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Sample records for layer electromagnetic cloak

  1. Electromagnetic cloaking in higher order spherical cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhwa, H. H.; Aiyar, R. P. R. C.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The inception of transformation optics has led to the realisation of the invisibility devices for various applications, one of which is spherical cloaking. In this paper, a formulation for a higher-order spherical cloak has been proposed to reduce its physical thickness significantly by introducing a nonlinear relation between the original and transformed coordinate systems and it has been verified using the ray tracing approach. Analysis has been carried out to observe the anomalies in the variation of refractive index for higher order cloaks indicating the presence of poles in the relevant equations. Furthermore, a higher-order spherical cloak with predefined values of the material characteristics on its inner and outer surfaces has been designed for practical application.

  2. Experimental and computational studies of electromagnetic cloaking at microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui

    An invisibility cloak is a device that can hide the target by enclosing it from the incident radiation. This intriguing device has attracted a lot of attention since it was first implemented at a microwave frequency in 2006. However, the problems of existing cloak designs prevent them from being widely applied in practice. In this dissertation, we try to remove or alleviate the three constraints for practical applications imposed by loosy cloaking media, high implementation complexity, and small size of hidden objects compared to the incident wavelength. To facilitate cloaking design and experimental characterization, several devices and relevant techniques for measuring the complex permittivity of dielectric materials at microwave frequencies are developed. In particular, a unique parallel plate waveguide chamber has been set up to automatically map the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution for wave propagation through the resonator arrays and cloaking structures. The total scattering cross section of the cloaking structures was derived based on the measured scattering field by using this apparatus. To overcome the adverse effects of lossy cloaking media, microwave cloaks composed of identical dielectric resonators made of low loss ceramic materials are designed and implemented. The effective permeability dispersion was provided by tailoring dielectric resonator filling fractions. The cloak performances had been verified by full-wave simulation of true multi-resonator structures and experimental measurements of the fabricated prototypes. With the aim to reduce the implementation complexity caused by metamaterials employment for cloaking, we proposed to design 2-D cylindrical cloaks and 3-D spherical cloaks by using multi-layer ordinary dielectric material (epsilon r>1) coating. Genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the dielectric profiles of the cloaking shells to provide the minimum scattering cross sections of the cloaked targets. The designed cloaks can

  3. Electromagnetic Invisibility of Elliptic Cylinder Cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Yao; Chao, Li; Fang, Li

    2008-01-01

    Structures with unique electromagnetic properties are designed based on the approach of spatial coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations. This approach is applied to scheme out invisible elliptic cylinder cloaks, which provide more feasibility for cloaking arbitrarily shaped objects. The transformation expressions for the anisotropic material parameters and the field distribution are derived. The cloaking performances of ideal and lossy elliptic cylinder cloaks are investigated by finite element simulations. It is found that the cloaking performance will degrade in the forward direction with increasing loss. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile

    2015-05-01

    It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics.

  5. Manipulating the loss in electromagnetic cloaks for perfect wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Kallos, Efthymios; Zhao, Yan; Hao, Yang

    2009-05-11

    We examine several ways to manipulate the loss in electro-magnetic cloaks, based on transformation electromagnetics. It is found that, by utilizing inherent electric and magnetic losses of metamaterials, perfect wave absorption can be achieved based on several popular designs of electromagnetic cloaks. A practical implementation of the absorber, consisting of ten discrete layers of metamaterials, is proposed. The new devices demonstrate super-absorptivity over a moderate wideband range, suitable for both microwave and optical applications. It is corroborated that the device is functional with a subwavelength thickness and, hence, advantageous compared to the conventional absorbers.

  6. Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Invisibility Cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian

    2009-01-01

    A perfect invisibility cloak is commonly believed to be undetectable from electromagnetic (EM) detection because it is equivalent to a curved but empty EM space created from coordinate transformation. Based on the intrinsic asymmetry of coordinate transformation applied to motions of photons and charges, we propose a method to detect this curved EM space by shooting a fast-moving charged particle through it. A broadband radiation generated in this process makes a cloak visible. Our method is the only known EM mechanism so far to detect an ideal perfect cloak (curved EM space) within its working band.

  9. A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weder, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al that are based on the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first-order transformations. In recent papers, Hendi et al and Cai et al considered invisibility cloaks with high-order transformations. In this paper, we study high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high-order transformations from general anisotropic media. We consider the case where there is a finite number of spherical cloaks located in different points in space. We prove that for any incident plane wave, at any frequency, the scattered wave is identically zero. We also consider the scattering of finite-energy wave packets. We prove that the scattering matrix is the identity, i.e., that for any incoming wave packet the outgoing wave packet is the same as the incoming one. This proves that the invisibility cloaks cannot be detected in any scattering experiment with electromagnetic waves in high-order transformation media, and in particular in the first-order transformation media of Pendry et al. We also prove that the high-order invisibility cloaks, as well as the first-order ones, cloak passive and active devices. The cloaked objects completely decouple from the exterior. Actually, the cloaking outside is independent of what is inside the cloaked objects. The electromagnetic waves inside the cloaked objects cannot leave the concealed regions and vice versa, the electromagnetic waves outside the cloaked objects cannot go inside the concealed regions. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic materials, we prove that it is possible to cloak objects inside general crystals

  10. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  11. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves.

  12. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sé bastien

    2015-01-01

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.

  14. The boundary conditions for point transformed electromagnetic invisibility cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weder, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study point transformed electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic media. We assume that there are several point transformed electromagnetic cloaks located in different points in space. Our results apply in particular to the first-order invisibility cloaks introduced by Pendry et al and to the high-order invisibility cloaks introduced by Hendi et al and by Cai et al. We identify the appropriate cloaking boundary conditions that the solutions of Maxwell equations have to satisfy at the outside, ∂K + , and at the inside, ∂K - , of the boundary of the cloaked object K in the case where the permittivity and the permeability are bounded below and above in K. Namely, that the tangential components of the electric and the magnetic fields have to vanish at ∂K + -which is always true-and that the normal components of the curl of the electric and the magnetic fields have to vanish at ∂K - . These results are proven requiring that energy be conserved. In the case of one spherical cloak with a spherically stratified K and a radial current at ∂K we verify by an explicit calculation that our cloaking boundary conditions are satisfied and that cloaking of active devices holds, even if the current is at the boundary of the cloaked object. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic media, our results apply to the cloaking of objects with passive and active devices contained in general anisotropic media, in particular to objects with passive and active devices contained inside general crystals. Our results suggest a method to enhance cloaking in the approximate transformation media that are used in practice. Namely, to coat the boundary of the cloaked object (the inner boundary of the cloak) with a material that imposes the boundary conditions above. As these boundary conditions have to be satisfied for exact transformation

  15. Invisibility cloaks with arbitrary geometries for layered and gradually changing backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C; Yao, K; Li, F

    2009-01-01

    Cloaks with arbitrary geometries are proposed which can make objects invisible in inhomogeneous backgrounds. The general and explicit expressions of the complex permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for cloaks embedded in layered and gradually changing media. The inner and the outer boundaries of the cloaks can be non-conformal with arbitrary shapes, which considerably improve the flexibility of the cloak applications. The interactions of electromagnetic waves with irregular cloaks are studied based on numerical simulations. The influences of the cloaked and uncloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinders upon the scattering fields of the multilayered backgrounds are quantitatively evaluated. The effect of loss on the cloaking performance has also been investigated. It is verified that cloaks with ideal parameters can smoothly deflect and guide the incoming beams to propagate around the shielded regions without disturbing the beams when they return to the inhomogeneous backgrounds. Therefore, the objects in the shielded region can be effectively invisible to the corresponding backgrounds. The performance of lossy cloaks will degrade with comparatively large power reduction of the transmitted beams.

  16. Electromagnetic cloaking devices for TE and TM polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilotti, Filiberto; Tricarico, Simone; Vegni, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of an electromagnetic cloaking device working for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. The theoretical approach to cloaking used here is inspired by the one presented by Alu and Engheta (2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 016623) for TM polarization. The case of TE polarization is firstly considered and, then, an actual inclusion-based cloak for TE polarization is also designed. In such a case, the cloak is made of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial, as the dual counterpart of the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material that can be used for purely dielectric objects. The operation and the robustness of the cloaking device for the TE polarization is deeply investigated through a complete set of full-wave numerical simulations. Finally, the design and an application of a cloak operating for both TE and TM polarizations employing both magnetic inclusions and the parallel plate medium already used by Silveirinha et al (Phys. Rev. E 75 036603) are presented.

  17. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  18. Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian

    2011-01-01

    We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.

  19. Asymmetric Invisibility Cloaking Theory Based on the Concept of Effective Electromagnetic Fields for Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Tomo; Taki, Masato; Kanazawa, Toru; Arai, Shigehisa

    2014-03-01

    The asymmetric invisibility cloak is a special cloak with unidirectional transparency; that is, a person in the cloak should not be seen from the outside but should be able to see the outside. Existing theories of designing invisibility cloaks cannot be used for asymmetric cloaking because they are based on the transformation optics that uses Riemannian metric tensor independent of direction. To overcome this problem, we propose introducing directionality into invisibility cloaking. Our theory is based on ``the theory of effective magnetic field for photons'' proposed by Stanford University.[2] To realize asymmetric cloaking, we have extended the Stanford's theory to add the concept of ``effective electric field for photons.'' The effective electric and the magnetic field can be generated using a photonc resonator lattice, which is a kind of metamaterial. The Hamiltonian for photons in these fields has a similar form to that of the Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. An incident photon therefore experiences a ``Lorentz-like'' and a ``Coulomb-like'' force and shows asymmetric movement depending of its travelling direction.We show the procedure of designing actual invisibility cloaks using the photonc resonator lattice and confirm their operation with the aid of computer simulation. This work was supported in part by the MEXT; JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers #24246061, #24656046, #25420321, #25420322.

  20. Experimental demonstration of invisible electromagnetic impedance matching cylindrical transformation optics cloak shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingji; Wang, Changxian; Cheng, Xiaodong; Gong, Congcheng; Song, Weili; Yuan, Xujin; Fang, Daining

    2018-04-01

    The realization of an ideal invisible cloak implementing transformation optics is still missing. An impedance matching concept is implanted into transformation optics cloak to generate an impedance matching cloak (IMC) shell. In this work, it is proved that impedance matching structure reduces the cloaking structure’s disturbance to a propagating electromagnetic field and improves its invisibility measured by scattering field intensity. Such a cylindrical IMC shell is designed, fabricated with proposed rounded rectangular split-ring-resonators (RR-SRRs), and experimental measurements show the total scattering field of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinder surrounded by an IMC shell is improved greatly compared to the PEC cylinder showing electromagnetic wave front ripple suppression and a considerable scattering shrinking effect. IMC shell backward scattering field is suppressed down to 7.29%, compared to the previous value of 86.7% due to its impedance matching character, and overall scattering field intensity shrinking is down to 19.3% compared to the previously realized value of 56.4%. Sideward scattering field recorded in the experiment also has a remarkable improvement compared to the PEC cylinder. The impedance matching concept might enlighten the realization of an ideal cloak and other novel electromagnetic cloaking and shielding structures.

  1. Active electromagnetic invisibility cloaking and radiation force cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    This investigation shows that an active emitting electromagnetic (EM) Dirichlet source (i.e., with axial polarization of the electric field) in a homogeneous non-dissipative/non-absorptive medium placed near a perfectly conducting boundary can render total invisibility (i.e. zero extinction cross-section or efficiency) in addition to a radiation force cancellation on its surface. Based upon the Poynting theorem, the mathematical expression for the extinction, radiation and amplification cross-sections (or efficiencies) are derived using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. Moreover, the analysis is extended to compute the self-induced EM radiation force on the active source, resulting from the waves reflected by the boundary. The numerical results predict the generation of a zero extinction efficiency, achieving total invisibility, in addition to a radiation force cancellation which depend on the source size, the distance from the boundary and the associated EM mode order of the active source. Furthermore, an attractive EM pushing force on the active source directed toward the boundary or a repulsive pulling one pointing away from it can arise accordingly. The numerical predictions and computational results find potential applications in the design and development of EM cloaking devices, invisibility and stealth technologies.

  2. Design of the Coordinate Transformation Function for Cylindrical Acoustic Cloaks with a Quantity of Discrete Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li; Wen Ji-Hong; Yu Dian-Long; Lu Zhi-Miao; Wen Xi-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  3. Design of the Coordinate Transformation Function for Cylindrical Acoustic Cloaks with a Quantity of Discrete Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long; Lu, Zhi-Miao; Wen, Xi-Sen

    2014-09-01

    Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers.

  4. An efficient cost function for the optimization of an n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jason V; Collins, Peter J; Coutu, Ronald A Jr

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient cost function for optimizing n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinders. Cost function efficiency is achieved by extracting the expression for the angle independent scatterer contribution of an associated Green's function. Therefore, since this cost function is not a function of angle, accounting for every bistatic angle is not necessary and thus more efficient than other cost functions. With this general and efficient cost function, isotropic cloaked cylinders can be optimized for many layers and material parameters. To demonstrate this, optimized cloaked cylinders made of 10, 20 and 30 equal thickness layers are presented for TE and TM incidence. Furthermore, we study the effect layer thickness has on optimized cloaks by optimizing a 10 layer cloaked cylinder over the material parameters and individual layer thicknesses. The optimized material parameters in this effort do not exhibit the dual nature that is evident in the ideal transformation optics design. This indicates that the inevitable field penetration and subsequent PEC boundary condition at the cylinder must be taken into account for an optimal cloaked cylinder design. Furthermore, a more effective cloaked cylinder can be designed by optimizing both layer thickness and material parameters than by additional layers alone. (paper)

  5. Homogeneous optical cloak constructed with uniform layered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Liu; Luo, Yu

    2011-01-01

    , the majority of the invisibility cloaks reported so far have a spatially varying refractive index which requires complicated design processes. Besides, the size of the hidden object is usually small relative to that of the cloak device. Here we report the experimental realization of a homogenous invisibility...

  6. Level Set-Based Topology Optimization for the Design of an Electromagnetic Cloak With Ferrite Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otomori, Masaki; Yamada, Takayuki; Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    2013-01-01

    . A level set-based topology optimization method incorporating a fictitious interface energy is used to find optimized configurations of the ferrite material. The numerical results demonstrate that the optimization successfully found an appropriate ferrite configuration that functions as an electromagnetic......This paper presents a structural optimization method for the design of an electromagnetic cloak made of ferrite material. Ferrite materials exhibit a frequency-dependent degree of permeability, due to a magnetic resonance phenomenon that can be altered by changing the magnitude of an externally...

  7. Theory and potentials of multi-layered plasmonic covers for multi-frequency cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2008-01-01

    We have recently suggested that suitably designed plasmonic layers may cloak a given object simultaneously at multiple frequencies (Alu and Engheta 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 113901). Here, we extend our theory and fully analyze this possibility, highlighting the potentials of this plasmonic cloaking technique and its fundamental limitations dictated by the passivity and causality of the materials involved. The cloaking mechanism relies on the scattering cancellation properties of plasmonic materials. By exploiting their inherent frequency dispersion, it is possible to reduce the 'visibility' of a given object by several orders of magnitude simultaneously at multiple frequencies, such that any of the particular layers composing the cloak is responsible for noticeable reduction of scattering at each frequency of operation.

  8. Acoustic carpet invisibility cloak with two open windows using multilayered homogeneous isotropic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Chun-Yu; Xiang Zhi-Hai; Cen Zhang-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for designing an open acoustic cloak that can conceal a perturbation on flat ground and simultaneously meet the requirement of communication and matter interchange between the inside and the outside of the cloak. This cloak can be constructed with a multilayered structure and each layer is an isotropic and homogeneous medium. The design scheme consists of two steps: firstly, we apply a conformal coordinate transformation to obtain a quasi-perfect cloak with heterogeneous isotropic material; then, according to the profile of the material distribution, we degenerate this cloak into a multilayered-homogeneous isotropic cloak, which has two open windows with negligible disturbance on its invisibility performance. This may greatly facilitate the fabrication and enhance the applicability of such a carpet-type cloak. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Ultrabroadband elastic cloaking in thin plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-07-10

    Control of waves with metamaterials is of great topical interest, and is fueled by rapid progress in broadband acoustic and electromagnetic cloaks. We propose a design for a cloak to control bending waves propagating in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. This is achieved through homogenization of a multilayered concentric coating filled with piecewise constant isotropic elastic material. Significantly, our cloak displays no phase shift for both backward and forward scattering. To foster experimental efforts, we provide a simplified design of the cloak which is shown to work in a more than two-octave frequency range (30 Hz to 150 Hz) when it consists of 10 layers using only 6 different materials overall. This metamaterial should be easy to manufacture, with potential applications ranging from car industry to anti-earthquake passive systems for smart buildings, depending upon the plate dimensions and wavelengths.

  10. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  11. Pushing, pulling and electromagnetic radiation force cloaking by a pair of conducting cylindrical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2018-02-01

    The present analysis shows that two conducting cylindrical particles illuminated by an axially-polarized electric field of plane progressive waves at arbitrary incidence will attract, repel or become totally cloaked (i.e., invisible to the transfer of linear momentum carried by the incident waves), depending on their sizes, the interparticle distance as well as the angle of incidence of the incident field. Based on the rigorous multipole expansion method and the translational addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions, the electromagnetic (EM) radiation forces arising from multiple scattering effects between a pair of perfectly conducting cylindrical particles of circular cross-sections are derived and computed. An effective incident field on a particular particle is determined first, and used subsequently with its corresponding scattered field to derive the closed-form analytical expressions for the radiation force vector components. The mathematical expressions for the EM radiation force components (i.e. longitudinal and transverse) are exact, and have been formulated in partial-wave series expansions in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance and the expansion coefficients. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two perfectly conducting circular cylinders in a homogeneous nonmagnetic medium of wave propagation. The computations for the dimensionless radiation force functions are performed with particular emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, and the sizes of the particles. Depending on the interparticle distance and angle of incidence, the cylinders yield total neutrality (or invisibility); they experience no force and become unresponsive to the transfer of the EM linear momentum due to multiple scattering cancellation effects. Moreover, pushing or pulling EM forces between the two cylinders arise depending on the interparticle distance, the angle of incidence and their

  12. Enhanced Near-cloak by FSH Lining

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Hongpeng

    2011-01-01

    We consider regularized approximate cloaking for the Helmholtz equation. Various cloaking schemes have been recently proposed and extensively investigated. The existing cloaking schemes in literature are (optimally) within $|\\ln\\rho|^{-1}$ in 2D and $\\rho$ in 3D of the perfect cloaking, where $\\rho$ denotes the regularization parameter. In this work, we develop a cloaking scheme with a well-designed lossy layer right outside the cloaked region that can produce significantly enhanced near-cloa...

  13. Cloaks with multiple invisible regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Zhu, Shouzheng; He, Lianxing; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general method of extending the effective invisible regions for both the shell-like interior cloak and the complementary media exterior cloak, without affecting their original cloaking regions. The proposed method is based on layered spatial mapping instead of the intact mapping. Certain interior or exterior invisible regions can be obtained by properly using a compressed or folded transformation in each space layer. Therefore, the proposal enables the as-designed cloaks to provide multiple invisible regions of different types simultaneously. Thus objects can be hidden in the interior cavity and/or in the exterior space, or even be embedded between the cloaking shells

  14. Enhanced approximate cloaking by optimal change of variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmaier, Roland; Vogelius, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of (passive) cloaking with respect to electromagnetic (or acoustic) sensing is to surround a region of space with a material layer—the cloak—that renders its contents and even the existence of the layer undetectable by such measurements. At least theoretically this can be achieved using the coordinate invariance of the underlying wave equation, through so-called cloaking by mapping. However, a practical realization of the cloaking by mapping schemes discussed in the literature frequently requires the design of highly anisotropic materials with extreme dielectric properties. In this work we consider, in the electrostatic case, a regularized, approximate cloaking by mapping scheme and discuss the problem of optimal choice of radial maps, that determine the conductivity distribution of the cloak. We consider two different optimality criteria: minimal maximal anisotropy and minimal mean anisotropy of this conductivity distribution. Using both criteria we show that it is possible to achieve significantly lower anisotropy (for a prescribed level of invisibility) or significantly lower visibility (for a prescribed level of anisotropy). For example, in two dimensions one may achieve exponentially small visibility with a cloak, that in terms of anisotropy (and lowest and highest conductivity) is no worse than the traditional affine map cloak, which only yields quadratically small visibility. (paper)

  15. Size validity of plasma-metamaterial cloaking monitored by scattering wave in finite-difference time-domain method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bambina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of the cloak-size reduction is investigated numerically by a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. A metallic pole that imitates an antenna is cloaked with an anisotropic and parameter-gradient medium against electromagnetic-wave propagation in microwave range. The cloaking structure is a metamaterial submerged in a plasma confined in a vacuum chamber made of glass. The smooth-permittivity plasma can be compressed in the radial direction, which enables us to decrease the size of the cloak. Theoretical analysis is performed numerically by comparing scattering waves in various cases; there exists a high reduction of the scattering wave when the radius of the cloak is larger than a quarter of one wavelength. This result indicates that the required size of the cloaking layer is more than an object scale in the Rayleigh scattering regime.

  16. A spacetime cloak, or a history editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin W.; Favaro, Alberto; Kinsler, Paul; Boardman, Allan

    2011-02-01

    We introduce a new type of electromagnetic cloak, the spacetime cloak (STC), which conceals events rather than objects. Non-emitting events occurring during a restricted period are never suspected by a distant observer. The cloak works by locally manipulating the speed of light of an initially uniform light distribution, whilst the light rays themselves always follow straight paths. Any 'perfect' spacetime cloak would necessarily rely upon the technology of electromagnetic metamaterials, which has already been shown to be capable of deforming light in ways hitherto unforeseen—to produce, for example, an electromagnetic object cloak. Nevertheless, we show how it is possible to use intensity-dependent refractive indices to construct an approximate STC, an implementation that would enable the distinct signature of successful event cloaking to be observed. Potential demonstrations include systems that apparently violate quantum statistics, 'interrupt-without-interrupt' computation on convergent data channels and the illusion of a Star Trek transporter.

  17. A spacetime cloak, or a history editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, Martin W; Favaro, Alberto; Kinsler, Paul; Boardman, Allan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new type of electromagnetic cloak, the spacetime cloak (STC), which conceals events rather than objects. Non-emitting events occurring during a restricted period are never suspected by a distant observer. The cloak works by locally manipulating the speed of light of an initially uniform light distribution, whilst the light rays themselves always follow straight paths. Any 'perfect' spacetime cloak would necessarily rely upon the technology of electromagnetic metamaterials, which has already been shown to be capable of deforming light in ways hitherto unforeseen—to produce, for example, an electromagnetic object cloak. Nevertheless, we show how it is possible to use intensity-dependent refractive indices to construct an approximate STC, an implementation that would enable the distinct signature of successful event cloaking to be observed. Potential demonstrations include systems that apparently violate quantum statistics, 'interrupt-without-interrupt' computation on convergent data channels and the illusion of a Star Trek transporter

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    coordinate transformations. If the coordinates they conjure up run backwards one gets negative refraction, if they exclude some region of space one makes anything inside invisible [4]. In physics, general relativity has honed the theoretical tools for understanding curved space and curved-coordinate transformations. In transformation optics, general relativity has become a theoretical tool for solving practical engineering problems [4]. What an unorthodox connection! This focus issue represents a snapshot of this rapidly developing research area. It is not restricted to optics or electromagnetism, though. Metamaterials for acoustics also exist and can be applied in ways similar to optical metamaterials. So transformation optics not only attracts an unusual mix of scientists, but also spans a range of applications in optics and beyond. Transformation optics has the potential to transform optics, for example by visualizing invisibility and making materials beyond materials—metamaterials. But before we transgress the boundaries to the hermeneutics of transformation optics [5], let the papers speak for themselves. References [1] Yao J, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wang Y, Sun C, Bartal G, Stacy A M and Zhang X 2008 Science 321 930 [2] Valentine J, Zhang S, Zentgraf T, Ulin-Avila E, Genov D A, Bartal G and Zhang X 2008 Nature 455 376 [3] Schurig D, Mock J J, Justice B J, Cummer S A, Pendry J B, Starr A F and Smith D R 2006 Science 314 977 [4] Leonhardt U and Philbin T G 2006 New J. Phys. 8 247 [5] Sokal A D 1996 Social Text 14(46/47) 217 Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics Contents Transformation optics for the full dielectric electromagnetic cloak and metal-dielectric planar hyperlens D P Gaillot, C Croënne, F Zhang and D Lippens Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments Tomáš Tyc and Ulf Leonhardt Electromagnetic cloaking with canonical spiral inclusions K Guven, E Saenz, R Gonzalo, E Ozbay and S Tretyakov Theory and potentials of multi-layered plasmonic covers for

  19. Design of invisibility cloaks with an open tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Thomas; Yan, Min; Qiu, Min

    2010-12-20

    In this paper we apply the methodology of transformation optics for design of a novel invisibility cloak which can possess an open tunnel. Such a cloak facilitates the insertion (retrieval) of matter into (from) the cloak's interior without significantly affecting the cloak's performance, overcoming the matter exchange bottleneck inherent to most previously proposed cloak designs.We achieve this by applying a transformation which expands a point at the origin in electromagnetic space to a finite area in physical space in a highly anisotropic manner. The invisibility performance of the proposed cloak is verified by using full-wave finite-element simulations.

  20. Minimizing the scattering of a nonmagnetic cloak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Nonmagnetic cloak offers a feasible way to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies using materials with only electric responses. In this letter, we suggest an approximation of the ideal nonmagnetic cloak and quantitatively study its electromagnetic characteristics using a full-wave scattering...

  1. Rigorous analysis of non-magnetic cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Nonmagnetic cloak offers a feasible way to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies using materials with only electric responses. In this letter, we suggest an approximation of the ideal nonmagnetic cloak and quantitatively study its electromagnetic characteristics using a full-wave scattering...... to the surrounding material at the outer boundary. Our analysis also provides the flexibility of reducing the scattering in an arbitrary direction....

  2. A new metamaterial-based wideband rectangular invisibility cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Faruque, M. R. I.

    2018-02-01

    A new metamaterial-based wideband electromagnetic rectangular cloak is being introduced in this study. The metamaterial unit cell shows sharp transmittances in the C- and X-bands and displays wideband negative effective permittivity region there. The metamaterial unit cell was then applied in designing a rectangular-shaped electromagnetic cloak. The scattering reduction technique was adopted for the cloaking operation. The cloak operates in the certain portion of C-and X-bands that covers more than 4 GHz bandwidth region. The experimental results were provided as well for the metamaterial and the cloak.

  3. Local electromagnetic waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikov, V.M.; Vega-Monroy, R.

    1999-01-01

    A dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves localized on a defect layer of a layered superconductor is obtained in the frame of a model which neglects electron hopping between layers but assumes an arbitrary current-current response function within the layers. The defect layer differs from the rest of the layers by density and mass of charge carriers. It is shown that near the critical temperature in the London limit the local mode lies within the superconducting gap and has a wave vector threshold depending on the layered crystal and defect layer parameters. In the case of highly anisotropic layered superconductors, like Bi- or Tl-based high-T c cuprates, the local mode exists within a narrow range of positive variations of the mass and charge carriers. (author)

  4. Electronically cloaked nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenqing

    The concept of electronic cloaking is to design objects invisible to conduction electrons. The approach of electronic cloaking has been recently suggested to design invisible nanoparticle dopants with electronic scattering cross section smaller than 1% of the physical cross section (pi a2), and therefore to enhance the carrier mobility of bulk materials. The proposed nanoparticles have core-shell structures. The dopants are incorporated inside the core, while the shell layer serves both as a spacer to separate the charge carriers from their parent atoms and as a cloaking shell to minimize the scattering cross section of the electrons from the ionized nanoparticles. Thermoelectric materials are usually highly doped to have enough carrier density. Using invisible dopants could achieve larger thermoelectric power factors by enhancing the electronic mobility. Core-shell nanoparticles show an advantage over one-layer nanoparticles, which are proposed in three-dimensional modulation doping. However designing such nanoparticles is not easy as there are too many parameters to be considered. This thesis first shows an approach to design hollow nanoparticles by applying constrains on variables. In the second part, a simple mapping approach is introduced where one can identify possible core-shell particles by comparing the dimensionless parameters of chosen materials with provided maps. In both parts of this work, several designs with realistic materials were made and proven to achieve electronic cloaking. Improvement in the thermoelectric power factor compared to the traditional impurity doping method was demonstrated in several cases.

  5. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  6. A multi-cloak bifunctional device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad; Liu, Yichao; Ma, Yungui

    2015-01-01

    Invisibility cloak has attracted the attention of electromagnetic researchers due to its magical properties and marvelous potential applications in the field of applied physics and engineering. Recently, a multiphysics cloaking has put the new spirit into this field. In this paper, we introduce a device, composed of three shells and each shell works as an invisibility cloak for a specific physical phenomenon. Following this technique, a number of cloaks with different implementation approaches can be proposed for distinct physical phenomena in a single structure. Here, we restrict ourselves for the case of two physical behaviors: thermal and electrical conductivities. This type of multi-cloaking structure can be best used in mechanically designed structures to better control heating and electrical effects.

  7. Do Cloaked Objects Really Scatter Less?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Monticone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the global scattering response of invisibility cloaks over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from static to very high frequencies. Based on linearity, causality, and energy conservation, we show that the total extinction and scattering, integrated over all wavelengths, of any linear, passive, causal, and nondiamagnetic cloak, necessarily increase compared to the uncloaked case. In light of this general principle, we provide a quantitative measure to compare the global performance of different cloaking techniques and we discuss solutions to minimize the global scattering signature of an object using thin, superconducting shells. Our results provide important physical insights on how invisibility cloaks operate and affect the global scattering of an object, suggesting ways to defeat countermeasures aimed at detecting cloaked objects using short impinging pulses.

  8. Arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical invisible cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun; Yu Guanxia; Lin Xianqi; Cheng Qiang; Chin, J Y

    2008-01-01

    Based on the idea of coordinate transformation (Pendry, Schurig and Smith 2006 Science 312 1780), arbitrarily elliptical-cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed. The elliptical cloak, which is composed of inhomogeneous anisotropic metamaterials in an elliptical-shell region, will deflect incoming electromagnetic (EM) waves and guide them to propagate around the inner elliptical region. Such EM waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the elliptical cloak. General formulations of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for arbitrarily elliptical axis ratio k, which can also be used for the circular cloak when k = 1. Hence the elliptical cloaks can make a large range of objects invisible, from round objects (when k approaches 1) to long and thin objects (when k is either very large or very small). We also show that the material parameters in elliptical cloaking are singular at only two points, instead of on the whole inner circle for circular cloaking, which are much easier to be realized in actual applications. Full-wave simulations are given to validate the arbitrarily elliptical cloaking

  9. Fourier analysis: from cloaking to imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Cheng, Qiluan; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-04-01

    Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers.

  10. Fourier analysis: from cloaking to imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kedi; Ping Wang, Guo; Cheng, Qiluan

    2016-01-01

    Regarding invisibility cloaks as an optical imaging system, we present a Fourier approach to analytically unify both Pendry cloaks and complementary media-based invisibility cloaks into one kind of cloak. By synthesizing different transfer functions, we can construct different devices to realize a series of interesting functions such as hiding objects (events), creating illusions, and performing perfect imaging. In this article, we give a brief review on recent works of applying Fourier approach to analysis invisibility cloaks and optical imaging through scattering layers. We show that, to construct devices to conceal an object, no constructive materials with extreme properties are required, making most, if not all, of the above functions realizable by using naturally occurring materials. As instances, we experimentally verify a method of directionally hiding distant objects and create illusions by using all-dielectric materials, and further demonstrate a non-invasive method of imaging objects completely hidden by scattering layers. (review)

  11. A 3D tunable and multi-frequency graphene plasmonic cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of cloaking three-dimensional objects at multi-frequencies in the far-infrared part of the spectrum. The proposed cloaking mechanism exploits graphene layers wrapped around the object to be concealed. Graphene layers

  12. Regular scattering patterns from near-cloaking devices and their implications for invisibility cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocyigit, Ilker; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Hongpeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider invisibility cloaking via the transformation optics approach through a ‘blow-up’ construction. An ideal cloak makes use of singular cloaking material. ‘Blow-up-a-small-region’ construction and ‘truncation-of-singularity’ construction are introduced to avoid the singular structure, however, giving only near-cloaks. The study in the literature is to develop various mechanisms in order to achieve high-accuracy approximate near-cloaking devices, and also from a practical viewpoint to nearly cloak an arbitrary content. We study the problem from a different viewpoint. It is shown that for those regularized cloaking devices, the corresponding scattering wave fields due to an incident plane wave have regular patterns. The regular patterns are both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, the regular wave pattern betrays the location of a cloaking device which is an intrinsic defect due to the ‘blow-up’ construction, and this is particularly the case for the construction by employing a high-loss layer lining. Indeed, our numerical experiments show robust reconstructions of the location, even by implementing the phaseless cross-section data. The construction by employing a high-density layer lining shows a certain promising feature. On the other hand, it is shown that one can introduce an internal point source to produce the canceling scattering pattern to achieve a near-cloak of an arbitrary order of accuracy. (paper)

  13. Optical force on a discrete invisibility cloak in time-dependent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumet, Patrick C.; Zolla, Frederic; Nicolet, Andre; Belkebir, Kamal; Rahmani, Adel

    2011-01-01

    We study, in time domain, the exchange of momentum between an electromagnetic pulse and a three-dimensional, discrete, spherical invisibility cloak. We find that a discrete cloak, initially at rest, would experience an electromagnetic force due to the pulse but would acquire zero net momentum and net displacement. On the other hand, we find that while the cloak may manage to conceal an object and shroud it from the electromagnetic forces associated with the pulse, the cloak itself can experience optomechanical stress on a scale much larger than the object would in the absence of the cloak. We also consider the effects of material dispersion and losses on the electromagnetic forces experienced by the cloak and show that they lead to a transfer of momentum from the pulse to the cloak.

  14. Enhanced approximate cloaking by SH and FSH lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingzhi; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Hongpeng

    2012-01-01

    We consider approximate cloaking from a regularization viewpoint introduced in Kohn et al (2008 Inverse Problems 24 015016) for EIT and further investigated in Kohn et al (2010 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 63 0973–1016) and Liu (2009 Inverse Problems 25 045006) for the Helmholtz equation. The cloaking schemes given by Kohn et al and Liu are shown to be (optimally) within |ln ρ| −1 in 2D and ρ in 3D of perfect cloaking, where ρ denotes the regularization parameter. In this paper, we show that by employing a sound-hard layer right outside the cloaked region, one could (optimally) achieve ρ N in R N , N ≥ 2, which significantly enhances the near-cloak. We then develop a cloaking scheme by making use of a lossy layer with well-chosen parameters. The lossy-layer cloaking scheme is shown to possess the same cloaking performance as the one with a sound-hard layer. Moreover, it is shown that the lossy layer could be taken as a finite realization of the sound-hard layer. Numerical experiments are also presented to assess the cloaking performances of all the cloaking schemes for comparisons. (paper)

  15. Material parameters characterization for arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal invisible cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qun; Zhang Kuang; Meng Fanyi; Li Lewei

    2009-01-01

    Arbitrary N-sided regular polygonal cylindrical cloaks are proposed and designed based on the coordinate transformation theory. First, the general expressions of constitutive tensors of the N-sided regular polygonal cylindrical cloaks are derived, then there are some full-wave simulations of the cloaks that are composed of inhomogeneous and anisotropic metamaterials, which will bend incoming electromagnetic waves and guide them to propagate around the inner region; such electromagnetic waves will return to their original propagation directions without distorting the waves outside the polygonal cloak. The results of full-wave simulations validate the general expressions of constitutive tensors of the N-sided regular polygonal cylindrical cloaks we derived.

  16. Coordinate transformations and matter waves cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, G.R.; Moghaddam, A.G.; Mohammadkhani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient tool to control wave propagation inside the materials. Using the coordinate transformation approach, we study invisibility cloaks with sphere, cylinder and ellipsoid structures for electronic waves propagation. The underlying physics behind this investigation is the fact that Schrödinger equation with position dependent mass tensor and potentials has a covariant form which follows the coordinate transformation. Using this technique we obtain the exact spatial form of the mass tensor and potentials for a variety of cloaks with different shapes. - Highlights: • Invisibility cloaks for matter waves with three different geometries. • Exact analytical form of the effective mass tensor and potential. • Analogy between cloaking for quantum mechanical waves with classical electromagnetic waves. • Possible experimental realization in engineered semiconducting structures.

  17. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)

  18. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.

  19. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-01-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects. (paper)

  20. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-08-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects.

  1. A two-component NZRI metamaterial based rectangular cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Sunbeam Islam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new two-component, near zero refractive index (NZRI metamaterial is presented for electromagnetic rectangular cloaking operation in the microwave range. In the basic design a pi-shaped, metamaterial was developed and its characteristics were investigated for the two major axes (x and z-axis wave propagation through the material. For the z-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth and for the x-axis wave propagation; it exhibits more than 1 GHz bandwidth of NZRI property. The metamaterial was then utilized in designing a rectangular cloak where a metal cylinder was cloaked perfectly in the C-band area of microwave regime. The experimental result was provided for the metamaterial and the cloak and these results were compared with the simulated results. This is a novel and promising design for its two-component NZRI characteristics and rectangular cloaking operation in the electromagnetic paradigm.

  2. Elastodynamic cloaking and field enhancement for soft spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-11-01

    We propose a spherical cloak described by a non-singular asymmetric elasticity tensor {C} depending upon a small parameter η, that defines the softness of a region one would like to conceal from elastodynamic waves. By varying η, we generate a class of soft spheres dressed by elastodynamic cloaks, which are shown to considerably reduce the scattering of the soft spheres. Importantly, such cloaks also provide some wave protection except for a countable set of frequencies, for which some large elastic field enhancement can be observed within the soft spheres. Through an investigation of trapped modes in elasticity, we supply a good approximation of such Mie-type resonances by some transcendental equation. Our results, unlike previous studies that focused merely on the invisibility aspects, shed light on potential pitfalls of elastodynamic cloaks for earthquake protection designed via geometric transforms: a seismic cloak needs to be designed in such a way that its inner resonances differ from eigenfrequencies of the building one wishes to protect. In order to circumvent this downfall of field enhancement inside the cloaked area, we introduce a novel generation of cloaks, named here, mixed cloaks. Such mixed cloaks consist of a shell that detours incoming waves, hence creating an invisibility region, and of a perfectly matched layer (PML, located at the inner boundary of the cloaks) that absorbs residual wave energy in such a way that aforementioned resonances in the soft sphere are strongly attenuated. The designs of mixed cloaks with a non-singular elasticity tensor combined with an inner PML and non-vanishing density bring seismic cloaks one step closer to a practical implementation. Note in passing that the concept of mixed cloaks also applies in the case of singular cloaks and can be translated in other wave areas for a similar purpose (i.e. to smear down inner resonances within the invisibility region).

  3. Illusions and Cloaks for Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. M.; Valiente-Kroon, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hao, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Ever since the inception of Transformation Optics (TO), new and exciting ideas have been proposed in the field of electromagnetics and the theory has been modified to work in such fields as acoustics and thermodynamics. The most well-known application of this theory is to cloaking, but another equally intriguing application of TO is the idea of an illusion device. Here, we propose a general method to transform electromagnetic waves between two arbitrary surfaces. This allows a flat surface to reproduce the scattering behaviour of a curved surface and vice versa, thereby giving rise to perfect optical illusion and cloaking devices, respectively. The performance of the proposed devices is simulated using thin effective media with engineered material properties. The scattering of the curved surface is shown to be reproduced by its flat analogue (for illusions) and vice versa for cloaks.

  4. Gravitational lensing as a mechanism for effective cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippett, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    In light of the surge in popularity of electromagnetic cloaking devices, we consider whether it is possible to use general relativity to cloak a volume of spacetime through gravitational lensing. We explore the cloaking properties of a spacetime through a ray-tracing procedure, wherein we plot the spatial trajectories of a congruence of initially parallel null geodesics as they cross the geometry. In this context, a cloaking device would cause all of the null geodesics in an initially parallel congruence incident upon the cloaking geometry to circumnavigate an internal region, and as the geodesics emerge from the geometry, they regain their original configuration. Thus, if gravitational lensing were used as a mechanism for cloaking, the internal region would be causally isolated from the external spacetime. For this reason, we propose an effective cloaking geometry wherein (only) most of ingoing null geodesics will splay away from a central region, and then regain their initial configuration as they exit the geometry. Thus, a compact object sitting within the effective cloaking geometry will impede a smaller cross section of the null congruence, and therefore appear optically smaller from all sides. We build our effective cloaking geometry by connecting a Minkowski spacetime exterior to a spherically symmetric, curved spacetime along a timelike hypersurface of constant radius using the Israel junction conditions. The junction conditions require a shell of matter of infinitesimal width confined to the junction surface. The matter required to build such a spacetime must violate the null energy condition.

  5. Diffusive-light invisibility cloak for transient illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B.; Beruete, M.; Martínez, A.; García-Meca, C.

    2016-12-01

    Invisibility in a diffusive-light-scattering medium has been recently demonstrated by employing a scattering-cancellation core-shell cloak. Unlike nondiffusive cloaks, such a device can be simultaneously macroscopic, broadband, passive, polarization independent, and omnidirectional. Unfortunately, it has been verified that this cloak, as well as more sophisticated ones based on transformation optics, fail under pulsed illumination, invalidating their use for a variety of applications. Here, we introduce a different approach based on unimodular transformations that enables the construction of unidirectional diffusive-light cloaks exhibiting a perfect invisibility effect, even under transient conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate that a polygonal cloak can extend this functionality to multiple directions with a nearly ideal behavior, while preserving all other features. We propose and numerically verify a simple cloak realization based on a layered stack of two isotropic materials. The studied devices have several applications not addressable by any of the other cloaks proposed to date, including shielding from pulse-based detection techniques, cloaking undesired scattering elements in time-of-flight imaging or high-speed communication systems for diffusive environments, and building extreme optical security features. The discussed cloaking strategy could also be applied to simplify the implementation of thermal cloaks.

  6. Interior acoustic cloak

    OpenAIRE

    Wael Akl; A. Baz

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which a...

  7. Coordinate transformations make perfect invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wei; Yan Min; Ruan Zhichao; Qiu Min

    2008-01-01

    By investigating wave properties at cloak boundaries, invisibility cloaks with arbitrary shape constructed by general coordinate transformations are confirmed to be perfectly invisible to the external incident wave. The differences between line transformed cloaks and point transformed cloaks are discussed. The fields in the cloak medium are found analytically to be related to the fields in the original space via coordinate transformation functions. At the exterior boundary of the cloak, it is shown that no reflection is excited even though the permittivity and permeability do not always have a perfectly matched layer form, whereas at the inner boundary, no reflection is excited either, and in particular no field can penetrate into the cloaked region. However, for the inner boundary of any line transformed cloak, the permittivity and permeability in a specific tangential direction are always required to be infinitely large. Furthermore, the field discontinuity at the inner boundary always exists; the surface current is induced to make this discontinuity self-consistent. A point transformed cloak does not experience such problems. The tangential fields at the inner boundary are all zero, implying that no field discontinuity exists

  8. Static Magnetic Cloak without a Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing

    2018-05-01

    Similar to its electromagnetic counterpart, magnetic cloaking also has very important technological applications. However, the traditional method to build a static magnetic cloak requires the use of superconducting materials as the diamagnetic component, which seriously limits the practical potential because of the cryogenic condition. We show that a diamagnetic active current boundary combined with a high-permeability magnetic inner shell (MIS) can be designed to solve this problem, rendering an ideal magnetic cloaking effect at zero frequency. We first theoretically prove that a current boundary could magnetically behave as a superconductor to external observers. Based on this phenomena, we introduce a high-permeability MIS made of magnetically ultrasoft metallic sheets (permeability μ >103 ) and experimentally prove that the bilayer combination can exactly balance out the disturbance to the external probing field and, meanwhile, have a large invisible inner space. We also show that the active boundary currents can be accordingly configured to overcome the permeability and frequency band limits, leading to a robust cloak over the entire quasistatic frequency region. Our work creates an efficient way to circumvent the traditional limits of metamaterials to build magnetic cloaks for ultralow frequencies. The active-passive hybrid approach could be generally extended to yield other artificial magnetic devices or systems as well.

  9. Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Zheng, Bin; Shen, Lian; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Zhang, Baile

    2013-10-01

    A cloak that can hide living creatures from sight is a common feature of mythology but still remains unrealized as a practical device. To preserve the wave phase, the previous cloaking solution proposed by Pendry and colleagues required transformation of the electromagnetic space around the hidden object in such a way that the rays bending around the object inside the cloak region have to travel faster than those passing it by. This difficult phase preservation requirement is the main obstacle for building a broadband polarization-insensitive cloak for large objects. Here we propose a simplified version of Pendry’s cloak by abolishing the requirement for phase preservation, as it is irrelevant for observation using incoherent natural light with human eyes, which are phase and polarization insensitive. This allows for a cloak design on large scales using commonly available materials. We successfully demonstrate the cloaking of living creatures, a cat and a fish, from the eye.

  10. Interior acoustic cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Akl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.

  11. Collective electromagnetic mode in layered conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhfel'd, V.M.; Peschanskij, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the frames of the Landau theory we consider the transverse zero-sound wave in a single-component charged Fermi-liquid with the quasi-two-dimensional electron energy spectrum. In such media, unlike conventional metals, the electromagnetic wave propagation along the weak conductivity direction is possible even at low intensity of the Fermi-liquid interaction. We find the field distribution in a sample, calculate the wave impedance and discuss the possibility of observation of the effect under the pulse condition

  12. Unconventional thermal cloak hiding an object outside the cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    All the thermal cloaks reported in the literature can be used to thermally hide an object inside the cloak. However, a common limitation of this kind of thermal cloaks is that the cloaked object cannot feel the external heat flow since it is located inside the cloak; thus we call these cloaks “conventional thermal cloaks”. Here we manage to overcome this limitation by exploiting a class of unconventional thermal cloaks that enable the cloaked object to feel the external heat flow. Our finite-element simulations in two dimensions show the desired cloaking effect. The underlying mechanism originates from the complementary effect of thermal metamaterials with negative thermal conductivities. This work suggests a different method to design thermal devices where heat conduction can be controlled at will.

  13. Spherical cloaking using nonlinear transformations for improved segmentation into concentric isotropic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Li; Zhang, Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian; Johnson, Steven G; Joannopoulos, John D

    2009-08-03

    Two novel classes of spherical invisibility cloaks based on nonlinear transformation have been studied. The cloaking characteristics are presented by segmenting the nonlinear transformation based spherical cloak into concentric isotropic homogeneous coatings. Detailed investigations of the optimal discretization (e.g., thickness control of each layer, nonlinear factor, etc.) are presented for both linear and nonlinear spherical cloaks and their effects on invisibility performance are also discussed. The cloaking properties and our choice of optimal segmentation are verified by the numerical simulation of not only near-field electric-field distribution but also the far-field radar cross section (RCS).

  14. Acoustic invisibility cloaks of arbitrary shapes for complex background media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2016-04-01

    We report on the theoretical investigation of the acoustic cloaks working in complex background media in this paper. The constitutive parameters of arbitrary-shape cloaks are derived based on the transformation acoustic theory and coordinate transformation technique. The detailed analysis of boundaries conditions and potential applications of the cloaks are also presented in our work. To overcome the difficulty of achieving the materials with ideal parameters in nature, concentric alternating layered isotropic materials is adopted to approximate the required properties of the cloak. Theoretical design and excellent invisibility are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The inhomogeneous medium and arbitrary-shape acoustic cloaks grow closer to real application and may be a new hot spot in future.

  15. A 3D tunable and multi-frequency graphene plasmonic cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of cloaking three-dimensional objects at multi-frequencies in the far-infrared part of the spectrum. The proposed cloaking mechanism exploits graphene layers wrapped around the object to be concealed. Graphene layers are doped via a variable external voltage difference permitting continuous tuning of the cloaking frequencies. Particularly, two configurations are investigated: (i) Only one graphene layer is used to suppress the scattering from a dielectric sphere. (ii) Several of these layers biased at different gate voltages are used to achieve a multi-frequency cloak. These frequencies can be set independently. The proposed cloak\\'s functionality is verified by near- and far-field computations. By considering geometry and material parameters that are realizable by practical experiments, we contribute to the development of graphene based plasmonic applications that may find use in disruptive photonic technologies. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  16. A unidirectional acoustic cloak for multilayered background media with homogeneous metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The acoustic cloak, which can make an object hard to detect acoustically in a homogeneous background, has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. The inhomogeneous background media were considered in this paper. The relative constitutive parameters were derived for acoustic cloaks working in multilayered media. And a unidirectional acoustic cloak for layered background media was proposed, designed and implemented successfully in a wide frequency range. In water and NaCl aqueous solution, the acoustic cloak was designed and realized with homogeneous metamaterials which were composed of steel and porous materials. The effective parameters of the unit cells of the cloak were determined by using the effective medium theory. Numerical results demonstrated excellent cloaking performance and showed that such a device could be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of an invisibility cloak in inhomogeneous backgrounds.

  17. A unidirectional acoustic cloak for multilayered background media with homogeneous metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic cloak, which can make an object hard to detect acoustically in a homogeneous background, has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. The inhomogeneous background media were considered in this paper. The relative constitutive parameters were derived for acoustic cloaks working in multilayered media. And a unidirectional acoustic cloak for layered background media was proposed, designed and implemented successfully in a wide frequency range. In water and NaCl aqueous solution, the acoustic cloak was designed and realized with homogeneous metamaterials which were composed of steel and porous materials. The effective parameters of the unit cells of the cloak were determined by using the effective medium theory. Numerical results demonstrated excellent cloaking performance and showed that such a device could be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of an invisibility cloak in inhomogeneous backgrounds. (paper)

  18. Analytical Solution for Elliptical Cloaks Based on The Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the elliptical dielectric cylinder which is covered with FSS cloak is considered. Frequency selective surface cloak which Alu named it mantle cloak is one of the recent techniques for cloaking. In this method an appropriate FSS can act as cloaking device for suppressing  the scattering of object  in the desired frequency. With using this method the dimension of the cloaks is extremely reduced. By this proposed structure, the RCS of elliptical cylinder  is reduced about 10-20 dB and designed cloak has an appropriate performance.  The analytical solution for the wave in each layer is presented and with using simulation, the electric field and the scattering pattern has been drawn.

  19. Acoustic cloaking in two dimensions: a feasible approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-06-15

    This work proposes an acoustic structure feasible to engineer that accomplishes the requirements of acoustic cloaking design recently introduced by Cummer and Schurig (2007 New J. Phys. 9 45). The structure, which consists of a multilayered composite made of two types of isotropic acoustic metamaterials, exactly matches the conditions for the acoustic cloaking. It is also shown that the isotropic metamaterials needed can be made of sonic crystals containing two types of material cylinders, whose elastic parameters should be properly chosen in order to satisfy (in the homogenization limit) the acoustic properties under request. In contrast to electromagnetic cloaking, the structure here proposed verifies the acoustic cloaking in a wide range of wavelengths; its performance is guaranteed for any wavelength above a certain cutoff defined by the homogenization limit of the sonic crystal employed in its fabrication.

  20. Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perczel, Janos; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tyc, Tomas, E-mail: jp394@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2 and Faculty of Informatics, Botanicka 68a, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needs media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.

  1. Broadband cloaking using composite dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Bing Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel cloaking structure that is able to make a metallic block invisible in a metallic waveguide. Such a cloak is made up of a stack of commonly used dielectric slabs. We carry out the numerical simulation and observe the detour of the vector Poynting power through the cloak. Moreover, the experiment is conducted for measuring the scattering characteristics including the reflection and transmission coefficients. The great improvement in the transmission coefficient in a broad bandwidth after cloaking is demonstrated. Significantly, the theory of mode conversion is developed for explaining the cloaking phenomenon.

  2. Cloaking of 2D particle geometries in a surface medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulos, A., E-mail: Aris.Alexopoulos@dsto.defence.gov.au [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Yau, K.S.B. [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia)

    2013-06-17

    We theoretically examine the cloaking condition for two-dimensional particles with varying geometry embedded inside a surface medium. General solutions are obtained for multi-layer particle configurations with either all positive or partially negative constitutive parameters respectively. Cloaking of particle geometries that are large relative to the incident wavelength is demonstrated. Theoretical predictions are compared to full-wave numerical simulations for arrays of particles consisting of different geometries.

  3. Invisibility and Cloaking: Origins, Present, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Monticone, Francesco; Alù, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The development of metamaterials, i.e., artificially structured materials that interact with waves in unconventional ways, has revolutionized our ability to manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves and their interaction with matter. One of the most exciting applications of metamaterial science is related to the possibility of totally suppressing the scattering of an object using an invisibility cloak. Here, we review the available methods to make an object undetectable to electromagnetic waves, and we highlight the outstanding challenges that need to be addressed in order to obtain a fully functional coating capable of suppressing the total scattering of an object. Our outlook discusses how, while passive linear cloaks are fundamentally limited in terms of bandwidth of operation and overall scattering suppression, active and/or nonlinear cloaks hold the promise to overcome, at least partially, some of these limitations.

  4. A hybrid Scatter/Transform cloaking model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Licht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Scatter/Transform cloak is developed that combines the light bending of refraction characteristic of a Transform cloak with the scatter cancellation characteristic of a Scatter cloak. The hybrid cloak incorporates both Transform’s variable index of refraction with modified linear intrusions to maximize the Scatter cloak effect. Scatter/Transform improved the scattering cross-section of cloaking in a 2-dimensional space to 51.7% compared to only 39.6% or 45.1% respectively with either Scatter or Transform alone. Metamaterials developed with characteristics based on the new ST hybrid cloak will exhibit superior cloaking capabilities.

  5. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak. (paper)

  6. Experimental verification of free-space singular boundary conditions in an invisibility cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiannan; Gao, Fei; Song, Zhengyong; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Youming; Chen, Huanyang; Zhang, Baile

    2016-04-01

    A major issue in invisibility cloaking, which caused intense mathematical discussions in the past few years but still remains physically elusive, is the plausible singular boundary conditions associated with the singular metamaterials at the inner boundary of an invisibility cloak. The perfect cloaking phenomenon, as originally proposed by Pendry et al for electromagnetic waves, cannot be treated as physical before a realistic inner boundary of a cloak is demonstrated. Although a recent demonstration has been done in a waveguide environment, the exotic singular boundary conditions should apply to a general environment as in free space. Here we fabricate a metamaterial surface that exhibits the singular boundary conditions and demonstrate its performance in free space. Particularly, the phase information of waves reflected from this metamaterial surface is explicitly measured, confirming the singular responses of boundary conditions for an invisibility cloak.

  7. Grating-Coupled Waveguide Cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia-Fu; Qu Shao-Bo; Ma Hua; Wang Cong-Min; Wang Xin-Hua; Zhou Hang; Xu Zhuo; Xia Song

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a grating-coupled waveguide (GCW), a new strategy for realizing EM cloaking is presented. Using metallic grating, incident waves are firstly coupled into the effective waveguide and then decoupled into free space behind, enabling EM waves to pass around the obstacle. Phase compensation in the waveguide keeps the wave-front shape behind the obstacle unchanged. Circular, rectangular and triangular cloaks are presented to verify the robustness of the GCW cloaking. Electric field animations and radar cross section (RCS) comparisons convincingly demonstrate the cloaking effect

  8. Two-dimensional arbitrarily shaped acoustic cloaks composed of homogeneous parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic cloaking is an important application of acoustic metamaterials. Although the topic has received much attention, there are a number of areas where contributions are needed. In this paper, a design method for producing acoustic cloaks with arbitrary shapes that are composed of homogeneous parts is presented. The cloak is divided into sections, each of which, in turn, is further divided into two parts, followed by the application of transformation acoustics to derive the required properties for cloaking. With the proposed mapping relations, the properties of each part of the cloak are anisotropic but homogeneous, which can be realized using two alternating layers of homogeneous and isotropic materials. A hexagonal and an irregular cloak are presented as design examples. The full wave simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics finite element software show that the cloaks function well at reducing reflections and shadows. The variation of the cloak properties is investigated as a function of three important geometric parameters used in the transformations. A balance can be found between cloaking performance and materials properties that are physically realizable.

  9. Invisibility Cloaking Based on Geometrical Optics for Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.; Oura, M.; Taoda, T.

    2013-06-01

    Optical cloaking has been one of unattainable dreams and just a subject in fiction until recently. Several different approaches to cloaking have been proposed and demonstrated: stealth technology, active camouflage and transformation optics. The last one would be the most formal approach modifying electromagnetic field around an object to be cloaked with metamaterials. While cloaking based on transformation optics, though valid only at single frequency, is experimentally demonstrated in microwave region, its operation in visible spectrum is still distant from realisation mainly owing to difficulty in fabricating metamaterial structure whose elements are much smaller than wavelength of light. Here we show that achromatic optical cloaking in visible spectrum is possible with the mere principle based on geometrical optics. In combining a pair of polarising beam splitters and right-angled prisms, rays of light to be obstructed by an object can make a detour to an observer, while unobstructed rays go straight through two polarising beam splitters. What is observed eventually through the device is simply background image as if nothing exists in between.

  10. On three-dimensional spherical acoustic cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia

    2011-01-01

    Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the design of acoustic metamaterials, which are materials engineered at the subwavelength scale in order to mimic the parameters in wave equations. The design of the acoustic cloaking is based on the property of equations being invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e. a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a variation of the material parameters in the original space. In this paper, the sound invisibility performance is discussed for spherical cloaks. The original domain consists of alternating concentric layers made from piezoelectric ceramics and epoxy resin, following a triadic Cantor sequence. The spatial compression, obtained by applying the concave-down transformation, leads to an equivalent domain with an inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the material parameters.

  11. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Richard E.; Hudson, Mary K.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Anderson, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a study of the theoretical properties of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves which occur in the plasma depletion layer are presented. The analysis assumes a homogeneous plasma with the characteristics which were measured by the AMPTE/CCE satellite at 1450-1501 UT on October 5, 1984. Waves were observed in the Pc 1 frequency range below the hydrogen gyrofrequency, and these waves are identified as EMIC waves. The higher-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the H(+) ions, while the lower-frequency instability is driven by the temperature anisotropy of the He(2+) ions. It is argued that the higher-frequency waves will have k roughly parallel to B(0) and will be left-hand polarized, while the lower frequency wave band will have k oblique to B(0) and will be linearly polarized, in agreement with observations.

  12. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  13. Temperature-Controlled Chameleonlike Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruiguang; Xiao, Zongqi; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Fuli; Meng, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji; Fan, Yuancheng; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Nian-Hai; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2017-01-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on transformation optics has brought about unlimited space for reverie. However, the design and fabrication of transformation-optics-based cloaks still remain fairly challenging because of the complicated, even extreme, material prescriptions, including its meticulously engineered anisotropy, inhomogeneity and singularity. And almost all the state-of-the-art cloaking devices work within a narrow and invariable frequency band. Here, we propose a novel mechanism for all-dielectric temperature-controllable cloaks. A prototype device was designed and fabricated with SrTiO3 ferroelectric cuboids as building blocks, and its cloaking effects were successfully demonstrated, including its frequency-agile invisibility by varying temperature. It revealed that the predesignated cloaking device based on our proposed strategy could be directly scaled in dimensions to operate at different frequency regions, without the necessity for further efforts of redesign. Our work opens the door towards the realization of tunable cloaking devices for various practical applications and provides a simple strategy to readily extend the cloaking band from microwave to terahertz regimes without the need for reconfiguration.

  14. Temperature-Controlled Chameleonlike Cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiguang Peng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Invisibility cloaking based on transformation optics has brought about unlimited space for reverie. However, the design and fabrication of transformation-optics-based cloaks still remain fairly challenging because of the complicated, even extreme, material prescriptions, including its meticulously engineered anisotropy, inhomogeneity and singularity. And almost all the state-of-the-art cloaking devices work within a narrow and invariable frequency band. Here, we propose a novel mechanism for all-dielectric temperature-controllable cloaks. A prototype device was designed and fabricated with SrTiO_{3} ferroelectric cuboids as building blocks, and its cloaking effects were successfully demonstrated, including its frequency-agile invisibility by varying temperature. It revealed that the predesignated cloaking device based on our proposed strategy could be directly scaled in dimensions to operate at different frequency regions, without the necessity for further efforts of redesign. Our work opens the door towards the realization of tunable cloaking devices for various practical applications and provides a simple strategy to readily extend the cloaking band from microwave to terahertz regimes without the need for reconfiguration.

  15. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation...

  16. All-dielectric invisibility cloaks made of BaTiO3-loaded polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Di; Rajab, Khalid Z; Hao Yang; Kallos, Efthymios; Tang, Wenxuan; Argyropoulos, Christos; Piao Yongzhe; Yang Shoufeng

    2011-01-01

    Transformation optics has led the way in the development of electromagnetic invisibility cloaks from science fiction to engineering practice. Invisibility cloaks have been demonstrated over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with a variety of different fabrication techniques. However, all previous schemes have relied on the use of metamaterials consisting of arrays of sub-wavelength inclusions. We report on the first cloaking structure made of a high-κ dielectric-loaded foam mixture. A polyurethane foam mixed with different ratios of barium titanate is used to produce the required range of permittivities, and the invisibility cloak is demonstrated to work for all incident angles over a wide range of microwave frequencies. This method will greatly facilitate the development and large-scale manufacture of a wide range of transformation optics-based structures. (paper)

  17. Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaladze, T.D.; Tsamalashvili, L.V.; Kaladze, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves. -- Highlights: ► Existence of electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the ionospheric E-layer is shown. ► Electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is described. ► Appearance of the new dispersive Alfven waves is shown.

  18. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Material parameter equation for rotating elliptical spherical cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Qu, Shao-Bo; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie-Qiu; Wang, Jia-Fu

    2009-01-01

    By using the coordinate transformation method, we have deduced the material parameter equation for rotating elliptical spherical cloaks and carried out simulation as well. The results indicate that the rotating elliptical spherical cloaking shell, which is made of meta-materials whose permittivity and permeability are governed by the equation deduced in this paper, can achieve perfect invisibility by excluding electromagnetic fields from the internal region without disturbing any external field.

  19. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Climente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  20. Coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media : Theory, Modeling, and Interferometric Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobbe, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
    1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
    2. Investigate the potential of

  1. Parabolic transformation cloaks for unbounded and bounded cloaking of matter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, De-Hone

    2014-01-01

    Parabolic quantum cloaks with unbounded and bounded invisible regions are presented with the method of transformation design. The mass parameters of particles for perfect cloaking are shown to be constant along the parabolic coordinate axes of the cloaking shells. The invisibility performance of the cloaks is inspected from the viewpoints of waves and probability currents. The latter shows the controllable characteristic of a probability current by a quantum cloak. It also provides us with a simpler and more efficient way of exhibiting the performance of a quantum cloak without the solutions of the transformed wave equation. Through quantitative analysis of streamline structures in the cloaking shell, one defines the efficiency of the presented quantum cloak in the situation of oblique incidence. The cloaking models presented here give us more choices for testing and applying quantum cloaking.

  2. Design and analysis of gradient index metamaterial-based cloak with wide bandwidth and physically realizable material parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Mahesh Singh; Rajput, Archana; Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    2018-04-01

    A cloak based on gradient index metamaterial (GIM) is proposed. Here, the GIM is used, for conversion of propagating waves into surface waves and vice versa, to get the cloaking effect. The cloak is made of metamaterial consisting of four supercells with each supercell possessing the linear spatial variation of permittivity and permeability. The spatial variation of material parameters in supercells allows the conversion of propagating waves into surface waves and vice versa, hence results in reduction of electromagnetic signature of the object. To facilitate the practical implementation of the cloak, continuous spatial variation of permittivity and/or permeability, in each supercell, is discretized into seven segments and it is shown that there is not much deviation in cloaking performance of discretized cloak as compared to its continuous counterpart. The crucial advantage, of the proposed cloaks, is that the material parameters are isotropic and in physically realizable range. Furthermore, the proposed cloaks have been shown to possess bandwidth of the order of 190% which is a significantly improved performance compared to the recently published literature.

  3. Design and numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of linear anode layer ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lisheng; Tang Deli; Cheng Changming

    2006-01-01

    The principle of anode layer ion source for etching, pre-cleaning and ion beam assisted deposition was described. The influence of the magnetic field on the performance of anode layer ion source was analyzed. Design of the magnetic loop for the linear anode layer ion source was given. The electromagnetic field distribution of the ion source was simulated by means of ANSYS code and the simulation results were in agreement with experimental ones. The numerical simulation results of the electromagnetic field are useful for improving the anode layer ion source. (authors)

  4. Metasurface Cloaks for Large Cylindrical Cluster Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Yakovlev, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigate the performance of metasurfaces used for cloaking of cluster configurations formed by different arrangements of multiple dielectric cylinders and excited by an electric line source. While a suitably designed metasurface can be used to effectively cloak isolated electrically...... small cylinders, we demonstrate that even electrically large clusters of such particles can be cloaked by covering its constituent cylinders with the metasurface cloaks. This holds for densely packed cylinders due to significantly reduced coupling by the presence of the cloaks. The results may...

  5. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. (review article)

  6. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  7. An attenuation Layer for Electromagnetic Shielding in X- Band Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Zaroushani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled exposure to X-band frequency leads to health damage. One of the principles of radiation protection is shielding. But, conventional shielding materials have disadvantages. Therefore, studies of novel materials, as an alternative to conventional shielding materials, are required to obtain new electromagnetic shielding material. Therefore, this study investigated the electromagnetic shielding of two component epoxy thermosetting resin for the X - band frequency with workplace approach. Two components of epoxy resin mixed according to manufacturing instruction with the weight ratio that was 100:10 .Epoxy plates fabricated in three different thicknesses (2, 4 and 6mm and shielding effectiveness measured by Vector Network Analyzer. Then, shielding effectiveness measured by the scattering parameters.The results showed that 6mm thickness of epoxy had the highest and 2mm had the lowest average of shielding effectiveness in X-band frequency that is 4.48 and 1.9 dB, respectively. Also, shielding effectiveness increased by increasing the thickness. But this increasing is useful up to 4mm. Percentage shielding effectiveness of attenuation for 6, 4 and 2mm thicknesses is 64.35%, 63.31% and 35.40%. Also, attenuation values for 4mm and 6mm thicknesses at 8.53 GHz and 8.52 GHz frequency are 77.15% and 82.95%, respectively, and can be used as favourite shields for the above frequency. 4mm-Epoxy is a suitable candidate for shielding application in X-band frequency range but, in the lower section, 6mm thickness is recommended. Finely, the shielding matrix can be used for selecting the proper thickness for electromagnetic shielding in X- Band frequency.

  8. Nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the GHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchea, M.; Tudose, I. V.; Tzagkarakis, G.; Kenanakis, G.; Katharakis, M.; Drakakis, E.; Koudoumas, E.

    2015-10-01

    We report on preliminary results regarding the applicability of nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the frequency range of 4-20 GHz. Various combinations of materials were employed including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), polyaniline, graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes, Cu nanoparticles and Poly(vinyl alcohol). As shown, paint-like nanocomposite layers consisting of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline PEDOT:PSS and Poly(vinyl alcohol) can offer quite effective electromagnetic shielding, similar or even better than that of commercial products, the response strongly depending on their thickness and resistivity.

  9. Acoustic cloak/anti-cloak device with realizable passive/active metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huijie; Wen Jihong; Yu Dianlong; Cai Li; Wen Xisen; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing the coordinate transformation method, together with exchange of variables between Maxwell's equations and the acoustic equations with axial-invariance in cylindrical coordinates, the acoustic parameters (anisotropic density and scalar bulk modulus) for an ideal cloak and an ideal anti-cloak are obtained. An anti-cloak allows the inside object to ‘see’ outside, but to be invisible from outside; whereas a cloak is invisible from outside, but ‘blind’ from inside. Utilizing a scattering algorithm developed in this paper, the pressure field calculation of the cloak/anti-cloak is performed and the concepts and characteristics of the acoustic cloak/anti-cloak are revisited. To be more easily achievable experimentally, a multilayered cloak/anti-cloak model with homogeneous isotropic materials is introduced, and its corresponding pressure distributions are calculated. Also, the total scattering cross-section curves for the multilayered cloak and anti-cloak over a certain frequency range are presented and compared. Finally, an active acoustic metamaterial made up of piezo-diaphragm cavity arrays is designed for the cloak/anti-cloak. Taking into account the coupling between adjacent cavity cells, a multi-control strategy for piezo-diaphragm cavity arrays is exploited, rendering possible wide ranges of effective densities and effective bulk moduli (or acoustic speeds), or even double-negative transformation medium (i.e. both density and bulk modulus parameters are negative). With such sets of active acoustic metamaterials, the cloak and anti-cloak may become both theoretically and experimentally realizable. (paper)

  10. A multidirectional cloak for visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen Sheng; Lei Mei, Zhong; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2018-04-01

    A new macroscopic multidirectional cloak scheme for extraordinary rays is proposed by controlling the optical axes of uniaxial crystals. It eliminates the complicated material constraints and can also be utilized to design a cloaking device for ordinary rays or isotropic cloaks after simplification. Numerical ray tracing and full-wave simulation results validate our design. Moreover, if the uniaxial crystals are changed into other materials whose optical axes can be modulated, like liquid crystals, this scheme has the potential to fabricate direction-tunable cloaks.

  11. Elliptical metasurfaces for cloaking and antenna applications at microwave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpourbernety, Hossein

    One of the interesting applications of metamaterials is the phenomenon of electromagnetic invisibility and cloaking, which implies the suppression of bistatic scattering width of a given object, independent of incident and observation angles. In this regard, diverse techniques have been proposed to analyze and design electromagnetic cloak structures, including transformation optics, anomalous resonance methods, transmission-line networks, and plasmonic cloaking, among others. A common drawback of all these methods is that they rely on bulk materials, which are difficult to realize in practice. To overcome this issue, the mantle cloaking method has been proposed, which utilizes an ultrathin metasurface that provides anti-phase surface currents to reduce the scattering dominant mode of a given object. Recently, an analytical model has been proposed to cloak dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects realized with printed and slotted arrays at microwave frequencies. At low-terahertz (THz) frequencies, one of the promising materials to realize the required metasurface is graphene. In this regard, a graphene monolayer, characterized by inductive reactance, has been proposed to cloak dielectric planar and cylindrical objects. Then, it has been shown that a metasurface made of graphene nanopatches owns dual capacitive/inductive inductance and can be used to cloak both dielectric and conducting cylindrical objects at low-THz frequencies. So far, planar and cylindrical dielectric and conducting structures have been studied. In our study, we have extended the concept and presented an accurate analytical approach to investigate the cloaking of two-dimensional (2-D) elliptical objects including infinite dielectric elliptical cylinders using graphene monolayer; metallic elliptical cylinders, and also, as a special case, 2-D metallic strips using a nanostructured graphene patch array at low-THz frequencies. We have also obtained the results for cloaking of ellipses at

  12. Apparent resistivity for transient electromagnetic induction logging and its correction in radial layer identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingxin; Hu, Xiangyun; Pan, Heping; Xi, Yufei

    2018-04-01

    We propose an algorithm for calculating all-time apparent resistivity from transient electromagnetic induction logging. The algorithm is based on the whole-space transient electric field expression of the uniform model and Halley's optimisation. In trial calculations for uniform models, the all-time algorithm is shown to have high accuracy. We use the finite-difference time-domain method to simulate the transient electromagnetic field in radial two-layer models without wall rock and convert the simulation results to apparent resistivity using the all-time algorithm. The time-varying apparent resistivity reflects the radially layered geoelectrical structure of the models and the apparent resistivity of the earliest time channel follows the true resistivity of the inner layer; however, the apparent resistivity at larger times reflects the comprehensive electrical characteristics of the inner and outer layers. To accurately identify the outer layer resistivity based on the series relationship model of the layered resistance, the apparent resistivity and diffusion depth of the different time channels are approximately replaced by related model parameters; that is, we propose an apparent resistivity correction algorithm. By correcting the time-varying apparent resistivity of radial two-layer models, we show that the correction results reflect the radially layered electrical structure and the corrected resistivities of the larger time channels follow the outer layer resistivity. The transient electromagnetic fields of radially layered models with wall rock are simulated to obtain the 2D time-varying profiles of the apparent resistivity and corrections. The results suggest that the time-varying apparent resistivity and correction results reflect the vertical and radial geoelectrical structures. For models with small wall-rock effect, the correction removes the effect of the low-resistance inner layer on the apparent resistivity of the larger time channels.

  13. Pulsed electromagnetic field radiation from a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Štumpf, M.; De Hoop, A.T.; Lager, I.E.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic time domain expressions are derived for the pulsed electromagnetic field radiated by a narrow slot antenna with a dielectric layer in a two?dimensional model configuration. In any finite time window of observation, exact pulse shapes for the propagated, reflected, and refracted wave

  14. Electromagnetic waves in a layer of hot plasma with negligible collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, J.

    1975-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a plane plasma layer in a uniform magnetic field has been studied, following the hypothesis of immoble ions and negligible ion-electron interactions. Waves dependent on one spatial coordinate are considered and all the parameters of the problems are considered. The cases of perpendicular and parallel magnetic field are treated

  15. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  16. Bursty, Broadband Electromagnetic Waves Associated with Thin Current Layers and Turbulent Magnetosheath Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M. L.; Wendel, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic wave energy in association with the thin current layers of turbulent magnetosheath reconnection. These observed emissions form two distinct types: (i) broadband emissions that extend continuously to lOs of Hertz; and (ii) structured bursts of emitted energy that occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed at local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic energy and quantify their proximity to X- and O-nulls, as well as their correlation to the amount of magnetic energy converted by the process of magnetic reconnection.

  17. WKB solution 4×4 for electromagnetic waves in a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, Natalya Michailovna; Moiseev, Anton Vladimirovich

    2018-04-01

    In the paper, an oblique incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave on a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer is considered. We consider the case when all the components of the magnetic permeability tensor are non zero and vary with distance from the interface of media. The WKB method gives a matrix 4 × 4 solution for the projections of the electromagnetic wave fields during its propagation. The dependence of the cross-polarized components on the orientation of the anisotropic medium relative to the plane of incidence of the medium is analyzed.

  18. Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...

  19. Experimental validation of an ultra-thin metasurface cloak for hiding a metallic obstacle from an antenna radiation at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teperik, Tatiana V.; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André; Sabanowski, Guy; Piau, Gérard-Pascal

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate numerically and experimentally an ultra-thin (≈ λ/240) metasurface-based invisibility cloak for low frequency antenna applications. We consider a monopole antenna mounted on a ground plane and a cylindrical metallic obstacle of diameter smaller than the wavelength located in its near-field. To restore the intrinsic radiation patterns of the antenna perturbed by this obstacle, a metasurface cloak consisting simply of a metallic patch printed on a dielectric substrate is wrapped around the obstacle. Using a finite element method based commercial electromagnetic solver, we show that the radiation patterns of the monopole antenna can be restored completely owing to electromagnetic modes of the resonant cavity formed between the patch and obstacle. The metasurface cloak is fabricated, and the concept is experimentally demonstrated at 125 MHz. Performed measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations, verifying the efficiency of the proposed cloak.

  20. Galactic optical cloaking of visible baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional gravitational cloaking is known to require exotic matter and energy sources, which makes it arguably physically unrealizable. On the other hand, typical astronomical observations are performed using one-dimensional paraxial line of sight geometries. We demonstrate that unidirectional line of sight gravitational cloaking does not require exotic matter, and it may occur in multiple natural astronomical scenarios that involve gravitational lensing. In particular, recently discovered double gravitational lens SDSSJ 0 9 4 6 +1 0 0 6 together with the Milky Way appear to form a natural paraxial cloak. A natural question to ask, then, is how much matter in the Universe may be hidden from view by such natural gravitational cloaks? It is estimated that the total volume hidden from an observer by gravitational cloaking may reach about 1% of the total volume of the visible Universe.

  1. Invisibility cloak with image projection capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasish; Ji, Chengang; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-12-13

    Investigations of invisibility cloaks have been led by rigorous theories and such cloak structures, in general, require extreme material parameters. Consequently, it is challenging to realize them, particularly in the full visible region. Due to the insensitivity of human eyes to the polarization and phase of light, cloaking a large object in the full visible region has been recently realized by a simplified theory. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept where a large object can be concealed in a cloak structure and at the same time any images can be projected through it by utilizing a distinctively different approach; the cloaking via one polarization and the image projection via the other orthogonal polarization. Our device structure consists of commercially available optical components such as polarizers and mirrors, and therefore, provides a significant further step towards practical application scenarios such as transparent devices and see-through displays.

  2. Fractional Calculus Based FDTD Modeling of Layered Biological Media Exposure to Wideband Electromagnetic Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mescia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are involved in several therapeutic and diagnostic applications such as hyperthermia and electroporation. For these applications, pulsed electric fields (PEFs and transient phenomena are playing a key role for understanding the biological response due to the exposure to non-ionizing wideband pulses. To this end, the PEF propagation in the six-layered planar structure modeling the human head has been studied. The electromagnetic field and the specific absorption rate (SAR have been calculated through an accurate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD dispersive modeling based on the fractional derivative operator. The temperature rise inside the tissues due to the electromagnetic field exposure has been evaluated using both the non-thermoregulated and thermoregulated Gagge’s two-node models. Moreover, additional parametric studies have been carried out with the aim to investigate the thermal response by changing the amplitude and duration of the electric pulses.

  3. Electromagnetic Scattering from a PEC Wedge Capped with Cylindrical Layers with Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ozturk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic scattering from a layered capped wedge is studied. The wedge is assumed infinite in z-direction (longitudinal and capped with arbitrary layers of dielectric with varying thicknesses and dielectric properties including conductive loss. Scalar Helmholtz equation in two dimensions is formulated for each solution region and a matrix of unknown coefficients are arrived at for electric field representation. Closed form expressions are derived for 2- and 3-layer geometries. Numerical simulations are performed for different wedge shapes and dielectric layer properties and compared to PEC-only case. It has been shown that significant reduction in scattered electric field can be obtained with 2- and 3-layered cap geometries. Total electric field in the far field normalized to incident field is also computed as a precursor to RCS analysis. Analytical results can be useful in radar cross section analysis for aerial vehicles.

  4. Electromagnetic Pulse of a Vertical Electric Dipole in the Presence of Three-Layered Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate formulas are obtained for the electromagnetic pulses due to a delta-function current in a vertical electric dipole on the planar surface of a perfect conductor coated by a dielectric layer. The new approximated formulas for the electromagnetic field in time domain are retreated analytically and some new results are obtained. Computations and discussions are carried out for the time-domain field components radiated by a vertical electric dipole in the presence of three-layered region. It is shown that the trapped-surface-wave terms should be included in the total transient field when both the vertical electric dipole and the observation point are on or near the planar surface of the dielectric-coated earth.

  5. A magnetic field cloak for charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco-Hogan, K. G.; Cervantes, R.; Deshpande, A.; Feege, N.; Krahulik, T.; LaBounty, J.; Sekelsky, R.; Adhyatman, A.; Arrowsmith-Kron, G.; Coe, B.; Dehmelt, K.; Hemmick, T. K.; Jeffas, S.; LaByer, T.; Mahmud, S.; Oliveira, A.; Quadri, A.; Sharma, K.; Tishelman-Charny, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shielding charged particle beams from transverse magnetic fields is a common challenge for particle accelerators and experiments. We demonstrate that a magnetic field cloak is a viable solution. It allows for the use of dipole magnets in the forward regions of experiments at an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) and other facilities without interfering with the incoming beams. The dipoles can improve the momentum measurements of charged final state particles at angles close to the beam line and therefore increase the physics reach of these experiments. In contrast to other magnetic shielding options (such as active coils), a cloak requires no external powering. We discuss the design parameters, fabrication, and limitations of a magnetic field cloak and demonstrate that cylinders made from 45 layers of YBCO high-temperature superconductor, combined with a ferromagnetic shell made from epoxy and stainless steel powder, shield more than 99% of a transverse magnetic field of up to 0.45 T (95% shielding at 0.5 T) at liquid nitrogen temperature. The ferromagnetic shell reduces field distortions caused by the superconductor alone by 90% at 0.45 T.

  6. A study of the electromagnetic shielding mechanisms in the GHz frequency range of graphene based composite layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakakis, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Kymakis, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Tzagkarakis, G.; Louloudakis, D.; Katharakis, M. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Kenanakis, G. [Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH) Hellas, Heraklion (Greece); Suchea, M.; Tudose, V. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Chemistry Faculty, “Al.I.Cuza” University of Iasi, Iasi (Romania); Koudoumas, E., E-mail: koudoumas@staff.teicrete.gr [Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Optimum paint contents should be chosen so that homogeneous and uniform nanocomposite layers exist exhibiting effective electromagnetic shielding. • The electromagnetic shielding in the frequency range studied comes mainly from absorption and increases with frequency. • Reflection reduces with increasing frequency, the decrease rate being smaller than that of the increase in absorption. • The shielding efficiency depends on both conductivity and thickness, the first dependence being more pronounced. - Abstract: We report on the mechanisms of the electromagnetic interference shielding effect of graphene based paint like composite layers. In particular, we studied the absorption and reflection of electromagnetic radiation in the 4–20 GHz frequency of various dispersions employing different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), special attention given on the relative contribution of each process in the shielding effect. Moreover, the influence of the composition, the thickness and the conductivity of the composite layers on the electromagnetic shielding was also examined.

  7. A study of the electromagnetic shielding mechanisms in the GHz frequency range of graphene based composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakakis, E.; Kymakis, E.; Tzagkarakis, G.; Louloudakis, D.; Katharakis, M.; Kenanakis, G.; Suchea, M.; Tudose, V.; Koudoumas, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimum paint contents should be chosen so that homogeneous and uniform nanocomposite layers exist exhibiting effective electromagnetic shielding. • The electromagnetic shielding in the frequency range studied comes mainly from absorption and increases with frequency. • Reflection reduces with increasing frequency, the decrease rate being smaller than that of the increase in absorption. • The shielding efficiency depends on both conductivity and thickness, the first dependence being more pronounced. - Abstract: We report on the mechanisms of the electromagnetic interference shielding effect of graphene based paint like composite layers. In particular, we studied the absorption and reflection of electromagnetic radiation in the 4–20 GHz frequency of various dispersions employing different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), special attention given on the relative contribution of each process in the shielding effect. Moreover, the influence of the composition, the thickness and the conductivity of the composite layers on the electromagnetic shielding was also examined.

  8. Nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the GHz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchea, M. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Chemistry and Physics, “Al.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Iasi (Romania); Tudose, I.V. [Chemistry and Physics, “Al.I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Iasi (Romania); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Tzagkarakis, G. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Kenanakis, G. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure & Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology (FORTH) Hellas, Heraklion (Greece); Katharakis, M. [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Drakakis, E. [Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Koudoumas, E., E-mail: koudoumas@staff.teicrete.gr [Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Electrical Engineering Department, School of Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Paint-like nanocomposite layers consisting of graphene nanoplatelets, PANI:HCl and PEDOT:PSS present very effective attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 4–20 GHz. • The shielding performance is based mostly on the graphene nanoplatelets and supported by PANI:HCl. In contrast, PEDOT:PSS plays mainly the role of the binder. • Increasing resistivity was observed to reduce the shielding effect, while increasing thickness to favor it. - Abstract: We report on preliminary results regarding the applicability of nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the frequency range of 4–20 GHz. Various combinations of materials were employed including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), polyaniline, graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes, Cu nanoparticles and Poly(vinyl alcohol). As shown, paint-like nanocomposite layers consisting of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline PEDOT:PSS and Poly(vinyl alcohol) can offer quite effective electromagnetic shielding, similar or even better than that of commercial products, the response strongly depending on their thickness and resistivity.

  9. Nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the GHz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Tudose, I.V.; Tzagkarakis, G.; Kenanakis, G.; Katharakis, M.; Drakakis, E.; Koudoumas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Paint-like nanocomposite layers consisting of graphene nanoplatelets, PANI:HCl and PEDOT:PSS present very effective attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range 4–20 GHz. • The shielding performance is based mostly on the graphene nanoplatelets and supported by PANI:HCl. In contrast, PEDOT:PSS plays mainly the role of the binder. • Increasing resistivity was observed to reduce the shielding effect, while increasing thickness to favor it. - Abstract: We report on preliminary results regarding the applicability of nanostructured composite layers for electromagnetic shielding in the frequency range of 4–20 GHz. Various combinations of materials were employed including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), polyaniline, graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes, Cu nanoparticles and Poly(vinyl alcohol). As shown, paint-like nanocomposite layers consisting of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline PEDOT:PSS and Poly(vinyl alcohol) can offer quite effective electromagnetic shielding, similar or even better than that of commercial products, the response strongly depending on their thickness and resistivity.

  10. Analog modeling of splitting the envelope of an electromagnetic pulse reflected from a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakunov, M.I.; Rogozhin, I.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    By means of a simple radio engineering model, an experimental study is carried out of the effect of the strong deformation of the envelope of a quasimonochromatic electromagnetic pulse reflected from a thin plasma layer placed on the surface of an ideal conductor. This deformation is considered under the conditions of the plasma resonance in the plasma layer and when the thickness of the layer is less then the wavelength of the incident radiation. It is shown that the pulse whose initial profile is Gaussian, after the reflection, is separated (entirely of partially) into two pulses with amplitudes that can be controlled by means of varying the parameters of the incident pulse and plasma layer

  11. FDTD Investigation on Electromagnetic Scattering from Two-Layered Rough Surfaces under UPML Absorbing Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Li; Li-Xin, Guo; Hao, Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from one-dimensional two-layered rough surfaces is investigated by using finite-difference time-domain algorithm (FDTD). The uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. The rough surfaces are characterized with Gaussian statistics for the height and the autocorrelation function. The angular distribution of bistatic scattering coefficient from single-layered perfect electric conducting and dielectric rough surface is calculated and it is in good agreement with the numerical result with the conventional method of moments. The influence of the relative permittivity, the incident angle, and the correlative length of two-layered rough surfaces on the bistatic scattering coefficient with different polarizations are presented and discussed in detail. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  12. Anti-sound and Acoustical Cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia CHIROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principles by which the acoustics can be mimicked in order to reduce or cancel the vibrational field are based on anti-sound concept which can be materialized by acoustic cloaks. Geometric transformations open an elegant way towards the unconstrained control of sound through acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic cloaks can be achieved through geometric transformations which bring exotic metamaterial properties into the acoustic equations. Our paper brings new ideas concerning the technological keys for manufacturing of novel metamaterials based on the spatial compression of Cantor structures, and the architecture of 3D acoustic cloaks in a given frequency band, with application to architectural acoustics.

  13. Reflection and Transmission of Plane Electromagnetic Waves by a Geologic Layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Electric field and magnetic field reflection and transmission responses generated by a plane wave normally incident onto a finite - thickness geologic layer are mathematically derived and numerically evaluated. A thin layer with enhanced electric current conductivity and/or magnetic permeability is a reasonable geophysical representation of a hydraulic fracture inject ed with a high - contrast proppant pack. Both theory and numerics indicate that backward - and forward - scattered electromagnetic wavefields are potentially observable in a field experiment, despite the extreme thinness of a fracture compared to a typical low - frequency electromagnetic wavelength. The First Born Approximation (FBA) representation of layer scattering, significant for inversion studies, is shown to be accurate for a thin layer with mild medium parameter (i.e., conductivity, permeability, and per mittivity) contrasts with the surrounding homogeneous wholespace. However, FBA scattering theory breaks down for thick layers and strong parameter contrasts. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. This research is conducted under the auspices of CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) SC11/01780.00 between Carbo Ceramics Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories. The author acknowledges former Carbo R&D Vic e - President Mr. Chad Cannan and former SNL Geophysics Department manage r Ms. Amy Halloran for their interest i n and support of this work. Technical discussions with Project Manager and Principal Investigator Dr. Chester J. Weiss of the SNL Geophysics Department greatly benefited this work. Dr. Lewis C. Bartel, formerly with S NL and presently a consultant to Carbo Ceramics, provided many useful and intuitive insights, and

  14. Complex layered materials and periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures: Concepts, characterizations, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallaei, Hossein

    The main objective of this dissertation is to characterize and create insight into the electromagnetic performances of two classes of composite structures, namely, complex multi-layered media and periodic Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structures. The advanced and diversified computational techniques are applied to obtain their unique propagation characteristics and integrate the results into some novel applications. In the first part of this dissertation, the vector wave solution of Maxwell's equations is integrated with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method to provide a powerful technique for characterizing multi-layered materials, and obtaining their optimal designs. The developed method is successfully applied to determine the optimal composite coatings for Radar Cross Section (RCS) reduction of canonical structures. Both monostatic and bistatic scatterings are explored. A GA with hybrid planar/curved surface implementation is also introduced to efficiently obtain the optimal absorbing materials for curved structures. Furthermore, design optimization of the non-uniform Luneburg and 2-shell spherical lens antennas utilizing modal solution/GA-adaptive-cost function is presented. The lens antennas are effectively optimized for both high gain and suppressed grating lobes. The second part demonstrates the development of an advanced computational engine, which accurately computes the broadband characteristics of challenging periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures. This method utilizes the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique with Periodic Boundary Condition/Perfectly Matched Layer (PBC/PML), which is efficiently integrated with the Prony scheme. The computational technique is successfully applied to characterize and present the unique propagation performances of different classes of periodic structures such as Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS), Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) materials, and Left-Handed (LH) composite media. The results are

  15. Spatial dispersion of index components required for building invisibility cloak medium from photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilan, Saeid; Semouchkin, George; Gandji, Navid P.; Semouchkina, Elena

    2018-04-01

    The opportunities to use dielectric photonic crystals (PhCs) as the media of cylindrical invisibility cloaks, designed using transformation optics (TO) concepts, are investigated. It is shown that TO-based prescriptions for radial index dispersion, responsible for turning waves around hidden objects, can be dropped if the PhC media support self-collimation of waves in bent crystals. Otherwise, to provide prescribed anisotropy of index dispersion, it is possible to employ PhCs with rectangular lattices. It is found, however, that at acceptable cloak thicknesses, modifications of crystal parameters do not allow for achieving the prescribed level of index anisotropy. This problem is solved by finding the reduced spatial dispersion law for the radial index component, which is characterized by decreased against TO-prescriptions values near the target and increased values in outer layers of the cloak. The cloak utilizing reduced prescriptions for indices is shown to perform almost as efficiently as a TO-based cloak, in terms of both wave front restoration behind the target and reducing the total scattering cross-width of the target.

  16. A study of the electromagnetic shielding mechanisms in the GHz frequency range of graphene based composite layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakakis, E.; Kymakis, E.; Tzagkarakis, G.; Louloudakis, D.; Katharakis, M.; Kenanakis, G.; Suchea, M.; Tudose, V.; Koudoumas, E.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the mechanisms of the electromagnetic interference shielding effect of graphene based paint like composite layers. In particular, we studied the absorption and reflection of electromagnetic radiation in the 4-20 GHz frequency of various dispersions employing different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets, polyaniline, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), special attention given on the relative contribution of each process in the shielding effect. Moreover, the influence of the composition, the thickness and the conductivity of the composite layers on the electromagnetic shielding was also examined.

  17. Homogenous isotropic invisible cloak based on geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Ji; Kang, Lei

    2008-10-27

    Invisible cloak derived from the coordinate transformation requires its constitutive material to be anisotropic. In this work, we present a cloak of graded-index isotropic material based on the geometrical optics theory. The cloak is realized by concentric multilayered structure with designed refractive index to achieve the low-scattering and smooth power-flow. Full-wave simulations on such a design of a cylindrical cloak are performed to demonstrate the cloaking ability to incident wave of any polarization. Using normal nature material with isotropy and low absorption, the cloak shows light on a practical path to stealth technology, especially that in the optical range.

  18. Cloaking through cancellation of diffusive wave scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2016-08-10

    A new cloaking mechanism, which makes enclosed objects invisible to diffusive photon density waves, is proposed. First, diffusive scattering from a basic core-shell geometry, which represents the cloaked structure, is studied. The conditions of scattering cancellation in a quasi-static scattering regime are derived. These allow for tailoring the diffusivity constant of the shell enclosing the object so that the fields scattered from the shell and the object cancel each other. This means that the photon flow outside the cloak behaves as if the cloaked object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may have potential applications in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Vector solution for the mean electromagnetic fields in a layer of random particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Seker, S. S.; Levine, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The mean electromagnetic fields are found in a layer of randomly oriented particles lying over a half space. A matrix-dyadic formulation of Maxwell's equations is employed in conjunction with the Foldy-Lax approximation to obtain equations for the mean fields. A two variable perturbation procedure, valid in the limit of small fractional volume, is then used to derive uncoupled equations for the slowly varying amplitudes of the mean wave. These equations are solved to obtain explicit expressions for the mean electromagnetic fields in the slab region in the general case of arbitrarily oriented particles and arbitrary polarization of the incident radiation. Numerical examples are given for the application to remote sensing of vegetation.

  20. Design of piezoelectric transducer layer with electromagnetic shielding and high connection reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Shi, Xiaoling; Huang, Tianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and Lamb wave based structural health monitoring (SHM) method have been widely studied for on-line SHM of high-performance structures. To monitor large-scale structures, a dense PZTs array is required. In order to improve the placement efficiency and reduce the wire burden of the PZTs array, the concept of the piezoelectric transducers layer (PSL) was proposed. The PSL consists of PZTs, a flexible interlayer with printed wires and signal input/output interface. For on-line SHM on real aircraft structures, there are two main issues on electromagnetic interference and connection reliability of the PSL. To address the issues, an electromagnetic shielding design method of the PSL to reduce spatial electromagnetic noise and crosstalk is proposed and a combined welding–cementation process based connection reliability design method is proposed to enhance the connection reliability between the PZTs and the flexible interlayer. Two experiments on electromagnetic interference suppression are performed to validate the shielding design of the PSL. The experimental results show that the amplitudes of the spatial electromagnetic noise and crosstalk output from the shielded PSL developed by this paper are − 15 dB and − 25 dB lower than those of the ordinary PSL, respectively. Other two experiments on temperature durability ( − 55 °C–80 °C ) and strength durability (160–1600με, one million load cycles) are applied to the PSL to validate the connection reliability. The low repeatability errors (less than 3% and less than 5%, respectively) indicate that the developed PSL is of high connection reliability and long fatigue life. (paper)

  1. Design of piezoelectric transducer layer with electromagnetic shielding and high connection reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Shi, Xiaoling; Huang, Tianxiang

    2012-07-01

    Piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and Lamb wave based structural health monitoring (SHM) method have been widely studied for on-line SHM of high-performance structures. To monitor large-scale structures, a dense PZTs array is required. In order to improve the placement efficiency and reduce the wire burden of the PZTs array, the concept of the piezoelectric transducers layer (PSL) was proposed. The PSL consists of PZTs, a flexible interlayer with printed wires and signal input/output interface. For on-line SHM on real aircraft structures, there are two main issues on electromagnetic interference and connection reliability of the PSL. To address the issues, an electromagnetic shielding design method of the PSL to reduce spatial electromagnetic noise and crosstalk is proposed and a combined welding-cementation process based connection reliability design method is proposed to enhance the connection reliability between the PZTs and the flexible interlayer. Two experiments on electromagnetic interference suppression are performed to validate the shielding design of the PSL. The experimental results show that the amplitudes of the spatial electromagnetic noise and crosstalk output from the shielded PSL developed by this paper are - 15 dB and - 25 dB lower than those of the ordinary PSL, respectively. Other two experiments on temperature durability ( - 55 °C-80 °C ) and strength durability (160-1600μɛ, one million load cycles) are applied to the PSL to validate the connection reliability. The low repeatability errors (less than 3% and less than 5%, respectively) indicate that the developed PSL is of high connection reliability and long fatigue life.

  2. Effects on RCS of a perfect electromagnetic conductor sphere in the presence of anisotropic plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, A.; Hussan, M. M.; Illahi, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.; Ur Rehman, Sajjad; Naz, M. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Effects on RCS of perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) sphere by coating with anisotropic plasma layer are studied in this paper. The incident, scattered and transmitted electromagnetic fields are expanded in term of spherical vector wave functions using extended classical theory of scattering. Co and cross-polarized scattered field coefficients are obtained at the interface of free space-anisotropic plasma and at anisotropic plasma-PEMC sphere core by scattering matrices method. The presented analytical expressions are general for any perfect conducting sphere (PMC, PEC, or PEMC) with general anisotropic/isotropic material coatings that include plasma and metamaterials. The behavior of the forward and backscattered radar cross section of PEMC sphere with the variation of the magnetic field strength, incident frequency, plasma density, and effective collision frequency for the co-polarized and the cross polarized fields are investigated. It is also observed from the obtained results that anisotropic layer on PEMC sphere shows reciprocal behavior as compared to isotopic plasma layer on PEMC sphere. The comparisons of the numerical results of the presented analytical expressions with available results of some special cases show the correctness of the analysis.

  3. Carpet cloak with graded dielectric metasurface (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, LiYi; Lepetit, Thomas; Kante, Boubacar

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a method to hide a Gaussian-shaped bump on a ground plane from an incoming plane wave. In essence, we use a graded metasurface to shape the wavefronts like those of a flat ground plane[1,2].The metasurface provides additional phase to the electromagnetic field to control the reflection angle. To mimic a flat ground plane, the reflection angle is chosen to be equal to the incident angle. The desired phase distribution is calculated based on generalized Snell's laws[3]. We design our metasurface in the microwave range using sub-wavelength dielectric resonators. We verify the design by full-wave time-domain simulations and show that the result matches our theory well. This approach can be applied to hide any object on a ground plane not only at microwave frequencies but also at higher frequencies up to the infrared. 1. Jensen Li and J. B. Pendry, Hiding under the Carpet: A New Strategy for Cloaking. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008) 2. Andrea Alu, Mantle cloak: Invisibility induced by a surface. Phys. Rev. B 80, 245115 (2009) 3. Yu N, et al. Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction. Science 334(6054):333-337 (2011)

  4. Electromagnetic ELM and inter-ELM filaments detected in the COMPASS Scrape-Off Layer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spolaore, M.; Kovařík, Karel; Stöckel, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Dejarnac, Renaud; Ďuran, Ivan; Komm, Michael; Markovič, Tomáš; Martines, E.; Pánek, Radomír; Seidl, Jakub; Vianello, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, August (2017), s. 844-851 ISSN 2352-1791. [PSI 2016 - 22nd International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/22./. Roma, 30.05.2016-03.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Electromagnetic filaments * ELMs * Scrape-Off Layer * Magnetic fluctuations * Current density Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352179116301934

  5. An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xingjie; Wong, Zi Jing; Mrejen, Michael; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-09-18

    Metamaterial-based optical cloaks have thus far used volumetric distribution of the material properties to gradually bend light and thereby obscure the cloaked region. Hence, they are bulky and hard to scale up and, more critically, typical carpet cloaks introduce unnecessary phase shifts in the reflected light, making the cloaks detectable. Here, we demonstrate experimentally an ultrathin invisibility skin cloak wrapped over an object. This skin cloak conceals a three-dimensional arbitrarily shaped object by complete restoration of the phase of the reflected light at 730-nanometer wavelength. The skin cloak comprises a metasurface with distributed phase shifts rerouting light and rendering the object invisible. In contrast to bulky cloaks with volumetric index variation, our device is only 80 nanometer (about one-ninth of the wavelength) thick and potentially scalable for hiding macroscopic objects. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  7. Towards all-dielectric, polarization-independent optical cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Fully enclosing, all-dielectric cloaks working for both E-z and H-z polarizations simultaneously are presented in this letter. The cloaks are effective for two antiparallel angles of incidence, and the layout of standard dielectric material in the cloak is determined by topology optimization. Sca...... effectively when distributing a material with lower permittivity than the background material....

  8. Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.

  9. Transformation electromagnetics and metamaterials fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Douglas H

    2013-01-01

    Transformation electromagnetics is a systematic design technique for optical and electromagnetic devices that enables novel wave-material interaction properties. The associated metamaterials technology for designing and realizing optical and electromagnetic devices can control the behavior of light and electromagnetic waves in ways that have not been conventionally possible. The technique is credited with numerous novel device designs, most notably the invisibility cloaks, perfect lenses and a host of other remarkable devices.Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Princ

  10. Flow stabilization with active hydrodynamic cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav A; Smith, David R

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate that fluid flow cloaking solutions, based on active hydrodynamic metamaterials, exist for two-dimensional flows past a cylinder in a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re's), up to approximately 200. Within the framework of the classical Brinkman equation for homogenized porous flow, we demonstrate using two different methods that such cloaked flows can be dynamically stable for Re's in the range of 5-119. The first highly efficient method is based on a linearization of the Brinkman-Navier-Stokes equation and finding the eigenfrequencies of the least stable eigenperturbations; the second method is a direct numerical integration in the time domain. We show that, by suppressing the von Kármán vortex street in the weakly turbulent wake, porous flow cloaks can raise the critical Reynolds number up to about 120 or five times greater than for a bare uncloaked cylinder.

  11. Electromagnetic design, engineering development and magnetic qualification of a horizontal layered scaled magnet for physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Praveen; Teotia, Vikas; Malhotra, Sanjay; Taly, Y.K., E-mail: praveent@barc.gov.in [Control Instrumentation Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Neutrino detectors around the world have shown evidence that these weakly interacting, little-understood particles are not really mass less, as was thought so far. Not only do they have non-zero masses, different species (or flavors) of neutrinos seem to mix and oscillate into one another as they traverse through the cosmos. If this is true, this is not only one of the first pieces of evidence for physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of Particle Physics, but would also have great impact on diverse fields such as nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. It is thus imperative to study the details of the interactions of these particles. These will be detected by means of an iron calorimeter (ICAL), comprising detectors sandwiched in alternate layers of soft magnetic iron. The iron core is magnetized to allow bending of the charged particles. The direction and the energy of the original incoming neutrino, that caused the interaction, can then be accurately determined. Racetrack coils through slots cut in the iron core create a uniform magnetic field in the iron core. A highly uniform magnetic field in the soft iron core is required to accurately determine the mass and energy of incident particle. The charged particles bend in this magnetic field; oppositely charged particles bending in opposite directions. The charge, energy and momentum of the emitted particle is thus determined. An electromagnet was designed as a laboratory facility for conducting experimental studies in particle physics. This paper discusses the electromagnetic design, development, fabrication, magnetic qualification and magnetic measurement issues of an electromagnet developed for physics studies. (author)

  12. Design, implementation, and extension of thermal invisibility cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile

    2015-05-01

    A thermal invisibility cloak, as inspired by optical invisibility cloaks, is a device which can steer the conductive heat flux around an isolated object without changing the ambient temperature distribution so that the object can be "invisible" to external thermal environment. While designs of thermal invisibility cloaks inherit previous theories from optical cloaks, the uniqueness of heat diffusion leads to more achievable implementations. Thermal invisibility cloaks, as well as the variations including thermal concentrator, rotator, and illusion devices, have potentials to be applied in thermal management, sensing and imaging applications. Here, we review the current knowledge of thermal invisibility cloaks in terms of their design and implementation in cloaking studies, and their extension as other functional devices.

  13. Unusual reflection of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of graphene layers at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, M I

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation with single-layer graphene and a stack of parallel graphene sheets at arbitrary angles of incidence. It is found that the behavior is qualitatively different for transverse magnetic (or p-polarized) and transverse electric (or s-polarized) waves. In particular, the absorbance of single-layer graphene attains a minimum (maximum) for the p (s)-polarization at the angle of total internal reflection when the light comes from a medium with a higher dielectric constant. In the case of equal dielectric constants of the media above and beneath graphene, for grazing incidence graphene is almost 100% transparent to p-polarized waves and acts as a tunable mirror for the s-polarization. These effects are enhanced for a stack of graphene sheets, so the system can work as a broad band polarizer. It is shown further that a periodic stack of graphene layers has the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, with gaps (or stop bands) at certain frequencies. When an incident EM wave is reflected from this photonic crystal, the tunability of the graphene conductivity renders the possibility of controlling the gaps, and the structure can operate as a tunable spectral-selective mirror. (paper)

  14. Influence of the electromagnetic parameters on the surface wave attenuation in thin absorbing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinrui; Li, Dongmeng; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the relationships between the surface wave attenuation properties and the electromagnetic parameters of radar absorbing materials (RAMs). In order to conveniently obtain the attenuation constant of TM surface waves over a wide frequency range, the simplified dispersion equations in thin absorbing materials were firstly deduced. The validity of the proposed method was proved by comparing with the classical dispersion equations. Subsequently, the attenuation constants were calculated separately for the absorbing layers with hypothetical relative permittivity and permeability. It is found that the surface wave attenuation properties can be strongly tuned by the permeability of RAM. Meanwhile, the permittivity should be appropriate so as to maintain high cutoff frequency. The present work provides specific methods and designs to improve the attenuation performances of radar absorbing materials.

  15. Application of the perfectly matched layer in 3-D marine controlled-source electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yuguo; Han, Bo; Liu, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) in stretching Cartesian coordinates is successfully applied to 3-D frequency-domain marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) field modelling. The Dirichlet boundary, which is usually used within the traditional framework of EM modelling algorithms, assumes that the electric or magnetic field values are zero at the boundaries. This requires the boundaries to be sufficiently far away from the area of interest. To mitigate the boundary artefacts, a large modelling area may be necessary even though cell sizes are allowed to grow toward the boundaries due to the diffusion of the electromagnetic wave propagation. Compared with the conventional Dirichlet boundary, the PML boundary is preferred as the modelling area of interest could be restricted to the target region and only a few absorbing layers surrounding can effectively depress the artificial boundary effect without losing the numerical accuracy. Furthermore, for joint inversion of seismic and marine CSEM data, if we use the PML for CSEM field simulation instead of the conventional Dirichlet, the modelling area for these two different geophysical data collected from the same survey area could be the same, which is convenient for joint inversion grid matching. We apply the CFS-PML boundary to 3-D marine CSEM modelling by using the staggered finite-difference discretization. Numerical test indicates that the modelling algorithm using the CFS-PML also shows good accuracy compared to the Dirichlet. Furthermore, the modelling algorithm using the CFS-PML shows advantages in computational time and memory saving than that using the Dirichlet boundary. For the 3-D example in this study, the memory saving using the PML is nearly 42 per cent and the time saving is around 48 per cent compared to using the Dirichlet.

  16. The electromagnetic response in a layered vertical transverse isotropic medium : A new look at an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Slob, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We determined that the electromagnetic vertical transverse isotropic response in a layered earth can be obtained by solving two equivalent scalar equations, which were for the vertical electric field and for the vertical magnetic field, involving only a scalar global reflection coefficient. Besides

  17. Cloaking and imaging at the same time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiannan; Xu, Yadong; Li, Hui; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a conceptual device to perform good imaging with positive refraction. At the same time, this device is an isotropic omnidirectional cloak with a perfect electric conductor hiding region and shows versatile illusion optical effects. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the functionalities.

  18. Scattering of electromagnetic wave by the layer with one-dimensional random inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lev; Zaboronkova, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Gennadii., IV.

    A great deal of attention has been paid to the study of probability characteristics of electro-magnetic waves scattered by one-dimensional fluctuations of medium dielectric permittivity. However, the problem of a determination of a density of a probability and average intensity of the field inside the stochastically inhomogeneous medium with arbitrary extension of fluc-tuations has not been considered yet. It is the purpose of the present report to find and to analyze the indicated functions for the plane electromagnetic wave scattered by the layer with one-dimensional fluctuations of permittivity. We assumed that the length and the amplitude of individual fluctuations as well the interval between them are random quantities. All of indi-cated fluctuation parameters are supposed as independent random values possessing Gaussian distribution. We considered the stationary time cases both small-scale and large-scale rarefied inhomogeneities. Mathematically such problem can be reduced to the solution of integral Fred-holm equation of second kind for Hertz potential (U). Using the decomposition of the field into the series of multiply scattered waves we obtained the expression for a probability density of the field of the plane wave and determined the moments of the scattered field. We have shown that all odd moments of the centered field (U-¡U¿) are equal to zero and the even moments depend on the intensity. It was obtained that the probability density of the field possesses the Gaussian distribution. The average field is small compared with the standard fluctuation of scattered field for all considered cases of inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity of the field is an order of a standard of fluctuations of field intensity and drops with increases the inhomogeneities length in the case of small-scale inhomogeneities. The behavior of average intensity is more complicated in the case of large-scale medium inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity is the

  19. Metamaterial inspired electromagnetic applications role of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the role of soft-computing-based electromagnetic computational engines in design and optimization of a wide range of electromagnetic applications. In addition to the theoretical background of metamaterials and soft-computing techniques, the book discusses novel electromagnetic applications such as tensor analysis for invisibility cloaking, metamaterial structures for cloaking applications, broadband radar absorbers, and antennas. The book will prove to be a valuable resource for academics and professionals, as well as military researchers working in the area of metamaterials.

  20. Ultra-broadband carpet cloak for transverse-electric polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ye; Xu, Su; Zhang, Runren; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hongsheng; Chen, Hua; Yu, Faxin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Magnetism is a necessity in constructing macroscopic metamaterial invisibility cloaks that are theoretically designed by transformation optics, but will generally limit the cloaking bandwidth to an impractically narrow range. To meet the broad bandwidth demand, magnetism has been fully abandoned in previous demonstrations of macroscopic carpet cloaking, whose approach, however, cannot apply to a transverse-electric (TE) polarization. To fill this gap, here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-broadband magnetic carpet cloak for the TE polarization. The cloak is made of non-resonant closed-ring metamaterials with little dispersion and the cloaking performance is confirmed with both time-domain simulation and frequency scanning measurement over a broad bandwidth corresponding to a pulse signal illumination. (paper)

  1. Ultra-broadband carpet cloak for transverse-electric polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Xu, Su; Zhang, Runren; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Hua; Gao, Fei; Yu, Faxin; Zhang, Baile; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Magnetism is a necessity in constructing macroscopic metamaterial invisibility cloaks that are theoretically designed by transformation optics, but will generally limit the cloaking bandwidth to an impractically narrow range. To meet the broad bandwidth demand, magnetism has been fully abandoned in previous demonstrations of macroscopic carpet cloaking, whose approach, however, cannot apply to a transverse-electric (TE) polarization. To fill this gap, here we experimentally demonstrate an ultra-broadband magnetic carpet cloak for the TE polarization. The cloak is made of non-resonant closed-ring metamaterials with little dispersion and the cloaking performance is confirmed with both time-domain simulation and frequency scanning measurement over a broad bandwidth corresponding to a pulse signal illumination.

  2. Nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak for electrically large conducting cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Xu, He-Xiu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-09-01

    Based on the concept of the scattering cancellation technique, we propose a nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak that can efficiently suppress the total scattering cross sections of an electrically large conducting cylinder (over one free-space wavelength). The cloaking mechanism is investigated in depth based on the Mie scattering theory and is simultaneously interpreted from the perspective of far-field bistatic scattering and near-field distributions. We remark that, unlike the perfect transformation-optics-based cloak, this nonideal cloaking technique is mainly designed to minimize simultaneously several scattering multipoles of a relatively large geometry around considerably broad bandwidth. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the antiscattering ability of the metasurface gives rise to excellent total scattering reduction of the electrically large cylinder and remarkable electric-field restoration around the cloak. The outstanding cloaking performance together with the good features of and ultralow profile, flexibility, and easy fabrication predict promising applications in the microwave frequencies.

  3. Electromagnetic field analyses of two-layer power transmission cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates and AC losses in their superconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable

  4. Magnetic light cloaking control in the marine planktonic copepod Sapphirina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Mizukawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.; Ohtsuka, S.

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the light cloaking behavior of the marine planktonic copepod Sapphirina under a magnetic field. Optical interferences in the multi-laminated guanine crystal layer beneath the dorsal body surface create a brilliant structural color, which can be almost entirely removed by changing the light reflection. In the investigation, we immersed segments of Sapphirina in seawater contained in an optical chamber. When the derived Sapphirina segments were attached to the container surface, they were inert to magnetic fields up to 300 mT. However, when the back plate segments were attached to the substrate at a point, with most of the plate floating in the seawater, the plate rotated oppositely to the applied magnetic field. In addition, the brilliant parts of the Sapphirina back plate rotated backward and forward by changing the magnetic field directions. Our experiment suggests a new model of an optical micro-electro-mechanical system that is controllable by magnetic fields.

  5. Perfectly matched layers in a divergence preserving ADI scheme for electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, C.; Adelmann, A.; Arbenz, P.

    2012-01-01

    For numerical simulations of highly relativistic and transversely accelerated charged particles including radiation fast algorithms are needed. While the radiation in particle accelerators has wavelengths in the order of 100 μm the computational domain has dimensions roughly five orders of magnitude larger resulting in very large mesh sizes. The particles are confined to a small area of this domain only. To resolve the smallest scales close to the particles subgrids are envisioned. For reasons of stability the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme by Smithe et al. [D.N. Smithe, J.R. Cary, J.A. Carlsson, Divergence preservation in the ADI algorithms for electromagnetics, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) 7289-7299] for Maxwell equations has been adopted. At the boundary of the domain absorbing boundary conditions have to be employed to prevent reflection of the radiation. In this paper we show how the divergence preserving ADI scheme has to be formulated in perfectly matched layers (PML) and compare the performance in several scenarios.

  6. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddubskaya, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Goštauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Kuzhir, P., E-mail: polina.kuzhir@gmail.com; Maksimenko, S. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I. [Open Laboratory on Experimental Micro and Nano Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 4, Sofia (Bulgaria); Biró, I. [3D Wishes, Bíró u. 44/a/2, Érd (Hungary); Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-04-07

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  7. Electromagnetic and thermal properties of three-dimensional printed multilayered nano-carbon/poly(lactic) acid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddubskaya, A.; Valynets, N.; Batrakov, K.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Kotsilkova, R.; Velichkova, H.; Petrova, I.; Biró, I.; Kertész, K.; Márk, G. I.; Horváth, Z. E.; Biró, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of light-weight material produced by 3D printing consisting of nano-carbon doped polymer layer followed by a dielectric polymer layer is proposed. We performed temperature dependent characterization and measured the electromagnetic (EM) response of the samples in the GHz and THz range. The temperature dependent structural characteristics, crystallization, and melting were observed to be strongly affected by the presence and the number of nano-carbon doped layers in the sandwich structure. The electromagnetic measurements show a great potential of such a type of periodic material for electromagnetic compatibility applications in microwave frequency range. Sandwich structures containing only two nano-carbon layers already become not transparent to the microwaves, giving an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency at the level of 8–15 dB. A sandwich consisting of one nano-carbon doped and one polymer layer is opaque for THz radiation, because of 80% of absorption. These studies serve as a basis for design and realization of specific optimal geometries of meta-surface type with the 3D printing technique, in order to reach a high level of electromagnetic interference shielding performance for real world EM cloaking and EM ecology applications.

  8. A cloaking device for transiting planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.; Teachey, Alex

    2016-06-01

    The transit method is presently the most successful planet discovery and characterization tool at our disposal. Other advanced civilizations would surely be aware of this technique and appreciate that their home planet's existence and habitability is essentially broadcast to all stars lying along their ecliptic plane. We suggest that advanced civilizations could cloak their presence, or deliberately broadcast it, through controlled laser emission. Such emission could distort the apparent shape of their transit light curves with relatively little energy, due to the collimated beam and relatively infrequent nature of transits. We estimate that humanity could cloak the Earth from Kepler-like broad-band surveys using an optical monochromatic laser array emitting a peak power of ˜30 MW for ˜10 hours per year. A chromatic cloak, effective at all wavelengths, is more challenging requiring a large array of tunable lasers with a total power of ˜250 MW. Alternatively, a civilization could cloak only the atmospheric signatures associated with biological activity on their world, such as oxygen, which is achievable with a peak laser power of just ˜160 kW per transit. Finally, we suggest that the time of transit for optical Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) is analogous to the water-hole in radio SETI, providing a clear window in which observers may expect to communicate. Accordingly, we propose that a civilization may deliberately broadcast their technological capabilities by distorting their transit to an artificial shape, which serves as both a SETI beacon and a medium for data transmission. Such signatures could be readily searched in the archival data of transit surveys.

  9. Quasi-effective medium theory for multi-layered magneto-dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genov, Dentcho A; Mundru, Pattabhiraju C

    2014-01-01

    We present a quasi-effective medium theory that determines the optical properties of multi-layered composites beyond the quasi-static limit. The proposed theory exactly reproduces the far field scattering/extinction cross sections through an iterative process in which mode-dependent quasi-effective impedances of the composite system are introduced. In the large wavelength limit our theory is consistent with the Maxwell–Garnett formalism. Possible applications in determining the hybridization particle resonances of multi-shell structures and electromagnetic cloaking are identified. (paper)

  10. Revisit the carpet cloak from optical conformal mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Xu, Yadong; Wu, Qiannan; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    The original carpet cloak [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008)] was designed by a numerical method, the quasi-conformal mapping. Therefore its refractive index profile was obtained numerically. In this letter, we propose a new carpet cloak based on the optical conformal mapping, with an analytical form of a refractive index profile, thereby facilitating future experimental designs.

  11. Experimental Verification of Plasmonic Cloaking at Microwave Frequencies with Metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Brian; Engheta, Nader; Alu, Andrea; Silveirinha, Mario G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmonic cloaking is a scattering-cancellation technique based on the local negative polarizability of metamaterials. Here we report its first experimental realization and measurement at microwave frequencies. An array of metallic fins embedded in a high-permittivity fluid has been used to create a metamaterial plasmonic shell capable of cloaking a dielectric cylinder, yielding over 75% reduction of total scattering width.

  12. Protecting Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    to the cloak are not quantified. Thus, one can only visually judge the performance of the cloaking ability of the structure. In this project, a...materials composed of only s-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E, vol. 70, p. 057605, Nov 2004. 8, 9 [25] J. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins , and W

  13. Invisibility cloaking via non-smooth transformation optics and ray tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosskey, Miles M.; Nixon, Andrew T.; Schick, Leland M.; Kovacic, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of theoretically-predicted invisibility cloaks with shapes other than spheres and cylinders, including cones and ellipsoids, as well as shapes spliced from parts of these simpler shapes. In addition, we present an example explicitly displaying the non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. We depict rays propagating through these example cloaks using ray tracing for geometric optics. - Highlights: → Theoretically-predicted conical and ellipsoidal invisibility cloaks. → Non-smooth cloaks spliced from parts of simpler shapes. → Example displaying non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. → Rays propagating through example cloaks depicted using geometric optics.

  14. Anomalous Signal Detection in ELF Band Electromagnetic Wave using Multi-layer Neural Network with Wavelet Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Akitoshi; Yasukawa, Hiroshi; Takumi, Ichi; Hata, Masayasu

    It is well known that electromagnetic waves radiated from the earth's crust are useful for predicting earthquakes. We analyze the electromagnetic waves received at the extremely low frequency band of 223Hz. These observed signals contain the seismic radiation from the earth's crust, but also include several undesired signals. Our research focuses on the signal detection technique to identify an anomalous signal corresponding to the seismic radiation in the observed signal. Conventional anomalous signal detections lack a wide applicability due to their assumptions, e.g. the digital data have to be observed at the same time or the same sensor. In order to overcome the limitation related to the observed signal, we proposed the anomalous signals detection based on a multi-layer neural network which is trained by digital data observed during a span of a day. In the neural network approach, training data do not need to be recorded at the same place or the same time. However, some noises, which have a large amplitude, are detected as the anomalous signal. This paper develops a multi-layer neural network to decrease the false detection of the anomalous signal from the electromagnetic wave. The training data for the proposed network is the decomposed signal of the observed signal during several days, since the seismic radiations are often recorded from several days to a couple of weeks. Results show that the proposed neural network is useful to achieve the accurate detection of the anomalous signal that indicates seismic activity.

  15. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of electromagnetically driven multiscale shallow layer flows: Numerical modeling and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeau, Sylvain; Ferrari, Simone; Rossi, Lionel

    2008-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations of a flow driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing are performed in order to reproduce with maximum accuracy the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) flow generated by the same multiscale forcing in the laboratory. The method presented is based on a 3D description of the flow and the electromagnetic forcing. Very good agreements between our simulations and the experiments are found both on velocity and acceleration field, this last comparison being, to our knowledge, done for the first time. Such agreement requires that both experiments and simulations are carefully performed and, more importantly, that the underlying simplification to model the experiments and the multiscale electromagnetic forcing do not introduce significant errors. The results presented in this paper differ significantly from previous 2D direct numerical simulation in which a classical linear Rayleigh friction modeling term was used to mimic the effect of the wall-normal friction. Indeed, purely 2D simulations are found to underestimate the Reynolds number and, due to the dominance of nonhomogeneous bottom friction, lead to the wrong physical mechanism. For the range of conditions presented in this paper, the Reynolds number, defined by the ratio between acceleration and viscous terms, remains the order of unity, and the Hartmann number, defined by the ratio between electromagnetic force terms and viscous terms, is about 2. The main conclusion is that 3D simulations are required to model the (3D) electromagnetic forces and the wall-normal shear. Indeed, even if the flow is quasi-2D in terms of energy, a full 3D approach is required to simulate these shallow layer flows driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing. In the range of forcing intensity investigated in this paper, these multiscale flows remain quasi-2D, with negligible energy in the wall-normal velocity component. It is also shown that the driving terms are the electromagnetic forcing and

  16. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  17. Cloaked Facebook pages: Exploring fake Islamist propaganda in social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, Johan Dam; Schou, Jannick; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    This research analyses cloaked Facebook pages that are created to spread political propaganda by cloaking a user profile and imitating the identity of a political opponent in order to spark hateful and aggressive reactions. This inquiry is pursued through a multi-sited online ethnographic case...... study of Danish Facebook pages disguised as radical Islamist pages, which provoked racist and anti-Muslim reactions as well as negative sentiments towards refugees and immigrants in Denmark in general. Drawing on Jessie Daniels’ critical insights into cloaked websites, this research furthermore analyses...

  18. Open active cloaking and illusion devices for the Laplace equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qian; Yang, Fan; Jin, Tian Yu; Mei, Zhong Lei; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose open active cloaking and illusion devices for the Laplace equation. Compared with the closed configurations of active cloaking and illusion devices, we focus on improving the distribution schemes for the controlled sources, which do not have to surround the protected object strictly. Instead, the controlled sources can be placed in several small discrete clusters, and produce the desired voltages along the controlled boundary, to actively hide or disguise the protected object. Numerical simulations are performed with satisfactory results, which are further validated by experimental measurements. The open cloaking and illusion devices have many advantages over the closed configurations in various potential applications. (paper)

  19. Graphene based metamaterials for terahertz cloaking and subwavelength imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, Seyedali

    Graphene is a two-dimensional carbon crystal that became one of the most controversial topics of research in the last few years. The intense interest in graphene stems from recent demonstrations of their potentially revolutionary electromagnetic applications -- including negative refraction, subdiffraction imaging, and even invisibility -- which have suggested a wide range of new devices for communications, sensing, and biomedicine. In addition, it has been shown that graphene is amenable to unique patterning schemes such as cutting, bending, folding, and fusion that are predicted to lead to interesting properties. A recent proposed application of graphene is in engineering the scattering properties of objects, which may be leveraged in applications such as radar-cross-section management and stealth, where it may be required to make one object look like another object or render an object completely invisible. We present the analytical formulation for the analysis of electromagnetic interaction with a finite conducting wedge covered with a cylindrically shaped nanostructured graphene metasurface, resulting in the scattering cancellation of the dominant scattering mode for all the incident and all the observation angles. Following this idea, the cylindrical graphene metasurface is utilized for cloaking of several concentric finite conducting wedges. In addition, a wedge shaped metasurface is proposed as an alternative approach for cloaking of finite wedges. The resolution of the conventional imaging lenses is restricted by the natural diffraction limit. Artificially engineered metamaterials now offer the possibility of creating a superlens that overcomes this restriction. We demonstrate that a wire medium (WM) slab loaded with graphene sheets enables the enhancement of the near field for subwavelength imaging at terahertz (THz) frequencies. The analysis is based on the nonlocal homogenization model for WM with the additional boundary condition in the connection of

  20. Electromagnetic interferometry in wavenumber and space domains in a layered earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunziker, J.W.; Slob, E.C.; Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    With interferometry applied to controlled-source electromagnetic data, the direct field and the airwave and all other effects related to the air-water interface can be suppressed in a data-driven way. Interferometry allows for retreival of the scattered field Green’s function of the subsurface or,

  1. Electromagnetic Pulse Generated by a Horizontal Electric Dipole over a Perfect Conductor Covered with a Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Juan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse due to a delta-function current excitation has been derived on the planar surface of a perfect conductor coated by a dielectric layer. The approximate expression of wave component is obtained when both the transmitting source and the receiving antennas are located on the surface of the dielectric. When the thickness of the intermediate layer is subjected to the condition of k1l<<0.6, this physical model is applied to the microstrip circuit. Analysis and computations of the wave components are carried out on the microstrip circuit, including the surface trapped wave vector which had been ignored in former studies. It is shown that the trapped-surface-wave terms should have been taken into consideration as the main contribution in total transient field in the far-field radiations.

  2. Coil response inversion for very early time modelling of helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic data and mapping of near-surface geological layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence; Auken, Esben; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2014-01-01

    Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric cu...... resolution of shallow geological layers in the depth interval 0-20 m. This is proved by comparing results from the airborne electromagnetic survey to more than 100 km of Electrical Resistivity Tomography measured with 5 m electrode spacing.......Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric...

  3. Generation of Zonal Flow and Magnetic Field by Electromagnetic Planetary Waves in the Ionospheric E-Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    We review the excitation of zonal flow and magnetic field by coupled electromagnetic (EM) ULF planetary waves in the Earth's ionospheric E layer. Coupling of different planetary low-frequency electromagnetic waves under the typical ionospheric E-layer conditions is revealed. Propagation of coupled internal-gravity-Alfvén (CIGA), coupled Rossby-Khantadze (CRK) and coupled Rossby-Alfvén-Khantadze (CRAK) waves is shown and studied. A set of appropriate nonlinear equations describing the interaction of such waves with sheared zonal flow is derived. The conclusion on the instability of short wavelength turbulence of such coupled waves with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbation of the sheared zonal flow and sheared magnetic field is inferred. This nonlinear instability's mechanism is depended on the parametric excitation of triple finite-amplitude coupled waves leading to the inverse energy cascade towards the longer wavelength. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown. Obtained growth rates are discussed for each considered coupled waves.

  4. Mantle cloaks for elliptical cylinders excited by an electric line source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Piotr Marek; Yakovlev, Alexander B.; Arslanagic, Samel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ability of surface impedance mantle cloaks for cloaking of elliptical cylinders excited by an electric line source. The exact analytical solution of the problem utilizing Mathieu functions is obtained and is used to derive optimal surface impedances to cloak a number of configu......We investigate the ability of surface impedance mantle cloaks for cloaking of elliptical cylinders excited by an electric line source. The exact analytical solution of the problem utilizing Mathieu functions is obtained and is used to derive optimal surface impedances to cloak a number...

  5. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  6. Experimental demonstration of illusion optics with ``external cloaking'' effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Guochang; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou

    2011-08-01

    A metamaterial "illusion optics" with "complementary medium" and "restoring medium" is designed by using inductor-capacitor (L-C) network medium. The unprecedented effects of "external cloaking" and "transforming one object to appear as another" are demonstrated experimentally. We also demonstrate that the non-resonant nature of the L-C network decreases the sensitivity of the "external cloaking" effect to the variation of the frequency and results in an acceptable bandwidth of the whole device.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH A HETEROGENEOUS LIQUID CRYSTAL LAYER

    OpenAIRE

    Winslow, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in technology have given way to concepts in warfare that were once constrained to the world of science fiction. In an effort to stay ahead of any potential adversarys weapons development, we must look down the path of countermeasures to high-energy electromagnetic weapons. In the attempt to engineer a material that can reduce transmitted beam intensity by the greatest factor, we look to liquid crystals. They have great potential to provide a starting point to engineer a material in o...

  8. Experiments on Active Cloaking and Illusion for Laplace Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Mei, Zhong Lei; Zhu, Shou Kui; Jin, Tian Yu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, invisibility cloaks have received a lot of attention and interest. These devices are generally classified into two types: passive and active. The design and realization of passive cloaks have been intensively studied using transformation optics and plasmonic approaches. However, active cloaks are still limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we present the first experiment on active cloaking and propose an active illusion for the Laplace equation. We make use of a resistor network to simulate a conducting medium. Then, we surround the central region with controlled sources to protect it from outside detection. We show that by dynamically changing the controlled sources, the protected region can be cloaked or disguised as different objects (illusion). Our measurement results agree very well with numerical simulations. Compared with the passive counterparts, the active cloaking and illusion devices do not need complicated metamaterials. They are flexible, in-line controllable, and adaptable to the environment. In addition to dc electricity, the proposed method can also be used for thermodynamics and other problems governed by the Laplace equation.

  9. Dependences of microstructure on electromagnetic interference shielding properties of nano-layered Ti3AlC2 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yongqiang; Luo, Heng; Zhou, Xiaosong; Peng, Shuming; Zhang, Haibin

    2018-05-21

    The microstructure dependent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of nano-layered Ti 3 AlC 2 ceramics were presented in this study by comparing the shielding properties of various Ti 3 AlC 2 ceramics with distinct microstructures. Results indicate that Ti 3 AlC 2 ceramics with dense microstructure and coarse grains are more favourable for superior EMI shielding efficiency. High EMI shielding effectiveness over 40 dB at the whole Ku-band frequency range was achieved in Ti 3 AlC 2 ceramics by microstructure optimization, and the high shielding effectiveness were well maintained up to 600 °C. A further investigation reveals that only the absorption loss displays variations upon modifying microstructure by allowing more extensive multiple reflections in coarse layered grains. Moreover, the absorption loss of Ti 3 AlC 2 was found to be much higher than those of highly conductive TiC ceramics without layered structure. These results demonstrate that nano-layered MAX phase ceramics are promising candidates of high-temperature structural EMI shielding materials and provide insightful suggestions for achieving high EMI shielding efficiency in other ceramic-based shielding materials.

  10. Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Andrew N; Amirkulova, Feruza A; Parnell, William J

    2012-01-01

    The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)

  11. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of a thin silver layer deposited onto PET film via atmospheric pressure plasma reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jun; Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the first use of a plasma reduction reaction under atmospheric pressure to fabricate a thin silver layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film without the use of toxic chemicals, high voltages, or an expensive vacuum apparatus. The developed film is applied to electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. After repeatedly depositing a silver layer through a plasma reduction reaction on PET, we can successfully fabricate a uniformly deposited thin silver layer. It was found that both the particle size and film thickness of thin silver layers fabricated at different AgNO3 concentrations increase with an increase in the concentration of AgNO3. However, the roughness of the thin silver layer decreases when increasing the concentration of AgNO3 from 100 to 500 mM, and the roughness increases with a further increase in the concentration of AgNO3. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of the film is measured in the frequency range of 0.045 to 1 GHz. As a result of optimizing the electrical conductivity by measuring sheet resistance of the thin silver layer, the film fabricated from 500 mM AgNO3 exhibits the highest EMI SE among all fabricated films. The maximum values of the EMI SE are 60.490 dB at 0.1 GHz and 54.721 dB at 1.0 GHz with minimum sheet resistance of 0.244 Ω/□. Given that the proposed strategy is simple and effective, it is promising for fabricating various low-cost metal films with high EMI SE.

  12. Three-dimensional flow in electromagnetically driven shallow two-layer fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, R.A.D.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments on a freely evolving dipolar vortex in a homogeneous shallow fluid layer have clearly shown the existence and evolution of complex three-dimensional 3D flow structures. The present contribution focuses on the 3D structures of a dipolar vortex evolving in a stable shallow two-layer

  13. Using thin metal layers on composite structures for shielding the electromagnetic pulse caused by nearby lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Damstra, G.C.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Electronic systems in composite structures could be vulnerable to the (dominant magnetic) field caused by a lightning strike, because only thin layers of metal can be used on composite structures. Thin layers result in a very low shielding effectiveness against magnetic fields. Many experiments

  14. Resonant interaction of electromagnetic wave with plasma layer and overcoming the radiocommunication blackout problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatskaya, A. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Tereshonok, M. V.; Adjemov, S. S.; Popov, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an analysis of the possibility of penetrating electromagnetic waves through opaque media using an optical-mechanical analogy. As an example, we consider the plasma sheath surrounding the vehicle as a potential barrier and analyze the overcoming of radiocommunication blackout problem. The idea is to embed a «resonator» between the surface on the vehicle and plasma sheath which is supposed to provide an effective tunneling of the signal to the receiving antenna. We discuss the peculiarities of optical mechanical analogy applicability and analyze the radio frequency wave tunneling regime in detail. The cases of normal and oblique incidence of radiofrequency waves on the vehicle surface are studied.

  15. Designing the coordinate transformation function for non-magnetic invisibility cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaofei; Feng Yijun; Zhao Lin; Jiang Tian; Lu Chunhua; Xu Zhongzi

    2008-01-01

    An optical invisibility cloak based on a transformation approach has recently been proposed by a reduced set of material properties due to their easier implementation in reality and little need for an inhomogeneous permeability distribution, but the drawback of undesired scattering caused by the impedance mismatching at the outer boundary is unavoidable in such a cloak. By properly designing the coordinate transformation function to ensure impedance matching at the outer surface, we show that the performance of a nonmagnetic cylindrical cloak could be improved with minimized scattering fields. Using either a single high order power function or an optimized piecewise continuous power function, a cylindrical non-magnetic cloak has been designed with nearly perfect cloaking performance, which is better than those generated with a linear or a quadratic function. Due to the monotonicity of the designed power functions, the resulting cloak has no restriction on the size of the cloaking shell, therefore is suitable for both thick and thin cloaking structures.

  16. Possibility of perfect concealment by lossy conventional and lossy metamaterial cylindrical invisibility cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbashi, Reza; Shahabadi, Mahmoud

    2013-12-01

    The commonly used coordinate transformation for cylindrical cloaks is generalized. This transformation is utilized to determine an anisotropic inhomogeneous diagonal material tensors of a shell type cloak for various material types, i.e., double-positive (DPS: ɛ, μ > 0), double-negative (DNG: ɛ, μ cloaking for various material types, a rigorous analysis is performed. It is shown that perfect cloaking will be achieved for same type material for the cloak and its surrounding medium. Moreover, material losses are included in the analysis to demonstrate that perfect cloaking for lossy materials can be achieved for identical loss tangent of the cloak and its surrounding material. Sensitivity of the cloaking performance to losses for different material types is also investigated. The obtained analytical results are verified using a Finite-Element computational analysis.

  17. Dispersive finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis of the elliptic cylindrical cloak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Ahn, D. [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A dispersive full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model is used to calculate the performance of elliptic cylindrical cloaking devices. The permittivity and the permeability tensors for the cloaking structure are derived by using an effective medium approach in general relativity. The elliptic cylindrical invisibility devices are found to show imperfect cloaking, and the cloaking performance is found to depend on the polarization of the incident waves, the direction of the propagation of those waves, the semi-focal distances and the loss tangents of the meta-material. When the semifocal distance of the elliptic cylinder decreases, the performance of the cloaking becomes very good, with neither noticeable scatterings nor field penetrations. For a larger semi-focal distance, only the TM wave with a specific propagation direction shows good cloaking performance. Realistic cloaking materials with loss still show a cloak that is working, but attenuated back-scattering waves exist.

  18. Bragg scattering of electromagnetic waves by microwave-produced plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    A set of parallel plasma layers is generated by two intersecting microwave pulses in a chamber containing dry air at a pressure comparable to the upper atmosphere. The dependencies of breakdown conditions on the pressure and pulse length are examined. The results are shown to be consistent with the appearance of tail erosion of the microwave pulse caused by air breakdown. A Bragg scattering experiment, using the plasma layers as a Bragg reflector, is then performed. Both time domain and frequency domain measurements of wave scattering are conducted. The experimental results are found to agree very well with the theory.

  19. Double-layer Electromagnetic Wave Absorber Based on Carbon Nanotubes Doped with La(NO33 and Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling HOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-layer structure absorbing materials based on the impedance matching principle and transmission line theory can effectively improve the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties. In this paper, the electro-magnetic wave absorbing properties of double-layer absorbers (2 mm thickness, where multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-La(NO33/polyvinyl chloride (PVC and MWCNT-Fe3O4/PVC composites had been taken turns as the absorption layer and matching layer, were investigated in 2 – 18 GHz range. The absorbing properties of single- and double-layer structure and different each-layer thickness with two types of combinations were compared. The results showed that the design of double-layer structure for composites could effectively broaden the absorption frequency area, and increase the absorption intensity. When MWCNT-La(NO33/PVC composite were used as absorption layers with 0.6 mm thickness, the absorption bandwidth (< – 15 dB or > 97 % of double-layer composite was the widest, reaching a maximum of about 3.36 GHz, and the absorption peak value was also the lowest about – 46.02 dB at 16.24 GHz.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16279

  20. Electromagnetic scattering of large structures in layered earths using integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zonghou; Tripp, Alan C.

    1995-07-01

    An electromagnetic scattering algorithm for large conductivity structures in stratified media has been developed and is based on the method of system iteration and spatial symmetry reduction using volume electric integral equations. The method of system iteration divides a structure into many substructures and solves the resulting matrix equation using a block iterative method. The block submatrices usually need to be stored on disk in order to save computer core memory. However, this requires a large disk for large structures. If the body is discretized into equal-size cells it is possible to use the spatial symmetry relations of the Green's functions to regenerate the scattering impedance matrix in each iteration, thus avoiding expensive disk storage. Numerical tests show that the system iteration converges much faster than the conventional point-wise Gauss-Seidel iterative method. The numbers of cells do not significantly affect the rate of convergency. Thus the algorithm effectively reduces the solution of the scattering problem to an order of O(N2), instead of O(N3) as with direct solvers.

  1. Invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu-Qi; Zhang Min; Yue Jian-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of phase complement, an anti-cloak with circular cross section can be made invisible to an object outside its domain. As the cloak with elliptic cross section is more effective to make objects invisible than that with circular cross section, a scaled coordinate system is proposed to design equivalent materials of invisible anti-cloak with elliptic cross section using phase complement. The cloaks with conventional dielectric and double negative parameters are both simulated with the geometrical transformations. The results show that the cloak with elliptic cross section through phase complement can effectively hide the outside objects. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. Broadband three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Qu Shaobo; Wu Xiang; Wang Jiafu; Ma Hua; Xu Zhuo

    2010-01-01

    By means of embedded optical transformation, three-dimensional diamond-shaped invisible cloaks composed of tetrahedral homogeneous blocks have been designed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the invisible cloaks can be obtained based on the form invariance of Maxwell's equations in coordinate transformation. Numerical methods using the finite element method verified the diamond-shaped cloaks. The invisible properties of the designed cloaks are nearly perfect when the original line section is sufficiently short compared with its counterpart in the after-transformed space. The designed cloaks can operate in a wide bandwidth due to the line transformation in the coordinate transformation process.

  3. New procedure to design low radar cross section near perfect isotropic and homogeneous triangular carpet cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Atlasbaf, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    A new design procedure for near perfect triangular carpet cloaks, fabricated based on only isotropic homogeneous materials, is proposed. This procedure enables us to fabricate a cloak with simple metamaterials or even without employing metamaterials. The proposed procedure together with an invasive weed optimization algorithm is used to design carpet cloaks based on quasi-isotropic metamaterial structures, Teflon and AN-73. According to the simulation results, the proposed cloaks have good invisibility properties against radar, especially monostatic radar. The procedure is a new method to derive isotropic and homogeneous parameters from transformation optics formulas so we do not need to use complicated structures to fabricate the carpet cloaks.

  4. Effect of magnetic field on nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic and surface waves in a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)

  5. Mantle cloaking for co-site radio-frequency antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Alessio, E-mail: alessio.monti@uniroma3.it; Barbuto, Mirko [“Niccolò Cusano” University, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi 3, Rome 00166 (Italy); Soric, Jason; Alù, Andrea [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Ramaccia, Davide; Vellucci, Stefano; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto [Department of Engineering, “Roma Tre” University, Via Vito Volterra 62, Rome 00146 (Italy); Trotta, Fabrizio [Antenna Department, ELETTRONICA S.p.A., Via Tiburtina Valeria Km 13700, Rome 00131 (Italy)

    2016-03-14

    We show that properly designed mantle cloaks, consisting of patterned metallic sheets placed around cylindrical monopoles, allow tightly packing the same antennas together in a highly dense telecommunication platform. Our experimental demonstration is applied to the relevant example of two cylindrical monopole radiators operating for 3G and 4G mobile communications. The two antennas are placed in close proximity, separated by 1/10 of the shorter operational wavelength, and, after cloaking, are shown to remarkably operate as if isolated in free-space. This result paves the way to unprecedented co-siting strategies for multiple antennas handling different services and installed in overcrowded platforms, such as communication towers, satellite payloads, aircrafts, or ship trees. More broadly, this work presents a significant application of cloaking technology to improve the efficiency of modern communication systems.

  6. Mantle cloaking for co-site radio-frequency antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Alessio; Barbuto, Mirko; Soric, Jason; Alù, Andrea; Ramaccia, Davide; Vellucci, Stefano; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto; Trotta, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    We show that properly designed mantle cloaks, consisting of patterned metallic sheets placed around cylindrical monopoles, allow tightly packing the same antennas together in a highly dense telecommunication platform. Our experimental demonstration is applied to the relevant example of two cylindrical monopole radiators operating for 3G and 4G mobile communications. The two antennas are placed in close proximity, separated by 1/10 of the shorter operational wavelength, and, after cloaking, are shown to remarkably operate as if isolated in free-space. This result paves the way to unprecedented co-siting strategies for multiple antennas handling different services and installed in overcrowded platforms, such as communication towers, satellite payloads, aircrafts, or ship trees. More broadly, this work presents a significant application of cloaking technology to improve the efficiency of modern communication systems.

  7. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Amra, C.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  8. A dc carpet cloak based on resistor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhong Lei; Liu, Yu Sha; Yang, Fan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-11-05

    We propose, design, and implement a two-dimensional dc carpet cloak for steady electric field using the transformation optics (TO) method. Based on the circuit theory, we introduce a resistor network to mimic the resulting anisotropic conducting medium. The experimental prototype is fabricated using metal film resistors, and the measured results agree perfectly well with theoretical predictions. This study gives the first experimental verification of a dc carpet cloak, which expands the application of TO theory, and has potential applications in related areas.

  9. Thermal invisibility based on scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-04-30

    We theoretically and numerically analyze thermal invisibility based on the concept of scattering cancellation and mantle cloaking. We show that a small object can be made completely invisible to heat diffusion waves, by tailoring the heat conductivity of the spherical shell enclosing the object. This means that the thermal scattering from the object is suppressed, and the heat flow outside the object and the cloak made of these spherical shells behaves as if the object is not present. Thermal invisibility may open new vistas in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography, military furtivity, and electronics heating reduction.

  10. Perturbation of hydration layer in solvated proteins by external electric and electromagnetic fields: Insights from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Prithwish K.; Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.

    2016-11-01

    Given the fundamental role of water in governing the biochemistry of enzymes, and in regulating their wider biological activity (e.g., by local water concentration surrounding biomolecules), the influence of extraneous electric and electromagnetic (e/m) fields thereon is of central relevance to biophysics and, more widely, biology. With the increase in levels of local and atmospheric microwave-frequency radiation present in modern life, as well as other electric-field exposure, the impact upon hydration-water layers surrounding proteins, and biomolecules generally, becomes a particularly pertinent issue. Here, we present a (non-equilibrium) molecular-dynamics-simulation study on a model protein (hen egg-white lysozyme) hydrated in water, in which we determine, inter alia, translational self-diffusivities for both hen egg-white lysozyme and its hydration layer together with relaxation dynamics of the hydrogen-bond network between the protein and its hydration-layer water molecules on a residue-per-residue basis. Crucially, we perform this analysis both above and below the dynamical-transition temperature (at ˜220 K), at 300 and 200 K, respectively, and we compare the effects of external static-electric and e/m fields with linear-response-régime (r.m.s.) intensities of 0.02 V/Å. It was found that the translational self-diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme and its hydration-water layer are increased substantially in static fields, primarily due to the induced electrophoretic motion, whilst the water-protein hydrogen-bond-network-rearrangement kinetics can also undergo rather striking accelerations, primarily due to the enhancement of a larger-amplitude local translational and rotational motion by charged and dipolar residues, which serves to promote hydrogen-bond breakage and re-formation kinetics. These external-field effects are particularly evident at 200 K, where they serve to induce the protein- and solvation-layer-response effects redolent of dynamical

  11. An optimized hybrid Convolutional Perfectly Matched Layer for efficient absorption of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Amirashkan; Zakeri, Bijan; Radkani, Nafiseh

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid technique is studied in order to improve the performance of Convolutional Perfectly Matched Layer (CPML) in the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) medium. This technique combines the first order of Higdon's annihilation equation as Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) with CPML to vanish the Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) effects at the end of the CPML region. An optimization algorithm is required to find optimum parameters of the proposed absorber. In this investigation, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is utilized with two separate objective functions in order to minimize the average and peak value of relative error. Using a standard test, the overall performance of the proposed absorber is compared to the original CPML. The results clearly illustrate this method provides approximately 10 dB enhancements in CPML absorption error. The performance, memory and time requirement of the novel absorber, hybrid CPML (H-CPML), was analyzed during 2D and 3D tests and compared to most reported PMLs. The H-CPML requirement of computer resources is similar to CPML and can simply be implemented to truncate FDTD domains. Furthermore, an optimized set of parameters are provided to generalize the hybrid method.

  12. Electromagnetic fields created by a beam in an axisymmetric infinitely thick single-layer resistive pipe: general formulas and low frequency approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Mounet, Nicolas Frank; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note provides general and approximate formulas for the electromagnetic fields created by a passing beam in an axisymmetric infinitely thick resistive pipe made of a single homogeneous layer. The full derivations and their resulting approximate expressions at low and intermediate frequencies are given here, as well as the conditions under which those approximations are valid. Beam-coupling impedances are also computed, and examples are shown.

  13. Design of a broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on a fluid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    A broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on fluid medium was designed and numerically implemented with homogeneous metamaterials according to the transformation acoustics. In the present work, fluid medium as the body of the inclusion could be tuned by changing the fluid to satisfy the variant acoustic parameters instead of redesign the whole cloak. The effective density and bulk modulus of the composite materials were designed to agree with the parameters calculated from the coordinate transformation methodology by using the effective medium theory. Numerical simulation results showed that the sound propagation and scattering signature could be controlled in the broadband ultra-large area acoustic invisibility cloak, and good cloaking performance has been achieved and physically realized with homogeneous materials. The broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloaking properties have demonstrated great potentials in the promotion of the practical applications of acoustic cloak.

  14. Full control and manipulation of heat signatures: cloaking, camouflage and thermal metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Thong, John T L; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-03-19

    Thermal camouflage and cloaking can transform an actual heat signature into a pre-controlled one. A viable recipe for controlling and manipulating heat signatures using thermal metamaterials to empower cloaking and camouflage in heat conduction is demonstrated. The thermal signature of the object is thus metamorphosed and perceived as multiple targets with different geometries and compositions, with the original object cloaked. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hiding the interior region of core-shell nanoparticles with quantum invisible cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2014-04-01

    Based on the scattering cancellation, we provide a method not only making a nanoparticle nearly invisible, but also hiding its interior region from the outside probing matter wave. By applying the interplay among the nodal points of partial waves along with the concept of streamline in fluid dynamics for probability flux, a quantum invisible cloak to the electron transport in a host semiconductor is demonstrated by simultaneously guiding the probability flux outside a hidden region and keeping the total scattering cross section negligible. As the probability flux vanishes in the interior region, one can embed any materials inside a multiple core-shell nanoparticle without affecting physical observables from the outside. Our results reveal the possibility to design a protection shield layer for fragile interior parts from the impact of transport electrons.

  16. The scattering of a cylindrical invisibility cloak: reduced parameters and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Ran, L.; Mortensen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of 2D cylindrical invisibility cloaks with simplified constitutive parameters with the assistance of scattering coefficients. We show that the scattering of the cloaks originates not only from the boundary conditions but also from the spatial variation of the component...... of permittivity/permeability. According to our formulation, we propose some restrictions to the invisibility cloak in order to minimize its scattering after the simplification has taken place. With our theoretical analysis, it is possible to design a simplified cloak using some peculiar composites...

  17. Magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of ferrite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Youwen

    2015-02-01

    A magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of the isotropic and homogeneous ferrite material has been investigated based on the scattering cancellation method from the Mie scattering theory. The analytical and simulated results have demonstrated that such this shell can drastically reduce the total scattering cross-section of this cloaking system at multiple frequencies. These multiple cloaking frequencies of this shell can be externally controlled since the magnetic permeability of ferrites is well tuned by the applied magnetic field. This may provide a potential way to design a tunable multifrequency invisibility cloak with considerable flexibility.

  18. Temperature controlled infrared broadband cloaking with the bilayer coatings of semiconductor and superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224051 (China); Liu, Youwen, E-mail: ywliu@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Feng, Yuncai [College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We first propose that the cloak is composed of the bilayer of semiconductor and superconductor. • We realize the infrared broadband cloaking based on the scattering cancellation method. • The cloaking frequency can be tuned by external temperature. - Abstract: The infrared broadband tunable cloaking have been proposed and investigated with the bilayer coating materials of semiconductor (n-Ge) and high-temperature superconductor (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}), whose cloaking frequency can be controlled by external temperature. The analytical solution is derived based on the scattering cancellation cloaking technique from the Mie scattering theory, and the full-wave numerical simulation is performed by the finite element method. The calculated and simulated results have demonstrated that this invisibility cloak may reduce the total scattering cross section of the composite structure of 90% over a broad frequency band of nearly 20 THz, and the infrared cloaking frequency can be tuned by the external temperature. It can provide a feasible way to design a broadband tunable cloak.

  19. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomás

    2009-01-02

    Invisibility and negative refraction are both applications of transformation optics where the material of a device performs a coordinate transformation for electromagnetic fields. The device creates the illusion that light propagates through empty flat space, whereas in physical space, light is bent around a hidden interior or seems to run backward in space or time. All of the previous proposals for invisibility require materials with extreme properties. Here we show that transformation optics of a curved, non-Euclidean space (such as the surface of a virtual sphere) relax these requirements and can lead to invisibility in a broad band of the spectrum.

  20. A Distance Bounding Protocol for Location-Cloaked Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Martínez, Cristián; Galdames, Patricio; Duran-Faundez, Cristian

    2018-04-26

    Location-based services (LBSs) assume that users are willing to release trustworthy and useful details about their whereabouts. However, many location privacy concerns have arisen. For location privacy protection, several algorithms build a cloaking region to hide a user’s location. However, many applications may not operate adequately on cloaked locations. For example, a traditional distance bounding protocol (DBP)—which is run by two nodes called the prover and the verifier—may conclude an untight and useless distance between these two entities. An LBS (verifier) may use this distance as a metric of usefulness and trustworthiness of the location claimed by the user (prover). However, we show that if a tight distance is desired, traditional DBP can refine a user’s cloaked location and compromise its location privacy. To find a proper balance, we propose a location-privacy-aware DBP protocol. Our solution consists of adding some small delays before submitting any user’s response. We show that several issues arise when a certain delay is chosen, and we propose some solutions. The effectiveness of our techniques in balancing location refinement and utility is demonstrated through simulation.

  1. A Distance Bounding Protocol for Location-Cloaked Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Molina-Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Location-based services (LBSs assume that users are willing to release trustworthy and useful details about their whereabouts. However, many location privacy concerns have arisen. For location privacy protection, several algorithms build a cloaking region to hide a user’s location. However, many applications may not operate adequately on cloaked locations. For example, a traditional distance bounding protocol (DBP—which is run by two nodes called the prover and the verifier—may conclude an untight and useless distance between these two entities. An LBS (verifier may use this distance as a metric of usefulness and trustworthiness of the location claimed by the user (prover. However, we show that if a tight distance is desired, traditional DBP can refine a user’s cloaked location and compromise its location privacy. To find a proper balance, we propose a location-privacy-aware DBP protocol. Our solution consists of adding some small delays before submitting any user’s response. We show that several issues arise when a certain delay is chosen, and we propose some solutions. The effectiveness of our techniques in balancing location refinement and utility is demonstrated through simulation.

  2. Prospects for poor-man's cloaking with low-contrast all-dielectric optical elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Sigmund, Ole; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for low-contrast all-dielectric cloaking and offer a simple picture illustrating the basic obstacle for perfect cloaking without materials with an effective double-negative response. However, the same simple picture also gives directions for less perfect designs allowing ......-lens arrays perform in the opposite limit with L l...

  3. Metasurface Cloak Performance Near-by Multiple Line Sources and PEC Cylindrical Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Yatman, William H.; Pehrson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The performance/robustness of metasurface cloaks to a complex field environment which may represent a realistic scenario of radiating sources is presently reported. Attention is devoted to the cloak operation near-by multiple line sources and multiple perfectly electrically conducting cylinders. ...

  4. A self-assembled three-dimensional cloak in the visible

    KAUST Repository

    Mühlig, Stefan

    2013-08-07

    An invisibility cloak has been designed, realized and characterized. The cloak hides free-standing sub-wavelength three-dimensional objects at the short wavelength edge of the visible spectrum. By a bottom-up approach the cloak was self-assembled around the object. Such fabrication approach constitutes a further important step towards real world applications of cloaking; leaving the realm of curiosity. The cloak and the way it was fabricated opens an avenue for many spectacular nanooptical applications such as non-disturbing sensors and photo-detectors, highly efficient solar cells, or optical nanoantenna arrays with strongly suppressed cross-talk to mention only a few. Our results rely on the successful combination of concepts from various disciplines, i.e. chemistry, material science, and plasmonics. Consequently, this work will stimulate these fields by unraveling new paths for future research.

  5. A self-assembled three-dimensional cloak in the visible

    KAUST Repository

    Mü hlig, Stefan; Cunningham, Alastair; Dintinger, José ; Farhat, Mohamed; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Scharf, Toralf; Bü rgi, Thomas; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    An invisibility cloak has been designed, realized and characterized. The cloak hides free-standing sub-wavelength three-dimensional objects at the short wavelength edge of the visible spectrum. By a bottom-up approach the cloak was self-assembled around the object. Such fabrication approach constitutes a further important step towards real world applications of cloaking; leaving the realm of curiosity. The cloak and the way it was fabricated opens an avenue for many spectacular nanooptical applications such as non-disturbing sensors and photo-detectors, highly efficient solar cells, or optical nanoantenna arrays with strongly suppressed cross-talk to mention only a few. Our results rely on the successful combination of concepts from various disciplines, i.e. chemistry, material science, and plasmonics. Consequently, this work will stimulate these fields by unraveling new paths for future research.

  6. Invisibility problem in acoustics, electromagnetism and heat transfer. Inverse design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, G.; Tokhtina, A.; Soboleva, O.

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches (direct design and inverse design methods) for solving problems of designing devices providing invisibility of material bodies of detection using different physical fields - electromagnetic, acoustic and static are discussed. The second method is applied for solving problems of designing cloaking devices for the 3D stationary thermal scattering model. Based on this method the design problems under study are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and tangential heat conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium filling the thermal cloak and the density of auxiliary heat sources play the role of controls. A unique solvability of direct thermal scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and numerical algorithms for solving particular thermal cloaking problem are proposed.

  7. Electromagnetic modeling of waveguide amplifier based on Nd3+ Si-rich SiO2 layers by means of the ADE-FDTD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufour Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of ADE-FDTD method, this paper investigates the electromagnetic modelling of a rib-loaded waveguide composed of a Nd3+ doped Silicon Rich Silicon Oxide active layer sandwiched between a SiO2 bottom cladding and a SiO2 rib. The Auxilliary Differential Equations are the rate equations which govern the levels populations. The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD scheme is used to solve the space and time dependent Maxwell equations which describe the electromagnetic field in a copropagating scheme of both pumping (λ pump = 488 nm and signal (λ signal = 1064 nm waves. Such systems are characterized by extremely different specific times such as the period of electromagnetic field ~ 10-15 s and the lifetimes of the electronic levels between ~ 10-10s and ~ 10-4 s. The time scaling method is used in addition to specific initial conditions in order to decrease the computational time. We show maps of the Poynting vector along the propagation direction as a function of the silicon nanograin (Si-ng concentrations. A threshold value of 1024 Si-ng m-3 is extracted below which the pump wave can propagate so that a signal amplication is possible.

  8. Electromagnetic modeling of waveguide amplifier based on Nd3+ Si-rich SiO2 layers by means of the ADE-FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christian; Cardin, Julien; Debieu, Olivier; Fafin, Alexandre; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2011-04-04

    By means of ADE-FDTD method, this paper investigates the electromagnetic modelling of a rib-loaded waveguide composed of a Nd3+ doped Silicon Rich Silicon Oxide active layer sandwiched between a SiO2 bottom cladding and a SiO2 rib. The Auxilliary Differential Equations are the rate equations which govern the levels populations. The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) scheme is used to solve the space and time dependent Maxwell equations which describe the electromagnetic field in a copropagating scheme of both pumping (λpump = 488 nm) and signal (λsignal = 1064 nm) waves. Such systems are characterized by extremely different specific times such as the period of electromagnetic field ~ 10-15 s and the lifetimes of the electronic levels between ~ 10-10s and ~ 10-4 s. The time scaling method is used in addition to specific initial conditions in order to decrease the computational time. We show maps of the Poynting vector along the propagation direction as a function of the silicon nanograin (Si-ng) concentrations. A threshold value of 1024 Si-ng m-3 is extracted below which the pump wave can propagate so that a signal amplication is possible.

  9. Design and analysis of the trapeziform and flat acoustic cloaks with controllable invisibility performance in a quasi-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, implementation and detailed performance analysis for a class of trapeziform and flat acoustic cloaks. An effective large invisible area is obtained compared with the traditional carpet cloak. The cloaks are realized with homogeneous metamaterials which are made of periodic arrangements of subwavelength unit cells composed of steel embedded in air. The microstructures and its effective parameters of the cloaks are determined quickly and precisely in a broadband frequency range by using the effective medium theory and the proposed parameters optimization method. The invisibility capability of the cloaks can be controlled by the variation of the key design parameters and scale factor which are proved to have more influence on the performance in the near field than that in the far field. Different designs are suitable for different application situations. Good cloaking performance demonstrates that such a device can be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of invisibility cloak.

  10. Achieving bifunctional cloak via combination of passive and active schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chuwen; Bi, Ke; Gao, Zehua; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a simple and delicate approach to realizing manipulation of multi-physics field simultaneously through combination of passive and active schemes is proposed. In the design, one physical field is manipulated with passive scheme while the other with active scheme. As a proof of this concept, a bifunctional device is designed and fabricated to behave as electric and thermal invisibility cloak simultaneously. It is found that the experimental results are consistent with the simulated ones well, confirming the feasibility of our method. Furthermore, the proposed method could also be extended to other multi-physics fields, which might lead to potential applications in thermal, electric, and acoustic areas.

  11. Horizontal cloaking and vertical reflection by transformation acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation shows that if an acoustic metamaterial bounded by an external rectangle and an internal circular cavity is properly engineered by a set of transformation equations that satisfy certain requirements, it can virtually cloak an object against incoming acoustic waves in one direction and make an incoming wave along the orthogonal direction reflected by an object located inside its inner cavity. The specific transformation equations realizing the metamaterial are suggested and an analysis is carried out to investigate the wave phenomena taking place along the cavity boundary.

  12. Spherical and cylindrical particle resonator as a cloak system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.; Eremeev, A. I.; Tseplyaev, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The concept of dielectric spherical or cylindrical particle in resonant mode as a cloak system is offered. In fundamental modes (modes with the smallest volume correspond to |m| = l, and s = 1) the field is concentrated mostly in the equatorial plane and at the surface of the sphere. Thus under resonance modes, such perturbation due to cuboid particle inserted in the spherical or cylindrical particle has almost no effect on the field forming resonance regardless of the value of internal particle material (defect) as long as this material does not cover the region where resonance takes place.

  13. Broadband unidirectional acoustic cloak based on phase gradient metasurfaces with two flat acoustic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le; Chen, Tian-Ning; Song, Ai-Ling; Wang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Narrow bandwidth and bulky configuration are the main obstacles for the realization and application of invisible cloaks. In this paper, we present an effective method to achieve broadband and thin acoustic cloak by using an acoustic metasurface (AMS). In order to realize this cloak, we use slitted unit cells to design the AMS due to the advantage of less energy loss, broad operation bandwidth, and subwavelength thickness. According to the hyperboloidal phase profile along the AMS, the incident plane waves can be focused at a designed focal spot by the flat lens. Furthermore, broadband acoustic cloak is obtained by combining two identical flat lenses. The incident plane waves are focused at the center point in between of the two lenses by passing through one lens, and then recovered by passing through the other one. However, they cannot reach the cloaked regions in between of the two lenses. The simulation results can verify the non-detectability effect of the acoustic cloak. Our study results provide an available and simple approach to experimentally achieve the acoustic cloak, which can be used in acoustic non-detectability for large objects.

  14. Lossless acoustic half-bipolar cylindrical cloak with negative-index metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Y.; Ahn, Doyeol

    2018-05-01

    A lossless acoustic half-bipolar cylindrical cloak that has an exposed bottom is considered. Here, we show that a cloak that includes a complementary region including a negative-index medium inside of the cloaking shell works in the illumination direction independently even in the presence of the exposed bottom of the structure. This is due to the fact that the phase velocity of the wave in the normal direction can be cancelled in the presence of a boundary containing a negative-index medium that reduces scattering significantly.

  15. Experimental verification of three-dimensional plasmonic cloaking in free-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, D; Kerkhoff, A; Melin, K; Soric, J C; Moreno, G; Alù, A

    2012-01-01

    We report the experimental verification of metamaterial cloaking for a 3D object in free space. We apply the plasmonic cloaking technique, based on scattering cancellation, to suppress microwave scattering from a finite-length dielectric cylinder. We verify that scattering suppression is obtained all around the object in the near- and far-field and for different incidence angles, validating our measurements with analytical results and full-wave simulations. Our near-field and far-field measurements confirm that realistic and robust plasmonic metamaterial cloaks may be realized for elongated 3D objects with moderate transverse cross-section at microwave frequencies. (paper)

  16. Transformation-based spherical cloaks designed by an implicit transformation-independent method: theory and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, C-W; Zouhdi, Said

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of the cloak generating function, we propose an implicit transformation-independent method for the required parameters of spherical cloaks without knowing the needed coordinate transformation beforehand. A non-ideal discrete model is used to calculate and optimize the total scattering cross-sections of different profiles of the generating function. A bell-shaped quadratic spherical cloak is found to be the best candidate, which is further optimized by controlling the design parameters involved. Such improved invisibility is steady even when the model is highly discretized.

  17. Full three-dimensional isotropic carpet cloak designed by quasi-conformal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniely G; Teixeira, Poliane A; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2017-09-18

    A fully three-dimensional carpet cloak presenting invisibility in all viewing angles is theoretically demonstrated. The design is developed using transformation optics and three-dimensional quasi-conformal mapping. Parametrization strategy and numerical optimization of the coordinate transformation deploying a quasi-Newton method is applied. A discussion about the minimum achievable anisotropy in the 3D transformation optics is presented. The method allows to reduce the anisotropy in the cloak and an isotropic medium could be considered. Numerical simulations confirm the strategy employed enabling the design of an isotropic reflectionless broadband carpet cloak independently of the incident light direction and polarization.

  18. The role of matching thickness on the wideband electromagnetic wave suppresser using single layer doped barium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams Alam, Reza; Kavosh Tehrani, Masoud; Moradi, Mahmood; Hosseinpour, Ehsaneh; Sharbati, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Mg 2+ , Co 2+ and Ti 4+ substitution on microwave absorption has been studied for BaMg 0.5 Co 0.5 Ti 1.0 Fe 10 O 19 ferrite-acrylic resin composite in frequency range from 13 to 20 GHz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vector network analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were employed to analyze structure, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of prepared ferrite. The obtained results of reflectivity demonstrate that by varying matching thickness along with weight percentage of ferrite to acrylic resin, the bandwidth coupled with reflection loss values of prepared composites can be easily tuned. Based on microwave measurement on reflectivity, it is found that BaMg 0.5 Co 0.5 Ti 1.0 Fe 10 O 19 is a good candidate for wideband electromagnetic compatibility and other practical applications at high frequency. - Research highlights: → In our previous paper, the microwave attenuation properties of doped ferrites were evaluated. → Here we deal with the new substitution in barium ferrite which can easily tune the bandwidth of the reflection loss properties. → To the best of knowledge, this is a so simple composition which can offer practical applications in the field.

  19. Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Slab Waveguide Structure Consisting of Chiral Nihility Claddings and Negative-Index Material Core Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Alaa N. Abu; Taya, Sofyan A.; Elwasife, Khitam Y.

    2018-06-01

    The dispersion equation of an asymmetric three-layer slab waveguide, in which all layers are chiral materials is presented. Then, the dispersion equation of a symmetric slab waveguide, in which the claddings are chiral materials and the core layer is negative index material, is derived. Normalized cut-off frequencies, field profile, and energies flow of right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized modes are derived and plotted. We consider both odd and even guided modes. Numerical results of guided low-order modes are provided. Some novel features, such as abnormal dispersion curves, are found.

  20. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  1. Characterization of the electromagnetic near-field absorption in layered biological tissue in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 6000 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Samaras, T [Radiocommunications Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Klingenboeck, A [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Kuster, N [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-07

    Currently, standards for the compliance testing of wireless devices are being extended to cover a wider frequency band and different usage patterns of mobile phones as well as of novel body-worn and handheld devices. As a consequence, not only the head but also strongly varying tissue distributions of the body are exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Several authors have reported changes in the SAR absorption of body tissue due to the presence of a low permittivity fat layer. This paper identifies two different effects which can lead to increased SAR in layered tissue in comparison to the SAR assessed using homogeneous tissue simulating liquid: (1) for larger distances between the tissue and the antenna, standing wave effects occur depending on the frequency and fat layer thickness. (2) In the very close near-field (distances approximately {lambda}/40), reactive E-field components lead to high local absorption in the skin. The latter effect occurs at lower frequencies and depends on the antenna type. Modification of the parameters of the homogeneous liquids cannot compensate for these effects. However, a conservative exposure estimate can be obtained by applying a multiplication factor between 1 and 3 to the values assessed using current experimental dosimetric techniques.

  2. The scattering of a cylindrical invisibility cloak: reduced parameters and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L; Mortensen, N A; Ran, L

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of 2D cylindrical invisibility cloaks with simplified constitutive parameters with the assistance of scattering coefficients. We show that the scattering of the cloaks originates not only from the boundary conditions but also from the spatial variation of the component of permittivity/permeability. According to our formulation, we propose some restrictions to the invisibility cloak in order to minimize its scattering after the simplification has taken place. With our theoretical analysis, it is possible to design a simplified cloak using some peculiar composites such as photonic crystals which mimic an effective refractive index landscape rather than offering effective constitutives, meanwhile cancelling the scattering from the inner and outer boundaries.

  3. Schiffer's Conjecture, Interior Transmission Eigenvalues and Invisibility Cloaking: Singular Problem vs. Nonsingular Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we present some interesting observations on the Schiffer's conjecture, interior transmission eigenvalue problem and their connections to singular and nonsingular invisibility cloaking problems of acoustic waves.

  4. Resolution of anisotropic and shielded highly conductive layers using 2-D electromagnetic modelling in the Rhine Graben and Black Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezkan, Bülent; Červ, Václav; Pek, Josef

    1992-12-01

    Anisotropy in magnetotelluric (MT) data has been found very often and has been explained as the result of local structures of different conductivities. In this paper, an observed anisotropy in MT data is not interpreted qualitatively in terms of local structures but is modelled quantitatively by a quasi-anisotropic layer. Besides the MT transfer functions, measurements of the vertical magnetic component are required. The second goal of this paper is to describe a method which permits the resolution of mid-crustal conductive layers in the presence of an additional high-conductivity layer at the surface. This method is possible in a two-dimensional (2-D) situation that limits the spatial extension of the surface structure. Again, vertical magnetic field recordings are necessary, but the phase of the E-polarization with respect to the 2-D structure is the most sensitive parameter. Using two field sites in Southern Germany, it has been possible to give a quantitative explanation of anisotropy and an improved depth resolution, and to derive an integrated conductivity of the highly conductive mid-crustal layers using MT and geomagnetic depth sounding data. The anisotropic highly conductive layer is located 12 km beneath the poorly conductive Black Forest crystalline rocks, whereas it is at a depth of 6 km beneath the highly conductive Rhine Graben sediments.

  5. Electromagnetic Modeling of the Propagation Characteristics of Satellite Communications Through Composite Precipitation Layers, Part1: Mathematical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Al-Rizzo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic and general formulation of a Propagation Simulation Program (PSP is developed for the coherent field of microwave and millimeter wave carrier signals traversing intermediate layered precipitation media, taking into account the random behavior of particle size, orientation, shape and concentration distributions.  Based on a rigorous solution of the volumetric multiple-scattering integral equations, the formalism offers the capability of treating the potential transmission impairments on satellite-earth links and radar remote sensing generated by composite atmospheric layers of precipitation in conjunction with the finite polarization isolation of dual-polarized transmitting and receiving antennas. A multi-layered formulation is employed which encompasses an ensemble of discrete particles comprising an arbitrary mixture of ice crystals, melting snow and raindrops that may exist simultaneously along satellite-earth communication paths.

  6. OPTICAL ILLUSION DESIGN BASED ON FOUR CONVEX LENSES SYSTEM AND CLOAKING AREA CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Sugiarto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A set up of optical illusion based on 4f system and characterization of cloaking area have been carried out. The cloaking area is an area where the object is placed on the area as if it disappears from view; the set-up of cloaking area is located at the top of the third lens. The distance between the lens and the cloaking, which is generated from 4f system, depends on the size of the focal point and the size of the lens used. The larger the focal point of the lens used the wider the distance between the lenses and the larger the size of the diameter of the lens, the cloaking range will be increasingly wide, and vice versa. From the experimental results that we obtained that the cloaking area for set up using FL (focusing lens 100, 50, 50 and 100 mm with a diameter of 3.6 cm lens is ± 2 cm, whereas for the set up using lens FL 150, 100, 100 and 150 mm with lens diameter 2.54 cm is ± 1 cm.

  7. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  8. Extinction cross-section suppression and active acoustic invisibility cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-10-01

    Invisibility in its canonical form requires rendering a zero extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from an active or a passive object. This work demonstrates the successful theoretical realization of this physical effect for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic body, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a flat rigid boundary. Radiating, amplification and extinction cross-sections of the active source are defined. Assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source, conditions are found where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes, achieving total invisibility with minimal influence of the source size. It also takes positive or negative values, depending on its size and distance from the boundary. Moreover, the amplification energy efficiency factor is negative for the acoustically-active source. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility.

  9. Extinction cross-section suppression and active acoustic invisibility cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, F G

    2017-01-01

    Invisibility in its canonical form requires rendering a zero extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from an active or a passive object. This work demonstrates the successful theoretical realization of this physical effect for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic body, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a flat rigid boundary. Radiating, amplification and extinction cross-sections of the active source are defined. Assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source, conditions are found where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes, achieving total invisibility with minimal influence of the source size. It also takes positive or negative values, depending on its size and distance from the boundary. Moreover, the amplification energy efficiency factor is negative for the acoustically-active source. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility. (letter)

  10. Tunable Graphene Metasurface Reflectarray for Cloaking, Illusion, and Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta Romen; Gutiérrez, Cristian E.; Nemilentsau, Andrei; Lee, In-Ho; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Avouris, Phaedon; Low, Tony

    2018-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. We present a graphene-based metasurface that can be actively tuned between different regimes of operation, such as anomalous beam steering and focusing, cloaking, and illusion optics, by applying electrostatic gating without modifying the geometry of the metasurface. The metasurface is designed by placing graphene ribbons on a dielectric cavity resonator, where interplay between geometric plasmon resonances in the ribbons and Fabry-Perot resonances in the cavity is used to achieve a 2 π phase shift. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the wave front of the field reflected from a triangular bump covered by the metasurface can be tuned by applying electric bias so as to resemble that of a bare plane and of a spherical object. Moreover, reflective focusing and the change of the reflection direction for the above mentioned cases are also shown.

  11. Partial elastodynamic cloaking by means of fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, P; Wall, David J N

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that if inextensible fibers are embedded in an elastic material (or the material is by some other means made considerably stiffer in a particular but possibly variable direction), one may obtain equations of motion which are form invariant under certain diffeomorphism, allowing for partial cloaking (or 'illusion optics') schemes in both 2D and 3D. The schemes are valid at all frequencies without requiring any active material properties, and will thus work in the time domain without requiring active materials. While being mathematically exact at all frequencies, the applicability is of course limited to where the continuum approximation holds. Additional limits, set by idealization in the modeling of fibers and core material, are also present. However, contrary to some other approaches, the solution does not require metamaterials with non-scalar mass densities, nor does it require the breaking of the supersymmetry of the elasticity tensor

  12. Partial elastodynamic cloaking by means of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, P.; Wall, David J. N.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we show that if inextensible fibers are embedded in an elastic material (or the material is by some other means made considerably stiffer in a particular but possibly variable direction), one may obtain equations of motion which are form invariant under certain diffeomorphism, allowing for partial cloaking (or 'illusion optics') schemes in both 2D and 3D. The schemes are valid at all frequencies without requiring any active material properties, and will thus work in the time domain without requiring active materials. While being mathematically exact at all frequencies, the applicability is of course limited to where the continuum approximation holds. Additional limits, set by idealization in the modeling of fibers and core material, are also present. However, contrary to some other approaches, the solution does not require metamaterials with non-scalar mass densities, nor does it require the breaking of the supersymmetry of the elasticity tensor.

  13. Improving the Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties of the Layered MoS2 by Cladding with Ni Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zilong; Wang, Zilin; Heng, Liuyang; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Xiqiao; Fu, Xiquan; Zou, Yanhong; Tang, Zhixiang

    2018-05-01

    MoS2 is a promising material with microwave absorption performance due to its high dielectric properties and low density. However, pure MoS2 is non-magnetic and has a bad impedance matching characteristic. In this study we prepared the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites by cladding the MoS2 micrometer slices with magnetic Ni nanoparticles. Our results show that the microwave absorption properties of Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites have been improved obviously compared with the pure MoS2. Because of the introduction of Ni particles, the permeability of the nanocomposites has been turned from one to a complex, indicating a newly added magnetic loss. Meanwhile, the big gap between the permittivity and permeability of the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites has been properly narrowed, which suggests an improved impedance matching. Moreover, the dielectric Cole-Cole semicircle shows that there are more Debye relaxation processes for the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites, which further enhances the dielectric loss. Due to its improved electromagnetic properties, the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites with 60 wt % loading reaches -55 dB and the absorption bandwidth (<-10 dB) is up to 4.0 GHz (10.8-14.8 GHz) with a matching thickness of 1.5 mm. The results provide an excellent candidate for microwave absorbing materials with a broad effective absorption bandwidth at thin thicknesses.

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of thin layer PVDF composites using MWCNT reinforcement: Mechanical, electrical and enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Bhaskara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Radar X-band electromagnetic interference shielding (EMS is one of the prime requirements for any air vehicle coating; with limitations on the balance between strength and thickness of the EMS material. Nanocomposite of multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes (MWCNT has been homogeneously integrated (0 – 9 wt% with polymer, poly (vinylidene fluoride, PVDF to yield 300 micron film. The PVDF + 9 wt% MWCNT sample of density 1.41 g/cm3 show specific shielding effectiveness (SSE of 17.7 dB/(g/cm3 (99.6% EMS, with maintained hardness and improved conductivity. With multilayer stacking (900 microns of these films of density 1.37 g/cm3, the sample showed increase in SSE to 23.3 dB/(g/cm3 (99.93% EMS. Uniform dispersion of MWCNTs in the PVDF matrix gives rise to increased conductivity in the sample beyond 5 wt% MWCNT reinforcement. The results are correlated to the hardness, reflection loss, absorption loss, percolation threshold, permittivity and the conductivity data. An extremely thin film with maximum EMS property is hence proposed.

  15. Modeling of Uneven Flow and Electromagnetic Field Parameters in the Combustion Chamber of Liquid Rocket Engine with a Near-wall Layer Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns modeling of an uneven flow and electromagnetic field parameters in the combustion chamber of the liquid rocket engine with a near-wall layer available.The research objective was to evaluate quantitatively influence of changing model chamber mode of the liquid rocket engine on the electro-physical characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel combustion by-products.The main method of research was based on development of a final element model of the flowing path of the rocket engine chamber and its adaptation to the boundary conditions.The paper presents a developed two-dimensional non-stationary mathematical model of electro-physical processes in the liquid rocket engine chamber using hydrocarbon fuel. The model takes into consideration the features of a gas-dynamic contour of the engine chamber and property of thermo-gas-dynamic characteristics of the ionized products of combustion of hydrocarbonic fuel. Distributions of magnetic field intensity and electric conductivity received and analyzed taking into account a low-temperature near-wall layer. Special attention is paid to comparison of obtained calculation values of the electric current, which is taken out from intrachamber space of the engine with earlier published data of other authors.

  16. Design of Circular, Square, Single, and Multi-layer Induction Coils for Electromagnetic Priming Using Inductance Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Robert; Kennedy, Mark W.; Aune, Ragnhild E.

    2018-02-01

    Special induction coils used for electro magnetic priming of ceramic foam filters in liquid metal filtration have been designed using a combination of analytical and finite element modeling. Relatively simple empirical equations published by Wheeler in 1928 and 1982 have been used during the design process. The equations were found to accurately predict the z-component of the magnetic flux densities of both single- and multi-layer coils as verified both experimentally and by using COMSOL® 5.1 multiphysics simulations.

  17. Effect of shear stress on electromagnetic behaviors in superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Huadong; Zhao, Meng; Jing, Ze; Zhou, Youhe

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic response and shielding behaviour of superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure are studied. The magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnetic materials is also considered. Based on the linear piezomagnetic coupling model and anti-plane shear deformation, the current density and magnetic field in superconducting strip are obtained firstly. The effect of shear stress on the magnetization of strip is discussed. Then, we consider the magnetic cloak for superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure. The magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic material is obtained for perfect cloaking in uniform magnetic field with magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnet. The simulation results show that the electromagnetic response in superconductors will change by applying the stress only to the ferromagnetic material. In addition, the performance of invisibility of structure for non-uniform field will be affected by mechanical stress. It may provide a method to achieve tunability of superconducting properties with mechanical loadings.

  18. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  19. Combined Approach for Solving the Electromagnetic Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    boundary. For example, in electromagnetic induction imaging, it is the magnetic ... Applications of electromagnetic .... The first integral is referred to as a single layer potential and is continuous across ..... Scattering Theory, 2nd ed., Springer.

  20. Uniform Fe3O4 coating on flower-like ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Huang, Xianqin; Zhao, Haonan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Yu, Lei; Peng, Xiange; Qin, Yong

    2015-11-21

    An elegant atomic layer deposition (ALD) method has been employed for controllable preparation of a uniform Fe3O4-coated ZnO (ZnO@Fe3O4) core-shell flower-like nanostructure. The Fe3O4 coating thickness of the ZnO@Fe3O4 nanostructure can be tuned by varying the cycle number of ALD Fe2O3. When serving as additives for microwave absorption, the ZnO@Fe3O4-paraffin composites exhibit a higher absorption capacity than the ZnO-paraffin composites. For ZnO@500-Fe3O4, the effective absorption bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 5.2 GHz and the RL values below -20 dB also cover a wide frequency range of 11.6-14.2 GHz when the coating thickness is 2.3 mm, suggesting its potential application in the treatment of the electromagnetic pollution problem. On the basis of experimental observations, a mechanism has been proposed to understand the enhanced microwave absorption properties of the ZnO@Fe3O4 composites.

  1. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  2. DIFFUSION OF THE PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD INTO THE MULTI-LAYER CORE OF INDUCTOR AT PULSED DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr T. Chemerys

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  The problem of the pulsed magnetic field distribution in the cross section of the inductor core at the induction accelerator of electron beam is under consideration in this paper. Owing to multi-layer structure of the core package it has the magnetic and electric anisotropy with different speed of the field diffusion along the sheets of magnetic and across the sheets. At the pulse duration less than one microsecond the essential non-uniformity of the field along both axes of the core cross section can be found. This effect reduces the efficiency of the ferromagnetic material using with corresponding loss of the accelerator efficiency. The main conclusion of the paper consists of the necessity to check the field diffusion characteristics in the process of inductor design to be sure that the pulsed field is able to fill the cross section of the core during the pulse switching. The magnetic characteristics of the anisotropic core have been investigated in the paper by one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulation in the quasi-stationary approximation using the traditional equation of the field diffusion.

  3. Electrostatic cloaking of surface structure for dynamic wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Junichiro; Nita, Satoshi; Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Yu-Chung; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic wetting problems are fundamental to the understanding of the interaction between liquids and solids. Even in a superficially simple experimental situation, such as a droplet spreading over a dry surface, the result may depend not only on the liquid properties but also strongly on the substrate-surface properties; even for macroscopically smooth surfaces, the microscopic geometrical roughness can be important. In addition, as surfaces may often be naturally charged, or electric fields are used to manipulate fluids, electric effects are crucial components that influence wetting phenomena. Here we investigate the interplay between electric forces and surface structures in dynamic wetting. While surface microstructures can significantly hinder the spreading, we find that the electrostatics can ``cloak'' the microstructures, i.e. deactivate the hindering. We identify the physics in terms of reduction in contact-line friction, which makes the dynamic wetting inertial force dominant and insensitive to the substrate properties. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, and the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

  4. Infrared Cloaking, Stealth, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Sheehan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Infrared signature management (IRSM has been a primary aeronautical concern for over 50 years. Most strategies and technologies are limited by the second law of thermodynamics. In this article, IRSM is considered in light of theoretical developments over the last 15 years that have put the absolute status of the second law into doubt and that might open the door to a new class of broadband IR stealth and cloaking techniques. Following a brief overview of IRSM and its current thermodynamic limitations, theoretical and experimental challenges to the second law are reviewed. One proposal is treated in detail: a high power density, solid-state power source to convert thermal energy into electrical or chemical energy. Next, second-law based infrared signature management (SL-IRSM strategies are considered for two representative military scenarios: an underground installation and a SL-based jet engine. It is found that SL-IRSM could be technologically disruptive across the full spectrum of IRSM modalities, including camouflage, surveillance, night vision, target acquisition, tracking, and homing.

  5. Realization of a thermal cloak-concentrator using a metamaterial transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Peng; Chen, Po-Jung; Huang, Hsin-Haou

    2018-02-06

    By combining rotating squares with auxetic properties, we developed a metamaterial transformer capable of realizing metamaterials with tunable functionalities. We investigated the use of a metamaterial transformer-based thermal cloak-concentrator that can change from a cloak to a concentrator when the device configuration is transformed. We established that the proposed dual-functional metamaterial can either thermally protect a region (cloak) or focus heat flux in a small region (concentrator). The dual functionality was verified by finite element simulations and validated by experiments with a specimen composed of copper, epoxy, and rotating squares. This work provides an effective and efficient method for controlling the gradient of heat, in addition to providing a reference for other thermal metamaterials to possess such controllable functionalities by adapting the concept of a metamaterial transformer.

  6. Cloaks and antiobject-independent illusion optics based on illusion media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Zang, XiaoFei; Cai, Bin; Shi, Cheng; Zhu, YiMing

    2013-11-01

    Based on the transformation optics, we propose a new strategy of illusion media consisting of homogeneous and anisotropic materials. By utilizing the illusion media, invisible cloak is theoretically realized, in which objects covered with the illusion media could not be detected. The cloak here allows neither the propagation of light around the concealed region nor compensates the scattering field of object outside the media. What the cloak does is to shift the region into another place where outside the trace of light, so that objects in that region can disappear. Another application of the illusion media is to create the antiobject-independent illusion optics which means that two objects appear to be like some other objects of our choice. Finite element simulations for two-dimensional cases have been performed to prove these ideas.

  7. A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Stanley P; de Waele, Rene; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A

    2010-05-01

    Metamaterials are materials with artificial electromagnetic properties defined by their sub-wavelength structure rather than their chemical composition. Negative-index materials (NIMs) are a special class of metamaterials characterized by an effective negative index that gives rise to such unusual wave behaviour as backwards phase propagation and negative refraction. These extraordinary properties lead to many interesting functions such as sub-diffraction imaging and invisibility cloaking. So far, NIMs have been realized through layering of resonant structures, such as split-ring resonators, and have been demonstrated at microwave to infrared frequencies over a narrow range of angles-of-incidence and polarization. However, resonant-element NIM designs suffer from the limitations of not being scalable to operate at visible frequencies because of intrinsic fabrication limitations, require multiple functional layers to achieve strong scattering and have refractive indices that are highly dependent on angle of incidence and polarization. Here we report a metamaterial composed of a single layer of coupled plasmonic coaxial waveguides that exhibits an effective refractive index of -2 in the blue spectral region with a figure-of-merit larger than 8. The resulting NIM refractive index is insensitive to both polarization and angle-of-incidence over a +/-50 degree angular range, yielding a wide-angle NIM at visible frequencies.

  8. Detailed optical characterization of three-dimensional visible-frequency polarization-independent carpet invisibility cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergin, Tolga; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The invention of the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal by Costas M. Soukoulis and coworkers in 1994 has stimulated much further research - excellent research stimulates further research. Here, we report on using spatially inhomogeneous polymer woodpile structures in the long-wavelength limit as artificial graded-index structures. After briefly reviewing previous work on carpet invisibility cloaks designed by transformation optics, we present new experiments for various focus planes of the inspecting microscope as well as for different inspection angles in three-dimensional space. Numerical ray-tracing modeling is also provided. These data confirm our previous assessment that three-dimensional cloaking is quite robust for these structures.

  9. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  10. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,

  11. Demonstration of an ultralow profile cloak for scattering suppression of a finite-length rod in free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soric, J C; Chen, P Y; Alù, A; Kerkhoff, A; Rainwater, D; Melin, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the first experimental realization and verification of a three-dimensional stand-alone mantle cloak designed to suppress the total scattering of a finite-length dielectric rod of moderate cross-section. Mantle cloaking has been proposed to realize ultralow-profile conformal covers that may achieve substantial camouflage, transparency and high-performance non-invasive near-field sensing. Here, we realize and verify a mantle cloak for radio-waves. We report an extensive campaign of far- and near-field free-space measurements demonstrating that conformal cloaks can indeed produce strong scattering suppression in all directions and over a relatively broad bandwidth of operation. (paper)

  12. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  13. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  14. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  15. A contribution to the study of high Tc superconducting coatings and multi-layer coatings electromagnetic properties: surface impedance measurement with a tunnel diode oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, A.

    1993-01-01

    A surface impedance measurement system for conducting or superconducting thin films have been developed through the electromagnetic coupling of these films to a tunnel diode oscillator. The electromagnetic response of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconducting films and of id/La 2-x Sr x Cu O 4 multilayers, is studied, showing the 'granular' type of these materials. The intergranular coupling is of the SIS type for the films and of the SNS type for the multilayers. A resistance increase is observed when the temperature decreases in the superconducting phase. 120 p., 45 fig., 60 ref

  16. Method of moving frames to solve time-dependent Maxwell's equations on anisotropic curved surfaces: Applications to invisible cloak and ELF propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sehun

    2017-07-01

    Applying the method of moving frames to Maxwell's equations yields two important advancements for scientific computing. The first is the use of upwind flux for anisotropic materials in Maxwell's equations, especially in the context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Upwind flux has been available only to isotropic material, because of the difficulty of satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in anisotropic media. The second is to solve numerically Maxwell's equations on curved surfaces without the metric tensor and composite meshes. For numerical validation, spectral convergences are displayed for both two-dimensional anisotropic media and isotropic spheres. In the first application, invisible two-dimensional metamaterial cloaks are simulated with a relatively coarse mesh by both the lossless Drude model and the piecewisely-parametered layered model. In the second application, extremely low frequency propagation on various surfaces such as spheres, irregular surfaces, and non-convex surfaces is demonstrated.

  17. Chirality-Assisted Electronic Cloaking of Confined States in Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Nan; Rudner, Mark; Levitov, Leonid

    2011-10-01

    We show that the strong coupling of pseudospin orientation and charge carrier motion in bilayer graphene has a drastic effect on transport properties of ballistic p-n-p junctions. Electronic states with zero momentum parallel to the barrier are confined under it for one pseudospin orientation, whereas states with the opposite pseudospin tunnel through the junction totally uninfluenced by the presence of confined states. We demonstrate that the junction acts as a cloak for confined states, making them nearly invisible to electrons in the outer regions over a range of incidence angles. This behavior is manifested in the two-terminal conductance as transmission resonances with non-Lorentzian, singular peak shapes. The response of these phenomena to a weak magnetic field or electric-field-induced interlayer gap can serve as an experimental fingerprint of electronic cloaking.

  18. Revival of cloaking effect in a driven bilayer graphene vector barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, S.; Panigrahi, A.; Biswas, R.; Sinha, C.

    2018-05-01

    Transmission profiles in bilayer graphene are studied theoretically through a rectangular vector potential (magnetic) barrier with and without the presence of an oscillatory potential. Unlike the electrostatic barrier, the Fano resonances (FR) are noted in the transmission spectra both for normal and glancing incidences due to non-conservation of chirality for a static vector barrier. The results for normal incidence indicate that the cloaking effect is a manifestation of the chirality conservation in charge transport through bilayer graphene scalar barriers. It is also noted that the aforesaid FR for a static vector barrier might disappear (photon induced electronic cloaking effect) due to the predominant photon exchange processes in presence of an external oscillating potential. The study of Fano resonances in transmission spectrum is in high demand in respect of localization of charge carriers in graphene nano structures for its potential applications in digital device fabrications.

  19. Transformation of the corner: A shield cloak and a planar retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R.; Lei, Z. Y.; Fan, J.; Gao, D. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Xie, Y. J.

    2013-10-01

    A metallic sheet, coated with a few blocks of all-dielectric isotropic materials, is presented for creating an illusion or an image of a corner based on quasi-conformal transformation optics. On the one hand, our design is able to generate cloaking effects to conceal objects hiding inside a corner. On the other hand, we propose to use such a planar transformation device to represent a corner reflector that reflects light directly back to its source. The full wave simulation shows our device is capable of operating considerably well in a broad frequency range, and presents only the appearance of a bare corner functioning as a shield cloak or a planar retro-reflector.

  20. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  1. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  2. Left Handed Materials: A New Paradigm in Structured Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Manoj; Paudyal, Harihar

    2010-05-01

    A new paradigm has emerged exhibiting reverse electromagnetic properties. Novel composite and micro-structured materials (metamaterials) have been designed to control electromagnetic radiation. Such substances have been called as Left Handed Material (LHM) with simultaneous negative permittivity and negative permeability and negative refractive index as well. Left handed materials are of importance because of their ability to influence the behavior of electromagnetic radiation and to display properties beyond those available in naturally occurring materials. Typically these are sub-wavelength artificial structures where the dimensions are very small compared to the working wavelength. These dimensions are normally of the order of λ/10 where λ is the wavelength of electromagnetic wave propagating in the material. Emergence of this new paradigm leads to some very interesting consequences, such as, to create lenses that are not diffraction limited, cloaking, sensors (chemical, biological and individual molecule), optical and radio communication. This new development in structured electromagnetic materials has had a dramatic impact on the physics, optics and engineering communities. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  4. Total reflection and cloaking by zero index metamaterials loaded with rectangular dielectric defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2013-05-06

    In this work, we investigate wave transmission property through a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) waveguide embedded with rectangular dielectric defects. We show that total reflection and total transmission (cloaking) can be achieved by adjusting the geometric sizes and/or permittivities of the defects. Our work provides another possibility of manipulating wave propagation through ZIM in addition to the widely studied dielectric defects with cylindrical geometries.

  5. Total reflection and cloaking by zero index metamaterials loaded with rectangular dielectric defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Li, Jichun

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate wave transmission property through a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) waveguide embedded with rectangular dielectric defects. We show that total reflection and total transmission (cloaking) can be achieved by adjusting the geometric sizes and/or permittivities of the defects. Our work provides another possibility of manipulating wave propagation through ZIM in addition to the widely studied dielectric defects with cylindrical geometries.

  6. Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-01

    Photonic-integrated devices need to be adequately spaced apart to prevent signal cross-talk. This fundamentally limits their packing density. Here we report the use of nanophotonic cloaking to render neighbouring devices invisible to one another, which allows them to be placed closer together than is otherwise feasible. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrated waveguides that are spaced by a distance of ~λ0/2 and designed waveguides with centre-to-centre spacing as small as 600 nm (-2 dB and an extinction ratio >15 dB over a bandwidth larger than 60 nm. This performance can be improved with better design algorithms and industry-standard lithography. The nanophotonic cloak relies on multiple guided-mode resonances, which render such devices very robust to fabrication errors. Our devices are broadly complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible, have a minimum pitch of 200 nm and can be fabricated with a single lithography step. The nanophotonic cloaks can be generally applied to all passive integrated photonics.

  7. Increasing the density of passive photonic-integrated circuits via nanophotonic cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Polson, Randy; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-11-09

    Photonic-integrated devices need to be adequately spaced apart to prevent signal cross-talk. This fundamentally limits their packing density. Here we report the use of nanophotonic cloaking to render neighbouring devices invisible to one another, which allows them to be placed closer together than is otherwise feasible. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrated waveguides that are spaced by a distance of ∼λ 0 /2 and designed waveguides with centre-to-centre spacing as small as 600 nm (-2 dB and an extinction ratio >15 dB over a bandwidth larger than 60 nm. This performance can be improved with better design algorithms and industry-standard lithography. The nanophotonic cloak relies on multiple guided-mode resonances, which render such devices very robust to fabrication errors. Our devices are broadly complimentary-metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible, have a minimum pitch of 200 nm and can be fabricated with a single lithography step. The nanophotonic cloaks can be generally applied to all passive integrated photonics.

  8. Theoretical investigation of resonance frequencies in long wavelength electromagnetic wave scattering process from plasma prolate and oblate spheroids placed in a dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Response of a prolate spheroid plasma and/or an oblate spheroid plasma in presence of long wavelength electromagnetic wave has been studied. The resonance frequencies of these objects are obtained and it is found that they reduce to the resonance frequency of spherical cold plasma. Moreover, the resonant frequencies of prolate spheroid plasma and oblate spheroid plasma covered by a dielectric are investigated as well. Furthermore, their dependency on dielectric permittivity and geometry dimensions is simulated.

  9. Formation of a Refracted Electromagnetic Wave at the Output from a Plane-Parallel Dielectric Layer and Interference Nature of Fermat's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that a transition layer representing a spatial region in which field propagation is analogous to refraction in an inhomogeneous medium exists after a dielectric layer. In this region located within the near field zone the direction of the wave vector of the transmitted field varies smoothly, and with increasing distance from the layer, approaches to that of the wave incident on the layer. It is shown that such behavior of the field and occurrence of the transition layer are caused by the interference of the incident wave field and the fields of secondary sources excited in the dielectric by the incident wave field. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  10. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  11. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  12. Pre-Cloak Comic Superheroes: Tools for the Empowerment of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fradkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This note explores the notion of comic superheroes as tools for the empowerment of children. The author details interventions in Rwanda and Brazil, and their different usages of superheroes. With a focus on the superhero’s pre-cloak stage—the stage prior to their employing superpowers—the author offers glimpses of current work in progress to help therapists empower orphaned children. While this area of research is at an early stage, its potential among health professionals is growing. Thus the comic superhero may be more than celluloid, as health professionals learn to use his superpowers.

  13. Electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs

  14. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  15. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  16. An Improved Privacy-Preserving Framework for Location-Based Services Based on Double Cloaking Regions with Supplementary Information Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of location-based services in the field of mobile network applications, users enjoy the convenience of location-based services on one side, while being exposed to the risk of disclosure of privacy on the other side. Attacker will make a fierce attack based on the probability of inquiry, map data, point of interest (POI, and other supplementary information. The existing location privacy protection techniques seldom consider the supplementary information held by attackers and usually only generate single cloaking region according to the protected location point, and the query efficiency is relatively low. In this paper, we improve the existing LBSs system framework, in which we generate double cloaking regions by constraining the supplementary information, and then k-anonymous task is achieved by the cooperation of the double cloaking regions; specifically speaking, k dummy points of fixed dummy positions in the double cloaking regions are generated and the LBSs query is then performed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the experiments on real datasets.

  17. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  18. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  19. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  20. Mechanical and electromagnetic interference shielding Properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene and poly(vinyl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite nanofiber mats and the effect of Cu top-layer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Kazushige; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2013-03-01

    We report the mechanical property and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/graphene and PVA/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. The metal (Cu) was deposited on the resultant PVA composite nanofibers using metal deposition technique in order to improve the mechanical properties and EMI shielding properties. The resulting PVA composite nanofibers and Cu-deposited corresponding nanofibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Tensile tests were performed on the PVA/graphene and PVA/MWCNT composite nanofibers. The tensile strength of the PVA/graphene and PVA/MWCNT composite nanofibers was found to be 19.2 +/- 0.3 MPa at graphene content - 6.0 wt% and 12.2 +/- 0.2 MPa at MWCNT content - 3.0 wt%, respectively. The EMI SE of the Cu-deposited PVA/graphene composite nanofibers was significantly improved compared to pure PVA/graphene composite nanofibers, and also depended on the thickness of Cu metal layer deposited on the PVA composite nanofibers.

  1. Task-Management Method Using R-Tree Spatial Cloaking for Large-Scale Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of sensor technology and the popularization of the data-driven service paradigm, spatial crowdsourcing systems have become an important way of collecting map-based location data. However, large-scale task management and location privacy are important factors for participants in spatial crowdsourcing. In this paper, we propose the use of an R-tree spatial cloaking-based task-assignment method for large-scale spatial crowdsourcing. We use an estimated R-tree based on the requested crowdsourcing tasks to reduce the crowdsourcing server-side inserting cost and enable the scalability. By using Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR-based spatial anonymous data without exact position data, this method preserves the location privacy of participants in a simple way. In our experiment, we showed that our proposed method is faster than the current method, and is very efficient when the scale is increased.

  2. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  3. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  4. Electromagnetically shielded building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K

    1992-04-21

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.

  5. Electromagnetic launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1980-09-01

    Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.

  6. Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Terrence W

    2008-01-01

    Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field

  7. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  8. Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elkattan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.

  9. FDTD analysis of reflection of electromagnetic wave from a conductive plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2003-01-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is applied to study the electro-magnetic reflection of conduction plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma, homogeneous plasma and inhomogeneous plasma. The collisions frequency of plasma is a function of electron density and plasma temperature. The number density profile follows a parabolic function. A discussion on the effect of various plasma parameters on the reflection coefficient is presented. Under the one-dimensional case, transient electromagnetic propagation through various plasmas has been obtained, and the reflection coefficients of EM wave through various plasma are calculated under different conditions. The results illustrate that a plasma cloaking system can successfully absorb the incident EM wave

  10. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, V.; Raida, Zbyněk; Tobola, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (t...

  11. Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sukharevsky, Oleg I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur

  12. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  13. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  14. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  15. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  16. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  17. Electromagnetic characteristics of carbon nanotube film materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT possesses remarkable electrical conductivity, which shows great potential for the application as electromagnetic shielding material. This paper aims to characterize the electromagnetic parameters of a high CNT loading film by using waveguide method. The effects of layer number of CNT laminate, CNT alignment and resin impregnation on the electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed. It is shown that CNT film exhibits anisotropic electromagnetic characteristic. Pristine CNT film shows higher real part of complex permittivity, conductivity and shielding effectiveness when the polarized direction of incident wave is perpendicular to the winding direction of CNT film. For the CNT film laminates, complex permittivity increases with increasing layer number, and correspondingly, shielding effectiveness decreases. The five-layer CNT film shows extraordinary shielding performance with shielding effectiveness ranging from 67 dB to 78 dB in X-band. Stretching process induces the alignment of CNTs. When aligned direction of CNTs is parallel to the electric field, CNT film shows negative permittivity and higher conductivity. Moreover, resin impregnation into CNT film leads to the decrease of conductivity and shielding effectiveness. This research will contribute to the structural design for the application of CNT film as electromagnetic shielding materials.

  18. Theory of transformation thermal convection for creeping flow in porous media: Cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaole; Shang, Jin; Huang, Jiping

    2018-02-01

    Heat can transfer via thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and thermal convection. All the existing theories of transformation thermotics and optics can treat thermal conduction and thermal radiation, respectively. Unfortunately, thermal convection has seldom been touched in transformation theories due to the lack of a suitable theory, thus limiting applications associated with heat transfer through fluids (liquid or gas). Here, we develop a theory of transformation thermal convection by considering the convection-diffusion equation, the equation of continuity, and the Darcy law. By introducing porous media, we get a set of equations keeping their forms under coordinate transformation. As model applications, the theory helps to show the effects of cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage. Our finite-element simulations confirm the theoretical findings. This work offers a transformation theory for thermal convection, thus revealing novel behaviors associated with potential applications; it not only provides different hints on how to control heat transfer by combining thermal conduction, thermal convection, and thermal radiation, but also benefits mass diffusion and other related fields that contain a set of equations and need to transform velocities at the same time.

  19. CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 ...

  20. Interpreting Electromagnetic Reflections In Glaciology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, O.; Nixdorf, U.; Wilhelms, F.; Steinhage, D.; Miller, H.

    Electromagnetic reflection (EMR) measurements are active remote sensing methods that have become a major tool for glaciological investigations. Although the basic pro- cesses are well understood, the unambiguous interpretation of EMR data, especially internal layering, still requires further information. The Antacrtic ice sheet provides a unique setting for investigating the relation between physical­chemical properties of ice and EMR data. Cold ice, smooth surface topography, and low accumulation facilitates matters to use low energy ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices to pene- trate several tens to hundreds of meters of ice, covering several thousands of years of snow deposition history. Thus, sufficient internal layers, primarily of volcanic origin, are recorded to enable studies on a local and regional scale. Based on dated ice core records, GPR measurements at various frequencies, and airborne radio-echo sound- ing (RES) from Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, combined with numerical modeling techniques, we investigate the influence of internal layering characteristics and properties of the propagating electromagnetic wave on EMR data.

  1. Efficiency improvements of electromagnetic flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, E.; Reizes, J.A.; Leonardi, E.

    2005-01-01

    In turbulent flow, frictional resistance and heat transfer are controlled to a large degree by the intensity of the turbulence fluctuations in the near vicinity of a surface. In the case of a weak electrically conducting fluid, such as seawater, turbulence intensity can be controlled by subjecting the fluid to electromagnetic fields. This technique, known as Electro-magneto-hydro-dynamic (EMHD) flow control, has been shown to have promise as a means of reducing the turbulence intensity, and hence heat transfer or frictional drag of turbulent boundary layers. Unfortunately EMHD flow control currently suffers from poor efficiency due to the high energy requirements of the electromagnetic field. A numerical study has been conducted in which a new electromagnetic actuator design has been developed to provide a more efficient spatial distribution of the electromagnetic forces. The new actuator design has then been coupled to an ideal flow sensor. A flow control subroutine, embedded in the numerical model, uses the velocity information from the ideal sensor to determine the appropriate actuating force to apply to the flow at each time step. The new actuator design has been shown to be capable of successfully attenuating a sequence of artificial low speed streaks in a simplified model of a low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Thus, a potential solution to the poor efficiency of EMHD flow control has been offered by providing the means whereby the expensive electromagnetic forces can be strategically and sparingly applied to the flow

  2. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  3. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  4. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  5. Review on Computational Electromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumithra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational electromagnetics (CEM is applied to model the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the objects like antenna, waveguides, aircraft and their environment using Maxwell equations.  In this paper the strength and weakness of various computational electromagnetic techniques are discussed. Performance of various techniques in terms accuracy, memory and computational time for application specific tasks such as modeling RCS (Radar cross section, space applications, thin wires, antenna arrays are presented in this paper.

  6. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  7. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...

  8. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  9. Electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Wang, Yong-Long; Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-03-01

    By using the thin-layer approach, we derive the effective equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve. We find intrinsic spin-orbit, extrinsic spin-orbit, and extrinsic orbital angular-momentum and intrinsic orbital angular-momentum couplings induced by torsion, which can lead to geometric phase, spin, and orbital Hall effects. And we show the helicity inversion induced by curvature that can convert a right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a left-handed polarized one, vice versa. Finally, we demonstrate that the gauge invariance of the effective dynamics is protected by the geometrically induced gauge potential.

  10. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  11. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  12. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  13. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  14. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic Field Control and Optimization Using Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Popović, and K. Hingerl. “Imperfect cloak- ing devices based on metamaterials,” Acta Physica Polonica A , 112(5):1083– 1088, 2007. 148 44. Jiang, Wei X...f. Jcpq Date Accepted: ... M ( A T~ 󈧢 S’t’P 2 GCt:f M. U. Thomas Date Dean, Graduate School of Engineering and Management APIT/DEE/ENG/09-13...dictated by the theory are inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and, in some instances, singular at various locations. In order for a cloak to be practically

  16. Electromagnetic Sampo soundings at Olkiluoto in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2007-11-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out a Sampo Gefinex 400S frequency domain electromagnetic (EM) survey in the central part of the eastern Olkiluoto island. The survey comprised a total of 408 soundings; 134 of these were measurements of EM noise. The goal of the survey was to supplement previously performed soundings. The measurements of EM noise were used to analyse the influence of power lines on the soundings. A statistically significant correlation was found between EM noise and the distance between the receiver and the high-voltage power line located northeast of the research area. The high-voltage power line exerted a considerable influence on the soundings. Numerical modelling was used to evaluate the effect of a dipping layer on the interpretation of Sampo soundings, which is based on the 1-D layered earth model. The results indicate that Sampo interpretation is robust even in the case of a dipping layer, assuming that the dip of the layer is not steep, and both the transmitter and receiver are located above the layer. The interpretations of the soundings indicate three conducting layers. There appear to be two layers of significant conductivity above the depth of 600 m. These layers may be indications of sulphide and/or graphite rich layers. Furthermore, a deeper conducting layer below the depth of 600 m was also indicated by the interpretations. This layer may indicate deep saline groundwater. (orig.)

  17. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  18. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  19. Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

    2005-10-01

    The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)

  20. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  1. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  2. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  3. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  4. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  5. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  6. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  7. Mathematics and electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Danta, M.

    2000-01-01

    Symbiosis between mathematics and electromagnetism is analyzed in a simple and concise manner by taking a historical perspective. The universal tool character of mathematical models allowed the transfer of models from several branches of physics into the realm of electromagnetism by drawing analogies. The mutual interdependence between covariant formulation and tensor calculus is marked. The paper focuses on the guiding idea of field theory and Maxwell's equations. Likewise, geometrization of interactions in connection with gauge fields is also noted. (Author)

  8. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  9. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Mr. T.P. (Tjerk) KUIPERS Senior Adviser Health Physics Military Healthcare & Occupational Health Expertise Co-ordination Centre Support...Test of Biological Integrity in Dogs Exposed to an Electromagnetic Pulse Environment”, Health Physics 36:159-165, 1979. [11] Baum, S.J., Ekstrom, M.E...Electromagnetic Radiation”, Health Physics 30:161-166, 1976. [12] Baum, S., Skidmore, W. and Ekstrom, M., “Continuous Exposure of Rodents to 108 Pulses

  10. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  11. Electromagnetic Manifestation of Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a joint analysis of the results of recording the electrical component of the natural electromagnetic field of the Earth and the catalog of earthquakes in Kamchatka in 2013, unipolar pulses of constant amplitude associated with earthquakes were identified, whose activity is closely correlated with the energy of the electromagnetic field. For the explanation, a hypothesis about the cooperative character of these impulses is proposed.

  12. Electromagnetic reverberation chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Besnier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.In addition, the reader is provided with the elements of electromagnetic theory and statistics required to take full advantage of the basic operational rules of reverberation chambers, including calibration proc

  13. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  14. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  15. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of energetic heavy ions on electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave generation in the plasmapause region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyra, J.U.; Cravens, T.E.; Nagy, A.F.; Fontheim, E.G.; Ong, R.S.B.

    1984-01-01

    An expression for the linear electromagnetic ion cyclotron convective growth rate has been derived, considering multiple ions in the energetic anisotropic component of the plasma (which provides the free energy for the instability) as well as in the cold component of the plasma. This represents a modification of recent treatments investigating electromagnetic ion cyclotron growth rates which have considered only hydrogen ions in the energetic component. Four major effects on the growth and propagation characteristics result from inclusion of heavy ions in the energetic component. Some wave growth occurs at low frequencies below the corresponding marginally unstable wave mode for each heavy ion. Enhanced quasi-monochronomatic peaks in the convective growth rate appear just below the O + and He + gyrofrequency and can be quite pronounced for certain plasma conditions. Stop bands, decreased group velocity and other effects normally attributed to cold heavy ions can be produced or enhanced by heavy ions in the energetic plasma component. Partial or complete suppression of wave growth at frequencies above the marginally unstable wave mode for a particular energetic heavy ion can greatly alter the growth rates that would occur in the absence of this energetic heavy ion. The expression for the linear electromagnetic ion cyclotron convective growth rate along with appropriate plasma parameters was used to investigate the nature of linear wave growth in the plasmapause region. The frequencies of peaks in the convective growth rate given by this model compare favorably with wave measurements in this region. It is conceivable that through wave-particle interactions, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could supply the energy source for various plasmapause region phenomena such as the O + torus, the plasma cloak and stable auroral red arcs

  17. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  18. Electromagnetic fields and their impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prša, M. A.; Kasaš-Lažetić, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to briefly recall some different electromagnetic field definitions, some macroscopic sources of electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic fields classification regarding time dependences, and the ways of field determination in concrete cases. After that, all the mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic field and substance, on atomic level, are described in details. Interaction between substance and electric field is investigated separately from the substance and magnetic field interaction. It is demonstrated that, in all cases of the unique electromagnetic field, total interaction can be treated as a superposition of two separated interactions. Finally, the main electromagnetic fields surrounding us is cited and discussed.

  19. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  20. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  1. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The theory of electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D S

    1964-01-01

    The Theory of the Electomagnetism covers the behavior of electromagnetic fields and those parts of applied mathematics necessary to discover this behavior. This book is composed of 11 chapters that emphasize the Maxwell's equations. The first chapter is concerned with the general properties of solutions of Maxwell's equations in matter, which has certain macroscopic properties. The succeeding chapters consider specific problems in electromagnetism, including the determination of the field produced by a variable charge, first in isolation and then in the surface distributions of an antenna. The

  3. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  4. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  5. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  6. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  7. Electromagnetic Fields in Reverberant Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt-Ardatjew, Robert Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonating electromagnetic (EM) fields has been commonly and successfully exploited in reverberation chambers (RC) for the purpose of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing, as well as modeling multipath environments. Although largely successful, the currently used statistical

  8. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  9. Electromagnetic fields in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with an important branch of electromagnetic theory with many useful applications in subsurface communication, radar, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics, this book introduces electromagnetic theory and wave propagation in complex media.

  10. Electromagnetic interference: a radiant future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Although Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility are well established domains, the introduction of new technologies results in new challenges. Changes in both measurement techniques, and technological trends resulting in new types of interference are described. These are the

  11. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  12. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  13. Disconnected electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results of a calculation of disconnected nucleon electromagnetic factors factors on the lattice are presented. The implementation of the numerical subtraction scheme is outlined. A comparison of results for electric and magnetic disconnected form factors on two lattice sizes with those of the Kentucky group is presented. Unlike previous results, the results found in this calculation are consistent with zero in these sectors

  14. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  15. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  16. Electromagnetic Environments Simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.

    1975-11-01

    A multipurpose electromagnetic environments simulator has been designed to provide a capability for performing EMR, EMP, and lightning near stroke testing of systems, subsystems and components in a single facility. This report describes the final facility design and presents the analytical and experimental verification of the design

  17. Pregnancy and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseriex, Ch.; Laurent, P.; Cabaret, Ph.; Bonnet, C.; Marteau, E.; Le Berre, G.; Tirlemont, S.; Castro, H.; Becker, A.; Demaret, Ph.; Donati, M.; Ganem, Y.; Moureaux, P.

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly indicates the status of knowledge regarding the effect of magnetic fields on biological tissues and pregnancy, outlines the lack of data on some frequencies and the weakness of studies on long term effects on child development. It evokes the issue of exposure assessment and that of identification of workstations exposed to electromagnetic fields

  18. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  19. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  20. Electromagnetic resonance waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaba, J.M.; Manjon, F.J.; Guirao, A.; Andres, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper a set of experiments designed to make qualitative and quantitative measurements on electromagnetic resonances of several simple systems. The experiments are designed for the undergraduate laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism in Physics. These experiments can help the students understanding the concept of resonance, which appears in different fields of Physics. (Author) 8 refs

  1. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  2. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong

    2007-01-01

    When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented

  4. Microwave metamaterials—from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-08-01

    Since 2004, my group at Southeast University has been carrying out research into microwave metamaterials, which are classified into three catagories: metamaterials based on the effective medium model, plasmonic metamaterials for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and coding and programmable metamaterials. For effective-medium metamaterials, we have developed a general theory to accurately describe effective permittivity and permeability in semi-analytical forms, from which we have designed and realized a three dimensional (3D) wideband ground-plane invisibility cloak, a free-space electrostatic invisibility cloak, an electromagnetic black hole, optical/radar illusions, and radially anisotropic zero-index metamaterial for omni-directional radiation and a nearly perfect power combination of source array, etc. We have also considered the engineering applications of microwave metamaterials, such as a broadband and low-loss 3D transformation-optics lens for wide-angle scanning, a 3D planar gradient-index lens for high-gain radiations, and a random metasurface for reducing radar cross sections. In the area of plasmonic metamaterials, we proposed an ultrathin, narrow, and flexible corrugated metallic strip to guide SPPs with a small bending loss and radiation loss, from which we designed and realized a series of SPP passive devices (e.g. power divider, coupler, filter, and resonator) and active devices (e.g. amplifier and duplexer). We also showed a significant feature of the ultrathin SPP waveguide in overcoming the challenge of signal integrity in traditional integrated circuits, which will help build a high-performance SPP wireless communication system. In the area of coding and programmable metamaterials, we proposed a new measure to describe a metamaterial from the viewpoint of information theory. We have illustrated theoretically and experimentally that coding metamaterials composed of digital units can be controlled by coding sequences, leading to different

  5. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media, specifically in electromagnetic materials. An account is presented of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials. The author presents the theory of time-varying electromagnetic fields, which involves a discussion of Faraday's laws, Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic wave propagation under a variety of conditions. The author gives a discussion of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics. Chapters are included on quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. The mathematical foundation of electromagnetic waves vis a vis partial differential equations is discussed

  6. Deep electromagnetic sounding of the moon with Lunokhod 2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyan, L. L.; Yegorov, I. V.; Faynberg, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of electromagnetic sounding distinguished an outer high resistance shell about 200 km thick in the moon's structure. A preliminary petrological interpretation of the moon's layers indicated their origin as a consequence of differentiation of the initial peridotite material. Upon melting, 20% to 40% of the material melts and is removed to form a high resistance basaltic shell underlain by a layer of spinal peridotites enriched in divalent iron oxides and having a reduced resistance.

  7. The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic Response Of A Layered Earth Media With Variable Dielectric Permittivity. ... A radio frequency of 125 KHz and a very low frequency (VLF) of 20 KHz were used in the computations and the field parameters studied over a dimensionless induction number, B. The ...

  8. Electromagnetic methods for mapping freshwater lenses on Micronesian atoll islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The overall shape of freshwater lenses can be determined by applying electromagnetic methods and inverse layered-earth modeling to the mapping of atoll island freshwater lenses. Conductivity profiles were run across the width of the inhabited islands at Mwoakilloa, Pingelap, and Sapwuahfik atolls of the Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia using a dual-loop, frequency-domain, electromagnetic profiling system. Six values of apparent conductivity were recorded at each sounding station and were used to interpret layer conductivities and/or thicknesses. A three-layer model that includes the unsaturated, freshwater, and saltwater zones was used to simulate apparent-conductivity data measured in the field. Interpreted results were compared with chloride-concentration data from monitoring wells and indicate that the interface between freshwater and saltwater layers, defined from electromagnetic data, is located in the upper part of the transition zone, where the chloride-concentration profile shows a rapid increase with depth. The electromagnetic method can be used to interpret the thickness of the freshwater between monitoring wells, but can not be used to interpret the thickness of freshwater from monitoring wells to the margin of an island. ?? 1992.

  9. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  10. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  11. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  12. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; hide

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  14. Hard Electromagnetic Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, F.

    1987-09-01

    Among hard electromagnetic processes, I will use the most recent data and focus on quantitative test of QCD. More specifically, I will retain two items: - hadroproduction of direct photons, - Drell-Yan. In addition, I will briefly discuss a recent analysis of ISR data obtained with AFS (Axial Field Spectrometer) which sheds a new light on the e/π puzzle at low P T

  15. Introduction to electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, George E

    2003-01-01

    A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele

  16. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  17. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation unmasked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the nature of the electromagnetic waves, what they are and how do they affect us. Current concern is focused on exposure to low level power-frequency magnetic fields like microwave radiation from mobile phones and leaking microwave ovens; high power radiation from defence and airport radars; fields close to high voltage transmission lines; radio frequency fields from industrial welders and heaters and DC magnetic fields in aluminium smelters. These fields with frequency less than 300 GHz do not carry sufficient energy to break chemical bonds and it is assumed that they cannot damage cell DNA. The amount of radiation absorbed by a human exposed to far field electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depends on the orientation and size of the person. In the 30-300 MHz range it is possible to excite resonance in the whole or partial body such as the head. It is emphasised that since there are some evidence that electromagnetic fields do harm, a policy of prudent avoidance is recommended, especially for children. ills

  19. The electromagnetic dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2010-01-01

    We consider electromagnetic field quantization in an expanding universe. We find that the covariant (Gupta-Bleuler) method exhibits certain difficulties when trying to impose the quantum Lorenz condition on cosmological scales. We thus explore the possibility of consistently quantizing without imposing such a condition. In this case there are three physical states, which are the two transverse polarizations of the massless photon and a new massless scalar mode coming from the temporal and longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. An explicit example in de Sitter space-time shows that it is still possible to eliminate the negative norm state and to ensure the positivity of the energy in this theory. The new state is decoupled from the conserved electromagnetic currents, but is non-conformally coupled to gravity and therefore can be excited from vacuum fluctuations by the expanding background. The cosmological evolution ensures that the new state modifies Maxwell's equations in a totally negligible way on sub-Hubble scales. However, on cosmological scales it can give rise to a non-negligible energy density which could explain in a natural way the present phase of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  20. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    or be derived from a combination of many sources. Reported symptoms associated with electromagnetic fields are characterized by the overlapping effect with other individuals with these symptoms exhibited a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, related to exposure to a single or multiple sources of EMF. The phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the form of dermatological disease is associated with mastocytosis. The biopsies taken from skin lesions of patients with EHS indicated on infiltration of the skin layers of the epidermis with mastocytes and their degranulation, as well as on release anaphylactic reaction mediators such as histamine, chymase and tryptase. The number of people suffering from EHS in the world is growing describing themselves as severely dysfunctional, showing multi organ non-specific symptoms upon exposure to low doses of electromagnetic radiation, often associated with hypersensitivity to many chemical agents (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity-MCS) and/or other environmental intolerances (Sensitivity Related Illness-SRI).

  1. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  2. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  3. Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey with Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A marine electromagnetic survey is an engineering endeavour to discover the location and dimension of a hydrocarbon layer under an ocean floor. In this kind of survey, an array of electric and magnetic receivers are located on the sea floor and record the scattered, refracted and reflected electromagnetic wave, which has been transmitted by an electric dipole antenna towed by a vessel. The data recorded in receivers must be processed and further analysed to estimate the hydrocarbon location and dimension. To conduct those analyses successfuly, a radial basis function (RBF network could be employed to become a forward model of the input-output relationship of the data from a marine electromagnetic survey. This type of neural networks is working based on distances between its inputs and predetermined centres of some basis functions. A previous research had been conducted to model the same marine electromagnetic survey using another type of neural networks, which is a multi layer perceptron (MLP network. By comparing their validation and training performances (mean-squared errors and correlation coefficients, it is concluded that, in this case, the MLP network is comparatively better than the RBF network[1].[1] This manuscript is an extended version of our previous paper, entitled Radial Basis Function Networks for Modeling Marine Electromagnetic Survey, which had been presented on 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, 17-19 July 2011, Bandung, Indonesia.

  4. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  6. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  7. Handheld Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; San Filipo, William A; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Andrews, Anne; Robitaille, George; Fairbanks, Jeffrey; Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  8. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  9. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caviglia, G.

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified multilayers is investigated. Each layer is allowed to be inhomogeneous and the layers are separated by interfaces. The procedure is based on the representation of the electromagnetic field in the basis of the eigenvectors of the matrix characterizing the first-order system. Hence the local reflection and transmission matrices are defined and the corresponding differential equations, in the pertinent space variable are determined. The jump conditions at interfaces are also established. The present model incorporates dissipative materials and the procedure holds without any restrictions to material symmetries. Differential equations appeared in the literature are shown to hold in particular (one-dimensional) cases or to represent homogeneous layers only

  10. Structures, systems and methods for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Pinhero, Patrick J [Columbia, MO

    2011-12-06

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  11. Parametric excitation of electromagnetic waves by electron Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric instability involving the decay of a standing electron Bernstein pump into electromagnetic sidebands and lower-hybrid decay waves is studied. A general dispersion relation is derived and analyzed. Threshold fields and growth rates are obtained for the two cases that the electron Bernstein pump is introduced near the X-mode cutoff layer or introduced in the region between the upper-hybrid resonance layer and the O-mode cutoff layer. Applications of these results to the recent observation [P. Stubbe and H. Kopka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 183 (1990)] of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) with a broad symmetrical structure (BSS) in the ionospheric modifications by powerful high-frequency (HF) wave are discussed

  12. Energy harvesting devices for harvesting energy from terahertz electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Kotter, Dale K.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2012-10-09

    Methods, devices and systems for harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation are provided including harvesting energy from electromagnetic radiation. In one embodiment, a device includes a substrate and one or more resonance elements disposed in or on the substrate. The resonance elements are configured to have a resonant frequency, for example, in at least one of the infrared, near-infrared and visible light spectra. A layer of conductive material may be disposed over a portion of the substrate to form a ground plane. An optical resonance gap or stand-off layer may be formed between the resonance elements and the ground plane. The optical resonance gap extends a distance between the resonance elements and the layer of conductive material approximately one-quarter wavelength of a wavelength of the at least one resonance element's resonant frequency. At least one energy transfer element may be associated with the at least one resonance element.

  13. Electromagnetic shielding formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1979-02-01

    This addendum to an earlier collection of electromagnetic shielding formulae (TRITA-EPP-75-27) contains simple transfer matrices suitable for calculating the quasistatic shielding efficiency for multiple transverse-field and axial-field cylindrical and spherical shields, as well as for estimating leakage fields from long coaxial cables and the normal-incidence transmission of a plane wave through a multiple plane shield. The differences and similarities between these cases are illustrated by means of equivalent circuits and transmission line analogies. The addendum also includes a discussion of a possible heuristic improvement of some shielding formulae. (author)

  14. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  15. Introduction to electromagnetic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Roger E

    2003-01-01

    This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr

  16. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  17. The basis of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Observations on fast mesons in cyclotrons have necessitated a revision of the earlier version of the ballistic theory. Insufficient information was available when the theory was first published to permit a unique choice of the velocity-dependent factors occurring in electromagnetic force formulas, and the forms chosen did not lead to an explanation of the decay times of fast mesons that were observed subsequently. These observations provide the information needed to permit a unique choice of the velocity-dependent factors. The new forms of the force formulae explain all observations, and lead to the conclusion that the velocities of mesons in cyclotrons are many times that of light. If these velocities could be directly measured, it would provide a method of discriminating between the Lorentz-Einstein and the ballistic theories, although it would not confirm the latter. In this revised form of the theory, magnetism appears as a residual effect of the velocity dependence of electric force laws, and the whole of electromagnetism then follows from a single basic equation, a modified form of Coulomb's law. (Auth.)

  18. Electro-magnetic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Full details of the invention are given. A sensing unit assembly for an electromagnetic flux distortion flowmeter for use in liquid metal coolant of a nuclear reactor is described. The assembly comprises coils of electrically insulated conductors each wound on an individual former. The formers and coils are mounted coaxially on a spine to form at least three spaced groups arranged end to end. Each group comprises two secondary coils and an intermediate primary coil. Leads extend along a duct formed in the spine, each lead terminating at a common end. Alternative versions of the assembly are also described. The primary coil leads are connected to an alternating power supply; those for the secondary coils connected to suitable display instrumentation. When liquid metal flows along the conductor the electromagnetic field is disturbed and the induced voltage in the secondary coils is disturbed-(set at zero for no flow); the distortion depends on the rate of flow. When the induced voltage differential of at least two of the groups falls or rises outside a pre-set level a trip signal is initiated to shut down the reactor. (UK)

  19. Radome electromagnetic theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Shavit, Reuven

    2018-01-01

    Radome Electromagnetic Theory and Design explores the theoretical tools and methods required to design radomes that are fully transparent to the electromagnetic energy transmitted or received by the enclosed antenna. A radome is a weatherproof and camouflaged enclosure that protects the enclosed radar or communication antenna, and are typically used on a fixed or moving platform such as an aircraft, ship or missile.

  20. Electromagnetic actuation in MEMS switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Chemnitz, Steffen

    . Electromagnetic actuation is a very promising approach to operate such MEMS and Power MEMS devices, due to the long range, reproducible and strong forces generated by this method, among other advantages. However, the use of electromagnetic actuation in such devices requires the use of thick magnetic films, which...

  1. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  2. Electromagnetic direct implicit PIC simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Interesting modelling of intense electron flow has been done with implicit particle-in-cell simulation codes. In this report, the direct implicit PIC simulation approach is applied to simulations that include full electromagnetic fields. The resulting algorithm offers advantages relative to moment implicit electromagnetic algorithms and may help in our quest for robust and simpler implicit codes

  3. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  4. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  5. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  6. Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorkova Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.

  7. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  8. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  9. Electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors, in first approximation, are sensitive to spatial distribution of nucleons and to their current. In second approximation, more precise effects are concerned, whose role is increasing with momentum transfer and participating essentially of short range nuclei description. They concern of course the nucleon-nucleon interaction while approaching each other and keeping their free-state identity, but also mutually polarizing one the other. In this last effect, radial and orbital excitations of nucleon, the nucleon mesonic cloud modification and the nucleon antinucleon pair excitation are included. In this paper, these contributions are discussed while trying to find the important elements for a good description of form factors. Current questions are also discussed. Light nuclei are essentially concerned [fr

  10. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  11. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  12. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-01-01

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  13. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  14. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Saada, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μ ν , of the order of 10 -11 μ B would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μ ν ≅10 -18 μ B , much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10 -10 μ B . Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μ ν , larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe - scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the ν e , extending down to 2x10 -11 μ B . (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  15. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  16. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  17. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  18. Electromagnetic modeling in accelerator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Through the years, electromagnetic modeling using computers has proved to be a cost-effective tool for accelerator designs. Traditionally, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has been limited to resonator and magnet designs in two dimensions. In recent years with the availability of powerful computers, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has advanced significantly. Through the above conferences, it is apparent that breakthroughs have been made during the last decade in two important areas: three-dimensional modeling and time-domain simulation. Success in both these areas have been made possible by the increasing size and speed of computers. In this paper, the advances in these two areas will be described

  19. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  20. Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, David A.

    2000-11-01

    Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering introduces the key physical and engineering principles of electromagnetics. Throughout the book, David de Wolf describes the intermediate steps in mathematical derivations that many other textbooks leave out. He covers in depth the concepts of fields and potentials and then progresses to magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations, electrodynamics and wave propagation, waveguides, transmission lines, and antennas. At each stage, de Wolf stresses the physical principles underlying the mathematical results. He also includes homework exercises, a separate chapter on numerical methods in electromagnetics, and a broad range of worked examples to illustrate important concepts. Solutions manual available.

  1. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc.

  2. Research of glass fibre used in the electromagnetic wave shielding and absorption composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Jia, F.; Bao, H. Q.; Cui, K.; Zhang, F.

    2016-07-01

    Electromagnetic shielding and absorption composite material plays an important role in the defence and economic field. Comparing with other filler, Glass fibre and its processed product—metal-coated glass fibre can greatly reduce the material's weight and costs, while it still remains the high strength and the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. In this paper, the electromagnetic absorption mechanism and the reflection mechanism have been investigated as a whole, and the shielding effectiveness of the double-layer glass fibre composite material is mainly focused. The relationship between the shielding effectiveness and the filled glass fibre as well as its metal-coated product's parameters has also been studied. From the subsequent coaxial flange and anechoic chamber analysis, it can be confirmed that the peak electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of this double-layer material can reach -78dB while the bandwidth is from 2GHz to 18GHz.

  3. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  4. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  5. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  6. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  7. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  8. Electromagnetic Hadronic Form-Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a calculation of the nucleon electromagnetic form-factors as well as the pion and rho to pion transition form-factors in a hybrid calculation with domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered (Asqtad) sea quarks

  9. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... radiofrequency emitting sources are radars, mobile phones and their base stations, ... and industrial applications, could have effect on living organisms. ...... Hazards of Electromagnetic Pollution (Msc Thesis). Department of ...

  10. Hadronic processes and electromagnetic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scimemi, I.

    2004-01-01

    The inclusion of electromagnetism in a low energy effective theory is worth further study in view of the present high precision experiments (muon g - 2, π 0 → γγ, τ decays, etc.). In particular in many applications of chiral perturbation theory, one has to purify physical matrix elements from electromagnetic effects. The theoretical problems that I want to point out here are following: the splitting of a pure QCD and a pure electromagnetic part in a hadronic process is model dependent: is it possible to parametrise in a clear way this splitting? What kind of information (scale dependence, gauge dependence,) is actually included in the parameters of the low energy effective theory? I will attempt to answer these questions introducing a possible convention to perform the splitting between strong and electromagnetic parts in some examples

  11. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  12. Electromagnetic field sources in radiofrequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Sebastiao, D.; Ladeira, D.; Antunes, M.; Correia, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of the monIT Project, several measurements were made of electromagnetic fields in Portugal. This paper presents an analysis of the sources operating in the radiofrequency range, resulting from 2429 measurements in 466 locations.

  13. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  14. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  15. Comparison between geoelectric and electromagnetic sounding responses in volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of active and inactive volcanoes can be explored with electric and electromagnetic surveys. We test the actual applicability of prospecting methods that employ both stationary and time-varying fields, using mathematical models both for layered and complex structures. The geometry and the resistivities of the geological structures which are considered have been taken from real case studies reported in the literature. In particular we analyse the sensitivity of different methods to conductive and resistant bodies.

  16. Multiforms, dyadics, and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the four-dimensional formalism with an extended toolbox of operation rules, allowing readers to define more general classes of electromagnetic media and to analyze EM waves that can exist in them. End-of-chapter exercises. Formalism allows readers to find novel classes of media. Covers various properties of electromagnetic media in terms of which they can be set in different classes.

  17. The law of electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calculation peculiarities for Lorentz force, Ampere force, interaction of parallel electric currents, and the moment of electrical machines are analyzed. They have exceptions on application, and they are the rules which result from the law of electromagnetic force as coordinate derivative of the operating magnetic flow. An addition to the direction of electromagnetic force action is proposed. Standards of salient-pole electrical machine designing are considered.

  18. Advanced Model of Electromagnetic Launcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Leubner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced 2D model of electromagnetic launcher is presented respecting the influence of eddy currents induced in the accelerated ferromagnetic body. The time evolution of electromagnetic field in the system, corresponding forces acting on the projectile and time evolutions of its velocity and current in the field circuit are solved numerically using own application Agros2d. The results are then processed and evaluated in Wolfram Mathematica. The methodology is illustrated with an example whose results are discussed.

  19. Electromagnetic processes in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Campos, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    With the framework of the cluster model within the supermultiplet scheme is developed algebra for oscillator cluster configurations. With this algebra and the selection rules for electromagnetic multipole transitions we calculate transition matrix elements and radiative widths. The electromagnetic transition probabilities show big differences. Responsible for this are the exchange terms of the orbital partitions of our oscillator cluster configurations. Detailed calculations are presented for the case of γ-radiative capture transitions in 6 Li nucleus. (orig.) [de

  20. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  1. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  2. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V; Rabinovitch, A; Bahat, D

    2003-01-01

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse

  3. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Rabinovitch, A [Physics Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-07

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse.

  4. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  5. Electromagnetic fields and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Neeta; Mathur, R.; Behari, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have raised the possibility that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may be hazardous to human health, in particular by promotion or initiation of cancer. Recent reports have indicated increased cancer risk from industrial and domestic exposure to environmental ELF fields and to RF fields that are amplitude modulated at ELF. EMF fields have been reported to affect biological systems in various ways, affecting changes in the morphology and or functional behavior of cells, which have been observed in a variety of tissues. Although the mechanism of interaction of EMFs with living cells are not known, it has been proposed that they have multiple effects and can affect cell signalling, including modification of plasma membrane permeability and ion transport. Our findings suggest that EMFs can affect post translational modification of proteins such as poly ADP-ribosylation by epigenetic mechanism and that the effect of EMFs are highly specific regarding both the cell type and the frequency and amplification of the applied field. (author)

  6. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  7. Introduction to engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yeon Ho

    2013-01-01

    This text provides students with the missing link that can help them master the basic principles of electromagnetics. The concept of vector fields is introduced by starting with clear definitions of position, distance, and base vectors. The symmetries of typical configurations are discussed in detail, including cylindrical, spherical, translational, and two-fold rotational symmetries. To avoid serious confusion between symbols with two indices, the text adopts a new notation: a letter with subscript 1-2 for the work done in moving a unit charge from point 2 to point 1, in which the subscript 1-2 mimics the difference in potentials, while the hyphen implies a sense of backward direction, from 2 to 1. This text includes 300 figures in which real data are drawn to scale. Many figures provide a three-dimensional view. Each subsection includes a number of examples that are solved by examining rigorous approaches in steps. Each subsection ends with straightforward exercises and answers through which students can c...

  8. NEMP (Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, H.K.

    The variety of measures discussed in this contribution can be used to achieve with minimum effort a damping of 10 6 :1 (120 dB) between the interfering pulses in the networks and lines outside the buildings and the lines leading to the semiconductors. Expert knowledge, experience, and insight into the systems are required to solve this task optimally. The procedure to be adopted for NEMP protection differs only slightly from that used for achieving electromagnetic compatibility and lightning protection. Industry has developed the equipment for overvoltage protection and offers graded protection systems, experienced experts and systems engineers are available. This potential of the industry could be used to sponsor a pilot project, e.g. by public research funds. One of the goals of such a project could be to work out reliable data for cost estimated for large projects. Even if one would not accept the hypothetical probability of a nuclear war as a reason good anough to start such a project, it would not be justified to deny the necessity of additional expenditure for setting up a ''NEMP emergency system'' for protection waterborne traffic on purely financial grounds. (orig./RW) [de

  9. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  10. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  11. Design, fabrication and characterization of LTCC-based electromagnetic microgenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierczak, M; Markowski, P; Dziedzic, A

    2016-01-01

    Design, manufacturing process and properties of electromagnetic microgenerators fabricated in LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) technology are presented in this paper. Electromagnetic microgenerators consist of planar coils spatially arranged on several layers of LTCC and of a multipole permanent magnet. Two different patterns of coils with 2-, 8-,10- and 12-layers and outer diameter of 50 mm were designed and fabricated. Silver-based pastes ESL 903-A or DuPont 6145 were used. In order to estimate the inductance of a single spatial coil the Greenhouse (self-inductance) and Hoer (mutual inductance) calculation methods were used. To verify the calculation results a single-layer coil was fabricated for each pattern and its inductance was measured using the precision RLC Meter. Fabricated LTCC microgenerators with embedded coils allow to generate voltage higher than ten volts and the electrical output power of approximately 600 mW at the rotor rotation speed of 12 thousands rpm. The self-made system was used for characterization of LTCC-based electromagnetic microgenerators. (paper)

  12. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to

  13. The LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This huge 6X7 square metre wall consists of 3300 blocks containing scintillator, fibre optics and lead, which took engineers on the LHCb experiment at CERN only one month to construct. It will measure the energy of particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC when it is started in 2008. Photons, electrons and positrons will pass through the layers of material in these modules and deposit their energy in the detector through a shower of particles.

  14. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  15. Electromagnetic Sampo monitoring soundings at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.; Korpisalo, A.; Ojamo, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland has carried out electromagnetic frequency-domain depth soundings at fixed measurement stations in Olkiluoto annually since 2004. The purpose of the soundings is to monitor the groundwater conditions in the vicinity of the ONKALO rock characterization facility which will ultimately be part of the final nuclear waste disposal facility for the Finnish nuclear power companies. A new monitoring survey was carried out at the turn of May-June 2010. The survey resulted in 38 successfully performed soundings at 10 stations. The data set spanning the time period of 2004 to 2010 was interpreted with layered-earth models. Most of the interpretations indicate no systematic changes in the level of deep saline groundwater. However, at one station there are indications of a systematic rise in the groundwater level. (orig.)

  16. Concentric layered Hermite scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2018-05-01

    The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.

  17. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10 -12 -10 -13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  19. On electromagnetic wave propagation through a plasma sheath produced by a moving ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the interaction of electromagnetic waves are considered with a nonstationary plasma layer of a finite thickness, produced in an immovable gas by a movable ionization source. It is shown that a static magnetic field excited on the ionization front in build-up of electrons produced in the incident wave field reemits the energy to the electromagnetic wave during the plasma relaxation caused by recombination processes. As a result the electromagnetic wave of a finite amplitude may propagate behind the nonstationary layer of an ''opaque'' (ωsub(p)sup(2)>>ωsub(urc)sup((0))sup(2)) plasma as distinct from the layer of a movable stationary plasma with the same parameters

  20. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  1. The double layers in the plasma sheet boundary layer during magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Yu, B.

    2014-11-01

    We studied the evolutions of double layers which appear after the magnetic reconnection through two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation results show that the double layers are formed in the plasma sheet boundary layer after magnetic reconnection. At first, the double layers which have unipolar structures are formed. And then the double layers turn into bipolar structures, which will couple with another new weak bipolar structure. Thus a new double layer or tripolar structure comes into being. The double layers found in our work are about several ten Debye lengths, which accords with the observation results. It is suggested that the electron beam formed during the magnetic reconnection is responsible for the production of the double layers.

  2. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  3. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  4. Attracting electromagnet for control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Sasaki, Kotaro.

    1989-01-01

    Non-magnetic material plates with inherent resistivity of greater than 20 μΩ-cm and thickness of less than 3 mm are used for the end plates of attracting electromagnets for closed type control rods. By using such control rod attracting electromagnets, the scram releasing time can be shortened than usual. Since the armature attracting side of the electromagnet has to be sealed by a non-magnetic plate, a bronze plate of about 5 mm thickness has been used so far. Accordingly, non-magnetic plate is inserted to the electromagnet attracting face to increase air source length for improving to shorten the scram releasing time. This method, however, worsens the attracting property on one hand to require a great magnetomotive force. For overcoming these drawbacks, in the present invention, the material for tightly closing end plates in an electromagnet is changed from bronze plate to non-magnetic stainless steel SUS 303 or non-magnetic Monel metal and, in addition, the plate thickness is reduced to less than 5 mm thereby maintaining the attracting property and shortening the scram releasing time. (K.M.)

  5. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo, A; Espinoza, A; Alvarado Flores, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  6. Electromagnetic coupling of high-altitude, nuclear electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    We have used scale models to measure the predicted coupling of electromagnetic fields simulating the effects of high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses (HEMP) on the interior surfaces of electronic components. Predictive tools for exterior coupling are adequate. For interior coupling, however, such tools are in their infancy. Our methodological approach combines analytical, computational, and laboratory techniques in a complementary way to take advantage of their separate strengths. Computer models are a promising tool, as they can be used to treat complex objects with arbitrary shapes, dielectrics, and cables, and multiple apertures. Laboratory tests can expand the domain of investigation even further

  7. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  8. Electromagnetic micropores: fabrication and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basore, Joseph R; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-21

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of electromagnetic micropores. These devices consist of a micropore encompassed by a microelectromagnetic trap. Fabrication of the device involves multiple photolithographic steps, combined with deep reactive ion etching and subsequent insulation steps. When immersed in an electrolyte solution, application of a constant potential across the micropore results in an ionic current. Energizing the electromagnetic trap surrounding the micropore produces regions of high magnetic field gradients in the vicinity of the micropore that can direct motion of a ferrofluid onto or off of the micropore. This results in dynamic gating of the ion current through the micropore structure. In this report, we detail fabrication and characterize the electrical and ionic properties of the prepared electromagnetic micropores.

  9. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  10. Perturbations in electromagnetic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Maroto, Antonio L.; Koivisto, Tomi S.; Mota, David F.

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that the presence of a temporal electromagnetic field on cosmological scales could explain the phase of accelerated expansion that the universe is currently undergoing. The field contributes as a cosmological constant and therefore, the homogeneous cosmology produced by such a model is exactly the same as that of ΛCDM. However, unlike a cosmological constant term, electromagnetic fields can acquire perturbations which in principle could affect CMB anisotropies and structure formation. In this work, we study the evolution of inhomogeneous scalar perturbations in this model. We show that provided the initial electromagnetic fluctuations generated during inflation are small, the model is perfectly compatible with both CMB and large scale structure observations at the same level of accuracy as ΛCDM

  11. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  12. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  13. Advanced electromagnetics and scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book present the lecture notes used in two courses that the late Professor Kasra Barkeshli had offered at Sharif University of Technology, namely, Advanced Electromagnetics and Scattering Theory. The prerequisite for the sequence is vector calculus and electromagnetic fields and waves. Some familiarity with Green's functions and integral equations is desirable but not necessary. The book  provides a brief but concise introduction to classical topics in the field. It is divided into three parts including annexes. Part I covers principle of electromagnetic theory. The discussion starts with a review of the Maxwell's equations in differential and integral forms and basic boundary conditions. The solution of inhomogeneous wave equation and various field representations including Lorentz's potential functions and the Green's function method are discussed next. The solution of Helmholtz equation and wave harmonics follow. Next, the book presents plane wave propagation in dielectric and lossy media and various...

  14. Electromagnetic corrections to baryon masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic contributions to the octet and decuplet baryon masses using the heavy-baryon approximation in chiral effective field theory and methods we developed in earlier analyses of the baryon masses and magnetic moments. Our methods connect simply to Morpurgo's general parametrization of the electromagnetic contributions and to semirelativistic quark models. Our calculations are carried out including the one-loop mesonic corrections to the basic electromagnetic interactions, so to two loops overall. We find that to this order in the chiral loop expansion there are no three-body contributions. The Coleman-Glashow relation and other sum rules derived in quark models with only two-body terms therefore continue to hold, and violations involve at least three-loop processes and can be expected to be quite small. We present the complete formal results and some estimates of the matrix elements here. Numerical calculations will be presented separately

  15. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  16. Clinical importance of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, I.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical importance of most of the electromagnetic fields is not highly. Mostly they only have thermal effects, produced by energy-absorption. About 1 C increase of whole-body-temperature is valid for tolerable limit. For measuring is used the SAR-Value (Specific Absorption Rate) in W/kg body mass. SAR = 0,8W/kg for the whole body is valid to be safety. For the evaluation of possible other effects of electromagnetic fields the scientific knowledges are till now not sufficient to allow a final statement. That could be impacts of electromagnetic fields to conduction or switch processes in the nerves or brains, in the framwork of cellular regulations, in the genetic reactions are occurig is little, but if is necessary to find it out in scinentific investigations. (orig.) [de

  17. Mathematical methods of electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrichs, Kurt O

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a mathematically precise but intuitive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory and wave propagation, with a brief introduction to special relativity. While written in a distinctive, modern style, Friedrichs manages to convey the physical intuition and 19th century basis of the equations, with an emphasis on conservation laws. Particularly striking features of the book include: (a) a mathematically rigorous derivation of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter, (b) a straightforward explanation of how to use variational principles to solve problems in el

  18. A review of electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Shen, H.M.; Myers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical results are reviewed pertaining to the behavior of transient electromagnetic fields in the limit of great distances from their sources. In 1985 it was shown that pulses of finite total radiated energy could propagate to a distant receiver, delivering energy that decreases much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Such pulses have been referred to as electromagnetic (EM) missiles. The types first discovered propagate along a straight line with a monotonically (though slowly) decreasing time-integrated flux. Other types are now known. One type can be made to rise and fall with increasing distance; another is the curved EM missile. Early efforts to classify EM missiles are reviewed

  19. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  20. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...