribution in the object, once the phase is retrieved, the refractive index can be reconstructed by using the phase as input to a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. A comparison between four phase retrieval algorithms is presented. The algorithms are based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE), transport of intensity equation for weak absorption, the contrast transfer function (CTF), and a mixed approach between the CTF and TIE, respectively. The compared methods all rely on linearization of the relationship between phase shift and recorded intensity to yield fast phase retrieval algorithms. The phase retrieval algorithms are compared using both simulated and experimental data, acquired at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility third generation synchrotron light source. The algorithms are evaluated in terms of two different reconstruction error metrics. While being slightly less computationally effective, the mixed approach shows the best performance in terms of the chosen criteria.

  2. Evaluating unsupervised methods to size and classify suspended particles using digital in-line holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emlyn J.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Graham, George W.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial information can be gained from digital in-line holography of marine particles, eliminating depth-of-field and focusing errors associated with standard lens-based imaging methods. However, for the technique to reach its full potential in oceanographic research, fully unsupervised (automated) methods are required for focusing, segmentation, sizing and classification of particles. These computational challenges are the subject of this paper, in which we draw upon data collected using a variety of holographic systems developed at Plymouth University, UK, from a significant range of particle types, sizes and shapes. A new method for noise reduction in reconstructed planes is found to be successful in aiding particle segmentation and sizing. The performance of an automated routine for deriving particle characteristics (and subsequent size distributions) is evaluated against equivalent size metrics obtained by a trained operative measuring grain axes on screen. The unsupervised method is found to be reliable, despite some errors resulting from over-segmentation of particles. A simple unsupervised particle classification system is developed, and is capable of successfully differentiating sand grains, bubbles and diatoms from within the surf-zone. Avoiding miscounting bubbles and biological particles as sand grains enables more accurate estimates of sand concentrations, and is especially important in deployments of particle monitoring instrumentation in aerated water. Perhaps the greatest potential for further development in the computational aspects of particle holography is in the area of unsupervised particle classification. The simple method proposed here provides a foundation upon which further development could lead to reliable identification of more complex particle populations, such as those containing phytoplankton, zooplankton, flocculated cohesive sediments and oil droplets.

  3. Optical biosensor optimized for continuous in-line glucose monitoring in animal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tric, Mircea; Lederle, Mario; Neuner, Lisa; Dolgowjasow, Igor; Wiedemann, Philipp; Wölfl, Stefan; Werner, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Biosensors for continuous glucose monitoring in bioreactors could provide a valuable tool for optimizing culture conditions in biotechnological applications. We have developed an optical biosensor for long-term continuous glucose monitoring and demonstrated a tight glucose level control during cell culture in disposable bioreactors. The in-line sensor is based on a commercially available oxygen sensor that is coated with cross-linked glucose oxidase (GOD). The dynamic range of the sensor was tuned by a hydrophilic perforated diffusion membrane with an optimized permeability for glucose and oxygen. The biosensor was thoroughly characterized by experimental data and numerical simulations, which enabled insights into the internal concentration profile of the deactivating by-product hydrogen peroxide. The simulations were carried out with a one-dimensional biosensor model and revealed that, in addition to the internal hydrogen peroxide concentration, the turnover rate of the enzyme GOD plays a crucial role for biosensor stability. In the light of this finding, the glucose sensor was optimized to reach a long functional stability (>52 days) under continuous glucose monitoring conditions with a dynamic range of 0-20 mM and a response time of t 90  ≤ 10 min. In addition, we demonstrated that the sensor was sterilizable with beta and UV irradiation and only subjected to minor cross sensitivity to oxygen, when an oxygen reference sensor was applied. Graphical abstract Measuring setup of a glucose biosensor in a shake flask for continuous glucose monitoring in mammalian cell culture.

  4. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  5. Magnetic separator having a multilayer matrix, method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelland, David R.

    1980-01-01

    A magnetic separator having multiple staggered layers of porous magnetic material positioned to intercept a fluid stream carrying magnetic particles and so placed that a bypass of each layer is effected as the pores of the layer become filled with material extracted from the fluid stream.

  6. Development of a Density Sensor for In-Line Real-Time Process Control and Monitoring of Slurries during Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Transport Operations at DOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    A density sensor (densimeter) to monitor and control slurries in-line real-time during radioactive waste retrieval and transport and detect conditions leading to degraded transport and line plugging is described. Benefits over baseline grab samples and off line analysis include: early detection and prevention of pipeline plugging, real-time density through the transfer process, elimination of grab sampling and off-line analysis, and reduced worker radiation exposure. The sensor is small, robust and could be retrofitted into existing pump pit manifolds and transfer lines. The probe uses ultrasonic signal reflection at the fluid-pipe wall interface to quantify density and features include: a non-intrusive sensing surface located flush with the pipeline wall; performance that is not affected by entrained air or by electromagnetic noise from nearby pumps and other equipment and is compact. Components were tested for chemical and radiation resistance and the spool piece was pressure tested in accordance with ASME Process Piping Code B31.3 and approved by the Hanford Site Flammable Gas Equipment Advisory Board for installation. During pipeline tests, the sensor predicted density within+ 2% oriented in vertical and horizontal position. The densimeter is installed in the modified process manifold that is installed in the prefabricated pump pit at Hanford tank SY-101 site. In FY-2002 the density sensor performance will be evaluated during transfers of both water and waste through the pipeline. A separate project developed an ultrasonic sensor that: (1) can be attached permanently to a pipeline wall, possibly as a spool piece inserted into the line or (2) can clamp onto an existing pipeline wall and be movable to another location. This method is attractive for radioactive fluids transport applications because the sensors could be applied to existing equipment without the need to penetrate the pipe pressure boundary or to open the system to install new equipment

  7. Performance characteristics of a novel blood bag in-line closure device and subsequent product quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Katherine; Levin, Elena; Culibrk, Brankica; Weiss, Sandra; Scammell, Ken; Boecker, Wolfgang F; Devine, Dana V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND In high-volume processing environments, manual breakage of in-line closures can result in repetitive strain injury (RSI). Furthermore, these closures may be incorrectly opened causing shear-induced hemolysis. To overcome the variability of in-line closure use and minimize RSI, Fresenius Kabi developed a new in-line closure, the CompoFlow, with mechanical openers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The consistency of the performance of the CompoFlow closure device was assessed, as was its effect on component quality. A total of 188 RBC units using CompoFlow blood bag systems and 43 using the standard bag systems were produced using the buffy coat manufacturing method. Twenty-six CompoFlow platelet (PLT) concentrates and 10 control concentrates were prepared from pools of four buffy coats. RBCs were assessed on Days 1, 21, and 42 for cellular variables and hemolysis. PLTs were assessed on Days 1, 3, and 7 for morphology, CD62P expression, glucose, lactate, and pH. A total of 308 closures were excised after processing and the apertures were measured using digital image analysis. RESULTS The use of the CompoFlow device significantly improved the mean extraction time with 0.46 ± 0.11 sec/mL for the CompoFlow units and 0.52 ± 0.13 sec/mL for the control units. The CompoFlow closures showed a highly reproducible aperture after opening (coefficient of variation, 15%) and the device always remained opened. PLT and RBC products showed acceptable storage variables with no differences between CompoFlow and control. CONCLUSIONS The CompoFlow closure devices improved the level of process control and processing time of blood component production with no negative effects on product quality. PMID:20529007

  8. Removing Boundary Layer by Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackeret, J

    1927-01-01

    Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

  9. Unsteady separation and vortex shedding from a laminar separation bubble over a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. P.; Srinivasan, U.; Arakeri, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    Boundary layers are subject to favorable and adverse pressure gradients because of both the temporal and spatial components of the pressure gradient. The adverse pressure gradient may cause the flow to separate. In a closed loop unsteady tunnel we have studied the initiation of separation in unsteady flow past a constriction (bluff body) in a channel. We have proposed two important scalings for the time when boundary layer separates. One is based on the local pressure gradient and the other is a convective time scale based on boundary layer parameters. The flow visualization using a dye injection technique shows the flow structure past the body. Nondimensional shedding frequency (Strouhal number) is calculated based on boundary layer and momentum thicknesses. Strouhal number based on the momentum thickness shows a close agreement with that for flat plate and circular cylinder.

  10. Acoustic Separation Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Ahrens; Tim Patterson

    2002-01-01

    Today's restrictive environmental regulations encourage paper mills to close their water systems. Closed water systems increase the level of contaminants significantly. Accumulations of solid suspensions are detrimental to both the papermaking process and the final products. To remove these solids, technologies such as flotation using dissolved air (DAF), centrifuging, and screening have been developed. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are commonly used to clarify whitewater. These passive systems use high pressure to dissolve air into whitewater. When the pressure is released, air micro-bubbles form and attach themselves to fibers and particles, which then float to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed off. There is an economic incentive to explore alternatives to the DAF technology to drive down the cost of whitewater processing and minimize the use of chemicals. The installed capital cost for a DAF system is significant and a typical DAF system takes up considerable space. An alternative approach, which is the subject of this project, involves a dual method combining the advantages of chemical flocculation and in-line ultrasonic clarification to efficiently remove flocculated contaminants from a water stream

  11. Dose enhancement in radiotherapy of small lung tumors using inline magnetic fields: A Monte Carlo based planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oborn, B. M., E-mail: brad.oborn@gmail.com [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Ge, Y. [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hardcastle, N. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Metcalfe, P. E. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2500, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Keall, P. J. [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To report on significant dose enhancement effects caused by magnetic fields aligned parallel to 6 MV photon beam radiotherapy of small lung tumors. Findings are applicable to future inline MRI-guided radiotherapy systems. Methods: A total of eight clinical lung tumor cases were recalculated using Monte Carlo methods, and external magnetic fields of 0.5, 1.0, and 3 T were included to observe the impact on dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and gross tumor volume (GTV). Three plans were 6 MV 3D-CRT plans while 6 were 6 MV IMRT. The GTV’s ranged from 0.8 to 16 cm{sup 3}, while the PTV’s ranged from 1 to 59 cm{sup 3}. In addition, the dose changes in a 30 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom were investigated for small beams. The central 20 cm of this phantom contained either water or lung density insert. Results: For single beams, an inline magnetic field of 1 T has a small impact in lung dose distributions by reducing the lateral scatter of secondary electrons, resulting in a small dose increase along the beam. Superposition of multiple small beams leads to significant dose enhancements. Clinically, this process occurs in the lung tissue typically surrounding the GTV, resulting in increases to the D{sub 98%} (PTV). Two isolated tumors with very small PTVs (3 and 6 cm{sup 3}) showed increases in D{sub 98%} of 23% and 22%. Larger PTVs of 13, 26, and 59 cm{sup 3} had increases of 9%, 6%, and 4%, describing a natural fall-off in enhancement with increasing PTV size. However, three PTVs bounded to the lung wall showed no significant increase, due to lack of dose enhancement in the denser PTV volume. In general, at 0.5 T, the GTV mean dose enhancement is around 60% lower than that at 1 T, while at 3 T, it is 5%–60% higher than 1 T. Conclusions: Monte Carlo methods have described significant and predictable dose enhancement effects in small lung tumor plans for 6 MV radiotherapy when an external inline magnetic field is included. Results of this study

  12. An in-line clean system for the solid-phase extraction of emerging contaminants in natural waters

    OpenAIRE

    Sodré, Fernando F.; Locatelli, Marco Antonio F.; Jardim, Wilson F.

    2010-01-01

    A solid-phase in-line extraction system for water samples containing low levels of emerging contaminants is described. The system was specially developed for large volume samples (up to 4 L) using commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Four sets containing PTFE-made connectors, brass adapters and ball valves were used to fit SPE cartridges and sample bottles to a 4-port manifold attached to a 20 L carboy. A lab-made vacuum device was connected to the manifold cap. The apparatus i...

  13. Ultra-high-speed digital in-line holography system applied to particle-laden supersonic underexpanded jet flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Buchmann, Nicolas A.; Soria, Julio

    2012-01-01

    -fluid interactions in these high-speed flows special high performance techniques are required. The present work is an investigation into the applicability of magnified digital in-line holography with ultra-high-speed recording for the study of three-dimensional supersonic particle-laden flows. An optical setup...... × 10mm calibration grid and 120 μm particles on a glass plate. In the case with the calibration grid it is found that accurate determination of the depthwise position is possible. However, when applying the same technique to the particle target, significant problems are encountered. © 2012...

  14. Patinação de velocidade in-line: uma revisão sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Piucco, T.; Santos, S.G. dos; Lucas, R.D. de

    2014-01-01

    A patinação de velocidade in-line é uma modalidade que está crescendo nos últimos anos, contudo, ainda é pouco estudada devido a dificuldade de ser reproduzida em laboratório. Neste artigo, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o conhecimento, com base em investigações prévias desta modalidade esportiva. As consultas foram realizadas nas bases de dados LILACS, SCOPUS, PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, Ovid e Google. Foram incluídos apenas estudos com humanos, publicados em inglês, portu...

  15. In-line microfluidic refractometer based on C-shaped fiber assisted photonic crystal fiber Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuang; Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Guan, Bai-Ou; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2013-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a highly sensitive in-line photonic crystal fiber (PCF) microfluidic refractometer. Ultrathin C-shaped fibers are spliced in-between the PCF and standard single-mode fibers. The C-shaped fibers provide openings for liquid to flow in and out of the PCF. Based on a Sagnac interferometer, the refractive index (RI) response of the device is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A high sensitivity of 6621 nm/RIU for liquid RI from 1.330 to 1.333 is achieved in the experiment, which agrees well with the theoretical analysis.

  16. Numerical suppression of the twin image in in-line holography of a volume of micro-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L; Fournier, C; Fournel, T; Ducottet, C

    2008-01-01

    We address the twin-image problem that arises in holography due to the lack of phase information in intensity measurements. This problem is of great importance in in-line holography where spatial elimination of the twin image cannot be carried out as in off-axis holography. A unifying description of existing digital suppression methods is given in the light of deconvolution techniques. Holograms of objects spread in 3D cannot be processed through available approaches. We suggest an iterative algorithm and demonstrate its efficacy on both simulated and real data. This method is suitable to enhance the reconstructed images from a digital hologram of small objects

  17. Surgical Repair of an Impalement Genital Injury from an Inline Skating Accident in a 7-Year-Old Prepubertal Girl: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Roland; Engel, Joerg B; Wieg, Christian

    2017-02-01

    In girls who present with vaginal trauma, sexual abuse is often the primary diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must include patterns and the mechanism of injury that differentiate accidental injuries from inflicted trauma. A 7-year-old prepubertal girl presented to the emergency department with genital bleeding after a serious accidental impaling injury from inline skating. After rapid abduction of the legs and a fall onto the blade of an inline skate this child incurred an impaling genital injury consistent with an accidental mechanism. The dramatic genital injuries when repaired healed with almost imperceptible residual evidence of previous trauma. To our knowledge, this case report represents the first in the medical literature of an impaling vaginal trauma from an inline skate and describes its clinical and surgical management. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Systems and methods for using a boehmite bond-coat with polyimide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Kimberly Ann

    2013-03-05

    The subject matter disclosed herein relates to gas separation membranes and, more specifically, to polyimide gas separation membranes. In an embodiment, a gas separation membrane includes a porous substrate, a substantially continuous polyimide membrane layer, and one or more layers of boehmite nanoparticles disposed between the porous substrate and the polyimide membrane layer to form a bond-coat layer. The bond-coat layer is configured to improve the adhesion of the polyimide membrane layer to the porous substrate, and the polyimide membrane layer has a thickness approximately 100 nm or less.

  19. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  20. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  1. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  2. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  3. INLINING 3D RECONSTRUCTION, MULTI-SOURCE TEXTURE MAPPING AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS USING OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Frommholz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for fac¸ade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the fac¸ades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM. The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained fac¸ade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric

  4. Improved non-invasive method for aerosol particle charge measurement employing in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anjan Kumar

    Electrically charged particles are found in a wide range of applications ranging from electrostatic powder coating, mineral processing, and powder handling to rain-producing cloud formation in atmospheric turbulent flows. In turbulent flows, particle dynamics is influenced by the electric force due to particle charge generation. Quantifying particle charges in such systems will help in better predicting and controlling particle clustering, relative motion, collision, and growth. However, there is a lack of noninvasive techniques to measure particle charges. Recently, a non-invasive method for particle charge measurement using in-line Digital Holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (DHPTV) technique was developed in our lab, where charged particles to be measured were introduced to a uniform electric field, and their movement towards the oppositely charged electrode was deemed proportional to the amount of charge on the particles (Fan Yang, 2014 [1]). However, inherent speckle noise associated with reconstructed images was not adequately removed and therefore particle tracking data was contaminated. Furthermore, particle charge calculation based on particle deflection velocity neglected the particle drag force and rebound effect of the highly charged particles from the electrodes. We improved upon the existing particle charge measurement method by: 1) hologram post processing, 2) taking drag force into account in charge calculation, 3) considering rebound effect. The improved method was first fine-tuned through a calibration experiment. The complete method was then applied to two different experiments, namely conduction charging and enclosed fan-driven turbulence chamber, to measure particle charges. In all three experiments conducted, the particle charge was found to obey non-central t-location scale family of distribution. It was also noted that the charge distribution was insensitive to the change in voltage applied between the electrodes. The range of voltage

  5. Combined mixed approach algorithm for in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Caro, Liberato; Scattarella, Francesco; Giannini, Cinzia; Tangaro, Sabina; Rigon, Luigi; Longo, Renata; Bellotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the past decade, phase-contrast imaging (PCI) has been applied to study different kinds of tissues and human body parts, with an increased improvement of the image quality with respect to simple absorption radiography. A technique closely related to PCI is phase-retrieval imaging (PRI). Indeed, PCI is an imaging modality thought to enhance the total contrast of the images through the phase shift introduced by the object (human body part); PRI is a mathematical technique to extract the quantitative phase-shift map from PCI. A new phase-retrieval algorithm for the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging is here proposed. Methods: The proposed algorithm is based on a mixed transfer-function and transport-of-intensity approach (MA) and it requires, at most, an initial approximate estimate of the average phase shift introduced by the object as prior knowledge. The accuracy in the initial estimate determines the convergence speed of the algorithm. The proposed algorithm retrieves both the object phase and its complex conjugate in a combined MA (CMA). Results: Although slightly less computationally effective with respect to other mixed-approach algorithms, as two phases have to be retrieved, the results obtained by the CMA on simulated data have shown that the obtained reconstructed phase maps are characterized by particularly low normalized mean square errors. The authors have also tested the CMA on noisy experimental phase-contrast data obtained by a suitable weakly absorbing sample consisting of a grid of submillimetric nylon fibers as well as on a strongly absorbing object made of a 0.03 mm thick lead x-ray resolution star pattern. The CMA has shown a good efficiency in recovering phase information, also in presence of noisy data, characterized by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratios down to a few dBs, showing the possibility to enhance with phase radiography the signal-to-noise ratio for features in the submillimetric scale with respect to the attenuation

  6. Improvements on digital inline holographic PTV for 3D wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloui, Mostafa; Mallery, Kevin; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provide the most comprehensive flow information for unraveling the physical phenomena in a wide range of fluid problems, from microfluidics to wall-bounded turbulent flows. Compared with other 3D PIV techniques, such as tomographic PIV and defocusing PIV, the digital inline holographic PTV (DIH-PTV) provides 3D flow measurement solution with high spatial resolution, low cost optical setup, and easy alignment and calibration. Despite these advantages, DIH-PTV suffers from major limitations including poor longitudinal resolution, human intervention (i.e. requirement for manually determined tuning parameters during tracer field reconstruction and extraction), limited tracer concentration, small sampling volume and expensive computations, limiting its broad use for 3D flow measurements. In this study, we present our latest developments on minimizing these challenges, which enables high-fidelity DIH-PTV implementation to larger sampling volumes with significantly higher particle seeding densities suitable for wall-bounded turbulent flow measurements. The improvements include: (1) adjustable window thresholding; (2) multi-pass 3D tracking; (3) automatic wall localization; and (4) continuity-based out-of-plane velocity component computation. The accuracy of the proposed DIH-PTV method is validated with conventional 2D PIV and double-view holographic PTV measurements in smooth-wall turbulent channel flow experiments. The capability of the technique in characterization of wall-bounded turbulence is further demonstrated through its application to flow measurements for smooth- and rough-wall turbulent channel flows. In these experiments, 3D velocity fields are measured within sampling volumes of 14.7  ×  50.0  ×  14.4 mm 3 (covering the entire depth of the channel) with a velocity resolution of  <1.1 mm/vector. Overall, the presented DIH-PTV method and

  7. Fiber optic adaptation of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN for in-line measurements in PUREX process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerck, J.; Kraemer, K.; Koenig, W.

    1990-02-01

    The multicomponent version of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN was adapted by radiation resistant quartz glass optical fibers to in-line flow cells in the aqueous and organic bypass stream of an uranium laboratory extraction column. A combined photometric/electrolytical conductivity measurement allows this modified process instrument to be used as uranium/plutonium in-line monitor in radioactive process streams. By applying a high performance 100 W quartz halogen lamp and suitable light focussing optics the light intensity, attenuated by coupling losses, could be increased to the desired level even when 1000 μm-single strand fibers (2x18 m) were used to transmit the light. In a series of calibration experiments the U(VI)- and U(IV)-extinction coefficients were determined as a function of nitric acid molarity (for U(VI) also in TBP/kerosene). Furthermore the validity of Lambert-Beer's law was examined for both oxidation states at different optical path lengths and nitric acid/electrolytical conductivity calibration functions between 0-100 g/l U(VI) and 0-4 mol/l HNO 3 were set up. (orig./EF) [de

  8. High efficiency and flexible working distance digital in-line holographic microscopy based on Fresnel zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, Fan; Li, Fanxing; Hu, Song; Yan, Wei; Hua, Yilei

    2017-01-01

    Traditional digital in-line holography suffers from twin-image noise problems and extremely short working distances between the object and light source. Here, we propose lensless Fourier transform digital in-line holographic microscopy based on a single optical element. A Fresnel zone plate is used to split the incident light into two parts: one is scattered along the original direction, the other is gathered at a focal point and the sample is put behind the focus. The interference fringe pattern, formed by the two beams, is recorded digitally by a CCD camera. A novel reconstruction algorithm is proposed to present the object image. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem, improving the image contrast with high efficiency, and increasing the flexibility of the working distance. Furthermore, a wide field of view and no contact make it a promising tool for the study of materials science, biology and microelectronics. (paper)

  9. SICS. A Sensor-Based In-Line Control System for the Surfaces of Continuously Cast Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [OG Technologies, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-09-23

    The Phase II project has been carried out in accordance to the proposed tasks and budget, based on the original and extended schedule. The R&D team designed and implemented the test unit for the full width coverage, installed the unit in a caster. The development work further included enhanced image processing, in-depth defect study and process control models. The function, operation, and maintenance of the SICS was thoroughly studied during the Phase II research. The experience indicates additional hardware and procedures are required to make the SICS a commercially ready product in operation and maintenance aspect. Such developments have been finished and the team is contacting potential customers for the first commercial installation of SICS. Additionally, OGT is exploring the possibility to team up with a US company that specializes in surface cleaning for slabs/blooms/billets such that the in-line surface inspection can be integrated with in-line surface clean up for the maximum benefit to the steel industry.

  10. Photonic Low Cost Micro-Sensor for in-Line Wear Particle Detection in Flowing Lube Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microscopic particles in suspension in industrial fluids is often an early warning of latent or imminent failures in the equipment or processes where they are being used. This manuscript describes work undertaken to integrate different photonic principles with a micro- mechanical fluidic structure and an embedded processor to develop a fully autonomous wear debris sensor for in-line monitoring of industrial fluids. Lens-less microscopy, stroboscopic illumination, a CMOS imager and embedded machine vision technologies have been merged to develop a sensor solution that is able to detect and quantify the number and size of micrometric particles suspended in a continuous flow of a fluid. A laboratory test-bench has been arranged for setting up the configuration of the optical components targeting a static oil sample and then a sensor prototype has been developed for migrating the measurement principles to real conditions in terms of operating pressure and flow rate of the oil. Imaging performance is quantified using micro calibrated samples, as well as by measuring real used lubricated oils. Sampling a large fluid volume with a decent 2D spatial resolution, this photonic micro sensor offers a powerful tool at very low cost and compacted size for in-line wear debris monitoring.

  11. Wavefront holoscopy: application of digital in-line holography for the inspection of engraved marks in progressive addition lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Micó, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are engraved with permanent marks at standardized locations in order to guarantee correct centering and alignment throughout the manufacturing and mounting processes. Out of the production line, engraved marks provide useful information about the PAL as well as act as locator marks to re-ink again the removable marks. Even though those marks should be visible by simple visual inspection with the naked eye, engraving marks are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, and partially occluded and difficult to recognize on tinted or antireflection-coated lenses. Here, we present an extremely simple optical device (named as wavefront holoscope) for visualization and characterization of permanent marks in PAL based on digital in-line holography. Essentially, a point source of coherent light illuminates the engraved mark placed just before a CCD camera that records a classical Gabor in-line hologram. The recorded hologram is then digitally processed to provide a set of high-contrast images of the engraved marks. Experimental results are presented showing the applicability of the proposed method as a new ophthalmic instrument for visualization and characterization of engraved marks in PALs.

  12. Differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography microscopy based on a single-optical-element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Both digital in-line holography (DIH) and zone plate-based microscopy have received considerable interest as powerful imaging tools. However, the former suffers from a twin-image noise problem. The latter suffers from low efficiency and difficulty in fabrication. Here, we present an effective and efficient phase-contrast imaging approach, named differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography (DIC-DIH), by using a single optical element to split the incident light into a plane wave and a converging spherical wave and generate a two-dimensional (2D) DIC effect simultaneously. Specifically, to improve image contrast, we present a new single optical element, termed 2D DIC compound photon sieves, by combining two overlaid binary gratings and a compound photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem and improve image contrast with high efficiency. Additionally, we present an example of the phase-contrast imaging nonuniform thick photoresist development process.

  13. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  14. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  15. Steam-water separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modrak, T.M.; Curtis, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A two-stage steam-water separating device is introduced, where the second stage is made as a cyclone separator. The water separated here is collected in the first stage of the inner tube and is returned to the steam raising unit. (TK) [de

  16. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  17. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  18. Redox‐Active Separators for Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ruijun; Ruan, Changqing; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A bilayered cellulose‐based separator design is presented that can enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs) via the inclusion of a porous redox‐active layer. The proposed flexible redox‐active separator consists of a mesoporous, insulating nanocellulose fiber layer that provides the necessary insulation between the electrodes and a porous, conductive, and redox‐active polypyrrole‐nanocellulose layer. The latter layer provides mechanical support to the nanocellulose layer and adds extra capacity to the LIBs. The redox‐active separator is mechanically flexible, and no internal short circuits are observed during the operation of the LIBs, even when the redox‐active layer is in direct contact with both electrodes in a symmetric lithium–lithium cell. By replacing a conventional polyethylene separator with a redox‐active separator, the capacity of the proof‐of‐concept LIB battery containing a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li metal anode can be increased from 0.16 to 0.276 mA h due to the capacity contribution from the redox‐active separator. As the presented redox‐active separator concept can be used to increase the capacities of electrochemical energy storage systems, this approach may pave the way for new types of functional separators. PMID:29593967

  19. Partial interlaminar separation system for composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    This inventor relates to an interlaminar separation system for composites wherein a thin layer of a perforated foil film is interposed between adjacent laminae of a composite formed from prepreg tapes to thereby permit laminate adherence through the perforations and produce a composite structure having improved physical property characteristics.

  20. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  1. Experimental investigation of separated shear layer from a leading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from a leading edge subjected to various angles of attack with tail flap deflections .... the PXI module to enable data multiplexing. ... generating machine and a laser of 136 mJ capacity produces the required light sheet optics that is used in ...

  2. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Saito, Tomonori; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge

  3. Quantitative investigation of the edge enhancement in in-line phase contrast projections and tomosynthesis provided by distributing microbubbles on the interface between two tissues: a phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Donovan Wong, Molly; Li, Yuhua; Fajardo, Laurie; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the ability to distribute microbubbles along the interface between two tissues, in an effort to improve the edge and/or boundary features in phase contrast imaging. The experiments were conducted by employing a custom designed tissue simulating phantom, which also simulated a clinical condition where the ligand-targeted microbubbles are self-aggregated on the endothelium of blood vessels surrounding malignant cells. Four different concentrations of microbubble suspensions were injected into the phantom: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. A time delay of 5 min was implemented before image acquisition to allow the microbubbles to become distributed at the interface between the acrylic and the cavity simulating a blood vessel segment. For comparison purposes, images were acquired using three system configurations for both projection and tomosynthesis imaging with a fixed radiation dose delivery: conventional low-energy contact mode, low-energy in-line phase contrast and high-energy in-line phase contrast. The resultant images illustrate the edge feature enhancements in the in-line phase contrast imaging mode when the microbubble concentration is extremely low. The quantitative edge-enhancement-to-noise ratio calculations not only agree with the direct image observations, but also indicate that the edge feature enhancement can be improved by increasing the microbubble concentration. In addition, high-energy in-line phase contrast imaging provided better performance in detecting low-concentration microbubble distributions.

  4. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2013-01-01

    A microdialytic device was in-line coupled to capillary electrophoresis for direct injection of blood samples. Its performance was demonstrated on rapid analysis of formic acid in various blood samples including serum samples of a patient diagnosed with acute methanol poisoning.

  5. Separation, fractionation, concentration and drying of food products: Final report, March 4, 1987--March 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, C.A.; Rose, W.W.; Pedersen, L.D.; Brewbaker, P.L.

    1988-03-01

    This project studied energy efficient processes for separation, fractionation, concentration, drying, and recombination of food products, in order to reduce energy requirements for processing, preservation, and transportation. The project had three phases. In the laboratory-scale phase, results of which are summarized in this report, tomato puree was separated by three methods: conventional vacuum filtration, centrifugation, and crossflow microfiltration to produce pulp and serum. Three methods of recombination were examined: homogenizing, stomacher blending, and static (in-line) mixing. Satisfactory recombined purees were obtained. In addition, after centrifugation, the pulp was rinsed producing rinsed-pulp, and the rinse water was added to the serum producing rinse/serum. The rinse/serum was concentrated by evaporation. This was recombined with the rinsed-pulp and water producing satisfactory puree. 11 refs., 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  7. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  8. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  9. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Should in-line filters be used in peripheral intravenous catheters to prevent infusion-related phlebitis? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niël-Weise, Barbara S; Stijnen, Theo; van den Broek, Peterhans J

    2010-06-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed the effect of in-line filters on infusion-related phlebitis associated with peripheral IV catheters. The study was designed as a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We used MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register up to August 10, 2009. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data on phlebitis were combined when appropriate, using a random-effects model. The impact of the risk of phlebitis in the control group (baseline risk) on the effect of in-line filters was studied by using meta-regression based on the bivariate meta-analysis model. The quality of the evidence was determined by using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) method. Eleven trials (1633 peripheral catheters) were included in this review to compare the effect of in-line filters on the incidence of phlebitis in hospitalized patients. Baseline risks across trials ranged from 23% to 96%. Meta-analysis of all trials showed that in-line filters reduced the risk of infusion-related phlebitis (relative risk, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.00). This benefit, however, is very uncertain, because the trials had serious methodological shortcomings and meta-analysis revealed marked unexplained statistical heterogeneity (P < 0.0000, I(2) = 90.4%). The estimated benefit did not depend on baseline risk. In-line filters in peripheral IV catheters cannot be recommended routinely, because evidence of their benefit is uncertain.

  11. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  12. Entrainment separator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Leith, D.

    1976-01-01

    Clean and dust-loaded ACS entrainment separators mounted upstream of HEPA filters were exposed to a combination of fine water mist and steam at about 70 0 C from one to four hours. In every trial, the ACS entrainment separator prevented measurable deterioration of performance in the following HEPA filter. Droplet size-efficiency evaluation of the ACS entrainment separators showed that, within the accuracy of the measurements, they meet all service requirements and are fully equal to the best separator units available for service on pressurized water reactors

  13. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  14. Literature Review: Theory and Application of In-Line Inspection Technologies for Oil and Gas Pipeline Girth Weld Defection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qingshan; Li, Rui; Nie, Baohua; Liu, Shucong; Zhao, Lianyu; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Girth weld cracking is one of the main failure modes in oil and gas pipelines; girth weld cracking inspection has great economic and social significance for the intrinsic safety of pipelines. This paper introduces the typical girth weld defects of oil and gas pipelines and the common nondestructive testing methods, and systematically generalizes the progress in the studies on technical principles, signal analysis, defect sizing method and inspection reliability, etc., of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection, liquid ultrasonic inspection, electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) inspection and remote field eddy current (RFDC) inspection for oil and gas pipeline girth weld defects. Additionally, it introduces the new technologies for composite ultrasonic, laser ultrasonic, and magnetostriction inspection, and provides reference for development and application of oil and gas pipeline girth weld defect in-line inspection technology. PMID:28036016

  15. In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kfir, Ofer, E-mail: ofertx@technion.ac.il, E-mail: oren@si.technion.ac.il; Bordo, Eliyahu; Ilan Haham, Gil; Lahav, Oren; Cohen, Oren, E-mail: ofertx@technion.ac.il, E-mail: oren@si.technion.ac.il [Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Fleischer, Avner [Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Ort Braude College, Karmiel 21982 (Israel)

    2016-05-23

    The recent demonstration of bright circularly polarized high-order harmonics of a bi-circular pump field gave rise to new opportunities in ultrafast chiral science. In previous works, the required nontrivial bi-circular pump field was produced using a relatively complicated and sensitive Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer. We propose a compact and stable in-line apparatus for converting a quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized ultrashort driving laser field into a bi-circular field and employ it for generation of helically polarized high-harmonics. Furthermore, utilizing the apparatus for a spectroscopic spin-mixing measurement, we identify the photon spins of the bi-circular weak component field that are annihilated during the high harmonics process.

  16. Semi-autonomous inline water analyzer: design of a common light detector for bacterial, phage, and immunological biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Elodie C T; Meunier, Damien; Brutesco, Catherine; Prévéral, Sandra; Franche, Nathalie; Bazin, Ingrid; Miclot, Bertrand; Larosa, Philippe; Escoffier, Camille; Fantino, Jean-Raphael; Garcia, Daniel; Ansaldi, Mireille; Rodrigue, Agnès; Pignol, David; Cholat, Pierre; Ginet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The use of biosensors as sensitive and rapid alert systems is a promising perspective to monitor accidental or intentional environmental pollution, but their implementation in the field is limited by the lack of adapted inline water monitoring devices. We describe here the design and initial qualification of an analyzer prototype able to accommodate three types of biosensors based on entirely different methodologies (immunological, whole-cell, and bacteriophage biosensors), but whose responses rely on the emission of light. We developed a custom light detector and a reaction chamber compatible with the specificities of the three systems and resulting in statutory detection limits. The water analyzer prototype resulting from the COMBITOX project can be situated at level 4 on the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale and this technical advance paves the way to the use of biosensors on-site.

  17. Computational wavelength resolution for in-line lensless holography: phase-coded diffraction patterns and wavefront group-sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkovnik, Vladimir; Shevkunov, Igor; Petrov, Nikolay V.; Egiazarian, Karen

    2017-06-01

    In-line lensless holography is considered with a random phase modulation at the object plane. The forward wavefront propagation is modelled using the Fourier transform with the angular spectrum transfer function. The multiple intensities (holograms) recorded by the sensor are random due to the random phase modulation and noisy with Poissonian noise distribution. It is shown by computational experiments that high-accuracy reconstructions can be achieved with resolution going up to the two thirds of the wavelength. With respect to the sensor pixel size it is a super-resolution with a factor of 32. The algorithm designed for optimal superresolution phase/amplitude reconstruction from Poissonian data is based on the general methodology developed for phase retrieval with a pixel-wise resolution in V. Katkovnik, "Phase retrieval from noisy data based on sparse approximation of object phase and amplitude", http://www.cs.tut.fi/ lasip/DDT/index3.html.

  18. In-line moisture monitoring in fluidized bed granulation using a novel multi-resonance microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Johanna; Bartscher, Kathrin; Döscher, Claas; Taute, Wolfgang; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Microwave resonance technology (MRT) is known as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed granulation. It offers a great potential for wet granulation processes even where the suitability of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is limited, e.g. colored granules, large variations in bulk density. However, previous sensor systems operating around a single resonance frequency showed limitations above approx. 7.5% granule moisture. This paper describes the application of a novel sensor working with four resonance frequencies. In-line data of all four resonance frequencies were collected and further processed. Based on calculation of density-independent microwave moisture values multiple linear regression (MLR) models using Karl-Fischer titration (KF) as well as loss on drying (LOD) as reference methods were build. Rapid, reliable in-process moisture control (RMSEP≤0.5%) even at higher moisture contents was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and development of an in-line sputtering system and process development of thin film multilayer neutron supermirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.; Sampathkumar, R.; Kumar, Ajaya; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhattacharya, Debarati; Singh, Surendra; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Neutron supermirrors and supermirror polarizers are thin film multilayer based devices which are used for reflecting and polarizing neutrons in various neutron based experiments. In the present communication, the in-house development of a 9 m long in-line dc sputtering system has been described which is suitable for deposition of neutron supermirrors on large size (1500 mm × 150 mm) substrates and in large numbers. The optimisation process of deposition of Co and Ti thin film, Co/Ti periodic multilayers, and a-periodic supermirrors have also been described. The system has been used to deposit thin film multilayer supermirror polarizers which show high reflectivity up to a reasonably large critical wavevector transfer of ∼0.06 Å{sup −1} (corresponding to m = 2.5, i.e., 2.5 times critical wavevector transfer of natural Ni). The computer code for designing these supermirrors has also been developed in-house.

  20. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height......In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...

  1. Computational fluid dynamics modeling patterns and force characteristics of flow over in-line four square cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yidan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow over four square cylinders in an in-line, square arrangement was numerically investigated by using the finite volume method with CFD techniques. The working fluid is an incompressible ideal gas. The length of the sides of the array, L, is equal. The analysis is carried out for a Reynolds number of 300, with center-to-center distance ratios, L/D, ranging from 1.5 to 8.0. To fully understand the flow mechanism, details in terms of lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal numbers of the unsteady wake frequencies are analyzed, and the vortex shedding patterns around the four square cylinders are described. It is concluded that L/D has important effects on the drag and lift coefficients, vortex shedding frequencies, and flow field characteristics.

  2. Inline-process and quality control of spotwelds of car bodies - ultrasonic sensors integrated in resistance welding electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.; Rieger, D.; Koehler, C. [Vogt Werkstoffpruefsysteme, Burgwedel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The self-developed inline ultrasonic testing system SPOTline is used for inspection and process control of resistant spot weldings. SPOTline provides with directly into the welding tong integrated ultrasonic sensors a 100% inspection during the welding process. The through transmission and pulse echo signals will be collected, stored and evaluated by means of fuzzy-logic and neuronal network technic. The results will be transmitted online from the spotline-client in the sql-data-base of the server for processing. World-wide SPOTline is the only ultrasonic inspection system, which is working under real production conditions in a network of welding robots. Test with 2 and 3 plates, high strength steels and all coatings demonstrate the accurately identification of discrepant welds. (orig.)

  3. Automated instruments for in-line accounting of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Sandford, E.L.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Smith, S.E.; McCullough, E.E.; Jeter, I.W.; Bowers, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Two automated nondestructive assay instruments developed at Los Alamos in support of nuclear materials accounting needs are currently operating in-line at the Oak Ridge Y-12 facility for recovery of highly enriched uranium (HEU). One instrument provides the HEU inventory in the secondary solvent extraction system, and the other monitors HEU concentration in the secondary intermediate evaporator. Both instruments were installed in December 1982. Operational evaluation of these instruments was a joint effort of Y-12 and Los Alamos personnel. This evaluation included comparison of the solvent extraction system inventories with direct measurements performed on the dumped solution components of the solvent extraction system and comparison of concentration assay results with the external assays of samples withdrawn from the process. The function and design of the instruments and detailed results of the operational evaluation are reported

  4. Hybridization approach to in-line and off-axis (electron) holography for superior resolution and phase sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, C.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; van Aken, P. A.; Koch, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Holography - originally developed for correcting spherical aberration in transmission electron microscopes - is now used in a wide range of disciplines that involve the propagation of waves, including light optics, electron microscopy, acoustics and seismology. In electron microscopy, the two primary modes of holography are Gabor's original in-line setup and an off-axis approach that was developed subsequently. These two techniques are highly complementary, offering superior phase sensitivity at high and low spatial resolution, respectively. All previous investigations have focused on improving each method individually. Here, we show how the two approaches can be combined in a synergetic fashion to provide phase information with excellent sensitivity across all spatial frequencies, low noise and an efficient use of electron dose. The principle is also expected to be widely to applications of holography in light optics, X-ray optics, acoustics, ultra-sound, terahertz imaging, etc. PMID:25387480

  5. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  6. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  7. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  8. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  9. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  10. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  11. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  12. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  13. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  14. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  15. Magnetic separations in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, L; Azevedo, A M; Roque, A C A; Aires-Barros, M R

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic separations are probably one of the most versatile separation processes in biotechnology as they are able to purify cells, viruses, proteins and nucleic acids directly from crude samples. The fast and gentle process in combination with its easy scale-up and automation provide unique advantages over other separation techniques. In the midst of this process are the magnetic adsorbents tailored for the envisioned target and whose complex synthesis spans over multiple fields of science. In this context, this article reviews both the synthesis and tailoring of magnetic adsorbents for bioseparations as well as their ultimate application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In-line UV spectroscopy for the quantification of low-dose active ingredients during the manufacturing of pharmaceutical semi-solid and liquid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostijn, N; Hellings, M; Van Der Veen, M; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-07-12

    UltraViolet (UV) spectroscopy was evaluated as an innovative Process Analytical Technology (PAT) - tool for the in-line and real-time quantitative determination of low-dosed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in a semi-solid (gel) and a liquid (suspension) pharmaceutical formulation during their batch production process. The performance of this new PAT-tool (i.e., UV spectroscopy) was compared with an already more established PAT-method based on Raman spectroscopy. In-line UV measurements were carried out with an immersion probe while for the Raman measurements a non-contact PhAT probe was used. For both studied formulations, an in-line API quantification model was developed and validated per spectroscopic technique. The known API concentrations (Y) were correlated with the corresponding in-line collected preprocessed spectra (X) through a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. Each developed quantification method was validated by calculating the accuracy profile on the basis of the validation experiments. Furthermore, the measurement uncertainty was determined based on the data generated for the determination of the accuracy profiles. From the accuracy profile of the UV- and Raman-based quantification method for the gel, it was concluded that at the target API concentration of 2% (w/w), 95 out of 100 future routine measurements given by the Raman method will not deviate more than 10% (relative error) from the true API concentration, whereas for the UV method the acceptance limits of 10% were exceeded. For the liquid formulation, the Raman method was not able to quantify the API in the low-dosed suspension (0.09% (w/w) API). In contrast, the in-line UV method was able to adequately quantify the API in the suspension. This study demonstrated that UV spectroscopy can be adopted as a novel in-line PAT-technique for low-dose quantification purposes in pharmaceutical processes. Important is that none of the two spectroscopic techniques was superior to the other

  17. Separations by centrifugal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    The technical information presented herein emphasizes the uniqueness of the centrifugal separations methodology and pertinent theory for various kinds of centrifugation. The topics are arranged according to gas, liquid, and solid phases, in the order of increasing densities. Much space is devoted to liquid centrifugation because of the importance of this technique in chemical and biological laboratories. Many separational and characterizational examples are illustrated in detail. The material has been divided into 7 chapters entitled: 1) Introduction, 2) Basic Theory of Centrifugation, 3) Gas Centrifuges, 4) Preparative Liquid Centrifuges, 5) Analytical Liquid Centrifuges, 6) Liquid Centrifuges in Practice, and 7) Mechanical Separations by Centrifuges. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each chapter except the introduction

  18. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  19. Separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, C.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    In a process for separating fission product values from U and Pu values contained in an aqueous solution, an oxidizing agent is added to the solution to secure U and Pu in their hexavalent state. The aqueous solution is contacted with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent with agitation while the temperature is maintained at from -1 to -2 0 C until the major part of the water present is frozen. The solid ice phase is continuously separated as it is formed and a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing Pu and U values are separated from each other. The last obtained part of the ice phase is melted and added to the separated liquid phase. The resulting liquid is treated with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of U and Pu

  20. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.