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Sample records for layer barrel drift

  1. Mechanical structure of the TOPAZ barrel drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, T.; Maruyama, K.; Okuno, H.

    1987-07-01

    A Barrel Drift Chamber (BDC) is constructed for the TOPAZ experiment at TRISTAN, KEK. The BDC has a cylindrical shape with dimensions of 325.2 cm in inner diameter, 347.2 cm in outer diameter and 500 cm long. It consists of 1232 drift tubes made of conductive plastic cathodes, which are staggered in four layers. In this report, a design of the mechanical structure and construction procedures are described in detail. (author)

  2. The drift velocity monitoring system of the CMS barrel muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Altenhoefer, Georg Friedrich; Heidemann, Carsten Andreas; Reithler, Hans; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel Francois

    2017-01-01

    The drift velocity is a key parameter of drift chambers. Its value depends on several parameters: electric field, pressure, temperature, gas mixture, and contamination, for example, by ambient air. A dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) with 1-L volume has been built at the III. Phys. Institute A, RWTH Aachen, in order to monitor the drift velocity of all CMS barrel muon Drift Tube chambers. A system of six VDCs was installed at CMS and has been running since January 2011. We present the VDC monitoring system, its principle of operation, and measurements performed.

  3. The drift velocity monitoring system of the CMS barrel muon chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöfer, Georg; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Reithler, Hans; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The drift velocity is a key parameter of drift chambers. Its value depends on several parameters: electric field, pressure, temperature, gas mixture, and contamination, for example, by ambient air. A dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) with 1-L volume has been built at the III. Phys. Institute A, RWTH Aachen, in order to monitor the drift velocity of all CMS barrel muon Drift Tube chambers. A system of six VDCs was installed at CMS and has been running since January 2011. We present the VDC monitoring system, its principle of operation, and measurements performed.

  4. Conceptual design report for the SDC barrel and intermediate muon detectors based on a jet-type drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Y.; Funahashi, Y.; Higashi, Y.

    1992-04-01

    We propose a jet-type drift chamber for the barrel and intermediate muon detectors of SDC. The chamber system consists of large multiwire drift chambers having a simple box-type frame structure: 2. 5 x 0.4 m 2 in cross section and maximum 9 m in length. A chamber module consists of double layers of small jet cells. The drift cell is composed of a wire plane, including 3 sense wires, and cathode plates parallel to the wire plane. The two layers in a chamber are staggered to each other by half a cell width. The jet cell is tilted such that its principle axis points to the interaction point. Such an arrangement, together with a constant drift velocity of the jet cell, allows us to design a simple and powerful trigger system for high momentum muons utilizing a drift time sum between a pair of staggered cells. The multi-hit capability will be helpful to distinguish high momentum muon tracks from associated electromagnetic debris as has been demonstrated by the Fermilab beam test T816. The maximum drift time fulfills the SDC requirement. A preliminary FEM analysis of the chamber module verified the excellent structural stiffness. It makes the support structure and the alignment system relatively simple. These features will reduce the total cost as well as ensure a good performance of the chamber system. (J.P.N.)

  5. MUON DETECTOR: BARREL DRIFT TUBES (DT) AND ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    After months of cosmics data taking the drift tube (DT) detector is in good shape, ready for LHC beams. Several hundreds of millions of cosmics events have been recorded; out of those, more than 90% were triggered by the DT system. Data integrity analyses have shown a very reliable read-out system, also during high rate tests. With a 98% of the detector operational, only awaiting the arrival of some low voltage modules and for the completion of the DT Track Finder system, data taking is starting to become routine job. These continuous running exercises have been very useful to study performance and reliability of the detector in a medium term period, allowing understanding and fixing failures that have occurred with low frequency. Drift tubes have become a very stable system, becoming a service of muon triggering for the tracker after its final installation. During the last months, major efforts have taken place in synchronization tasks, within the DT system (250 chambers) and also with the rest of the CMS su...

  6. Performance Analysis of a Bunch and Track Identifier Prototype (BTI) for the CMS Barrel Muon Drift Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta Pelayo, J.

    2001-01-01

    This note contains a short description of the first step in the first level trigger applied to the barrel muon drift chambers of CMS: the Bunch and Track Identifier (BTI). The test beam results obtained with a BTI prototype have been also analysed BTI performance for different incidence angles and in presence of external magnetic field has been tested, as well as BTI capability as trigger device and track reconstructor. (Author) 30 refs

  7. Patchwork-Type Spontaneous Activity in Neonatal Barrel Cortex Layer 4 Transmitted via Thalamocortical Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Mizuno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Establishment of precise neuronal connectivity in the neocortex relies on activity-dependent circuit reorganization during postnatal development; however, the nature of cortical activity during this period remains largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging of the barrel cortex in vivo during the first postnatal week, we reveal that layer 4 (L4 neurons within the same barrel fire synchronously in the absence of peripheral stimulation, creating a “patchwork” pattern of spontaneous activity corresponding to the barrel map. By generating transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6s in thalamocortical axons, we show that thalamocortical axons also demonstrate the spontaneous patchwork activity pattern. Patchwork activity is diminished by peripheral anesthesia but is mostly independent of self-generated whisker movements. The patchwork activity pattern largely disappeared during postnatal week 2, as even L4 neurons within the same barrel tended to fire asynchronously. This spontaneous L4 activity pattern has features suitable for thalamocortical (TC circuit refinement in the neonatal barrel cortex. : By two-photon calcium imaging of layer 4 neurons and thalamocortical axon terminals in neonatal mouse barrel cortex, Mizuno et al. find a patchwork-like spontaneous activity pattern corresponding to the barrel map, which may be important for thalamocortical circuit maturation. Keywords: activity-dependent development, spontaneous activity, synchronized activity, barrel cortex, thalamocortical axons, neonates, in vivo calcium imaging, awake, single-cell labeling, whisker monitoring

  8. Construction and test of the final CMS Barrel Drift Tube Muon Chamber prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Arneodo, M.; Banicz, K.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bethke, S.; Cerrada, M. E-mail: cerrada@ciemat.es; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Dallavalle, M.; Daniel, M.; Dattola, D.; Daudo, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Fanfani, A.; Fanin, C.; Fouz, M.C.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Giordano, V.; Gonella, F.; Grandi, C.; Guaita, P.; Guerzoni, M.; Lacaprara, S.; Lippi, I.; Marcellini, S.; Marin, J.; Martinelli, R.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.; Migliore, E.; Mocholi, J.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Oller, J.C.; Paoletti, S.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.M.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Salicio, J.M.; Staiano, A.; Steinbeck, T.; Torassa, E.; Travaglini, R.; Ventura, L.; Ventura, S.; Vitelli, A.; Voetee, F.; Wegner, M.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2002-03-21

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper.

  9. The OPAL muon barrel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, R.J.; Allison, J.; Ashton, P.; Bahan, G.A.; Baines, J.T.M.; Banks, J.N.; Barlow, R.J.; Barnett, S.; Beeston, C.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Clowes, S.G.; Davies, O.W.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Hinde, P.S.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Lafferty, G.D.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McGowan, R.F.; Moss, M.W.; Murphy, P.G.; Nijjhar, B.; O'Dowd, A.J.P.; Pawley, S.J.; Phillips, P.D.; Richards, G.E.; Skillman, A.; Stephens, K.; Tresillian, N.J.; Wood, N.C.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    The barrel part of the OPAL muon detector consists of 110 drift chambers forming four layers outside the hadron absorber. Each chamber covers an area of 1.2 m by up to 10.4 m and has two cells with wires parallel to the beam and a drift distance of 297 mm. A detailed description of the design, construction, operation and performance of the sub-detector is given. The system has been operating successfully since the start of LEP in 1989. ((orig.))

  10. DELPHI Barrel Muon Chamber Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The module was used as part of the muon identification system on the barrel of the DELPHI detector at LEP, and was in active use from 1989 to 2000. The module consists of 7 individual muons chambers arranged in 2 layers. Chambers in the upper layer are staggered by half a chamber width with respect to the lower layer. Each individual chamber is a drift chamber consisting of an anode wire, 47 microns in diameter, and a wrapped copper delay line. Each chamber provided 3 signal for each muon passing through the chamber, from which a 3D space-point could be reconstructed.

  11. Texture coarseness responsive neurons and their mapping in layer 2–3 of the rat barrel cortex in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garion, Liora; Dubin, Uri; Rubin, Yoav; Khateb, Mohamed; Schiller, Yitzhak; Azouz, Rony; Schiller, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Texture discrimination is a fundamental function of somatosensory systems, yet the manner by which texture is coded and spatially represented in the barrel cortex are largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in the rat barrel cortex during artificial whisking against different surface coarseness or controlled passive whisker vibrations simulating different coarseness, we show that layer 2–3 neurons within barrel boundaries differentially respond to specific texture coarsenesses, while only a minority of neurons responded monotonically with increased or decreased surface coarseness. Neurons with similar preferred texture coarseness were spatially clustered. Multi-contact single unit recordings showed a vertical columnar organization of texture coarseness preference in layer 2–3. These findings indicate that layer 2–3 neurons perform high hierarchical processing of tactile information, with surface coarseness embodied by distinct neuronal subpopulations that are spatially mapped onto the barrel cortex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03405.001 PMID:25233151

  12. Mapping functional connectivity in barrel-related columns reveals layer- and cell type-specific microcircuits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, D.; Kotter, R.; Staiger, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Synaptic circuits bind together functional modules of the neocortex. We aim to clarify in a rodent model how intra- and transcolumnar microcircuits in the barrel cortex are laid out to segregate and also integrate sensory information. The primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex of rodents is the ideal

  13. The CMS Barrel Muon trigger upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triossi, A.; Sphicas, P.; Bellato, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Ventura, S.; Ruiz, J.M. Cela; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Tobar, A. Navarro; Fernandez, I. Redondo; Ferrero, D. Redondo; Sastre, J.; Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Mallios, S.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase1 will impose tighter constraints for rate reduction in order to maintain high efficiency in the CMS Level1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors: Drift Tubes, Resistive Plate Chambers and Outer Hadron Calorimeter. It arranges the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent in multiple copies to the track finders. Results from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown.

  14. Properties of the plasma of the scrape-off layer including the effects of polarization drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The plasma of the scrape-off layer of a tokamak is analyzed. The toroidal electric drift and the polarization drift of the charged particles are taken into account. The buildup of electric charge in the shadow of the poloidal limiter which results from toroidal drift is offset by a current to the limiter. The radial electric current associated with the polarization drift of ions is important near the inner boundary of the scrape-off layer. The distributions of the electric potential and the plasma density in the scrape-off layer are derived

  15. Role of an encapsulating layer for reducing resistance drift in phase change random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change random access memory (PCRAM devices exhibit a steady increase in resistance in the amorphous phase upon aging and this resistance drift phenomenon directly affects the device reliability. A stress relaxation model is used here to study the effect of a device encapsulating layer material in addressing the resistance drift phenomenon in PCRAM. The resistance drift can be increased or decreased depending on the biaxial moduli of the phase change material (YPCM and the encapsulating layer material (YELM according to the stress relationship between them in the drift regime. The proposed model suggests that the resistance drift can be effectively reduced by selecting a proper material as an encapsulating layer. Moreover, our model explains that reducing the size of the phase change material (PCM while fully reset and reducing the amorphous/crystalline ratio in PCM help to improve the resistance drift, and thus opens an avenue for highly reliable multilevel PCRAM applications.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Bunch and Track Identifier Prototype (BTI) for the CMS Barrel Muon Drift Chambers; Estudio de las Prestaciones de un Prototipo de Bunch and Track Identifier (BTI) para las Camaras de Deriva de CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta Pelayo, J.

    2001-07-01

    This note contains a short description of the first step in the first level trigger applied to the barrel muon drift chambers of CMS: the Bunch and Track Identifier (BTI). The test beam results obtained with a BTI prototype have been also analysed BTI performance for different incidence angles and in presence of external magnetic field has been tested, as well as BTI capability as trigger device and track reconstructor. (Author) 30 refs.

  17. Layer- and column-specific knockout of NMDA receptors in pyramidal neurons of the mouse barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Aronoff

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors injected into the mouse brain offer the possibility for localized genetic modifications in a highly controlled manner. Lentivector injection into mouse neocortex transduces cells within a diameter of approximately 200µm, which closely matches the lateral scale of a column in barrel cortex. The depth and volume of the injection determines which cortical layer is transduced. Furthermore, transduced gene expression from the lentivector can be limited to predominantly pyramidal neurons by using a 1.3kb fragment of the αCaMKII promoter. This technique therefore allows genetic manipulation of a specific cell type in defined columns and layers of the neocortex. By expressing Cre recombinase from such a lentivector in gene-targeted mice carrying a floxed gene, highly specific genetic lesions can be induced. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this approach by specifically knocking out NMDA receptors (NMDARs in pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory barrel cortex of gene-targeted mice carrying floxed NMDAR 1 genes. Neurons transduced with lentivector encoding GFP and Cre recombinase exhibit not only reductions in NMDAR 1 mRNA levels, but reduced NMDAR-dependent currents and pairing-induced synaptic potentiation. This technique for knockout of NMDARs in a cell type, column- and layer-specific manner in the mouse somatosensory cortex may help further our understanding of the functional roles of NMDARs in vivo during sensory perception and learning.

  18. THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.U.

    1998-01-01

    Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors

  19. Efficacy and connectivity of intracolumnar pairs of layer 2/3 pyramidal cells in the barrel cortex of juvenile rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Dirk; Lübke, Joachim; Sakmann, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Synaptically coupled layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurones located above the same layer 4 barrel (‘barrel-related’) were investigated using dual whole-cell voltage recordings in acute slices of rat somatosensory cortex. Recordings were followed by reconstructions of biocytin-filled neurones. The onset latency of unitary EPSPs was 1.1 ± 0.4 ms, the 20–80% rise time was 0.7 ± 0.2 ms, the average amplitude was 1.0 ± 0.7 mV and the decay time constant was 15.7 ± 4.5 ms. The coefficient of variation (c.v.) of unitary EPSP amplitudes decreased with increasing EPSP peak and was 0.33 ± 0.18. Bursts of APs in the presynaptic pyramidal cell resulted in EPSPs that, over a wide range of frequencies (5–100 Hz), displayed amplitude depression. Anatomically the barrel-related pyramidal cells in the lower half of layer 2/3 have a long apical dendrite with a small terminal tuft, while pyramidal cells in the upper half of layer 2/3 have shorter and often more ‘irregularly’ shaped apical dendrites that branch profusely in layer 1. The number of putative excitatory synaptic contacts established by the axonal collaterals of a L2/3 pyramidal cell with a postsynaptic pyramidal cell in the same column varied between 2 and 4, with an average of 2.8 ± 0.7 (n = 8 pairs). Synaptic contacts were established predominantly on the basal dendrites at a mean geometric distance of 91 ± 47 μm from the pyramidal cell soma. L2/3-to-L2/3 connections formed a blob-like innervation domain containing 2.8 mm of the presynaptic axon collaterals with a bouton density of 0.3 boutons per μm axon. Within the supragranular layers of its home column a single L2/3 pyramidal cell established about 900 boutons suggesting that 270 pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 are innervated by an individual pyramidal cell. In turn, a single pyramidal cell received synaptic inputs from 270 other L2/3 pyramidal cells. The innervation domain of L2/3-to-L2/3 connections superimposes almost exactly with that of L4-to-L2

  20. Barrels XXIX: Barrels go Hollywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mathew H; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2017-03-01

    Barrels XXIX brought together researchers focusing on the rodent barrel cortex and associated systems. The meeting revolved around three themes: thalamocortical interactions in motor control, touch in rodent, monkey, and humans, and the nature of the multisensory computations the brain makes. Over two days these topics were covered as well as many more presentations that focused on the physiology, behavior, and development of the rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex system.

  1. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  2. Bidirectional Hebbian Plasticity Induced by Low-Frequency Stimulation in Basal Dendrites of Rat Barrel Cortex Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-García, Andrea; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Núñez, Ángel; Buño, Washington; Fernández de Sevilla, David

    2017-01-01

    According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered. Therefore, we aimed at determining the mechanisms that generate LTP or LTD with the simplest possible protocol. Low-frequency stimulation of basal dendrite inputs in Layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat barrel cortex induces LTP. This stimulation triggered an EPSP, an action potential (AP) burst, and a Ca 2+ spike. The same stimulation induced LTD following manipulations that reduced the Ca 2+ spike and Ca 2+ signal or the AP burst. Low-frequency whisker deflections induced similar bidirectional plasticity of action potential evoked responses in anesthetized rats. These results suggest that both in vitro and in vivo similar mechanisms regulate the balance between LTP and LTD. This simple induction form of bidirectional hebbian plasticity could be present in the natural conditions to regulate the detection, flow, and storage of sensorimotor information.

  3. Bidirectional Hebbian Plasticity Induced by Low-Frequency Stimulation in Basal Dendrites of Rat Barrel Cortex Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-García, Andrea; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Núñez, Ángel; Buño, Washington; Fernández de Sevilla, David

    2017-01-01

    According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered. Therefore, we aimed at determining the mechanisms that generate LTP or LTD with the simplest possible protocol. Low-frequency stimulation of basal dendrite inputs in Layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat barrel cortex induces LTP. This stimulation triggered an EPSP, an action potential (AP) burst, and a Ca2+ spike. The same stimulation induced LTD following manipulations that reduced the Ca2+ spike and Ca2+ signal or the AP burst. Low-frequency whisker deflections induced similar bidirectional plasticity of action potential evoked responses in anesthetized rats. These results suggest that both in vitro and in vivo similar mechanisms regulate the balance between LTP and LTD. This simple induction form of bidirectional hebbian plasticity could be present in the natural conditions to regulate the detection, flow, and storage of sensorimotor information. PMID:28203145

  4. The impacts of moisture transport on drifting snow sublimation in the saltation layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drifting snow sublimation (DSS is an important physical process related to moisture and heat transfer that happens in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is of glaciological and hydrological importance. It is also essential in order to understand the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets and the global climate system. Previous studies mainly focused on the DSS of suspended snow and ignored that in the saltation layer. Here, a drifting snow model combined with balance equations for heat and moisture is established to simulate the physical DSS process in the saltation layer. The simulated results show that DSS can strongly increase humidity and cooling effects, which in turn can significantly reduce DSS in the saltation layer. However, effective moisture transport can dramatically weaken the feedback effects. Due to moisture advection, DSS rate in the saltation layer can be several orders of magnitude greater than that of the suspended particles. Thus, DSS in the saltation layer has an important influence on the distribution and mass–energy balance of snow cover.

  5. Study on the snow drifting modelling criteria in boundary layer wind tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta BĂETU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on modelling the wind drifting of the snow deposited on the flat roofs of buildings in wind tunnel. The physical model of snow drifting in wind tunnel simulating the urban exposure to wind action is not frequently reported in literature, but is justified by the serious damages under accidental important snow falls combined with strong wind actions on the roofs of various buildings. A uniform layer of snow deposited on the flat roof was exposed to wind action in order to obtain the drifting. The parameters involved in the modelling at reduced scale, with particles of glass beads, of the phenomenon of transportation of the snow from the roof were analysed, particularly the roughness length and the friction wind speed. A numerical simulation in ANSYS CFX program was developed in parallel, by which a more accurate visualization of the particularities of the wind flow over the roof was possible, in the specific areas where the phenomenon of snow transportation was more susceptible to occur. Modified roughness length and friction wind speed were determined through methods used in the literature, an attempt being made in this work to analyse the factors that influence their values.

  6. Enhancement of breakdown voltage for fully-vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diode by using strained layer superlattice as drift layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Suguru; Hamada, Takeaki; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Egawa, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    We have demonstrated a vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diode with breakdown voltage (BV) as high as 839 V by using a low Si-doped strained layer superlattice (SLS). The p-n vertical diode fabricated by using the n‑-SLS layer as a part of the drift layer showed a remarkable enhancement in BV, when compared with the conventional n‑-GaN drift layer of similar thickness. The vertical GaN-on-Si p-n diodes with 2.3 μm-thick n‑-GaN drift layer and 3.0 μm-thick n‑-SLS layer exhibited a differential on-resistance of 4.0 Ω · cm2 and a BV of 839 V.

  7. CMS Barrel Pixel Detector Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, Roland Paul; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Robmann, P; Rohe, T; Streuli, S

    2007-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is built from two independent sub devices, the pixel barrel and the end disks. The barrel consists of three concentric layers around the beam pipe with mean radii of 4.4, 7.3 and 10.2 cm. There are two end disks on each side of the interaction point at 34.5 cm and 46.5 cm. This article gives an overview of the pixel barrel detector, its mechanical support structure, electronics components, services and its expected performance.

  8. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    to the results of the exploitation in practice. As far as modern methods are concerned, the principles of fracture mechanics according to the Paris expression and the modified expression of Smith-O'Braski are discussed. A reference value is the crack dimensions, i.e. material fatigue, and, due to the regime of exploitation, temperature, material, pressure, etc. are also taken into account. For the purpose of controlled wear and extension of the barrel lifetime, the following means for wear reduction are used: agents for lowering the tube surface temperature; so-called "cold" gunpowders; less erosive propellant charges; reduction of the leading ring stress using so-called "inert" materials which provide the necessary rotation of projectiles and reliable sealing of propellant gases along the tube and the use of improved types of barrel materials or the use of coatings and layers (liners resistant to three main causes of erosion. The application of these barrel materials significantly increases the barrel lifetime (Tables 2 and 3. CONCLUSION The problem of tube wear and the definition of a method for predicting tube lifetime is very complex and multidisciplinary. This problem requires a team work of experts that would cover the following fields: mechanics of weapons, internal and external ballistics, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, strength of materials, fracture mechanics, metallurgy, physical chemistry, maintenance and diagnostics. Since diagnostics, i.e. the determination of the tube technical conditions,  precedes a prognosis of the tube service lifetime, it is logical that the first step towards solving this complex problem is to estimate the conditions, which should serve as a good basis for a proper evaluation of the tube lifetime.  

  9. Drift time measurement in the ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic muons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aad..[], G.; Dam, Mogens; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact...... on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.8% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of (0.29^{+0.05}_{-0.04})% in the barrel and (0...

  10. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  11. Relationship between vertical ExB drift and F2-layer characteristics in the equatorial ionosphere at solar minimum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2012-07-01

    Equatorial and low-latitude electrodynamics plays a dominant role in determining the structure and dynamics of the equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric F-region. Thus, they constitute essential input parameters for quantitative global and regional modeling studies. In this work, hourly median value of ionosonde measurements namely, peak height F2-layer (hmF2), F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) and propagation factor M(3000)F2 made at near equatorial dip latitude, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (12oN, 1.5oW; dip: 1.5oN) and relevant F2-layer parameters such as thickness parameter (Bo), electron temperature (Te), ion temperature (Ti), total electron content (TEC) and electron density (Ne, at the fixed altitude of 300 km) provided by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model for the longitude of Ouagadougou are contrasted with the IRI vertical drift model to explore in detail the monthly climatological behavior of equatorial ionosphere and the effects of equatorial vertical plasma drift velocities on the diurnal structure of F2-layer parameters. The analysis period covers four months representative of solstitial and equinoctial seasonal periods during solar minimum year of 1987 for geomagnetically quiet-day. We show that month-by-month morphological patterns between vertical E×B drifts and F2-layer parameters range from worst to reasonably good and are largely seasonally dependent. A cross-correlation analysis conducted between equatorial drift and F2-layer characteristics yield statistically significant correlations for equatorial vertical drift and IRI-Bo, IRI-Te and IRI-TEC, whereas little or no acceptable correlation is obtained with observational evidence. Assessment of the association between measured foF2, hmF2 and M(3000)F2 illustrates consistent much more smaller correlation coefficients with no systematic linkage. In general, our research indicates strong departure from simple electrodynamically controlled behavior.

  12. MUON DETECTOR BARREL DRIFT TUBES (DT)

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabrizio Gasparini

    The DT system is made of 250 chambers, installed in the five wheels of the CMS Iron Yoke. Each wheel is subdivided in 10 sectors of four chambers each. Two sectors per wheel, the top and bottom ones, are equipped with 5 chambers, the large outer MB4s being split in two. The electronics for local, i.e. chamber, readout and generation of trigger primitives sits on Minicrates installed on each chamber (on-detector electronics). The data from each chamber are collected and synchronized by the off-detector electronics, sitting on the Wheel towers and organized per sector. HV and LV are organized per sector and per quarter (3 sectors) of each wheel respectively, DAQ and DCS have one branch per wheel. At the end of the February CMS Week the central wheel was fully operational and the two positive wheels, YB+1 and +2, fully commissioned. They were successfully moved over the vacuum tank and closed against YB0. The negative wheels were still open, with DT commissioning and final LV and DCS cabling being completed ...

  13. Barrels XXX meeting report: Barrels in Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Bitzidou, Malamati; Palaguachi, Fernando; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2018-03-01

    The Barrels meeting annually brings together researchers focused on the rodent whisker to cortical barrel system prior to the Society for Neuroscience meeting. The 2017 meeting focused on the classification of cortical interneurons, the role interneurons have in shaping brain dynamics, and finally on the circuitry underlying oral sensations. The meeting highlighted the latest advancements in this rapidly advancing field.

  14. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  15. Stokes drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.

    2017-12-01

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  16. Drift Time Measurement in the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter using Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; 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Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; 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Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.A.; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran Yildiz, H; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L R; Flowerdew, M.J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallas, M.V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gaponenko, A.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J E; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.C.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.P.; Giordano, R.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; 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Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa Romero, D A; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra Suay, L; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanó, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C.L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ionization signals in the liquid argon of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter are studied in detail using cosmic muons. In particular, the drift time of the ionization electrons is measured and used to assess the intrinsic uniformity of the calorimeter gaps and estimate its impact on the constant term of the energy resolution. The drift times of electrons in the cells of the second layer of the calorimeter are uniform at the level of 1.3% in the barrel and 2.7% in the endcaps. This leads to an estimated contribution to the constant term of 0.29% in the barrel and 0.53% in the endcaps. The same data are used to measure the drift velocity of ionization electrons in liquid argon, which is found to be 4.61 +- 0.07 mm/microsecond at 88.5 K and 1 kV/mm.

  17. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    Rabady, Dinyar; Carlin, Roberto; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Dallavalle, Marco; Erö, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Sphicas, Paris; Triossi, Andrea; Venturi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance of the LHC during its Run-1 also in Run-2, the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade was the re-organisation of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes, the cathode strip chambers, and the resistive plate chambers were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems, to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged already at the track-finding level. This also required the development of a new system to sort as well as cancel-out the muon tracks found by each system. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (µGMT). While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the µGMT i...

  18. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    Battilana, Carlo; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fountas, Konstantinos; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Triossi, Andrea; Venturi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance of the LHC during its Run-1 also in Run-2, the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade was the re-organisation of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes, the cathode strip chambers, and the resistive plate chambers were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems, to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged already at the track-finding level. This also required the development of a new system to sort as well as cancel-out the muon tracks found by each system. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the $\\m...

  19. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    Rabady, Dinyar; Carlin, Roberto; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Dallavalle, Marco; Erö, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Guiducci, Luigi; Loukas, Nikitas; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Sphicas, Paris; Triossi, Andrea; Venturi, Andrea; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance of the LHC during its Run-1 also in Run-2, the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade was the re-organisation of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes, the cathode strip chambers, and the resistive plate chambers were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems, to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged already at the track-finding level. This also required the development of a new system to sort as well as cancel-out the muon tracks found by each system. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (µGMT). While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the µGMT i...

  20. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080489; Flouris, Gianis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis,Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHCs Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer.An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer, the upgraded Global Muon Trigger ($\\mu$GMT). B...

  1. TRT Barrel milestones passed

    CERN Multimedia

    Ogren, H

    2004-01-01

    The barrel TRT detector passed three significant milestones this spring. The Barrel Support Structure (BSS) was completed and moved to the SR-1 building on February 24th. On March 12th the first module passed the quality assurance testing in Building 154 and was transported to the assembly site in the SR-1 building for barrel assembly. Then on April 21st the final production module that had been scanned at Hampton University was shipped to CERN. TRT Barrel Module Production The production of the full complement of barrel modules (96 plus 9 total spares) is now complete. This has been a five-year effort by Duke University, Hampton University, and Indiana University. Actual construction of the modules in the United States was completed in the first part of 2004. The production crews at each of the sites in the United States have now completed their missions. They are shown in the following pictures. Duke University: Production crew with the final completed module. Indiana University: Module producti...

  2. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  3. Barrel Module0 Autopsy

    CERN Document Server

    Cobal, M; Nessi, Marzio; Blanch, O; Zamora, Y

    1999-01-01

    Using the information from the Cs calibration runs, many of the problems affecting the response of the barrel Module0 prototype have been spotted out. These can be bad fibre-tile couplings, light losses from fibres bundling, broken fibres, not transparent tiles etc. After a visual inspection, most of these problems have been repaired.

  4. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  5. TRT and SCT barrels merge

    CERN Multimedia

    Wells, P S

    2006-01-01

    The SCT barrel was inserted in the TRT on 17 February, just missing Valentine's day. This was a change of emphasis for the two detectors. In the preceeding months there had been a lot of focus on testing their performance. The TRT had been observing cosmic rays through several sectors of the barrel, and all the modules on each of the four layers of the SCT had been characterised prior to integration. In parallel, the engineering teams, lead by Marco Olcese, Andrea Catinaccio, Eric Perrin, Neil Dixon, Iourii Gusakov, Gerard Barbier and Takashi Kohriki, had been preparing for this critical operation. Figure 1: Neil Dixon and Marco Olcese verifying the final alignment The two detectors had to be painstakingly aligned to be concentric to within a millimetre. The SCT was held on a temporary cantilever stand, and the TRT in the ID trolley had to inch over it. Finally the weight of the SCT was transferred to the rails on the inside of the TRT itself. The SCT services actually protruded a little outside the oute...

  6. A time projection chamber for the crystal barrel experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaab, Dimitri; Ball, Markus; Beck, Reinhard; Ketzer, Bernhard [HISKP, Bonn University (Germany); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment focuses on baryon spectroscopy by photoproduction processes off nucleons. For this purpose the experiment consists of an inner detector and an outer detector. The outer Crystal Barrel detector mainly measures photons from the decaying resonance. For charged particle identification and in order to obtain their direction, the Inner Detector consists of three layers of scintillating fibers. This inner detector will be replaced by a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). It offers improved track reconstruction capabilities, a robust pattern recognition and, if operated in a magnetic field, an excellent momentum resolution. Moreover, one obtains a particle identification of charged particles via the specific energy loss. A TPC has been developed for the FOPI experiment which also fits to the Crystal Barrel dimensions. It operates in continuous mode using Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) as pre-amplification stage. For the TPC detector the calibration of the detector is crucial since parameters such as drift velocity or field inhomogenities have a direct impact on the detector performance. For the CBELSA TPC a calibration system is planned, which is based on the T2K calibration system. Here, the photoelectric effect is used to release electrons at well-known positions on the cathode, which drift towards the readout plane and show the integrated spatial distortions.

  7. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabady, Dinyar; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger. - Highlights: • Presented upgraded Global Muon Trigger and Barrel Muon Track Finder systems. • Upgraded system moves from sub-detector centric view to geometric-view. • To improve trigger performance. • Common hardware improves maintainability and increases development speed. • Use of

  8. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabady, Dinyar, E-mail: dinyar.rabady@cern.ch [Institute of High Energy Physics Vienna (HEPHY), Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria); Ero, Janos [Institute of High Energy Physics Vienna (HEPHY), Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria); Flouris, Giannis [University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Fulcher, Jonathan [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos [University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-11

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger. - Highlights: • Presented upgraded Global Muon Trigger and Barrel Muon Track Finder systems. • Upgraded system moves from sub-detector centric view to geometric-view. • To improve trigger performance. • Common hardware improves maintainability and increases development speed. • Use of

  9. The PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiening, J.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-03-01

    The PANDA experiment at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) near GSI, Darmstadt, Germany will address fundamental questions of hadron physics. Excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a large range of solid angles and particle momenta will be essential to meet the objectives of the rich physics program. Charged PID for the barrel region of the PANDA target spectrometer will be provided by a DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) detector. The Barrel DIRC will cover the polar angle range of 22o-140o and cleanly separate charged pions from kaons for momenta between 0.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC and the SuperB FDIRC R&D with several important improvements to optimize the performance for PANDA, such as a focusing lens system, fast timing, a compact fused silica prism as expansion region, and lifetime-enhanced Microchannel-Plate PMTs for photon detection. This article describes the technical design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the result of the design validation using a "vertical slice" prototype in hadronic particle beams at the CERN PS.

  10. Developmental changes in electrophysiological properties and a transition from electrical to chemical coupling between excitatory layer 4 neurons in the rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliza eValiullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, sensory systems switch from an immature to an adult mode of function along with the emergence of the active cortical states. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings from neocortical slices in vitro to characterize the developmental changes in the basic electrophysiological properties of excitatory L4 neurons and their connectivity before and after the developmental switch, which occurs in the rat barrel cortex in vivo at postnatal day P8. Prior to the switch, L4 neurons had lower resting membrane potentials, higher input resistance, lower membrane capacity, as well as action potentials (APs with smaller amplitudes, longer durations and higher AP thresholds compared to the neurons after the switch. A sustained firing pattern also emerged around the switch. Dual patch-clamp recordings from L4 neurons revealed that recurrent connections between L4 excitatory cells do not exist before and develop rapidly across the switch. In contrast, electrical coupling between these neurons waned around the switch. We suggest that maturation of electrophysiological features, particularly acquisition of a sustained firing pattern, and a transition from the immature electrical to mature chemical synaptic coupling between excitatory L4 neurons, contributes to the developmental switch in the cortical mode of function.

  11. First half of CMS inner tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the CMS inner tracker barrel is seen in this image consisting of three layers of silicon modules which will be placed at the centre of the CMS experiment at the LHC in CERN. Laying close to the interaction point of the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions, the silicon used here must be able to survive high doses of radiation and a 4 T magnetic field without damage.

  12. Qualification Procedures of the CMS Pixel Barrel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Starodumov, A; Horisberger, R.; Kastli, H.Chr.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Trueb, P.

    2006-01-01

    The CMS pixel barrel system will consist of three layers built of about 800 modules. One module contains 66560 readout channels and the full pixel barrel system about 48 million channels. It is mandatory to test each channel for functionality, noise level, trimming mechanism, and bump bonding quality. Different methods to determine the bump bonding yield with electrical measurements have been developed. Measurements of several operational parameters are also included in the qualification procedure. Among them are pixel noise, gains and pedestals. Test and qualification procedures of the pixel barrel modules are described and some results are presented.

  13. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  14. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  15. Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

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Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.

  16. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  17. Core barrel inner tube lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J P

    1968-07-16

    A core drill with means for selectively lifting a core barrel inner tube consists of a lifting means connected to the core barrel inner tube assembly. It has a closable passage to permit drilling fluid normally to pass through it. The lifting means has a normally downward facing surface and a means to direct drilling fluid pressure against that surface so that on closure of the passage to fluid flow, the pressure of the drilling fluid is caused to act selectively on it. This causes the lifting means to rise and lift the core barrel. (7 claims)

  18. The barrel muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector has acquired its first cosmic event in a magnetic field produced by the barrel toroid magnet.

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D event display of a cosmic muon event, showing the path of a muon travelling through three layers of the barrel muon spectrometer. Three of the eight coils of the barrel toroid magnet can be seen in the top half of the drawing.

  19. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  20. Recent results from the DELPHI barrel ring imaging Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anassontzis, E.G.; Ioannou, P.; Kalkanis, G.; Katsanevas, S.; Kontaxis, I.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Nounos, S.; Preve, P.; Resvanis, L.K.; Brunet, J.M.; Dolbeau, J.; Guglielmo, L.; Ledroit, F.; Poutot, D.; Tristram, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DELPHI detector, installed at LEP, is equipped with RICH (Ring Imaging Cherenkov) counters. The Barrel part incorporates a liquid (C 6 F 14 ) and a gaseous (C 5 F 12 ) radiator providing particle identification up to 20GeV/c. The Cherenkov protons of both radiators are detected by TPC-like photon detectors. The drift gas (75% CH 4 + 25% C 2 H 6 ) is doped with TMAE, but which the UV Cherenkov photons are converted into single free photo-electrons. These are drifted towards MWPC's at the end of the drift tubes and the space coordinates of the conversion point are determined. One half of the Barrel RICH is now equipped with drift tubes and has provided results from the liquid radiator since spring 1990. The gas radiator has been tested with C 2 F 6 as a preliminary filling since August 1990. The data obtained demonstrate the good particle identification potential. For the liquid radiator the number of detected photons per ring in hadron jets is N=8, whereas for muon pairs (single tracks) N=10 has been obtained. For the gas radiator 2.1 photons per track were observed, which demonstrates the good functioning of the focussing mirrors, as the C 2 F 6 this is close to the expected value

  1. Drift mobility of thermalized and highly energetic holes in thin layers of amorphous dielectric SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielski, Jan; Jeszka, Jeremiasz K.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technology in the electronics industry requires new dielectric materials. It is also important to understand the charge-carrier transport mechanism in these materials. We examined the hole drift mobility in amorphous SiC dielectric thin films using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Charge carriers were generated using an electron gun. The generated holes gave a dispersive TOF signal and the mobility was low. For electric field strengths above 4 x 10 5 V cm -1 the drift mobility shows a very strong dependence on the electric field and a weak temperature dependence (transport of ''high-energy'' charge carriers). At lower electric fields and for thermalized charge carriers the mobility is practically field independent and thermally activated. The observed phenomenon was attributed to the changes in the effective energy of the generated carriers moving in the high electric fields and consequently in the density of localized states taking part in the transport. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Core barrel plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolino, R.W.; Hopkins, R.J.; Congleton, R.L.; Popalis, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A plug is described for preventing flow through a port in a core barrel of a pressurized water nuclear reactor which consists of: a substantially cylindrical body formed with a cylindrical portion and a flange and defining a tapered leading open end with the other end being closed by an end plug attached to the flange, the body defining a bore therein extending from the open end to the end plug with the bore having a smaller diameter near the open end than near the end plug, the cylindrical portion having a lip near the open end and being formed with longitudinal slots extending from the open end toward the flange and extending entirely through the thickness of the cylindrical portion, the cylindrical portion having a circumferential first groove on the outer surface thereof located near the forwardmost portion of the cylindrical portion but not in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, and a plurality of circumferential second grooves on the outer surface thereof located in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, the first and second grooves establishing a seal between the cylindrical portion and the inside surface of the port when the cylindrical portion is expanded, and the flange and the end plug having a passageway defined therein for introducing a fluid into the body; a metal ring disposed in each of the second grooves; a mandrel slidably disposed and captured in the body and capable of being moved toward the open end of the body when the fluid is introduced through the passageway, thereby causing the cylindrical portion to be expanded into contact with the inside surface of the port; and a locking mechanism disposed in the end plug for preventing inadvertent movement of the mandrel

  3. On the stability of localized drift modes in the boundary layers of high density gas insulated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, D.

    1977-11-01

    Gas blanket systems are of interest for mainly two reasons. First, plasma wall interaction effects are expected to be considerably reduced due to the presence of the surrounding neutral gas. Consequently the impurity radiation due to impurities originating from plasma wall interaction processes is probably eliminated to a large extent. Second, the fueling of a future thermonuclear reactor can take place in a natural way in gas blanket systems in the sense that neutrals can diffuse inwards at a suitable rate to replace burnt fuel under certain conditions. In this analysis we consider certain stability aspects of plasmas surrounded by neutral gas. In particular we consider the stability of localized collisional drift modes, in the cool partially ionized boundary regions. In these regions large pressure gradients are expected due to plasma neutral gas interaction effects. It is concluded that stability is possible within certain parameter ranges due to the presence of several stabilizing effects associated with finite Larmor radius and viscosity effects and coupling between dissipative effects directly or indirectly connected with plasma neutral gas interaction processes

  4. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  5. Performance of the SLD Barrel CRID during the 1992 physics data run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Suekane, F.; Toge, N.; Yuta, H.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Yellin, S.; Ben-David, R.; Manly, S.; Snyder, J.; Turk, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Colye, P.; Coyne, D.; Liu, X.; Williams, D.A.; Coller, J.; Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; d'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Stockdale, I.; Wilson, R.J.

    1992-11-01

    The SLD Barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector was fully operational in the 1992 physics data run. The electron drift velocity and magnetic field deflection of electron trajectories have been measured. Cherenkov rings have been observed from both the liquid and gas radiators. The number and the resolution of the angle of Cherenkov photons have been measured to be approximately equal to design specifications

  6. Test of the wire ageing induced by radiation for the CMS barrel muon chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Enrico

    2000-01-01

    We have carried out laboratory test to measure the ageing of a wire tube due to pollutant outgassed by various materials. The tested materials are those used in the muon barrel drift tubes. An X-ray gun irradiated the test tube to accelerate the ageing process. No ageing effect has been measured for a period equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC.

  7. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  8. LHC-rate beam test of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, W.; Hoermann, Ch.; Kotlinski, D.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H. Chr.; Gabathuler, K.; Bertl, W.; Meier, B.; Langenegger, U.; Trueeb, P.; Rohe, T.

    2007-01-01

    Modules for the CMS pixel barrel detector have been operated in a high rate pion beam at PSI in order to verify under LHC-like conditions the final module design for the production. The test beam provided charged particle rates up to 10 8 cm -2 s -1 over the full module area. Bunch structure and randomized high trigger rates simulated realistic operation. A four layer telescope made of single pixel readout chip assemblies provided tracking needed for the determination of the modules hit reconstruction efficiency. The performance of the modules has been shown to be adequate for the CMS pixel barrel

  9. Drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yosuke

    1977-01-01

    Drift chamber is becoming an important detector in high energy physics as a precision and fast position detector because of its high spatial resolution and count-rate. The basic principle is that it utilizes the drift at constant speed of electrons ionized along the tracks of charged particles towards the anode wire in the nearly uniform electric field. The method of measuring drift time includes the analog and digital ones. This report describes about the construction of and the application of electric field to the drift chamber, mathematical analysis on the electric field and equipotential curve, derivation of spatial resolution and the factor for its determination, and selection of gas to be used. The performance test of the chamber was carried out using a small test chamber, the collimated β source of Sr-90, and 500 MeV/C electron beam from the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Most chambers to date adopted one dimensional read-out, but it is very advantageous if the two dimensional read-out is feasible with one chamber when the resolution in that direction is low. The typical methods of delay line and charge division for two dimensional read-out are described. The development of digital read-out system is underway, which can process the signal of a large scale drift chamber at high speed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  11. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0barrels cover the region 0.8<|h|<1.7.

  12. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, M.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed

  13. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, M., E-mail: matthias.hoek@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V. Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

  14. Functional testing of the ATLAS SCT barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS SCT (semiconductor tracker) comprises 2112 barrel modules mounted on four concentric barrels of length 1.6m and up to 1m diameter, and 1976 endcap modules supported by a series of nine wheels at each end of the barrel region, giving a total silicon area of 60m 2 . The assembly of modules onto each of the four barrel structures has recently been completed. In addition to functional tests made during the assembly process, each completed barrel was operated in its entirety. In the case of the largest barrel, with an active silicon area of approximately 10m 2 , this corresponds to more than one million instrumented channels. This paper documents the electrical performance of the four individual SCT barrels. An overview of the readout chain is also given

  15. A radial map of multi-whisker correlation selectivity in the rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, Luc; Bertherat, Julien; Shulz, Daniel E; Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François

    2016-11-21

    In the barrel cortex, several features of single-whisker stimuli are organized in functional maps. The barrel cortex also encodes spatio-temporal correlation patterns of multi-whisker inputs, but so far the cortical mapping of neurons tuned to such input statistics is unknown. Here we report that layer 2/3 of the rat barrel cortex contains an additional functional map based on neuronal tuning to correlated versus uncorrelated multi-whisker stimuli: neuron responses to uncorrelated multi-whisker stimulation are strongest above barrel centres, whereas neuron responses to correlated and anti-correlated multi-whisker stimulation peak above the barrel-septal borders, forming rings of multi-whisker synchrony-preferring cells.

  16. Argus drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, M; Nagovizin, V; Hasemann, H; Michel, E; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Wurth, R; Kim, P

    1983-11-15

    The ARGUS detector came into operation at the DORIS-II e/sup +/s/sup -/ storage ring at the end of 1982. Its two meter long drift chamber contains 5940 sense and 24588 field wires organized in uniform 18x18.8 mm/sup 2/ drift cells filling the whole volume. These cells form 36 layers, 18 of which provide stereo views. Each sense wire is equipped with a single hit TDC and ADC for coordinate and dE/dx measurements. The chamber is operated with propane to improve momentum and dE/dx resolution. The drift chamber design and initial performance are presented. With a very crude space-time relation approximation and without all the necessary corrections applied a spatial resolution of about 200 ..mu..m was obtained for half of the drift cell volume. Further corrections should improve this result. An intrinsic dE/dx resolution of 4.2% and an actual resolution of 5% were obtained for cosmic muons and also for Bhabha scattered electrons. An actual dE/dx resolution of 5.6% was obtained for pions from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation data with almost no track selection. A relativistic rise of 30% was observed in good agreement with theory. The long-term stability is still to be investigated.

  17. The bar PANDA Barrel-TOF Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, S.; Suzuki, K.; Steinschaden, D.; Chirita, M.; Ahmed, G.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Lehmann, A.; Böhm, M.; Schwarz, K.; Orth, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.

    2017-08-01

    The barrel-Time-of-Flight subdetector is one of the outer layers of the multi-layer design of the \\panda target spectrometer. It is designed with a minimal material budget in mind mainly consisting of 90×30×5 mm3 thin plastic scintillator tiles read out on each end by a serial connection of 4 SiPMs. 120 such tiles are placed on 16 2460 × 180 mm2 PCB boards forming a barrel covering an azimuthal angle from 22.5o to 150o. The detector is designed to achieve a time resolution below σ< 100 ps which allows to distinguish events in the constant stream of hits, as well as particle identification below the Cherenkov threshold via the time-of-flight; simultaneously providing the interaction times of events. The current prototype achieved a time resolution of ~54 ps, well below the design goal.

  18. Construction of a drift chamber prototype for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Cerrada, M.; Daniel, M.; Martin, F.; Mocholi, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    General design features of a small size drift chamber prototype are described in this report. Prototype construction has taken place at CIEMAT and we explain in detail the assembly procedure. This activity is part of a long term project to mass produce chambers for the muon barrel detector of the CMS experiment which will be installed at CERN. (Author)

  19. Design and construction of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repond, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical design and construction techniques of the barrel calorimeter for the ZEUS detector are presented. The calorimeter uses alternate layers of depleted uranium and scintillator with one radiation length sampling. The unit cell has e/h = 1 which yields an optimal energy resolution for hadronic jets. We discuss the placing of the structural components and cracks between modules. Details of the construction and assembly effort needed to realize the total calorimeter are reported. 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Core barrel motion calibration factor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron transport theory calculations were performed to obtain a calibration factor for inferring core-barrel motion from spectral density data using excore ionization chambers in PWRs. The analysis of core-barrel movement was based on the postulate that the movement is a cantilevered type, with the preferred direction x-x'

  1. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  2. The large cylindrical drift chamber of TASSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, H.; Fischer, H.M.; Hartmann, H.; Loehr, B.; Wollstadt, M.; Fohrmann, R.; Schmueser, P.; Cassel, D.G.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.

    1980-03-01

    We have built and operated a large cylindrical drift chamber for the TASSO experiment at the DESY storage ring, PETRA. The chamber has a length of 3.5 m, a diameter of 2.5 m, and a total of 2340 drift cells. The cells are arranged in 15 concentric layers such that tracks can be reconstructed in three dimensions. A spatial resolution of 220 μm has been achieved for tracks of normal incidence on the drift cells. (orig.)

  3. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed

  4. Test of the wire ageing induced by radiation for the CMS barrel muon chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, E

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out laboratory tests to measure the ageing of a wire tube due to pollutants outgassed by various materials. The tested materials are those used in the barrel muon drift tubes of the CMS experiment at LHC. An X-ray gun irradiated the test tube to accelerate the ageing process. No ageing effect has been measured for a period equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC. (15 refs).

  5. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroha, H., E-mail: kroha@mpp.mpg.de; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-11

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  6. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroha, H.; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  7. Triggering and measuring bent cosmic muon tracks with the Muon Spectrometer barrel for the first time

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Cerutti

    During the ATLAS barrel toroid stability test, bent cosmic muon tracks were seen for the first time in the ATLAS cavern by means of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The barrel toroid has been powered at its nominal current (20.5 thousand Amperes) and kept in steady state for more than one day during the weekend of 18-19 November (see a report on this test in the Magnet section). During this test one large sector and part of a small sector of the barrel muon spectrometer were readout and used to detect the cosmic muons tracks bent by the toroidal magnetic field. Thirteen muon stations in the feet sectors (sectors 13 and 14) have been used in this test. The muon stations are formed of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) that were providing the muon trigger, and Monitored Drift Tubes that were used to measure with high accuracy the muon curvature hence their momentum. The Level-1 Barrel trigger chain was based on the Barrel Middle Large chambers equipped with final production modules on both the on-detector and the o...

  8. Silicon drift detectors, present and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, J.; Bellwied, R.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Caines, H.; Chen, W.; Dyke, H.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Humanic, T.; Kotov, I.; Kuczewski, P.; Leonhardt, W.; Li, Z.; Lynn, D.; Minor, R.; Munhoz, M.; Ott, G.; Pandey, S. U.; Schambach, J.; Soja, R.; Sugarbaker, E.; Willson, R. M.

    2001-04-01

    Silicon drift detectors provide unambiguous two-dimensional position information for charged particle detection with a single detector layer. A large area silicon drift detector was developed for the inner tracking detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. In this paper, we discuss the lessons learned and the future prospects of this technology.

  9. Astrocytes control GABAergic inhibition of neurons in the mouse barrel cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, B; Matyash, V; Kettenmann, H

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes in the barrel cortex respond with a transient Ca2+ increase to neuronal stimulation and this response is restricted to the stimulated barrel field. In the present study we suppressed the astrocyte response by dialysing these cells with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Electrical stimulation triggered a depolarization in stellate or pyramidal ‘regular spiking’ neurons from cortex layer 4 and 2/3 and this response was augmented in amplitude and duration after astrocytes were dialysed with BAPTA. Combined blockade of GABAA and GABAB receptors mimicked the effect of BAPTA dialysis, while glutamate receptor blockers had no effect. Moreover, the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents was increased after BAPTA dialysis. Outside the range of BAPTA dialysis astrocytes responded with a Ca2+ increase, but in contrast to control, the response was no longer restricted to one barrel field. Our findings indicate that astrocytes control neuronal inhibition in the barrel cortex. PMID:21224221

  10. Astrocytes control GABAergic inhibition of neurons in the mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, B; Matyash, V; Kettenmann, H

    2011-03-01

    Astrocytes in the barrel cortex respond with a transient Ca2+ increase to neuronal stimulation and this response is restricted to the stimulated barrel field. In the present study we suppressed the astrocyte response by dialysing these cells with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Electrical stimulation triggered a depolarization in stellate or pyramidal ‘regular spiking' neurons from cortex layer 4 and 2/3 and this response was augmented in amplitude and duration after astrocytes were dialysed with BAPTA. Combined blockade of GABAA and GABAB receptors mimicked the effect of BAPTA dialysis, while glutamate receptor blockers had no effect. Moreover, the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents was increased after BAPTA dialysis. Outside the range of BAPTA dialysis astrocytes responded with a Ca2+ increase, but in contrast to control, the response was no longer restricted to one barrel field. Our findings indicate that astrocytes control neuronal inhibition in the barrel cortex.

  11. Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat Arrived

    CERN Multimedia

    Pailler, P

    Last week the first of three cryostats for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter arrived at CERN. It had travelled for 46 days over several thousand kilometers from Japan to CERN. During three years it has been fabricated by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. at Harima, close to Kobe, under contract from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the U.S.. This cryostat consists of two concentric cylinders made of aluminium: the outer vacuum vessel with a diameter of 5.5 m and a length of 7 m, and the inner cold vessel which will contain the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter immersed in liquid argon. The total weight will be 270 tons including the detectors and the liquid argon. The cryostat is now located in building 180 where it will be equipped with 64 feed-throughs which serve for the passage of 122,880 electrical lines which will carry the signals of the calorimeter. After integration of the calorimeter, the solenoidal magnet of ATLAS will be integrated in the vacuum vessel. A final cold test of the cryostat inc...

  12. Celebrating the Barrel Toroid commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Jenni

    ATLAS invited Funding Agency representatives and Laboratory Heads directly related to the funding and construction of the Barrel Toroid for a small ceremony on 13th December 2006 at Point 1, in order to mark the successful first full excitation of the BT (see last eNews). On that date, which was during the December CERN Council week, several of the Funding Agency Heads or their representatives could be present, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. Speeches were delivered by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni thanking the Funding Partners in the name of the Collaboration, by Magnet Project Leader Herman ten Kate tracing the BT construction history, and by the CERN Director-General Robert Aymar congratulating all those who have contributed to the successful project. Herman ten Kate addressing the delegates. The text of the introductory address by Peter Jenni is reproduced here. "It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here...

  13. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  14. Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force will soon have to contend with gun barrel erosion issues arising from the use of new low-vulnerability gun propellants, the acquisition of new ammunition and gun systems...

  15. Work on the ATLAS semiconductor tracker barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Precision work is performed on the semiconductor tracker barrel of the ATLAS experiment. All work on these delicate components must be performed in a clean room so that impurities in the air, such as dust, do not contaminate the detector. The semiconductor tracker will be mounted in the barrel close to the heart of the ATLAS experiment to detect the path of particles produced in proton-proton collisions.

  16. Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Alexander

    2016-04-26

    The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.

  17. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  18. First SCT Barrel arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R

    Mid-January saw the arrival at CERN of Barrel #3, the first of four SCT barrels. The barrels are formed as low-mass cylinders of carbon fibre skins on a honeycomb carbon core. They are manufactured in industry and then have all the final precision supports added and the final geometric metrology carried out at Geneva University. Barrel #3, complete with its 384 silicon detector modules, arrived by road from Oxford University in England where the modules were mounted using a purpose-built robot. The modules had been selected from the output of all four barrel module building clusters (in Japan, Scandinavia, USA and the UK). Since Barrel #3 will be exposed to high radiation levels within the tracker volume, these modules, representing over half a million readout channels, have been extensively tested at their operational temperature of around -25 degrees Celcius and at voltages of up to 500V. The dangers of shipping such a fragile component of ATLAS were apparent to all and considerable attention was focused...

  19. Processing of Niobium-Lined M240 Machine Gun Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fig. 5 Finished niobium-lined M240 machine gun barrel with flash suppressor attached ..........11 Fig. 6 End of barrel 1 showing small amount of...the finished barrel is shown in Fig. 5. 11 Fig. 5 Finished niobium-lined M240 machine gun barrel with flash suppressor attached Firing tests

  20. A scintillating fibre detector for the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suft, G.; Anton, G.; Bogendoerfer, R.; Ehmanns, A.; Foesel, A.; Hoessl, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kueppersbusch, C.; Walther, D.

    2005-01-01

    A scintillating fibre detector with high spatial granularity was built for the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA (CB-ELSA) in Bonn. It consists of 513 scintillating fibres with 2mm in diameter, arranged in three layers with cylindrical geometry inside the Crystal Barrel detector surrounding the target cell. Two layers are wound in opposite directions, the third is parallel to the incident beam direction, resulting in an unambiguous hit reconstruction and a position resolution better than 1.6mm for charged particles. The read-out is done with 16-channel multi-anode photomultipliers. The detector was designed to cover the full angular acceptance of the Crystal Barrel detector with an angular range of 12 deg. ≤θ = 168 deg. and 0 deg. ≤φ≤360 deg. in the lab frame

  1. Performance of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; 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Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the performance of the CMS drift tube barrel muon system are described, with results based on data collected during the CMS Cosmic Run at Four Tesla. For most of these data, the solenoidal magnet was operated with a central field of 3.8 T. The analysis of data from 246 out of a total of 250 chambers indicates a very good muon reconstruction capability, with a coordinate resolution for a single hit of about 260 microns, and a nearly 100% efficiency for the drift tube cells. The resolution of the track direction measured in the bending plane is about 1.8 mrad, and the efficiency to reconstruct a segment in a single chamber is higher than 99%. The CMS simulation of cosmic rays reproduces well the performance of the barrel muon detector.

  2. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  3. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  4. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  5. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  6. High-resolution 2-deoxyglucose mapping of functional cortical columns in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCasland, J S; Woolsey, T A

    1988-12-22

    Cortical columns associated with barrels in layer IV of the somatosensory cortex were characterized by high-resolution 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) autoradiography in freely behaving mice. The method demonstrates a more exact match between columnar labeling and cytoarchitectonic barrel boundaries than previously reported. The pattern of cortical activation seen with stimulation of a single whisker (third whisker in the middle row of large hairs--C3) was compared with the patterns from two control conditions--normal animals with all whiskers present ("positive control")--and with all large whiskers clipped ("negative control"). Two types of measurements were made from 2DG autoradiograms of tangential cortical sections: 1) labeled cells were identified by eye and tabulated with a computer, and 2) grain densities were obtained automatically with a computer-controlled microscope and image processor. We studied the fine-grained patterns of 2DG labeling in a nine-barrel grid with the C3 barrel in the center. From the analysis we draw five major conclusions. 1. Approximately 30-40% of the total number of neurons in the C3 barrel column are activated when only the C3 whisker is stimulated. This is about twice the number of neurons labeled in the C3 column when all whiskers are stimulated and about ten times the number of neurons labeled when all large whiskers are clipped. 2. There is evidence for a vertical functional organization within a barrel-related whisker column which has smaller dimensions in the tangential direction than a barrel. There are densely labeled patches within a barrel which are unique to an individual cortex. The same patchy pattern is found in the appropriate regions of sections above and below the barrels through the full thickness of the cortex. This functional arrangement could be considered to be a "minicolumn" or more likely a group of "minicolumns" (Mountcastle: In G.M. Edelman and U.B. Mountcastle (eds): The Material Brain: Cortical Organization

  7. Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)

  8. CMS : the first barrel ring completed !

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    On 14 November, the CMS collaboration and the German firm DWE celebrated the successful construction of the detector's first yoke barrel ring. To mark the occasion, those in charge of the construction at CERN and DWE posed for the camera in the middle of the giant component.

  9. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  10. ATLAS semiconductor tracker installed into its barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker is installed in the silicon tracker barrel. Absolute precision was required in this operation to ensure that the tracker was inserted without damage through minimal clearance. The installation was performed in a clean room on the CERN site so that no impurities in the air would contaminate the tracker's systems.

  11. Building CMS Pixel Barrel Detectur Modules

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Horisberger, R.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Weber, R.; Kastli, H.Chr.; Erdmann, W.

    2007-01-01

    For the barrel part of the CMS pixel tracker about 800 silicon pixel detector modules are required. The modules are bump bonded, assembled and tested at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This article describes the experience acquired during the assembly of the first ~200 modules.

  12. Celebration for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from Funding Agencies and Barrel Toroid Magnet Laboratories during the ceremony. From left to right: Jean Zinn-Justin (Head of DAPNIA/CEA/Saclay), CERN Director-General Robert Aymar, and Roberto Petronzio (President INFN).Allan Clark (DPNC University Geneva) and Enrique Fernandez (IFAE Barcelona) were among the guests visiting the ATLAS cavern. The barrel toroid is visible in the background. A celebration took place at Point 1 on 13 December to toast the recent powering-up of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet to full field (Bulletin No. 47-48/06). About 70 guests were invited to attend, mainly composed of representatives from funding partners and key members of the laboratory management teams of the barrel toroid magnet, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. An introductory speech by ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni the scene for evening. This was followed by the ATLAS magnet system project leader Herman Ten Kate's account of the...

  13. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  14. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  15. Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 muon barrel trigger during the Run 2 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00404546; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range |η| < 1.05 for a total surface of more than 4000 m 2 and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates according to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 μs. The measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking are here presented.

  16. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  17. Dike/Drift Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffiney, E.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)

  18. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the...

  19. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  20. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Gaffney

    2003-10-08

    This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report.

  1. Dike/Drift Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report

  2. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwayne C. Kicker

    2001-09-28

    A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events

  3. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  4. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV

  5. Construction and Performance of the ATLAS SCT Barrels and Cosmic Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Demirkoz, Bilge Melahat

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose detector for the LHC and will detect proton-proton collisions with center of mass energy of $14$TeV. Part of the central inner detector, the Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, were assembled and tested at Oxford University and later integrated at CERN with the TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker) barrel. The barrel SCT is composed of 4 layers of silicon strip modules with two sensor layers with $80 \\mu$m channel width. The design of the modules and the barrels has been optimized for low radiation length while maintaining mechanical stability, bringing services to the detector, and ensuring a cold and dry environment. The high granularity, high detector efficiency and low noise occupancy ($ < 5 \\times 10^{-4}$) of the SCT will enable ATLAS to have an efficient pattern recognition capability. Due to the binary nature of the SCT read-out, a stable read-out system and the calibration system is of critical importance. SctRodDaq is the online software framework for the calibration and a...

  6. Late emergence of the vibrissa direction selectivity map in the rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Yves; Léger, Jean-François; Goodman, Dan; Brette, Romain; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2011-07-20

    In the neocortex, neuronal selectivities for multiple sensorimotor modalities are often distributed in topographical maps thought to emerge during a restricted period in early postnatal development. Rodent barrel cortex contains a somatotopic map for vibrissa identity, but the existence of maps representing other tactile features has not been clearly demonstrated. We addressed the issue of the existence in the rat cortex of an intrabarrel map for vibrissa movement direction using in vivo two-photon imaging. We discovered that the emergence of a direction map in rat barrel cortex occurs long after all known critical periods in the somatosensory system. This map is remarkably specific, taking a pinwheel-like form centered near the barrel center and aligned to the barrel cortex somatotopy. We suggest that this map may arise from intracortical mechanisms and demonstrate by simulation that the combination of spike-timing-dependent plasticity at synapses between layer 4 and layer 2/3 and realistic pad stimulation is sufficient to produce such a map. Its late emergence long after other classical maps suggests that experience-dependent map formation and refinement continue throughout adult life.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barrel medic Medicago truncatula Medicago_truncatula_L.png Medicago_truncatula_NL.png Medi...cago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medi...cago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  8. Alignment of the MSGC barrel support structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kari, Tammi; Miikka, Kotamaki; Tommi, Vanhala; Antti, Onnela

    1999-01-01

    The MSGC barrel is a sub-part of the tracking system of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The mechanical support structure of the MSGC barrel consists of ladder-like support beams carrying the detector modules and of four disks supporting the ladders. The required alignment precision of the modules, a few tens of micrometers, is designed to be obtained by precise part manufacture and by careful measurement of the alignment during the assembly of the structure. In the paper the use of digital photogrammetry for the measurement of the alignment of the disks and for the structural verification is presented. Digital photogrammetry was chosen from a number of potential methods after a careful evaluation. The use of photogrammetry for the structural verification of a prototype is presented. The displacements were measured both of unloaded and loaded disk by using photogrammetry and linear displacement transducers for verification. The displacements obtained from the two measurement methods corresponded well, not only to each other, but also to the results given by finite element analysis. The structural verification will be done and the alignment procedure will be tested with a full-sized prototype of a half of the MSGC barrel. Preparations for the photogrammetry measurements are presented and the design of the required supplementary equipment is shown. (authors)

  9. Alignment of the MSGC barrel support structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kari, Tammi; Miikka, Kotamaki; Tommi, Vanhala [HIP, Helsinki Institute of Physics, CERN/EP, Geneva (Switzerland); Antti, Onnela [CERN, Conseil Europeen pour la recherche nucleaire, Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    The MSGC barrel is a sub-part of the tracking system of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The mechanical support structure of the MSGC barrel consists of ladder-like support beams carrying the detector modules and of four disks supporting the ladders. The required alignment precision of the modules, a few tens of micrometers, is designed to be obtained by precise part manufacture and by careful measurement of the alignment during the assembly of the structure. In the paper the use of digital photogrammetry for the measurement of the alignment of the disks and for the structural verification is presented. Digital photogrammetry was chosen from a number of potential methods after a careful evaluation. The use of photogrammetry for the structural verification of a prototype is presented. The displacements were measured both of unloaded and loaded disk by using photogrammetry and linear displacement transducers for verification. The displacements obtained from the two measurement methods corresponded well, not only to each other, but also to the results given by finite element analysis. The structural verification will be done and the alignment procedure will be tested with a full-sized prototype of a half of the MSGC barrel. Preparations for the photogrammetry measurements are presented and the design of the required supplementary equipment is shown. (authors)

  10. An electrodeless drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Duerdoth, I.; Rowe, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    We describe a chamber in which the drift field is controlled by the deposition of electrostatic charge on an insulating surface. The chamber operates with good efficiency and precision for observed drift distances of up to 45 cm, promises to be extremely robust and adaptable and offers a very cheap way of making particle detectors. (orig.)

  11. Modeling concept drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.

    2015-01-01

    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...... data set from a Spanish bank....

  12. Time dependent drift Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1982-04-01

    The motion of individual charged particles in a given magnetic and an electric fields is discussed. An idea of a guiding center distribution function f is introduced. The guiding center distribution function is connected to the asymptotic Hamiltonian through the drift kinetic equation. The general non-stochastic magnetic field can be written in a contravariant and a covariant forms. The drift Hamiltonian is proposed, and the canonical gyroradius is presented. The proposed drift Hamiltonian agrees with Alfven's drift velocity to lowest non-vanishing order in the gyroradius. The relation between the exact, time dependent equations of motion and the guiding center equation is clarified by a Lagrangian analysis. The deduced Lagrangian represents the drift motion. (Kato, T.)

  13. Certification and commissioning of barrel stations for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, S

    2006-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment, which is scheduled to commence data taking at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC at CERN in 2007, comprises more than a thousand muon stations, which have the double purpose of triggering on high-p/sub t/ muon tracks as well as providing precise trajectory reconstruction. While monitored drift tube chambers are used for track reconstruction in all of the muon spectrometer except for a region close to the beam pipe in forward direction, two different technologies are used for triggering, resistive plate chambers in the barrel region and thin gap chambers in the end-caps. Both have in common that the ATLAS geometry allows only limited accessibility after chambers are installed in the detector. A thorough testing and certification prior to installation is therefore crucial. This paper reviews the test procedure at CERN for barrel chambers of type BO and BM, i.e. of stations for which a drift chamber is coupled with one or two resistive plate chambers. The final certific...

  14. Optimization Of Double-Layer Braced Barrel Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywiński Maksym

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with discussion of discrete optimization problem in civil engineering structural space design. Minimization of mass should satisfy the limit state capacity and serviceability conditions. The cross-sectional areas of truss bars are taken as design variables. Optimization constraints concern stresses, displacements and stability, as well as technological and computational requirements.

  15. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  16. A Barrel IFR Instrumented With Limited Streamer Tubes for BABAR Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreotti, M.; Ferrara U.; INFN, Ferrara

    2006-01-01

    The new barrel Instrumented Flux Return (IFR) of BABAR detector will be reported here. Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs) have been chosen to replace the existing RPCs as active elements of the barrel IFR. The layout of the new detector will be discussed: in particular, a cell bigger than the standard one has been used to improve efficiency and reliability. The extruded profile is coated with a resistive layer of graphite having a typical surface resistivity between 0.2 and 0.4 MOhm/square. The tubes are assembled in modules and installed in 12 active layers of each sextant of the IFR detector. R and D studies to choose the final design and Quality Control procedure adopted during the tube production will be briefly discussed. Finally the performances of installed LSTs into 2/3 of IFR after 8 months of operations will be reported

  17. Learning drifting concepts with neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, Michael; Schwarze, Holm

    1993-01-01

    The learning of time-dependent concepts with a neural network is studied analytically and numerically. The linearly separable target rule is represented by an N-vector, whose time dependence is modelled by a random or deterministic drift process. A single-layer network is trained online using

  18. Collisional drift fluids and drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.

    1995-05-01

    The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T ν (x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)

  19. Robotic mounting of ATLAS barrel SCT modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, R.B.; Viehhauser, G.; Wastie, R.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.; Kohriki, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Hara, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Barbier, G.; Clark, A.G.; Perrin, E.; Carter, A.A.; Mistry, J.; Morris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 2112 silicon detector modules of the barrel part of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) have been mounted on their carbon fibre support structure. Module insertion, placement and fixing were performed by robotic assembly tooling. We report on our experience with this assembly method. Part of the mounting sequence involves a partial survey of elements of the support structure which is needed to align the modules properly during insertion. An analysis of these data is used to estimate the positional accuracy of the robots

  20. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  1. Failure analysis of a barrel exposed to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.; Salam, I.; Rizvi, S.A.; Qasir, S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the study of a tank gun barrel which had failed after firing only a few rounds. The failure was in the form of bulging at the muzzle end (ME). The material of the barrel was characterized using different techniques including chemical and mechanical testing, optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Study disclosed that the barrel was subjected to excessively high temperature that resulted in its softening and consequent bulging under high pressure of the round. (author)

  2. Progress of the EM Barrel Presampler Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a separate detector which will be placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, in the same cryostat. It is made of 32×2 sectors, each of them being 3.1 m long, about 28 cm large and a few cm thick. Three countries are involved in its construction: France (ISN-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Universities: Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started ten years ago and the series production began at the end of the year 2000. Today two-thirds of the sectors are produced and validated. In November 2002, half the detector (i.e. 32 sectors), was inserted on the internal face of the first EM calorimeter wheel (see pictures). Despite the fact that only 0.4 mm was available between sectors, it was possible to insert them all without meeting major difficulties. This operation was led by a team of four people, the sectors being systematically tested after insertion in the wheel. The inserti...

  3. Cosmic Ray Data in TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Hance

    "I had a great day in August when I went into SR1," said Daniel Froidevaux, former project leader of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker, "not only had all SCT barrels arrived at CERN, but there were cosmic ray tracks seen in the TRT!" Daniel's excitement was mirrored by the rest of the TRT collaboration when, on July 29, the first cosmic ray tracks were seen in the barrel. Along with many others in the community, Daniel was quick to point out that this is the cumulative result of years of R&D, test beam work, and an intense installation and integration schedule. Indeed, the cosmic ray readout is only possible through the coordination of many efforts, from detector mechanics to module assembly, power and high voltage control, cooling, gas systems, electronics and cabling, data acquisition, and monitoring. "Many people have worked very hard on the the TRT, some of them for more than 10 years," said Brig Williams, the leader of the UPenn group responsible for much of the TRT front end electronics. He ...

  4. Drift Scale THM Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  5. Silicon Drift Detectors development for position sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Novel Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) with multi-linear architecture specifically intended for 2D position sensing and imaging applications are presented and their achievable spatial, energy and time resolution are discussed. The capability of providing a fast timing of the interaction with nanosecond time resolution is a new available feature that allows operating the drift detector in continuous readout mode for coincidence imaging applications either with an external trigger or in self-timing. The application of SDDs with multi-linear architecture to Compton electrons' tracking within a single silicon layer and the achieved experimental results will be discussed

  6. A cosmic ray muon recorded by the ATLAS barrel tile calorimeter at 18:30, on 21 June 2005.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk.

  7. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  8. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  9. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  10. Offline calibration procedure of the CMS Drift Tube detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbiendi, G; Battilana, C; Cavallo, F R; Giunta, M; Guiducci, L; Amapane, N; Bolognesi, S; Cerminara, G; Bellan, R; Biallass, P; Frangenheim, J; Biasotto, M; Tazon, A Calderon; Cepeda, M; Cruz, B De La; Pardos, C Diez; Bedoya, C Fernandez; Iglesias, M C Fouz; Menendez, J Fernandez; Gresele, A

    2009-01-01

    The barrel region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is instrumented with Drift Tube (DT) detectors. This paper describes in full details the calibration of the DT hit reconstruction algorithm. After inter-channel synchronization has been verified through the appropriate hardware procedure, the time pedestals are extracted directly from the distribution of the recorded times. Further corrections for time-of-flight and time of signal propagation are applied as soon as the three-dimensional hit position within the DT chamber is known. The different effects of the time pedestal miscalibration on the two main hit reconstruction algorithms are shown. The drift velocity calibration algorithm is based on the meantimer technique. Different meantimer relations for different track angles and patterns of hit cells are used. This algorithm can also be used to determine the uncertainty on the reconstructed hit position.

  11. 27 CFR 25.141 - Barrels and kegs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.141 Barrels and kegs. (a) General... shown on the bung or on the tap cover, or on a label securely affixed to each barrel or keg, the place... production: (i) May be shown as the only location on the bung, or on the tap cover, or on a separate label...

  12. Scraping the bottom of the barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.F. [PETROBRAS (Brazil)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on technologies for upgrading residual streams to improve refiners margins, and reports on the refining technology programme (PROTER) set up by the Brazilian PETROBRAS company. Details are given of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) pilot units at PETROBRAS's CENPES Research and Development Centre in Rio de Janeiro State, the development of new proprietary closed cyclone technology, the Ultramist feedstock injection device, the feed nozzle, and the high accessibility catalyst. FCC units at PETROBRAS, FCC ongoing projects, and the use of delayed coking to convert low value residues to high value residues are described along with other bottom of barrel projects such as residue hydrocracking, hydropyrolysis, and the production of a stable fuel emulsion from an asphalt residue stream.

  13. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  14. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-07-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discrimination test, respectively. At P25-31, spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex in vivo was higher in KO mice compared with WT littermates, but not at P16-19. At P16-19, sensory evoked cortical responses in vivo elicited by single whisker stimulation were comparable in KO and WT mice. In contrast, at P25-31 evoked responses were smaller in amplitude and longer in duration in WT animals, whereas KO mice revealed no such developmental changes. In thalamocortical slices from KO mice, spontaneous activity was increased already at P16-19, and glutamatergic thalamocortical inputs to Layer 4 spiny stellate neurons were potentiated. We conclude that genetic ablation of PRG-1 modulates already at P16-19 spontaneous and evoked excitability of the barrel cortex, including enhancement of thalamocortical glutamatergic inputs to Layer 4, which distorts sensory processing in adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  16. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    are an expected and regular occurrence in financial markets that can arise through established mechanisms such as feedback trading. At a theoretical level, we show how to build drift bursts into the continuous-time Itô semi-martingale model in such a way that the fundamental arbitrage-free property is preserved......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....

  17. Correlations decrease with propagation of spiking activity in the mouse barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Nattar Ranganathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of suprathreshold spiking activity through neuronal populations is important for the function of the central nervous system. Neural correlations have an impact on cortical function particularly on the signaling of information and propagation of spiking activity. Therefore we measured the change in correlations as suprathreshold spiking activity propagated between recurrent neuronal networks of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Using optical methods we recorded spiking activity from large samples of neurons from two neural populations simultaneously. The results indicate that correlations decreased as spiking activity propagated from layer 4 to layer 2/3 in the rodent barrel cortex.

  18. Features of 3–7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations in F-layer vertical drift and equatorial spread F observed over two low-latitude stations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the equatorial atmosphere–ionosphere coupling system have shown that planetary-wave-type oscillations, as an important seeding mechanism for equatorial spread F (ESF, play an important role in ESF irregularity development and its day-to-day variability in the equatorial latitudes. In this study, ionosonde virtual height and ESF measurements over Sanya (18.4° N, 109.6° E; 12.8° N dip latitude and meteor radar neutral-wind measurements over Fuke (19.5° N, 109.1° E; 14° N dip latitude during 2013 are used to investigate the features of planetary-wave-type oscillations in both the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere and their possible influences on ESF occurrence under the weak solar maximum year. The ∼ 3-day and ∼ 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations have been observed in the neutral zonal winds and the time rate of change in F-layer virtual heights. According to the propagation characteristics, the 3-day and 7-day planetary-wave-type oscillations are basically recognized as ultrafast and fast Kelvin waves, respectively. With increasing heights, the 3-day wave oscillations are gradually amplified, while the 7-day wave oscillations are generally constant. By performing a cross-wavelet transform on the onsets of ESF and the vertical drifts of the F layer, we found that there are simultaneously occurring 7-day and 3-day common wave oscillations between them. The 7-day waves are mainly in the inversion phase, while the 3-day waves are mostly in an in-phase state, indicating that the 7-day waves may play a main role in ESF initiation. Approximate delays of 6 days for the 7-day waves and 5 days for the 3-day waves in their propagation upward from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere are evaluated with wavelet power spectrum analysis. The estimated upward velocities from these time delays provide consistent evidence that the 7-day and 3-day waves propagate vertically upward with typical Kelvin wave

  19. Status and future prospects of the Muon Drift Tubes system of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    A key component of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment is its muon system. The tracking and triggering of muons in the central part relies on Drift Tube (DT) chambers. During the first Long Shutdown of LHC (LS1) a number of improvements and upgrades were implemented, in particular concerning the readout and trigger electronics. The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during phase 1 will impose several constraints for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system.In order to exploit the muon detector redundancy, a new trigger system has been designed. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that combines the primitives information from different subdetectors DT, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO).Regarding the long term operation of the DT system, in order to cope with up to a factor 2 nominal LHC luminosity, several improvements will be implemented. The in-chamber local electronics will be modified to cope wi...

  20. Status and future prospects of the Muon Drift Tubes System of CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    A key component of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment is its muon system. The tracking and triggering of muons in the central part relies on Drift Tube (DT) chambers. In 2013 and 2014 a number of improvements and upgrades were implemented, in particular concerning the readout and trigger electronics. The increase of luminosity expected by LHC will impose several constraints for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. In order to exploit the muon detector redundancy, a new trigger system has been designed. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that combines the primitives information from different subdetectors: DT, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO). Regarding the long term operation of the DT system, in order to cope with up to a factor 2 nominal LHC luminosity, several improvements will be implemented. The in-chamber local electronics will be modified to cope with the new rate and radiation environment. This paper will present, along with the main system improvements implemented in the system, the first performance results from data collected at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy during 2016, confirming the satisfactory operation of both DT performance and the TwinMux system. A review of the present status and plans for the DT system upgrades will be also described.

  1. Response sensitivity of barrel neuron subpopulations to simulated thalamic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Rittenhouse, Cynthia D; Pinto, David J

    2010-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the relationship between neuron- and network-level processing in the context of a well-studied cortical function, the processing of thalamic input by whisker-barrel circuits in rodent neocortex. Here we focus on neuron-level processing and investigate the responses of excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons to simulated thalamic inputs applied using the dynamic clamp method in brain slices. Simulated inputs are modeled after real thalamic inputs recorded in vivo in response to brief whisker deflections. Our results suggest that inhibitory neurons require more input to reach firing threshold, but then fire earlier, with less variability, and respond to a broader range of inputs than do excitatory neurons. Differences in the responses of barrel neuron subtypes depend on their intrinsic membrane properties. Neurons with a low input resistance require more input to reach threshold but then fire earlier than neurons with a higher input resistance, regardless of the neuron's classification. Our results also suggest that the response properties of excitatory versus inhibitory barrel neurons are consistent with the response sensitivities of the ensemble barrel network. The short response latency of inhibitory neurons may serve to suppress ensemble barrel responses to asynchronous thalamic input. Correspondingly, whereas neurons acting as part of the barrel circuit in vivo are highly selective for temporally correlated thalamic input, excitatory barrel neurons acting alone in vitro are less so. These data suggest that network-level processing of thalamic input in barrel cortex depends on neuron-level processing of the same input by excitatory and inhibitory barrel neurons.

  2. Current Status of the Pixel Phase I Upgrade in CMS: Barrel Module Production

    CERN Document Server

    Bartek, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach about 2~x~$10^{34}~\\rm{cm}^{-2}\\rm{s}^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. To maintain a high tracking efficiency, CMS has planned to replace the current pixel system during phase I by a new lightweight detector, equipped with an additional 4th layer in the barrel, and one additional forward/backward disk. The present status of barrel modules production will be presented, including preliminary results from tests on the first production pixel modules of the new pixel tracker.

  3. Tracking chamber made of 15-mm mylar drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhin, A.; Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Plotnikov, I.

    2017-05-01

    We are presenting a drift chamber composed from three layers of mylar drift tubes with outer diameter 15 mm. The pipe is made of strip of mylar film 125 micrometers thick covered with aluminium from the both sides. A strip of mylar is wrapped around the mandrel. Pipe is created by ultrasonic welding. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g wire tension without supports and internal overpressure. About 400 such tubes were assembled. Design, quality control procedures of the drift tubes are described. Seven chambers were glued from these tubes of 560 mm length. Each chamber consists of 3 layers, 16 tubes per layer. Several chambers were tested with cosmic rays. Results of the tests, counting rate plateau and coordinate resolution are presented.

  4. Tracking chamber made of 15-mm mylar drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhin, A.; Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Plotnikov, I.

    2017-01-01

    We are presenting a drift chamber composed from three layers of mylar drift tubes with outer diameter 15 mm. The pipe is made of strip of mylar film 125 micrometers thick covered with aluminium from the both sides. A strip of mylar is wrapped around the mandrel. Pipe is created by ultrasonic welding. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g wire tension without supports and internal overpressure. About 400 such tubes were assembled. Design, quality control procedures of the drift tubes are described. Seven chambers were glued from these tubes of 560 mm length. Each chamber consists of 3 layers, 16 tubes per layer. Several chambers were tested with cosmic rays. Results of the tests, counting rate plateau and coordinate resolution are presented.

  5. Tapping with intentional drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.

  6. The KLOE drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2002-01-01

    The design and construction of the large drift chamber of the KLOE experiment is presented. The track reconstruction is described, together with the calibration method and the monitoring systems. The stability of operation and the performance are studied with samples of e + e - , K S K L and K + K - events

  7. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  9. Guiding center drift equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1979-03-01

    The quations for particle guiding center drift orbits are given in a new magnetic coordinate system. This form of the equations not only separates the fast motion along the lines from the slow motion across, but also requires less information about the magnetic field than many other formulations of the problem

  10. IN DRIFT CORROSION PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley

    1999-12-02

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  11. Performance of the Drift Chambers of the CMS Experiment in the Measurement of LHC Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Fouz, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the performance of the drift chambers of the CMS Barrel Muon detector operating at the LHC. Using the data obtained with pp collisions during the first months os LHC operation we have studied the drift cell efficiency and position resolution, as well as the effect of the existing background noise. The results confirm the excellent performance of the muon chambers. It is expected that it will improve further as statistics increase, thus allowing a correct calibration and alignment of these chambers. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. Fine Synchronization of the CMS Muon Drift-Tube Local Trigger using Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; 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Ryan, M J; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sidiropoulos, G; Stettler, M; Stoye, M; Takahashi, M; Tapper, A; Timlin, C; Tourneur, S; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardrope, D; Whyntie, T; Wingham, M; Cole, J E; Goitom, I; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leslie, D; Munro, C; Reid, I D; Siamitros, C; Taylor, R; Teodorescu, L; Yaselli, I; Bose, T; Carleton, M; Hazen, E; Heering, A H; Heister, A; John, J St; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Osborne, D; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Wu, S; Andrea, J; Avetisyan, A; Bhattacharya, S; Chou, J P; Cutts, D; Esen, S; Kukartsev, G; Landsberg, G; Narain, M; Nguyen, D; Speer, T; Tsang, K V; Breedon, R; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Case, M; Cebra, D; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Cox, P T; Dolen, J; Erbacher, R; Friis, E; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Maruyama, S; Miceli, T; Nikolic, M; Pellett, D; Robles, J; Searle, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stilley, J; Tripathi, M; Vasquez Sierra, R; Veelken, C; Andreev, V; Arisaka, K; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS experiment uses self-triggering arrays of drift tubes in the barrel muon trigger to perform the identification of the correct bunch crossing. The identification is unique only if the trigger chain is correctly synchronized. In this paper, the synchronization performed during an extended cosmic ray run is described and the results are reported. The random arrival time of cosmic ray muons allowed several synchronization aspects to be studied and a simple method for the fine synchronization of the Drift Tube Local Trigger at LHC to be developed.

  13. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M and O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report

  14. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.; de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; de Voogd, Nicole J.

    2017-09-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these populations agreed with current taxonomic consensus or, in contrast, whether there was evidence of cryptic species. Using molecular data, we assessed whether giant barrel sponges in each oceanic realm represented separate monophyletic lineages. Giant barrel sponges from 17 coral reef systems across the globe were sequenced for mitochondrial (partial CO1 and ATP6 genes) and nuclear (ATPsβ intron) DNA markers. In total, we obtained 395 combined sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which resulted in 17 different haplotypes. We compared a phylogenetic tree constructed from 285 alleles of the nuclear intron ATPsβ to the 17 mitochondrial haplotypes. Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. The species complexes in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific, however, do not form separate monophyletic lineages. This rules out the scenario that one species of giant barrel sponge developed into separate species complexes following geographic separation and instead suggests that multiple species of giant barrel sponges already existed prior to the physical separation of the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic.

  15. Monitoring core barrel motion by neutron noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1985-08-01

    The core barrel motion is detected by ionization chambers located around the reactor vessel. The method is based on the measurement of the neutron flux fluctuations. Calculations to determine the direction and the size of the motion are discussed. The identification of core barrel motion and its connection with the error of one of the main circulating pumps in the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant are described. Core barrel motion of 10 Hz with an amplitude less than 50 μm could be diagnozed at the Paks-1 reactor using the Dutch high accuracy evaluation system. (V.N.)

  16. Construction and performance of the ATLAS silicon microstrip barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, T.; Apsimon, R.; Beck, G.A.; Bell, P.; Brenner, R.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Charlton, D.; Dabrowski, W.; Dorholt, O.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L.; Gibson, M.; Gadomski, S.; Grillo, A.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hill, J.C.; Ikegami, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Johansen, L.G.; Kohriki, T.; Macpherson, A.; McMahon, S.; Moorhead, G.; Morin, J.; Morris, J.; Morrissey, M.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Pater, J.; Pernegger, H.; Perrin, E.; Phillips, P.; Robinson, D.; Skubic, B.; Spencer, N.; Stapnes, S.; Stugu, B.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Tyndel, M.; Ujiie, N.; Unno, Y.; Vos, M.

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) consists of four barrel cylinders and 18 end-cap disks. This paper describes the SCT modules of the barrel region, of which more than 2000 are about to be constructed. The module design is fixed. Its design concept is given together with the electrical, thermal and mechanical specifications. The pre-series production of the barrel modules is underway using mass-production procedures and jigs. The pre-series modules have given satisfactory performances on noise, noise occupancy, electrical as well as mechanical and thermal properties. In addition, irradiated modules were demonstrated to work successfully. Also first results from a 10-module system test are given

  17. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  18. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  19. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  20. Beam tests of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A; Bienz, T; Caldwell, A; Chen, L; Derrick, M; Gialas, I; Hamri, A; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; Kinnel, T; Kreutzmann, H; Li, C G; Lim, J N; Loveless, R; Lu, B; Mallik, U; McLean, K W; McNeil, R; Metcalf, W; Musgrave, B; Oh, B Y; Park, S; Parsons, J A; Reeder, D; Repond, J; Ritz, S; Roco, M T.P.; Sandler, P H; Sciulli, F; Smith, W H; Talaga, R L; Tzanakos, G; Wai, L; Wang, M Z; Whitmore, J; Wu, J; Yang, S [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Nevis Labs., Irvington-on-Hudson, NY (United States) Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States) Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States) Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States) Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States) Virginia Polytechnic Inst., and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-11-15

    A fully compensating uranium-scintillator calorimeter was constructed for the ZEUS detector at HERA. Several of the barrel calorimeter modules were subjected to beam tests at Fermilab before shipping them to DESY for installation. The calibrations of the modules used beams of electrons and hadrons, measuring the uniformity of the response, and checking the resolution. The runs also provided opportunity to test a large fraction of the actual ZEUS calorimeter readout system in an integrated beam environment more than one year before HERA turn on. The experiment utilized two computer controlled mechanical structures, one of which was capable of holding up to four modules in order to study shower containment, and a magnetic spectrometer with a high resolution beam tracking system. During two running periods, beams of 6 to 110 GeV containing e, [mu], [pi], and anti p were used. The results show energy resolutions of 35%/[radical]E for hadrons and 19%/[radical]E for electrons, uniformities at the 1% level, energy nonlinearity less than 1%, and equal response for electrons and hadrons. (orig.)

  1. Common barrel and forward CA tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykhailo, Pugach [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); KINR, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gorbunov, Sergey; Kisel, Ivan [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    There are complex detector setups which consist of barrel (cylindrical) and forward parts, and such systems require a special approach in the registered charged particles track finding procedure. Currently the tracking procedure might be performed in both parts of such detector independently from each other, but the final goal on this direction is a creation of a combined tracking, which will work in both parts of the detector simultaneously. The basic algorithm is based on Kalman Filter (KF) and Cellular Automata (CA). And the tracking procedure in such a complex system is rather extraordinary as far as it requires 2 different models to describe the state vector of segments of the reconstructed track in the mathematical apparatus of the KF-algorithm. To overcome this specifics a mathematical apparatus of transition matrices must be developed and implemented, so that one can transfer from one track model to another. Afterwards the work of the CA is performed, which reduces to segments sorting, their union into track-candidates and selection of the best candidates by the chi-square criteria after fitting of the track-candidate by the KF. In this report the algorithm, status and perspectives of such combined tracking are described.

  2. Prototype test for the PANDA barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhygadlo, Roman; Gerhardt, Andreas; Kalicy, Grzegorz; Krebs, Marvin; Lehmann, Dorothe; Schwarz, Carsten; Schwiening, Jochen; Belias, Anastasios; Traxler, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Barrel DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is designed to provide particle identification (PID) for the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt. It is based on the successful BABAR DIRC detector with several key improvements, such as focusing optics, fast timing, and a compact expansion volume. A large prototype was constructed and tested in a hadronic particle beam at CERN during the summer of 2015 to test the PID performance of different design options. The prototype included a fused silica radiator (either a narrow bar or a wide plate), an optional focusing lens, and a prism-shaped fused silica expansion volume. An array of microchannel-plate photomultiplier tubes measured the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons on 960 pixels. Data were collected for two radiator geometries and several types of focusing lenses at different beam momenta and polar angles. Results of the analysis as well as a comparison to the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  3. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive)

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Barrel Trigger for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Marino; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The present ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel region (|eta|<1.05) is based on three layers of RPC chambers. It was designed to run for 10 years at the LHC luminosity of 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and operated successfully and with high selectivity during the first run of the LHC. In order to ensure a stable performance of the RPCs until 2035 at the higher rates and at luminosities of 5-7x10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1} provided by HL-LHC, the chambers will have to be operated with reduced gas gain to respect the original design limits on currents and integrated charge. The ATLAS muon collaboration proposes an upgrade of the system by installing an inner layer of new generation RPCs during the LHC shutdown expected for the year 2023. This new layer will increase the system redundancy and therefore allow operation with high efficiency and high selectivity during the HL-LHC phase. The insertion of this new layer will also increase the geometrical acceptance in the barrel region from 75% to 95%. Moreover, the additional measu...

  5. Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Barrel Trigger for HL-LHC.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The present ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel region (|η | < 1.05) is based on three layers of RPC chambers. It was designed to run for 10 years at the LHC luminosity of 1034cm−2s−1 and operated successfully and with high selectivity during the first run of the LHC. In order to ensure a stable performance of the RPCs until 2035 at the higher rates and at luminosities of 5−7x1034cm−2s−1 provided by HL-LHC, the chambers will have to be operated with reduced gas gain to respect the original design limits on currents and integrated charge. The ATLAS muon collaboration proposes an upgrade of the system by installing an inner layer of new generation RPCs during the LHC shutdown expected for the year 2023. This new layer will increase the system redundancy and therefore allow operation with high efficiency and high selectivity during the HL-LHC phase. The insertion of this new layer will also increase the geometrical acceptance in the barrel region from 75% to 95%. Moreover, the additional measurements ...

  6. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  7. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms......, to be derived from simple conditions on the one-step behaviour of their variation operators and selection mechanisms....

  8. Performances of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon barrel trigger during the Run-II data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Sessa, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range $|\\eta|<1.05$ for a total surface of more than $4000\\ m^2$ and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates with respect to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing number. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 $\\mu s$. The detailed measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and of the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking is here presented.

  9. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  10. Orofacial Neuropathic Pain Leads to a Hyporesponsive Barrel Cortex with Enhanced Structural Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Karine; Rivière, Sébastien; Lenkei, Zsolt; Férézou, Isabelle; Pezet, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a long-lasting debilitating condition that is particularly difficult to treat due to the lack of identified underlying mechanisms. Although several key contributing processes have been described at the level of the spinal cord, very few studies have investigated the supraspinal mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Using a combination of approaches (cortical intrinsic imaging, immunohistochemical and behavioural analysis), our study aimed to decipher the nature of functional and structural changes in a mouse model of orofacial neuropathic pain, focusing on cortical areas involved in various pain components. Our results show that chronic neuropathic orofacial pain is associated with decreased haemodynamic responsiveness to whisker stimulation in the barrel field cortex. This reduced functional activation is likely due to the increased basal neuronal activity (measured indirectly using cFos and phospho-ERK immunoreactivity) observed in several cortical areas, including the contralateral barrel field, motor and cingulate cortices. In the same animals, immunohistochemical analysis of markers for active pre- or postsynaptic elements (Piccolo and phospho-Cofilin, respectively) revealed an increased immunofluorescence in deep cortical layers of the contralateral barrel field, motor and cingulate cortices. These results suggest that long-lasting orofacial neuropathic pain is associated with exacerbated neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity at the cortical level.

  11. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  12. Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L.

    2006-01-01

    Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas

  13. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Pablos, J.L.; Willmott, C.; Alberdi, J.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  14. Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel (PP 1074)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusch, Lawrence F

    2003-01-01

    ...) PP 1074 Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel. The program's goal was to develop an environmentally friendly process for depositing wear and erosion resistant materials onto gun bores replacing the current hazardous aqueous electro-deposition...

  15. Experimental investigation on shore hardness of barrel-finished ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-08-02

    Aug 2, 2017 ... Barrel finishing (BF) process is widely used to improve the surface finish and dimensional features of metallic and ... plastic-based waste can be easily recycled. However .... The pattern prepared with solid density has a dense.

  16. Integration and installation of the CMS pixel barrel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kastli, Hans-Christian

    2008-01-01

    A 66 million pixel detector has been installed in 2008 into the CMS experiment at CERN. The development and construction time took more than 10 years. In this paper the assembly of the barrel detector is described. A simple but effective method to accomplish a survey of the module positions during assembly is discussed. Furthermore the insertion and commissioning of the CMS pixel barrel detector which took place in July 2008 is illustrated.

  17. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit

  18. System of cylindrical drift chambers in a superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.; Blumenfeld, B.J.; Dimcovski, Z.

    1978-01-01

    A superconducting solenoid at the CERN ISR was equipped with a system of high accuracy cylindrical drift chambers. This detector consists of eight layers of field shaped drift cells with a delay line opposite each sense wire to provide coupled two dimensional readout. The design, construction, and operation of this system are discussed. The resolution and performance of the delay lines and sense wires under ISR running conditions are shown

  19. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS hadron-barrel calorimeter wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A.; Acharya, B.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Verma, P.; Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W.; Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Thomas, R.; Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I.; Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J.; Antchev, G.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Wu, S.X.; Aydin, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Baarmand, M.; Ralich, R.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A.; Bawa, H.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J.; Kumar, A.; Singh, J.; Baiatian, G.; Sirunyan, A.; Bencze, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zalan, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Chung, Y.; De Barbaro, P.; Haelen, T.; Camporesi, T.; Visser, T. de; Cankocak, K.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D.A.; Cushman, P.; Sherwood, B.; Damgov, J.; Dimitrov, L.; Genchev, V.; Piperov, S.; Vankov, I.; Demianov, A.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kodolova, O.; Petrushanko, S.; Sarycheva, L.; Vardanyan, I.; Elias, J.; Elvira, D.; Freeman, J.; Green, D.; Los, S.; O'Dell, V.; Ronzhin, A.; Sergeyev, S.; Suzuki, I.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Emeliantchik, I.; Massolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Stefanovich, R.; Fisher, W.; Tully, C.; Gavrilov, V.; Kaftanov, V.; Kisselevich, I.; Kolossov, V.; Krokhotin, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Stolin, V.; Ulyanov, A.; Gershtein, Y.; Golutvin, I.; Kalagin, V.; Kosarev, I.; Mescheryakov, G.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Grinev, B.; Lubinsky, V.; Senchishin, V.; Guelmez, E.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K.; Heering, A.; Imboden, M.; Isiksal, E.; Karmgard, D.; Ruchti, R.; Kaya, M.; Lazic, D.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Litvintsev, D.; Litov, L.; Mans, J.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Ozok, F.; Serin-Zeyrek, M.; Sever, R.; Zeyrek, M.; Paktinat, S.; Podrasky, V.; Sanzeni, C.; Winn, D.; Vlassov, E.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. The energy dependent time slewing effect was measured and tuned for optimal performance. (orig.)

  20. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS hadron-barrel calorimeter wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qian, W. [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Thomas, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey); Baarmand, M.; Ralich, R.; Vodopiyanov, I. [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Barnes, V.; Laasanen, A.; Pompos, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bawa, H.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J.; Kumar, A.; Singh, J. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Baiatian, G.; Sirunyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Yerevan (Armenia); Bencze, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zalan, P. [KFKI-RMKI, Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)] [and others

    2008-05-15

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. The energy dependent time slewing effect was measured and tuned for optimal performance. (orig.)

  1. Drifting black aurorae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability

  2. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  3. Drift velocity monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented.

  4. Electronics for proportional drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)

  5. On the Theory of Compensation in Lithium drifted Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A

    1969-04-15

    The lithium ion drift method produces detectors with a highly but not perfectly compensated intrinsic region. The amount of fixed space charge left in the depleted layer and its dependence on drift and clean-up parameters is of great practical interest. The imperfect compensation is mainly due to the presence in the depletion layer of thermally generated electron-hole pairs swept apart by the voltage applied to the detector during drift. A theoretical model is developed which takes into account the influence on the fixed space charge of mobile carrier generation and recombination. When recombination of free electrons and holes is negligible the theory predicts the formation of linear space charge gradients. When recombination is strong a constant space charge throughout a large part of the compensated layer may result. The theoretical calculations are compared with experimental findings. The influence of space charge on detector performance is discussed.

  6. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  7. An Experimental Study of the Accuracy of Compensation in Lithium Drifted Germanium Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Malmsten, B

    1969-10-15

    The nature and magnitude of the space charge existing in the compensated layer of lithium drifted germanium detectors has been studied as a function of drifted depth and of the electric field applied during drift. Experimental values were obtained from the dependence of detector capacitance on applied bias. In most cases there was a linear space charge gradient in the compensated layer. When small electric fields were applied to deep compensated layers, the space charge became constant throughout a large part of the compensated layer. There is some evidence for a strong decrease of mobile carrier recombination lifetime with increasing drifted depth, possibly down to a few microseconds for drifted depths of the order of 7 mm. The experimental results of the investigation are to a large extent in good agreement with theory.

  8. First two barrel ECAL supermodules inserted in CMS HCAL

    CERN Multimedia

    K.Bell

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. The barrel ECAL will consist of 36 supermodules, many of which have already been produced (see CERN Bulletin 17-18, 2006). Team from CMS ECAL, CMS Integration and CEA-DAPNIA were involved in the insertion, with the production/integration of the supermodules themselves involving many technicians, engineers and physicists from many institutes. From left to right: Olivier Teller, Maf Alidra and Lucien Veillet.

  9. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  10. Mechanical Commissioning of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Foussat, A; Dudarev, A; Bajas, H; Védrine, P; Berriaud, C; Sun, Z; Sorbi, M

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Its features include the 4 T Barrel Toroid magnet, the largest superconducting magnet (25 m long, 20 m diameter) that provides the magnetic field for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The coils integrated at CERN, were tested individually at maximum current of 22 kA in 2005. Following the mechanical assembly of the Barrel Toroid in the ATLAS underground cavern, the test of the full Barrel Toroid was performed in October 2006. Further tests are foreseen at the end 2007 when the system will include the two End Cap Toroids (ECT). The paper gives an overview of the good mechanical test results achieved in comparison with model predictions and the experience gained in the mechanical behavior of the ATLAS Toroidal coils is discussed.

  11. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  12. Effect analysis of core barrel openings under CEFR normal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yabo; Yang Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    Openings on the bottom of core barrel are important part of the decay heat removal system of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), which are designed to discharge the decay heat from reactor under accident condition. This paper analyses the effect of the openings design on the normal operation condition using the famouse CFD code CFX. The result indicates that the decay heat can be discharged safely and at the same time the effect of core barrel openings on the normal operation condition is acceptable. (authors)

  13. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  14. Local Trigger Electronics for the CMS Drift Tubes Muon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Travaglini, R

    2003-01-01

    In the CMS detector in preparation for the CERN LHC collider, the Drift Tubes Muon Chambers are equipped with mini-crates hosting custom electronics for fast data processing and local trigger generation. In particular the Trigger Server of a DTC consists of Track Sorter Slave ASICs and a Track Sorter Master system. The trigger electronics boards are in production, to be ready for the muon detector installation in the CMS barrel starting at the end of 2003.In this work, the performance of the Trigger Server will be discussed, on the basis both of high-statistics tests with predefined patterns and of test beam data collected at CERN, where a DTC was exposed to a muon beam having an LHC-like bunch structure. Finally, some system performance expectations, concerning radiation tolerance and signal transmission issues during LHC running, will be also discussed.

  15. Autocalibration of high precision drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, C.; Bini, C.; Ciapetti, G.; De Zorzi, G.; Gauzzi, P.; Lacava, F.; Nisati, A.; Pontecorvo, L.; Rosati, S.; Veneziano, S.; Cambiaghi, M.; Casellotti, G.; Conta, C.; Fraternali, M.; Lanza, A.; Livan, M.; Polesello, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Vercesi, V.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results on MDT (monitored drift tubes) autocalibration studies obtained from the analysis of the data collected in Summer 1995 on the H8B Muon Test Beam. In particular we studied the possibility of autocalibration of the MDT using four or three layers of tubes, and we compared the calibration obtained using a precise external tracker with the output of the autocalibration procedure. Results show the feasibility of autocalibration with four and three tubes and the good accuracy of the autocalibration procedure. (orig.)

  16. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  17. Cathode Readout with Stripped Resistive Drift Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with carbon layer of resistivity 0.5, 30 and 70 k Ohm/sq. The gas mixture used was Ar/CH 4 . Both the anode wire and cathode signals were detected in order to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  18. Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Friction Contact Master Belt with the Gun Mount Barrel During the Process of High-Speed Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezulinsky Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction in the gun mount barrel at sliding speeds of artillery projectile 500 - 700 m/s is not sufficiently studied. The main problem is to increase the efficiency of the master belt with a significant increase of the interaction parameters of the barrel with the projectile. To determine the effect of heating on the change of physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer and friction coefficient on the surface of the master belt were made mathematical modeling of heat transfer.

  20. Proposal of upgrade of the ATLAS muon trigger in the barrel-endcap transition region with RPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a project for the upgrade of the Level-1 muon trigger in the barrel-endcap transition region (1.01) caused by charged particles originating from secondary interactions downstream of the interaction point. After the LHC upgrade forseen for 2018, the Level-1 muon trigger rate would saturate the allocated bandwidth unless new measures are adopted to improve the rejection of fake triggers. ATLAS is going to improve the trigger selectivity in the region |$\\eta$|>1.3 with the New Small Wheel detector upgrade. To obtain a similar trigger selectivity in the barrel-endcap transition region, it is proposed to add new RPC chambers at the edge of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer. These chambers will be based on a three layer structure with thinner gas gaps and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standard and a new low-profile light-weight mechanical structure that will allow the installation in the limited available space. New front-end electronics, integrating fast TDC capabilities w...

  1. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  2. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  3. End of the EM Barrel Presampler Construction and Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    The liquid argon barrel presampler is a thin detector placed in front of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, made up of two half barrels also, but with 32 sectors per half barrel instead of 16. Each of these 64 sectors is 3.1 m long, 28 cm large and 2.9 cm thick. Three countries took part in its construction: France (LPSC-Grenoble), Sweden (KTH-Stockholm) and Morocco (Hassan II Ain Chock-Casablanca and Mohamed V-Rabat universities, and CNESTEN-Rabat). The design of the presampler started 11 years ago and the series production began at the end of 2000. Cabling, mechanical and electronic tests of the anodes were achieved in Morocco. Forty-one sectors were assembled and validated at the LPSC-Grenoble and 25 at the KTH-Stockholm. In November 2002, the first half was inserted on the inner face of the first EM calorimeter wheel. The insertion of the other 32 sectors in the second EM calorimeter wheel was achieved in July 2003 (see pictures). The production of two additional sectors will allow us to study the p...

  4. barrel temperature emperature emperature effects on the ffects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: barrel temperature,plastic products, injection moulding machine , tensile strength, flexual strength. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. The utilization of process control and process monitoring are rarely fully implemented for the production of injection moulded products. This may be due to a ...

  5. LOCALIZATION OF NMDA AND AMPA RECEPTORS IN RAT BARREL FIELD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JAARSMA, D; SEBENS, JB; KORF, J

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to asses the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-S-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the barrel field of rat primary somatosensory (SI) cortex using light-microscopic in vitro autoradiography. NMDA receptors were labeled

  6. Results of 3D photogrammetry on the CMS barrel yoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudard, R.; Humbertclaude, C.; Nummiaro, K.

    1999-01-01

    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector of the new LHC will be built till 2005 at CERN in Geneva. The Barrel Yoke survey has been decided to be done mostly by photogrammetry. After this first measurement, it has been proved that a practical simulation and a study of adapted tools and procedures were helpful for measurement on such a large object. Using only conventional surveying methods would have been impossible with such constraints. The most important points were the high required accuracy compared to the size of the object, the connection of the two planes, the time intervention, the restricted factory environment and the impossibility for having any outside network. The photogrammetric method was considered to be the best way to survey the Barrel Yoke ring. Since the required precision has been reached at all levels with the first full Barrel measurements, the procedure is validated for the four remaining Barrels in the factory and afterwards again at CERN. This project was challenging due to the size of the object, the required accuracy and the lack of practical references in the field of digital industrial photogrammetry. This method is a new step for using the three dimensional photogrammetric measurements on large objects. (authors)

  7. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  8. Experiences developing socially acceptable interactions for a robotic trash barrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Stephen; Mok, Brian Ka Jun; Sirkin, David

    2015-01-01

    strategies that seemed to evoke clear engagement and responses, both positive and negative. Observations and interviews show that a) people most welcome the robot's presence when they need its services and it actively advertises its intent through movement; b) people create mental models of the trash barrel...

  9. The barrel modules of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdesselam, A.; Akimoto, T.; Allport, P.; Böhm, Jan; Šťastný, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 568, - (2006), s. 642-671 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * SCT * silicon * microstrip * module * LHC * barrel Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  10. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  11. Monitoring of the ageing of the DELPHI Barrel RICH MWPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apeldoorn, G.; Buys, A.; Dracos, M.; Toet, D.Z.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a method to monitor ageing effects in the multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) of the barrel ring imaging Cherenkov (BRICH) detector of DELPHI. It is based on a measurement of plateau-curve characteristics and the shift of these as a function of the total collected charge. Results indicate that, as yet, no ageing effects are present. (orig.)

  12. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC makes use of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics modules are able to identify muons with predefined transverse momentum values (pT) by executing a coincidence logic on signals coming from the various detector layers. On-detector trigger boards then transfer trigger data to the off-detector electronics. A complex trigger system processes the incoming data by combining trigger information from the barrel and the endcap regions, and providing the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). For almost a decade, the Level-1 Trigger system operated very well, despite the challenging requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, and the continuously increasing LHC luminosity. In order to cope with these constraints, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others have been designed to be installed in the next years. Most of the upgrades to the trigger system...

  13. Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2016-01-01

    Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...

  14. Drift chamber data readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Lokhonyai, L.

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for processing drift chamber signals is described. The system consists of 4-channel fast amplifier-discriminators of low threshold, 16-channel time-expanders transforming 0.5 μs time intervals to 10 μs and a 9-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) recording up to 16 expanded time intervals. If the average track multiplicity is small, TDC is capable to process signals from 4 time-expanders (i.e., 64 drift gaps). In order to record multiple tracks per drift gap discriminator outputs can be connected to a number of time-expander channels. The fast clear input enables the system to be cleared within 0.5 μs. Efficient readout from TDC is facilated by reading only those channels which contain non-zero data (9 bits - drift time; 6 bits - wire number)

  15. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  16. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat.The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent (visible here) was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team...

  17. Insertion of the first half-barrel of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter into its cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The first cylinder of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel and the presampler have been inserted in the cryostat. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter is intended to detect electrons, positrons and photons by measuring the energy they deposit on being absorbed. The cylinder of the calorimeter is in two halves, that will be sunk in a liquid-argon bath cooled to 90 kelvin (-180°C). Each half-barrel is 3.2 metres long, 53 cm thick and formed by assembling 16 modules. Each module is made up of alternate lead absorbers and electrodes pressed into 64 layers folded accordion-fashion. The presampler, set up inside the cylinder, is an integral part of the calorimeter system: It measures the energy lost by a particle before it reaches the calorimeter. To ensure an ultra-clean environment, a tent was erected round the calorimeter and entry point to the cryostat. The detector and presampler, fitted together, could then be slid gradually into the cryostat like a drawer. To do so, the insertion team had to fine-t...

  18. Qualification of barrel pixel detector modules for the Phase 1 Upgrade of the CMS vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kudella, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To withstand the higher particle rates of LHC Runs 2 and 3, with expected luminosities of up to $2\\times 10^{34}\\,\\mathrm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$, the current CMS pixel detector at the LHC will be replaced as part of the CMS Phase I Upgrade during the extended winter shutdown in 2016/17. The new pixel detector features a new geometry with one additional detector layer in the barrel region~(BPIX) and one pair of additional disks in the forward region~(FPIX), new digital readout chips as well as a new CO$_{2}$-based cooling system for both the barrel and forward region. The BPIX detector module production is summarized, with special focus on the different stages of quality assurance. The quality tests as well as the calibrations which all produced modules undergo in a temperature and humidity controlled environment are described. Exemplarily, the KIT/Aachen production line and its subprocesses are presented together with its quality and yields.

  19. A New Data Concentrator for the CMS Muon Barrel Track Finder

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The CMS muon trigger will undergo considerable enhancements in preparation for the LHC \\mbox{run-2}. In order to improve rate reduction and efficiency the full muon trigger chain will be completely redesigned: the plan is to move from a redundant scheme, where the three subdetectors (CSC, DT, RPC) have a separate track finder, to three geographical track finders (barrel, endcap and overlap) that combine trigger primitives of each sub-detector. In particular, the muon barrel track finder (MBTF) will host a new algorithm, that aggregating DT and RPC trigger data, will be able to improve the fake rejection and the muon momentum measurement.This report will focus on the adaptive layer of the MBTF called TwinMux. Its primary role will be to merge, arrange and fan-out the slow optical links from the chambers in faster links (10 Gbps). It will realize a full connectivity matrix between the on-detector electronics and the MBTF allowing for different processing schemes. The TwinMux will be implemented in $\\mu$TCA for...

  20. On nonlinear periodic drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschke, U.; Schlueter, H.

    1990-09-01

    Nonlinear periodic drift waves are investigated on the basis of a simple perturbation scheme for both the amplitude and inverse frequency. The coefficients for the generation of the forced harmonics are derived, a nonlinear dispersion relation is suggested and a criterion for the onset of the modulational instability is obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of a standard KBM-treatment. Moreover cnoidal drift waves are suggested and compared to an experimental observation. (orig.)

  1. The OPAL vertex drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.R.; Elcombe, P.A.; Hill, J.C.; Roach, C.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Estabrooks, P.; Hemingway, R.; Karlen, D.; McPherson, A.; Pinfold, J.; Roney, J.M.; Routenburg, P.; Waterhouse, J.; Hargrove, C.K.; Klem, D.; Oakham, F.G.; Carter, A.A.; Jones, R.W.L.; Lasota, M.M.B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Pritchard, T.W.; Wyatt, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A high precision vertex drift chamber has been installed in the OPAL experiment at LEP. The design of the chamber and the associated readout electronics is described. The performance of the system has been studied using cosmic ray muons and the results of these studies are presented. A space resolution of 50 μm in the drift direction is obtained using the OPAL central detector gas mixture at 4 bar. (orig.)

  2. The integration and engineering of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdesselam, A; Barr, A J [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Allport, P P; Austin, N [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Anastopoulos, C [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Anderson, B; Attree, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Andricek, L; Bangert, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Anghinolfi, F [CERN, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Apsimon, R; Barclay, P; Batchelor, L E [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Atkinson, T [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Barbier, G [Universite de Geneve, Section de Physique, 24 rue Ernest Ansermet, CH - 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Bates, R L; Bell, W H [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Batley, J R [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Beck, G A [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Bell, P J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) was built in three sections: a barrel and two end-caps. This paper describes the design, construction and final integration of the barrel section. The barrel is constructed around four nested cylinders that provide a stable and accurate support structure for the 2112 silicon modules and their associated services. The emphasis of this paper is directed at the aspects of engineering design that turned a concept into a fully-functioning detector, as well as the integration and testing of large sub-sections of the final SCT barrel detector. The paper follows the chronology of the construction. The main steps of the assembly are described with the results of intermediate tests. The barrel service components were developed and fabricated in parallel so that a flow of detector modules, cooling loops, opto-harnesses and Frequency-Scanning-Interferometry (FSI) alignment structures could be assembled onto the four cylinders. Once finished, each cylinder was conveyed to the next site for the mounting of modules to form a complete single barrel. Extensive electrical and thermal function tests were carried out on the completed single barrels. In the next stage, the four single barrels and thermal enclosures were combined into the complete SCT barrel detector so that it could be integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel to form the central part of the ATLAS inner detector. Finally, the completed SCT barrel was tested together with the TRT barrel in noise tests and using cosmic rays.

  3. Calculation of drift seepage for alternative emplacement designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Birkholzer, Jens

    1999-01-01

    The calculations presented in this report are performed to obtain seepage rates into drift and boreholes for two alternative designs of drift and waste emplacement at Yucca Mountain. The two designs are defined according to the Scope of Work 14012021M1, activity 399621, drafted October 6, 1998, and further refined in a conference telephone call on October 13, 1998, between Mark Balady, Jim Blink, Rob Howard and Chin-Fu Tsang. The 2 designs considered are: (1) Design A--Horizontal boreholes 1.0 m in diameter on both sides of the drift, with each borehole 8 m long and inclined to the drift axis by 30 degrees. The pillar between boreholes, measured parallel to the drift axis, is 3.3 m. In the current calculations, a simplified model of an isolated horizontal borehole 8 m long will be simulated. The horizontal borehole will be located in a heterogeneous fracture continuum representing the repository layer. Three different realizations will be taken from the heterogeneous field, representing three different locations in the rock. Seepage for each realization is calculated as a function of the percolation flux. Design B--Vertical boreholes, 1.0 m in diameter and 8.0 m deep, drilled from the bottom of an excavated 8.0 m diameter drift. Again, the drift with the vertical borehole will be assumed to be located in a heterogeneous fracture continuum, representing the rock at the repository horizon. Two realizations are considered, and seepage is calculated for the 8-m drift with and without the vertical 1-m borehole at its bottom

  4. Generalized drift-flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.; Hochreiter, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    A one-dimensional drift-flux model with five conservation equations is frequently employed in major computer codes, such as TRAC-PD2, and in simulator codes. In this method, the relative velocity between liquid and vapor phases, or slip ratio, is given by correlations, rather than by direct solution of the phasic momentum equations, as in the case of the two-fluid model used in TRAC-PF1. The correlations for churn-turbulent bubbly flow and slug flow regimes were given in terms of drift velocities by Zuber and Findlay. For the annular flow regime, the drift velocity correlations were developed by Ishii et al., using interphasic force balances. Another approach is to define the drift velocity so that flooding and liquid hold-up conditions are properly simulated, as reported here. The generalized correlation is used to reanalyze the MB-2 test data for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. The results are applied to the generalized drift flux velocity, whose relationship to the other correlations is discussed. Finally, the generalized drift flux correlation is implemented in TRAC-PD2. Flow reversal from countercurrent to cocurrent flow is computed in small-diameter U-shaped tubes and is compared with the flooding curve

  5. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Albajar, C; Arce, P; Autermann, C; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bontenackels, M; Caballero, J; Cavallo, F R; Cerrada, M; Cirio, R; Colino, N; Conti, E; de la Cruz, B; Dal Corso, F; Dallavalle, G M; Fernández, C; Fernández de Troconiz, J; Fouz-Iglesias, M C; García-Abia, P; García-Raboso, A; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giacomelli, P; Gonella, F; Gulmini, M; Hebbeker, T; Hermann, S; Höpfner, K; Jiménez, I; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Lacaprara, S; Marcellini, S; Mariotti, C; Maron, G; Maselli, S; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Montanari, C; Montecassiano, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Odorici, F; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Peroni, C; Perrotta, A; Puerta, J; Reithler, H; Romero, A; Romero, L; Ronchese, P; Rossi, A; Rovelli, T; Sacchi, R; Sowa, M; Staiano, A; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Vaniev, V; Vanini, S; Ventura, Sandro; Villanueva, C; Willmott, C; Zotto, P L; Zumerle, G

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory.

  6. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albajar, C.; Amapane, N.; Arce, P.; Autermann, C.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bontenackels, M.; Caballero, J.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Cruz, B. de la; Corso, F. dal; Dallavalle, G.M.; Fernandez, C.; Troconiz, J.F. de; Fouz, M.C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Garcia-Raboso, A.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Gonella, F.; Gulmini, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Jimenez, I.; Josa, I.; Lacaprara, S.; Marcellini, S.; Mariotti, C.; Maron, G.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.T.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Montecassiano, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Odorici, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Perrotta, A.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Sowa, M.; Staiano, A.; Toniolo, N.; Torassa, E.; Vaniev, V.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Villanueva, C.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory

  7. Test beam analysis of the first CMS drift tube muon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, C.; Amapane, N.; Arce, P.; Autermann, C.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bontenackels, M.; Caballero, J.; Cavallo, F.R.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Cruz, B. de la; Corso, F. dal; Dallavalle, G.M.; Fernandez, C.; Troconiz, J.F. de E-mail: jorge.troconiz@uam.es; Fouz, M.C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Garcia-Raboso, A.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Gonella, F.; Gulmini, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Jimenez, I.; Josa, I.; Lacaprara, S.; Marcellini, S.; Mariotti, C.; Maron, G.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.T.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Montecassiano, F.; Navarria, F.L.; Odorici, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Perrotta, A.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Sowa, M.; Staiano, A.; Toniolo, N.; Torassa, E.; Vaniev, V.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Villanueva, C.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2004-06-11

    In October 2001 the first produced CMS Barrel Drift Tube (DT) Muon Chamber was tested at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) using a muon beam. A Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) was attached to the top of the DT chamber, and, for the first time, both detectors were operated coupled together. The performance of the DT chamber was studied for several operating conditions, and for gamma rates similar to the ones expected at LHC. In this paper we present the data analysis; the results are considered fully satisfactory.

  8. The Drifting Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  9. Coherent Structure Phenomena in Drift Wave-Zonal Flow Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyakov, A. I.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M.

    2000-01-01

    Zonal flows are azimuthally symmetric plasma potential perturbations spontaneously generated from small-scale drift-wave fluctuations via the action of Reynolds stresses. We show that, after initial linear growth, zonal flows can undergo further nonlinear evolution leading to the formation of long-lived coherent structures which consist of self-bound wave packets supporting stationary shear layers. Such coherent zonal flow structures constitute dynamical paradigms for intermittency in drift-wave turbulence that manifests itself by the intermittent distribution of regions with a reduced level of anomalous transport. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Assembly of Drift Tubes (DT) Chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    The construction of muon drift tube chambers (DT) has been carried out in four different european institutes: Aachen (Germany), CIEMAT-Madrid (Spain), Legnaro and Turin (Italy), all of them following similar procedures and quality tests. Each chamber is composed by three or two independent units called superlayers, with four layers of staggered drift cells each. The assembly of a superlayer is a succesive glueing of aluminium plates and I-beams with electrodes previously attached, forming a rectangular and gas-tight volume. These pictures illustrate the various processes of material preparation, construction, equipment and assembly of full chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid).

  11. The Effects of Radial and Poloidal ExB Drifts in the Tokamak SOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Jing; Zhu Sizheng

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radial and poloidal ExB drifts in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a limiter tokamak are studied with a one-dimensional fluid code. The transport equations are solved in the poloidal direction with the radial influxes as the source terms. The simulation results show that in the high recycling regime, the effect of the radial ExB drift on plasma density tends to be stronger than that of the poloidal ExB drift. In the sheath-limited regime, the effects of the radial ExB drift and poloidal ExB drift on plasma density are almost equally important. Considering the influence on the electron temperature, the poloidal ExB drift tends to be more important than the radial ExB drift in both the high recycling regime and sheath-limited regime. For the normal B φ , the poloidal ExB drift tends to raise the pressure at the low field side while the radial ExB drift favours the high field side. The simulation results also show that the ExB drift influences the asymmetries on the parameter distributions at the high field side and low field side, and the distributions are much more symmetric with the field reversal

  12. The CMS barrel seen from its +Z end in the SX5 building at Cessy, where two out of five wheels of the barrel are already equipped with muon chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On the right, a snapshot of the online display showing a cosmic muon (white points) through the four DTCs (MB1-MB4) of a complete sector. In each DTC, only eight layers of drift tubes can be seen, those of the transversal plan R-phi.

  13. ATLAS barrel toroid integration and test area in building 180

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two 'double-pancake' windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. The barrel toroid is being assembled in building 180 on the Meyrin site. In the first phase of assembly, the coils are packed into their aluminium-alloy casing. These photos show the double-pancake coils from ANSALDO and the coil casings from ALSTOM. In the foreground is the tooling from COSMI used to turn over the coil casings during this first phase. In the right background is the yellow lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia which will transport the coil casings to a heating table for prestressing. Two test benches with magnetic mirror are also visible.

  14. Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachidhanandam, Shankar; Sreenivasan, Varun; Kyriakatos, Alexandros; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2013-11-01

    Neocortical activity can evoke sensory percepts, but the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We trained mice to detect single brief whisker stimuli and report perceived stimuli by licking to obtain a reward. Pharmacological inactivation and optogenetic stimulation demonstrated a causal role for the primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Whole-cell recordings from barrel cortex neurons revealed membrane potential correlates of sensory perception. Sensory responses depended strongly on prestimulus cortical state, but both slow-wave and desynchronized cortical states were compatible with task performance. Whisker deflection evoked an early (sensory response that was encoded through cell-specific reversal potentials. A secondary late (50-400 ms) depolarization was enhanced on hit trials compared to misses. Optogenetic inactivation revealed a causal role for late excitation. Our data reveal dynamic processing in the sensory cortex during task performance, with an early sensory response reliably encoding the stimulus and later secondary activity contributing to driving the subjective percept.

  15. Simulgeo and its application for the muon barrel position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, L.

    1999-01-01

    The design process of the Muon Barrel Position Monitor of the CMS (compact muon solenoid) experiment for LHC is at the origin of the need of a software like Simulgeo. The software Silmugeo started to be developed in 1995 in order to allow the study of many systems. The idea of Simulgeo is to automatically make the modelling of a system and automatically construct the design matrix. This paper makes in part 2 an overview of the possibilities of Simulgeo, in part 3 it presents the standard objects. In part 4, it explains the mathematical basis and in part 5 the computing aspect. In part 6, it shows an application to the Muon Barrel Position Monitor Project and, in part 7, it mentions other projects where it has been used

  16. Design of the LHC US ATLAS Barrel Cryostat

    CERN Document Server

    Rehak, M L; Farah, Y; Grandinetti, R; Müller, T; Norton, S; Sondericker, J

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the ATLAS Liquid Argon detector. The Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat is part of the United States contribution to the LHC project and its design is presented here. The device is made up of four concentric cylinders: the smallest and largest of which form a vacuum vessel enclosing a cold vessel cryostat filled with liquid argon. The Cryostat serves as the housing for an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter, supports and provides space in vacuum for a solenoid magnet while the toroidal opening furnishes room for a tracker detector. Design requirements are determined by its use in a collider experiment: the construction has to be compact, the material between the interaction region and the calorimeter has to be minimal and made of aluminum to reduce the amount of absorbing material. The design complies with code regulations while being optimized for its use in a physics environment. (2 refs).

  17. Signal feedthroughs for the ATLAS barrel and endcap calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axen, D.; Hackenburg, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Kane, S.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Pate, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rehak, M.; Rescia, S.; Sexton, K.; Sondericker, J.; Birney, P.; Dowling, A.W.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Hodges, T.; Holness, F.; Honkanen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The function, design, construction, testing, and installation of the signal feedthroughs for the barrel and endcap ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are described. The feedthroughs provide a high density and radiation hard method to extract over 200 000 signals from the cryogenic environment of the calorimeters using an application of a design based on flexible kapton circuit board transmission lines. A model to describe the frequency dependent behavior of the transmission lines is also presented

  18. Reversible man-in-the-barrel syndrome in myasthenia gravis

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Poornima A; Wadia, Pettarusp Murzban

    2016-01-01

    Man-in-the-barrel syndrome (MBS) is an uncommon presentation due to bilateral, predominantly proximal muscle weakness that has not been described to be associated with myasthenia gravis. We describe a case of myasthenia gravis presenting as MBS. Additionally, he had significant wasting of the deltoids bilaterally with fibrillations on electromyography (EMG) at rest and brief duration (3-6 ms) bi/triphasic motor unit potentials (MUPs) on submaximal effort apart from a decremental response on r...

  19. Device for cementing radioactive of toxic waste into barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.; Waldenmeier, G.; Mathis, P.; Mathis, B.; Mathis, F.

    1987-01-01

    The plant consists of conventional means, such as through mixers and dosing and transport spirals, which are accommodated in a glovebox. The inactive additives cement and sand and the active materials evaporation concentrates and sludges are mixed by them, and are then filled into a waste barrel which is empty or already filled with solid waste. Liquid radioactive wastes are used to concrete over the solid waste. (DG) [de

  20. Non-compensation of the ATLAS barrel combined calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The e / π ratio for the ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Prototype, composed from electromagnetic LArg calorimeter and hadronic Tile calorimeter was investigated. Response of Combined Calorimeter on pions and electrons in the energy region of 20-300 GeV was studied. Found e / h = 1.37 ± 0.01 ± 0.02 is in good agreement with the results from previous Combined Calorimeter tests but has more precisions

  1. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez-Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  2. Increases in the numerical density of GAT-1 positive puncta in the barrel cortex of adult mice after fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Siucinska

    Full Text Available Three days of fear conditioning that combines tactile stimulation of a row of facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS expands the representation of "trained" vibrissae, which can be demonstrated by labeling with 2-deoxyglucose in layer IV of the barrel cortex. We have also shown that functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 increases GABAergic markers in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse. This study investigated how whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS affected the expression of puncta of a high-affinity GABA plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in the barrel cortex of mice 24 h after associative learning paradigm. We found that whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS led to increase expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta in the "trained" row compared to controls: Pseudoconditioned, CS-only, UCS-only and Naïve animals. These findings suggest that fear conditioning specifically induces activation of systems regulating cellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

  3. Optical properties of the PANDA barrel DIRC radiator bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz; Krebs, Marvin; Peters, Klaus [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Schwarz, Carsten; Schwiening, Jochen [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD. A fast focusing DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counter will provide hadronic particle identification (PID) in the barrel region of the PANDA detector. To meet the PID requirements, the Barrel DIRC has to provide precise measurements of the Cherenkov angle, which is conserved for Cherenkov photons propagating through the radiator by total internal reflection. The radiators, rectangular bars made from fused silica, have to fulfill very strict optical and mechanical requirements. This includes the squareness and parallelism of the sides of the bars, sharp corners, and a very smooth surface polish, ensuring that the Cherenkov photons reach the optical sensors without angular distortions. Currently the Barrel DIRC is at the final design stage and several different bar shapes and fabrication methods are being considered for the final detector. An optical setup, consisting of a computer-controlled positioning and a multi-wavelength laser system, is used to evaluate the radiator bars to obtain critical values like transmittance and reflectivity. The current results and techniques are presented on this poster.

  4. Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Mescheryakov, G; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Ulyanov, A; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Cankocak, Kerem; Ozok, Ferhat; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchishin, V; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumu, K; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Cushman, Priscilla; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Mans, Jeremy; Tully, Christopher; De Barbaro, Pawel; Bodek, Arie; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Imboden, Matthias; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%.

  5. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  6. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses

  7. Suspended sediment drift and dispersion at Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedford, T.; Drozdowski, A.; Hannah, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water waves and near-bottom currents around the Hibernia oil production platform on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland were examined to determine how the different seasons affect changes in wave magnitude and directions of water currents. Wave observations revealed a strong correlation with seasons, with the larger waves occurring in fall and early winter. There was no obvious seasonality in the size or direction of currents. The benthic boundary layer transport (BBLT) model was used to predict the drift and dispersion pathways of suspended drilling muds discharged from the Hibernia platform. The 2-year study from March 1998 to May 2000 involved 5-day BBLT model simulations covering the complete period of current meter deployment. The study focused on the sensitivity of the drift and dispersion to variability in the physical environment and uncertainty in the bottom stress calculation and particle settling velocity. The BBLT model incorporates a stress dependent particle settling velocity that includes the main features of the flocculations of drill mud fines under marine conditions. The study provides a better understanding of how drill mud concentration levels can change with variations in waves, currents, and bottom stress. It was determined that drift is generally oriented along the northwest/southeast axis, with a typical magnitude of 0.8 cm/sec for the fast settling velocity and 3.1 cm/sec for the slow settling velocity. It was concluded that near-surface or mid-depth discharges of drilling mud in the summer may not reach the sea floor. 17 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  8. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  9. Quality control results of the drift tubes for the ATLAS MDT-BIS chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Avramidou, R.; Dris, M.; Filippas, T.A.; Gazis, E.N.; Katsoufis, E.; Maltezos, S.; Savva, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, E.

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general purpose experiment, which will start its operation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in 2007. The ATLAS detector is designed to study the products of proton-proton collisions at c.m.s. energies of up to 14 TeV. Three Greek Universities have taken the responsibility to construct 112 BIS-MDT (Barrel Inner Small) chambers using 29 000 drift tubes of 170 cm length and 3 cm diameter that have been quality tested before assembly. This work describes the Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA Q C) procedures for the drift tubes, followed at the High Energy Physics Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens, while emphasis is given on the obtained results for the above mentioned number of tubes

  10. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  11. Predicting public sector accountability : From agency drift to forum drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229913881; Busuioc, Madalina

    2015-01-01

    Principal-agent theory has been the dominant theory at the heart of public sector accountability research. The notion of the potentially drifting agent-such as independent public agencies, opaque transnational institutions, or recalcitrant street-level bureaucrats-has been the guiding paradigm in

  12. Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, Dieter; Correa-Restrepo, Dario

    1996-01-01

    The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T v (x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)

  13. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  14. Measurements of the drift velocity using a small gas chamber for monitoring of the CMS muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Frangenheim, J

    This diploma thesis presents measurements of the drift velocity of electrons in gas. A small gas detector (VDC1 ) is used. This chamber is intended for measurement and monitoring of the drift velocity in the gas of the muon chambers of the gas detector system in the barrel area of the CMS-detector2 at the European Research Center for Particle Physics CERN near Geneva. The drift velocity is, together with the drift time, a key parameter for measurements with drift chambers. The aim of this thesis is to perform test measurements to determine parameters of the chamber and also to estimate systematic errors. Beside the drift velocity, further parameters of the gas like the pressure and the temperature are measured and accounted for. For the further work with the VDCs, analysis software has been created which is used for the analysis of the measurements. Parallel to this work, necessary improvements, e.g. for the high voltage robustness, were also implemented and tested. In addition, studies and test measurements ...

  15. Solar Drift-Pair Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, A.; Volvach, Ya.; Konovalenko, A.; Koval, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new sight on the study of solar bursts historically called drift pairs (DPs) is presented. Having a simple morphology on dynamic spectra of radio records (two short components separated in time, and often they are very similar) and discovered at the dawn of radio astronomy, their features remain unexplained totally up to now. Generally, the DPs are observed during the solar storms of type III bursts, but not every storm of type III bursts is linked with DPs. Detected by ground-based instruments at decameter and meter wavelengths, the DP bursts are limited in frequency bandwidth. They can drift from high frequencies to low ones and vice versa. Their frequency drift rate may be both lower and higher than typical rates of type III bursts at the same frequency range. The development of low-frequency radio telescopes and data processing provide additional possibilities in the research. In this context the fresh analysis of DPs, made from recent observations in the summer campaign of 2015, are just considered. Their study was implemented by updated tools of the UTR-2 radio telescope at 9-33 MHz. During 10-12 July of 2015, DPs forming the longest patterns on dynamic spectra are about 7% of the total number of recorded DPs. Their marvelous resemblance in frequency drift rates with the solar S-bursts is discussed.

  16. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  17. Reversible man-in-the-barrel syndrome in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima A Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Man-in-the-barrel syndrome (MBS is an uncommon presentation due to bilateral, predominantly proximal muscle weakness that has not been described to be associated with myasthenia gravis. We describe a case of myasthenia gravis presenting as MBS. Additionally, he had significant wasting of the deltoids bilaterally with fibrillations on electromyography (EMG at rest and brief duration (3-6 ms bi/triphasic motor unit potentials (MUPs on submaximal effort apart from a decremental response on repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS at 2 Hz. While electrophysiology is an important tool in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, pathological EMG patterns do not exclude the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.

  18. Reversible man-in-the-barrel syndrome in myasthenia gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Poornima A; Wadia, Pettarusp Murzban

    2016-01-01

    Man-in-the-barrel syndrome (MBS) is an uncommon presentation due to bilateral, predominantly proximal muscle weakness that has not been described to be associated with myasthenia gravis. We describe a case of myasthenia gravis presenting as MBS. Additionally, he had significant wasting of the deltoids bilaterally with fibrillations on electromyography (EMG) at rest and brief duration (3-6 ms) bi/triphasic motor unit potentials (MUPs) on submaximal effort apart from a decremental response on repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) at 2 Hz. While electrophysiology is an important tool in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, pathological EMG patterns do not exclude the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. PMID:27011638

  19. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  20. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime

  1. Effect of a lithium ion drift on the characteristics of Si(Li) p-i-n-detectors of nuclear radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimov, S.A.; Iskanderov, A.Sh.; Muminov, R.A.; Khasanov, D.K.; Yafasov, A.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    An examination is made of the effect that temperature during drift has on the thickness of high-resistance layers and the specific resistance of the compensatory region. Diagrams are presented illustrating the relationship between the specific resistance of the compensatory region and temperature during drift, and the relationship between the relative thickness of high-resistance layers and temperature during drift. The optimal temperature during drift at which the thickness of the heterogenous layers is minimal and the compensation of the i-region is sufficient, was found to be 110 to 125/sup 0/C. 6 references, 2 figures.

  2. Fenomen erozije cevi naoružanja / Gun barrel erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Ilić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazana dosadašnja istraživanja erozije cevi. Trošenje cevi je neizbežan proces do kojeg dolazi pri svakom opaljenju. Erozija cevi može se definisati kao progresivna povreda ili oštećenje površine cevi i proširenje kalibra usled opaljenja, koja utiče na: gubitak ili pad početne brzine projektila, tačnost i efektivnost oruđa. Kao glavni uzročnici koji utiču na intenzitet erozije cevi opisani su termički, hemijski i mehanički faktori. Njihov uticaj prikazan je u interakciji cev-projektil-barutno punjenje. / An overview of research into gun barrel erosion is presented in this paper. The gun bore wear is an unavoidable process during normal firing. The wear can be defined as progressive damage of the bore surface and enlargement of the bore, ultimately resulting in loss in the muzzle velocity, range and accuracy. Thermal, chemical and mechanical factors are described as major factors of gun barrel erosion. The influence of these factors is presented in the interaction of gun tube - projectile - propellant.

  3. First physics pulses in the Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter with cosmics

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Serin

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic barrel calorimeter has been installed in its final position in October 2005. Since then, the calorimeter is being equipped with front-end electronics. Starting in April 2006, electronics calibration runs are taken a few times per week to debug the electronics and to study the performance in the pit (stability, noise). Today, 10 out of the 32 Front End crates are being read out, amounting to about 35000 channels. cool down, few little typos --> After a 6-week cool down, the barrel cryostat was filled with Liquid Argon in May. The presence of a few shorts (~1MΩ) at the edges of the modules was indicating the possibility of conducting dust having entered into the calorimeter with the flowing liquid. In order to try to improve this situation, the calorimeter was emptied and filled again, but this time by condensating the argon instead of flowing it in liquid phase. The new High Voltage tests are not showing any significant improvement but the situation is statisfactory for ATLAS runn...

  4. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Y [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, Tsukuba (Japan); Ball, B; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Gregory, J [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Beretta, M [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P P M [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandenburg, G W; Fries, T; Costa, J Guimaraes da; Harder, S; Huth, J [Harvard University, Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ceradini, F [INFN Roma Tre and Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Hazen, E [Boston University, Physics Department, Boston, MA (United States); Kirsch, L E [Brandeis University, Department of Physics, Waltham, MA (United States); Koenig, A C [Radboud University Nijmegen/Nikhef, Dept. of Exp. High Energy Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lanza, A [INFN Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Mikenberg, G [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics, Rehovot (Israel)], E-mail: brandenburg@physics.harvard.edu (and others)

    2008-09-15

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 {mu}m, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at p{sub T}= 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  5. ATLAS Muon Drift Tube Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Y; Beretta, M; Boterenbrood, H; Brandenburg, G W; Ceradini, F; Chapman, J W; Dai, T; Ferretti, C; Fries, T; Gregory, J; Guimarães da Costa, J; Harder, S; Hazen, E; Huth, J; Jansweijer, P P M; Kirsch, L E; König, A C; Lanza, A; Mikenberg, G; Oliver, J; Posch, C; Richter, R; Riegler, W; Spiriti, E; Taylor, F E; Vermeulen, J; Wadsworth, B; Wijnen, T A M

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the electronics used for the ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers. These chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT detector system consists of 1,150 chambers containing a total of 354,000 drift tubes. It is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 microns, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT = 1 TeV. The design and performance of the MDT readout electronics as well as the electronics for controlling, monitoring and powering the detector will be discussed. These electronics have been extensively tested under simulated running conditions and have undergone radiation testing certifying them for more than 10 years of LHC operation. They are now installed on the ATLAS detector and are operating during cosmic ray commissioning runs.

  6. MPS II drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed

  7. Feedforward motor information enhances somatosensory responses and sharpens angular tuning of rat S1 barrel cortex neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateb, Mohamed; Schiller, Jackie; Schiller, Yitzhak

    2017-01-06

    The primary vibrissae motor cortex (vM1) is responsible for generating whisking movements. In parallel, vM1 also sends information directly to the sensory barrel cortex (vS1). In this study, we investigated the effects of vM1 activation on processing of vibrissae sensory information in vS1 of the rat. To dissociate the vibrissae sensory-motor loop, we optogenetically activated vM1 and independently passively stimulated principal vibrissae. Optogenetic activation of vM1 supra-linearly amplified the response of vS1 neurons to passive vibrissa stimulation in all cortical layers measured. Maximal amplification occurred when onset of vM1 optogenetic activation preceded vibrissa stimulation by 20 ms. In addition to amplification, vM1 activation also sharpened angular tuning of vS1 neurons in all cortical layers measured. Our findings indicated that in addition to output motor signals, vM1 also sends preparatory signals to vS1 that serve to amplify and sharpen the response of neurons in the barrel cortex to incoming sensory input signals.

  8. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  9. Installation of CMS EB (ECAL Barrel) Supermodules 5 and 13 inside HB+ (HCAL Barrel) on 26/27 April 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Ken Bell, RAL

    2006-01-01

    The first two barrel "supermodules" of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have been inserted into the barrel hadron calorimeter (HCAL) in the CMS experimental hall (called SX5) in Cessy in preparation for the forthcoming magnet test and cosmic challenge (MTCC). Each of the two supermodules contains 1700 lead tungstate crystals in glass-fibre alveolar support structures, with associated avalanche photodiodes (APDs, for scintillation light detection), electronics and cooling system. See also the document CMS-PHO-OREACH-2006-019. The first two pictures show the two supermodules in their final position. Fig. 3: the "enfourneur" in position on the HB Cradle. Fig. 4: supermodule n. 5 and extension rails being lifted to the enforneur. Figs. 5-6: supermodule approaching the enforneur. Fig. 7: rotating the Enfourneur to the correct phi direction Figs. 8-9: aligning the extension rails with the rails inside HB and view from inside HB, once the rails are aligned. Figs. 10-12: insertion of supermodule n. 5. Fig. ...

  10. Design of a lead-glass drift calorimeter with MWPC detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; del Guerra, A.; Mulera, T.; Hirayama, H.; Nelson, W.R.

    1983-02-01

    A drift collection calorimeter having a combined radiator and field-shaping structure made of lead-glass tubing is described. A high-resistance metallic layer is formed by reduction of the lead oxide at the surface of the glass and forms a continuous voltage divider for drift-field shaping. The energy resolution of such a calorimeter is modeled, for several configurations, by the Monte Carlo technique

  11. Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, J J; Dinner, A R; Fidkowski, K J; Wyatt, J H

    2001-01-01

    Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the $E \\propto \\frac{1}{r}$ field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given.

  12. Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.J.; Becker, U.J.; Dinner, R.B.; Fidkowski, K.J.; Wyatt, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the E∝1/r field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given

  13. Particle identification in Lep-Delphi experience. Experimental study of photoelectron detection and of Cerenkov angle resolution with the Barrel Rich prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    1987-06-01

    One of the four LEP experiments, DELPHI, will be equipped with Ring Cherenkov (RICH) detectors for hadrons identification. These detectors will provide pion, kaon, proton identification for momenta from 0.3 to 25 GeV/c over nearly all the solid angle. The technique of the long drift is used which combines liquid and gas radiators on opposite sides of a simple photosensitive drift volume. A full-scale prototype of the DELPHI Barrel RICH was built to study the feasibility and the performances of a big RICH system. We have obtained: - an absorption length of photoelectrons in the drift gas more than 10 m; - a merit factor of 53 cm -1 for the liquid radiator (perfluoro-hexane C 6 F 14 ) and 77 cm -1 for the gas radiator (isobutance iC 4 H 10 ) - a resolution of the single photon Cerenkov angle of 11.5 mrad for the liquid radiator and 4.5 mrad for the gas radiator [fr

  14. Design and development of a work robot to place ATLAS SCT modules onto barrel cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Sengoku, H.; Kato, Y.; Hara, K.; Honma, F.; Ikegami, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Nakano, I.; Takashima, R.; Tanaka, R.; Ujiie, N.; Unno, Y.; Yasuda, S.

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 silicon modules need to be placed and fastened on the ATLAS SCT barrel tracker. A semi-automatic pick-and-place work robot was designed and developed to cope with the module placement for the SCT barrel assembly. We found that this robot could place modules to a mechanical precision of better than 25 μm

  15. Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    ARL-TR-7662 ● APR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25...Fabrication and Tests of M240 Machine Gun Barrels Lined with Stellite 25 by William S de Rosset and Sean Fudger Weapons and Materials Research...

  16. Design and development of a work robot to place ATLAS SCT modules onto barrel cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, S; Honma, F; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Sengoku, H; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Ujiie, N; Unno, Y; Yasuda, S

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 silicon modules need to be placed and fastened on the ATLAS SCT barrel tracker. A semi-automatic pick-and-place work robot was designed and developed to cope with the module placement for the SCT barrel assembly. We found that this robot could place modules to a mechanical precision of better than 25 mum.

  17. Shell model in-water frequencies of the core barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, K.; De Santo, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Natural frequencies of a 1/24th-scale core barrel/vessel model in air and in water are measured by determining frequency responses to applied forces. The measured data are analyzed by the use of the one-dimensional fluid-structure computer code, MULTIFLEX, developed to calculate the hydraulic force. The fluid-structure interaction in the downcomer annulus is computed with a one-dimensional network model formed to be equivalent to two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction. The structural model incorporated in MULTIFLEX is substantially simpler than that necessary for structural analyses. Proposed for computation of structural dynamics is the projector method than can deal with the beam mode by modal analysis and the other shell modes by a direct integration method. Computed in-air and in-water frequencies agree fairly well with the experimental data, verifying the above MULTIFLEX technique

  18. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  19. Manufacturing aspects of the ATLAS barrel toroid double pancakes

    CERN Document Server

    Drago, G; Gagliardi, P; Laurenti, A; Marabotto, R; Penco, R

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) ordered to ANSALDO the manufacturing of 16 double pancakes for the ATLAS BARREL TOROID. In July 2001 four Double Pancakes have already been completed and shipped to the integration site. In this paper the main aspects of the manufacturing of the largest superconducting coils ever built (5*25 m) are described. The main phases of the manufacturing procedure are reviewed starting from the conductor preparation to the VPI impregnation, including references to the materials used as well as to the relevant customer's requirements. In particular the special winding form and the winding technique are treated. For each phase the most critical aspects and the relevant solutions are pointed out. Particular details about the technical solutions adopted for the impregnation and curing of the Double Pancake, which could not be performed inside an autoclave due to the huge dimension of the coil itself, are reported. Finally the methods used for the dimensional and electri...

  20. Measurement of the positron-drift time relation of a high-pressure drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruefert, W.

    1989-04-01

    As a test of its performance, the measurement of the drift time versus drift distance relation of a high pressure drift chamber using cosmic rays is described. Two multiwire proportional chambers, mounted above and below the detector, are used to define the track of the cosmic particle in the drift chamber. The drift chamber is read out by FADCs (Flash Analog to Digital Converter), and the drift time is determined from the FADC signals by the DOS- (Difference Of Samples) method. The measured drift time versus drift distance relation showed good agreement with the relation, which is expected from the spatial dependence of the electric field and the dependence of the drift velocity on this field. (orig.) [de

  1. Pulse shape simulation for drift chambers with long drift paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo program for the simulation of drift chamber pulse shapes is described. It has been applied to the case of a jet chamber with drift paths up to 24 cm. Results on pulse shapes and corresponding spatial and double hit resolution are discussed and compared to recent measurements of the OPAL central detector jet chamber full size prototype and to measurements of a small 20-wire prototype, which was designed to study the pulse shapes generated by tracks in a magnetic field. Simulated pulse shapes and spatial resolutions agree well with the experimental data. Clustering, saturation and wire crosstalk are shown to be necessary ingredients in the simulation. A deterioration in resolution due to the influence of crosstalk signals is correctly reproduced, as well as the cancellation of this effect by a hardwired first and second neighbour crosstalk compensation. The simulation correctly describes the asymmetry in spatial resolution observed for tracks with positive or negative inclination against the wire plane when a magnetic field is present. The effect of saturation on double hit resolution is found to be small. The magnetic field is predicted to improve the double hit resolution. (orig.)

  2. Pulse shape simulation for drift chambers with long drift paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, H J

    1987-09-15

    A detailed Monte Carlo program for the simulation of drift chamber pulse shapes is described. It has been applied to the case of a jet chamber with drift paths up to 24 cm. Results on pulse shapes and corresponding spatial and double hit resolution are discussed and compared to recent measurements of the OPAL central detector jet chamber full size prototype and to measurements of a small 20-wire prototype, which was designed to study the pulse shapes generated by tracks in a magnetic field. Simulated pulse shapes and spatial resolutions agree well with the experimental data. Clustering, saturation and wire crosstalk are shown to be necessary ingredients in the simulation. A deterioration in resolution due to the influence of crosstalk signals is correctly reproduced, as well as the cancellation of this effect by a hardwired first and second neighbour crosstalk compensation. The simulation correctly describes the asymmetry in spatial resolution observed for tracks with positive or negative inclination against the wire plane when a magnetic field is present. The effect of saturation on double hit resolution is found to be small. The magnetic field is predicted to improve the double hit resolution.

  3. Upgrade of the Level-1 muon trigger of the ATLAS detector in the barrel-endcap transition region with RPC chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a project for the upgrade of the Level-1 muon trigger in the barrel-endcap transition region (1.01) caused by charged particles originating from secondary interactions downstream of the interaction point. After the LHC phase-1 upgrade, forseen for 2018, the Level-1 muon trigger rate would saturate the allocated bandwidth unless new measures are adopted to improve the rejection of fake triggers. ATLAS is going to improve the trigger selectivity in the region |$\\eta$|>1.3 with the addition of the New Small Wheel detector as an inner trigger plane. To obtain a similar trigger selectivity in the barrel-endcap transition region 1.0<|$\\eta$|<1.3, it is proposed to add new RPC chambers at the edge of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer. These chambers will be based on a three layer structure with thinner gas gaps and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standard and a new low-profile light-weight mechanical structure that will allow the installation in the limited available spa...

  4. Effect of Friction on Barreling during cold Upset Forging of Aluminium 6082 Alloy Solid cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Amrita; Kiran, C. P.; Suresh, K.

    2018-03-01

    Friction is one of the significant factors in forging operations since it affects metal flow in the die, forming load, strain distribution, tool and die life, surface quality of the product etc. In upset forging, the frictional forces at the die-workpiece interface oppose the outward flow of the material due to which the specimen develops a barrel shape. As a result, the deformation becomes non-uniform or inhomogeneous which is undesirable. Barreling can be reduced by applying effective lubricant on the surface of the platens. The objective of the present work is to study experimentally the effect of various frictional conditions (dry, grease, mineral oil) on barreling during upset forging of aluminum 6082 solid cylinders of different aspect ratio (length/diameter: 0.5, 0.75, 1). The friction coefficients are determined using the ring compression test. Curvature of barrel is determined based on the assumption that the curvature of the barrel follows the geometry of circular arc.

  5. Study and analysis for the flow-induced vibration of the core barrel of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weida; Shi Guolin; Jiang Nanyan

    1989-01-01

    The resemblance criteria are derived and a test model is designed by applying the flow-soild coupling theory. After having completed the model analysis of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core barrel in an 1:10 model, the dynamic characteristics are obtained. In an 1:5 reactor model with a hydraulic closed loop, the hydraulic vibration tests of the core barrel are performed, and the relations between the flow rate and the flow-induced pulse pressure on core barrel, acceleration and strain signals have been measured. The corresponding responses and a group of computational equations for hydraulic vibration are derived from these two experiments. The computational hydraulic vibration responses for core barrel in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant are in good agreement with the test results, and it shows that the core barrel is safe within its lifetime of 30 years

  6. Drift waves in a stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Sedlak, J.E.; Similon, P.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Ross, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    We investigate the eigenmode structure of drift waves in a straight stellarator using the ballooning mode formalism. The electrons are assumed to be adiabatic and the ions constitute a cold, magnetized fluid. The effective potential has an overall parabolic envelope but is modulated strongly by helical ripples along B. We have found two classes of solutions: those that are strongly localized in local helical wells, and those that are weakly localized and have broad spatial extent. The weakly localized modes decay spatially due to the existence of Mathieu resonances between the periods of the eigenfunction and the effective potential

  7. Kinetic theory of drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, G.

    1988-01-01

    The linear stability of the electrostatic drift waves in slab geometry has been studied analytically and numerically. The effects of magnetic field with shear, of the finite Larmor radius, of an electron streaming, of a temperature gradient and of collisions have been retained. The analytical solution has been obtained using the matched asymptotic expansion technique, and an expression for the critical streaming parameter has been derived. Finally, assuming that the transport in the Reversed Field Pinches is dominated by this instability, a scaling law for the temperature in such machine is derived

  8. Experimental work on drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Duran, I.; Gonzalez, E.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Olmos, P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental work made on drift chambers is described in two chapters. In the firt chapter we present the description of the experimental installation used, as well as some details on the data adquisition systems and the characteristics on three ways used for calibration proposes (cosmic muons, β radiation and test beam using SPS at CERN facilities). The second chapter describes the defferent prototypes studied. The experimental set up and the analysis are given. Some results are discussed. The magnetic field effect is also studied. (Author)

  9. Drift vortices in continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernousenko, V.M.; Chernenko, I.V.; Chernyshenko, S.V.

    1989-01-01

    The work is devoted to investigation into the problems of large-scale cortex drift and generation in continuous media based on the solution of notably non-linear differential equations. Using the capability of the modern computer technique it is possible to consider a series of cases with regard to medium viscosity and its inhomogeneity and with regard to three-dimensional vortex nature. Based on the solutions obtained the large-scale steady-state vortex generation processes are considered. The results can be used when studying non-linear phenomena in plasma and processes of substance and energy transfer in non-equilibrium media. 16 refs.; 5 figs

  10. Assembly of 5.5-Meter Diameter Developmental Barrel Segments for the Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Full scale assembly welding of Ares I Upper Stage 5.5-Meter diameter cryogenic tank barrel segments has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One full-scale developmental article produced under the Ares 1 Upper Stage project is the Manufacturing Demonstration Article (MDA) Barrel. This presentation will focus on the welded assembly of this barrel section, and associated lessons learned. Among the MDA articles planned on the Ares 1 Program, the Barrel was the first to be completed, primarily because the process of manufacture from piece parts (barrel panels) utilized the most mature friction stir process planned for use on the Ares US program: Conventional fixed pin Friction Stir Welding (FSW). This process is in use on other space launch systems, including the Shuttle s External Tank, the Delta IV common booster core, the Delta II, and the Atlas V rockets. The goals for the MDA Barrel development were several fold: 1) to prove out Marshall Space Flight Center s new Vertical Weld Tool for use in manufacture of cylindrical barrel sections, 2) to serve as a first run for weld qualification to a new weld specification, and 3) to provide a full size cylindrical section for downstream use in precision cleaning and Spray-on Foam Insulation development. The progression leading into the welding of the full size barrel included sub scale panel welding, subscale cylinder welding, a full length confidence weld, and finally, the 3 seamed MDA barrel processing. Lessons learned on this MDA program have been carried forward into the production tooling for the Ares 1 US Program, and in the use of the MSFC VWT in processing other large scale hardware, including two 8.4 meter diameter Shuttle External Tank barrel sections that are currently being used in structural analysis to validate shell buckling models.

  11. Drift-time measurement electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, M.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the construction was to improve the time resolution without using the facility of time stretching, to have a fast read-out possibility, and to be still cheaper in price in comparison to other systems. A possibility was thus foreseen for using the firm Fairchild. These integrated circuits (IC) have, for example, a propagation delay of 0.75 ns for a gate. One can expect therefore less time jitter and less time difference between the different inputs. Furthermore this IC offers a greater flexibility and therefore the number of ICs decreases and distances become smaller. Working with clock frequencies up to 166.6 MHz is easily possible without running into timing problems. On the other hand, to make full use of the advantages of this IC, it was necessary to build the print as a multilayer. The only risk could be in the use of a completely new product. A further aim was to build for this system a second type of drift-time module with a short time range for measuring drift time and pulse length in rotated multiwire proportional chambers. A brief outline of the specifications of the different modules is given in table 1. (Auth.)

  12. Electronics for the CMS muon drift tube chambers the read-out minicrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Oller, Juan Carlos; Willmott, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    On the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experimentat the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN laboratory, the drift tube chambers are responsible for muon detection and precise momentum measurement. In this paper the first level of the read out electronics for these drift tube chambers is described. These drift tube chambers will be located inside the muon barrel detector in the so-called minicrates (MCs), attached to the chambers. The read out boards (ROBs) are the main component of this first level data acquisition system, and they are responsible for the time digitalization related to Level 1 Accept (L1A) trigger of the incoming signals from the front-end electronics, followed by a consequent data merging to the next stages of the data acquisition system. ROBs' architecture and functionality have been exhaustively tested, as well as their capability of operation beyond the expected environmental conditions inside the CMS detector. Due to the satisfactory results obtained, final production of ROBs and their a...

  13. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs

  14. Cooling tower drift: comprehensive case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Ulanski, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive experiment to study drift from mechanical drift cooling towers was conducted during June 1978 at the PG and E Pittsburg Power Plant. The data from this study will be used for validation of drift deposition models. Preliminary results show the effects of tower geometry and orientation with respect to the wind and to single- or two-tower operation. The effect of decreasing relative humidity during a test run can also be seen

  15. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment is based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics identifies muons with specific values of transverse momentum (pT), by using coincidences between different layers of detectors. Trigger data is then transferred from on-detector to the off-detector trigger electronics boards. Data is processed by a complex system, which combines trigger data from the Barrel and the End-cap regions, and provides the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The system has been performing very well for almost a decade. However, in order to cope with continuously increasing LHC luminosity and more demanding requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others are foreseen in the next years. Most of the trigger upgrades are based on state-of-the-art technologies and allow designing more complex trigger menus, increasing processing power and da...

  16. The Phase-1 Upgrade for the Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Izzo, Vincenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger of the ATLAS Experiment at LHC makes use of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors. The on-detector trigger electronics modules are able to identify muons with predefined transverse momentum values (pT) by executing a coincidence logic on signals coming from the various detector layers. Then, on-detector trigger boards transfer trigger data to the off-detector electronics. A complex trigger system processes the incoming data by combining trigger information from the Barrel and the End-cap regions, and by providing the combined muon candidate to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). For almost a decade, the Level-1 Trigger system has been operating very well, despite the challenging requirements on trigger efficiency and performance, and the continuously increasing LHC luminosity. In order to cope with these constraints, various upgrades for the full trigger system were already deployed, and others have been designed to be installed in the next years. Most of the upgrades to the...

  17. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  18. A level-1 track trigger for CMS with double stack detectors and long barrel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, E

    2012-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHC machine is planned to deliver luminosities 5 to 10 times larger than the design one of 1 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 . A novel tracking system for the CMS experiment must be designed and built. One main aspect of the current activities consists in understanding the capabilities that different designs such a tracker would have to provide for the Level 1 hardware trigger to complement the muon and calorimeter information. Data rate reduction at hardware level consists in both reducing multiple hits from a single track and rejection of low p t tracks. Pattern-based hit correlation of properly built clusters of hits would provide quality Level 1 primitives to the hardware trigger. These can be combined together in a projective geometry to perform a rough tracking to be implemented online, returning rough p t , direction, and vertex information for a candidate track. The benchmark results from simulations within the official CMS framework are presented for one particular layout based on barrel trigger layers, emphasizing the flexibility of this tool for the design and test of different tracking strategies at level 1 to be compared with the developments in trigger architectures implementation.

  19. Real-Time Million-Synapse Simulation of Rat Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSharp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of neural circuits are bounded in scale and speed by available computing resources, and particularly by the differences in parallelism and communication patterns between the brain and high-performance computers. SpiNNaker is a computer architecture designed to address this problem by emulating the structure and function of neural tissue, using very many low-power processors and an interprocessor communication mechanism inspired by axonal arbors. Here we demonstrate that thousand-processor SpiNNaker prototypes can simulate models of the rodent barrel system comprising fifty thousand neurons and fifty million synapses. We use the PyNN library to specify models, and the intrinsic features of Python to control experimental procedures and analysis. The models reproduce known thalamocortical response transformations, exhibit known, balanced dynamics of excitation and inhibition, and show a spatiotemporal spread of activity though the superficial cortical layers. These demonstrations are a significant step towards tractable simulations of entire cortical areas on the million-processor SpiNNaker machines in development.

  20. Real-time million-synapse simulation of rat barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Thomas; Petersen, Rasmus; Furber, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of neural circuits are bounded in scale and speed by available computing resources, and particularly by the differences in parallelism and communication patterns between the brain and high-performance computers. SpiNNaker is a computer architecture designed to address this problem by emulating the structure and function of neural tissue, using very many low-power processors and an interprocessor communication mechanism inspired by axonal arbors. Here we demonstrate that thousand-processor SpiNNaker prototypes can simulate models of the rodent barrel system comprising 50,000 neurons and 50 million synapses. We use the PyNN library to specify models, and the intrinsic features of Python to control experimental procedures and analysis. The models reproduce known thalamocortical response transformations, exhibit known, balanced dynamics of excitation and inhibition, and show a spatiotemporal spread of activity though the superficial cortical layers. These demonstrations are a significant step toward tractable simulations of entire cortical areas on the million-processor SpiNNaker machines in development.

  1. Superconducting Magnet with the Reduced Barrel Yoke for the Hadron Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Berriaud, C.; Curé, B.; Dudarev, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Hervé, A.; Mentink, M.; Rolando, G.; Pais Da Silva, H.F.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) with a center-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel of 80-100 km circumference assumes the determination of the basic requirements for its detectors. A superconducting solenoid magnet of 12 m diameter inner bore with the central magnetic flux density of 6 T is proposed for a FCC-hh experimental setup. The coil of 24.518 m long has seven 3.5 m long modules included into one cryostat. The steel yoke with a mass of 21 kt consists of two barrel layers of 0.5 m radial thickness, and 0.7 m thick nose disk, four 0.6 m thick end-cap disks, and three 0.8 m thick muon toroid disks each side. The outer diameter of the yoke is 17.7 m; the length without the forward muon toroids is 33 m. The air gaps between the end-cap disks provide the installation of the muon chambers up to the pseudorapidity of \\pm 3.5. The conventional forward muon spectrometer provides the measuring of the muon momenta in the pseudorapidity region from \\pm 2.7...

  2. Construction update and drift velocity calibration for the CLAS drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestayer, M.D.; Barbosa, F.J.; Bonneau, P.; Burtin, E.; Christo, S.; Doolittle, G.; Dytman, S.A.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Kossov, M.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Magahiz, R.; Miskimen, R.A.; Murphy, L.Y.; O'Meara, J.E.; Pyron, T.D.; Qin, L.; Raue, B.A.; Schumacher, R.A.; Tuzel, W.; Weinstein, L.B.; Yegneswaran, A.

    1995-01-01

    We briefly describe the drift chamber system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF, concentrating on the method which will be used to calibrate the drift velocity function. We identify key features of the function which should apply to any small-cell drift chamber geometry in which the cathode and anode surfaces are wires. Using these ideas, we describe a simple method to compensate for variations in the drift velocity function due to environmental changes. (orig.)

  3. Construction update and drift velocity calibration for the CLAS drift chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestayer, M.D. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Barbosa, F.J. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bonneau, P. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Burtin, E. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Christo, S. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Doolittle, G. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dytman, S.A. [University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, PA (United States); Gilfoyle, G.P. [University of Richmond, Richmond, VA (United States); Hyde-Wright, C.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Klein, A. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Kossov, M.V. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Magahiz, R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miskimen, R.A. [University of Massachussetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Murphy, L.Y. [CE Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); O`Meara, J.E. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Pyron, T.D. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Qin, L. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Raue, B.A. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Schumacher, R.A. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tuzel, W. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weinstein, L.B. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Yegneswaran, A. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1995-12-11

    We briefly describe the drift chamber system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF, concentrating on the method which will be used to calibrate the drift velocity function. We identify key features of the function which should apply to any small-cell drift chamber geometry in which the cathode and anode surfaces are wires. Using these ideas, we describe a simple method to compensate for variations in the drift velocity function due to environmental changes. (orig.).

  4. Electron drift time in silicon drift detectors: A technique for high precision measurement of electron drift mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Rehak, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a precise absolute measurement of the drift velocity and mobility of electrons in high resistivity silicon at room temperature. The electron velocity is obtained from the differential measurement of the drift time of an electron cloud in a silicon drift detector. The main features of the transport scheme of this class of detectors are: the high uniformity of the electron motion, the transport of the signal electrons entirely contained in the high-purity bulk, the low noise timing due to the very small anode capacitance (typical value 100 fF), and the possibility to measure different drift distances, up to the wafer diameter, in the same semiconductor sample. These features make the silicon drift detector an optimal device for high precision measurements of carrier drift properties. The electron drift velocity and mobility in a 10 kΩ cm NTD n-type silicon wafer have been measured as a function of the electric field in the range of possible operation of a typical drift detector (167--633 V/cm). The electron ohmic mobility is found to be 1394 cm 2 /V s. The measurement precision is better than 1%. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Development of Silicon Drift Detectors using Boron layer technology

    OpenAIRE

    Golshani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation detectors are used in a large variety of fields such as medicine, security, defense, geophysics, industry and physics. They have been developed to detect the energy or position of radiation or charge particles. In Chapter 1 several X-ray detectors were introduced briefly. In gas filled X-ray detectors, incoming photons ionize inert gas and create electron and ions which can be collected at a thin wire anode inside of the chamber. The advantage of this type of detector is the possibi...

  6. Development of Silicon Drift Detectors using Boron layer technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golshani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation detectors are used in a large variety of fields such as medicine, security, defense, geophysics, industry and physics. They have been developed to detect the energy or position of radiation or charge particles. In Chapter 1 several X-ray detectors were introduced briefly. In gas filled

  7. Development of Fast High-Resolution Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00287945; Dubbert, J.; Horvat, S.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Adomeit, S.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.; Zibell, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized drift-tube chambers are e?cient detectors for high-precision tracking over large areas. The Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reach a spatial resolution of 35 micons and almost 100% tracking e?ciency with 6 layers of 30 mm diameter drift tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas mixture at 3 bar and a gas gain of 20000. The ATLAS MDT chambers are designed to cope with background counting rates due to neutrons and gamma-rays of up to about 300 kHz per tube which will be exceeded for LHC luminosities larger than the design value of 10-34 per square cm and second. Decreasing the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm while keeping the other parameters, including the gas gain, unchanged reduces the maximum drift time from about 700 ns to 200 ns and the drift-tube occupancy by a factor of 7. New drift-tube chambers for the endcap regions of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been designed. A prototype chamber consisting of 12 times 8 l...

  8. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  9. Tests of the wire ageing induced by radiation in the barrel muon chambers of the CMS experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, E.; Ballarini, R.; Gasparine, F.

    1999-01-01

    In CMS the barrel muon detectors are drift tubes (DT) filled with Ar/CO 2 gas. Materials of the DT in contact with the gas can outgas pollutant substances during irradiation which may cause a loss of gain or a worsening of the time resolution (wire ageing) during the multiplication process. This article presents the laboratory tests performed to verify that the materials used in DT do not induce wire ageing. The tests concern all the materials inside the DT which are in contact with the gas: 1) mylar tape with glue based on reticulated silicon polymers, 2) Al tape with mono-acrylic glue, 3) bare FR4 boards for HV, and 4) complete FR4 boards for HV (with cables, resistors, capacitors and glue). Both Al and mylar are known to be safe from the point of view of ageing, so the tests concern essentially the glues. For all the above materials, the result is negative, it means that no change of the wire gain has been measured within a few percents which is the sensitivity of the apparatus. (A.C.)

  10. Autoresonant control of drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shagalov, A.G.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined...... on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear...... waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes....

  11. Single wire drift chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  12. Drift effects in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koclas, J.; Roy, R.; Marleau, G.

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion equation is an approximation to the transport equation which relies on the validity of Fick's law. Since this law is not explicitly integrated in the transport equation it can only be derived approximately using homogenization theories. However, such homogenization theories state that when the cell is not symmetric Fick's law breaks down due to the presence of an additional term to the neutron current, called the drift term. In fact, this term can be interpreted as a transport correction to Fick's law which tends to increase the neutron current in a direction opposite to that specified by the flux gradient. In this paper, we investigate how the presence of asymmetric liquid zone controllers will modify the flux distribution inside a CANDU core. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Syria: a waited petroleum production of 600 000 barrels per day for the end of 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the reserves of petroleum deposits and gives statistical data on the production of the main oil fields in Syria. Petroleum production has grown from 160000 barrels per day in 1984 to 515000 barrels per day in 1992 and a production at a level of 600000 barrels per day is waited in 1993. Several petroleum companies, operating in Syria, have contributed to this rise, especially Al-Furat Petroleum Company (AFPC), joint venture between Syrian Petroleum Company (SPC) and Pecten/Shell/Deminex, followed by Deiz Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), association between the french company Elf Aquitaine and SPC. 2 tabs

  14. Vinten exposure measurements of the Salem Unit 1 lower core barrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennon, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    On November 6, 1987, the lower core barrel of Salem Unit I was removed from the reactor vessel and placed in the refueling pool as part of the unit's ten year inspection program. This paper deals with the supporting actions of the dosimetry group of PSE ampersand G. Prior to the move of the lower core barrel, Westinghouse predicted dose rates at one foot in water as a function of axial distance along the core barrel. This prediction was used in planning the health physics requirements associated with the move. It was agreed that a measurement of the axial dose rates would either lend confidence to the predictions or identify weaknesses in them

  15. Track finding and track reconstruction in the internal forward drift chamber of SAPHIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlauf, G.

    1993-03-01

    A track finding algorithm has been developed for the inner forward drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector (at ELSA in Bonn) using the Principal Components Analysis as a tool for interpolating track coordinates. The drift chamber consists of twelve planar layers with six different inclinations and is being operated in an inhomogenous magnetic field. The task of track finding is basicly split into a primary stage that defines track candidates without the use of drift-time information and a second stage that serves to verify the track candidate and to resolve the intrinsic left-right ambiguities of the drift chamber signals. Tracks with at most three missing signals can be found. (orig.) [de

  16. Drift study of SU8 cantilevers in liquid and gaseous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Keller, Stephan; Dohn, Søren; Davis, Zachary J; Boisen, Anja

    2010-05-01

    We present a study of the drift, in terms of cantilever deflections without probe/target interactions, of polymeric SU8 cantilevers. The drift is measured in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) and under vacuum (1mbar) conditions. We see that the cantilevers display a large drift in both environments. We believe this is because the polymer matrix absorbs liquid in one situation whereas it is being degassed in the other. An inhomogeneous expansion/contraction of the cantilever is seen because one surface of the cantilever may still have remains of the release layer from the fabrication. To further study the effect, we coat the cantilevers with a hydrophobic coating, perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS). Fully encapsulating the SU8 cantilever greatly reduces the drift in liquid whereas a less significant change is seen in vacuum.

  17. Drift study of SU8 cantilevers in liquid and gaseous environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenje, Maria; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Dohn, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the drift, in terms of cantilever deflections without probe/target interactions, of polymeric SU8 cantilevers. The drift is measured in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) and under vacuum (1 mbar) conditions. We see that the cantilevers display a large drift in both environments. We believe...... coat the cantilevers with a hydrophobic coating, perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS). Fully encapsulating the SU8 cantilever greatly reduces the drift in liquid whereas a less significant change is seen in vacuum....... this is because the polymer matrix absorbs liquid in one situation whereas it is being degassed in the other. An inhomogeneous expansion/contraction of the cantilever is seen because one surface of the cantilever may still have remains of the release layer from the fabrication. To further study the effect, we...

  18. Track chambers based on precision drift tubes housed inside 30 mm mylar pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A; Bozhko, N; Fakhrutdinov, R; Kozhin, A; Leontiev, B; Levin, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe drift chambers consisting of 3 layers of 30 mm (OD) drift tubes made of double sided aluminized mylar film with thickness 0.125 mm. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g tension of 50 microns sense wire located in the tube center with 10 microns precision with respect to end-plug outer surface. Such tubes allow to create drift chambers with small amount of material, construction of such chambers doesn't require hard frames. Twenty six chambers with working area from 0.8 × 1.0 to 2.5 × 2.0 m 2 including 4440 tubes have been manufactured for experiments at 70-GeV proton accelerator at IHEP(Protvino)

  19. Track chambers based on precision drift tubes housed inside 30 mm mylar pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Kozhin, A.; Leontiev, B.; Levin, A.

    2014-06-01

    We describe drift chambers consisting of 3 layers of 30 mm (OD) drift tubes made of double sided aluminized mylar film with thickness 0.125 mm. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g tension of 50 microns sense wire located in the tube center with 10 microns precision with respect to end-plug outer surface. Such tubes allow to create drift chambers with small amount of material, construction of such chambers doesn't require hard frames. Twenty six chambers with working area from 0.8 × 1.0 to 2.5 × 2.0 m2 including 4440 tubes have been manufactured for experiments at 70-GeV proton accelerator at IHEP(Protvino).

  20. Second Barrel Toroid Coil Installed in ATLAS Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Tappern, G.

    The second barrel toroid coil was lowered into the ATLAS Cavern on Friday, 26 November. The operation takes approximately five hours of precision crane and winch operations. Before lowering, several checks are made to ensure that no loose items have been left on the coil which would fall during the lowering down the shaft. This is a very difficult, but very important check, with the first coil in position, and partly below the shaft. After changing the winch tooling on Wednesday December 1st, the coil was lifted, rotated and placed into the feet. The girders which support the coil and the Z direction stops had all been pre-set before putting the coil in the feet. The angle is controlled by an inclinometer. When the final adjustments of position have been made, which will locate the coils at the plus/minus two mm level, the connection beams (voussoirs and struts) will be put in place; this requires a complex shimming procedure. This will lock together the two coils into the feet and forms the foundation for th...

  1. First ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing arrives at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first of eight 25-metre long coil casings for the ATLAS experiment's barrel toroid magnet system arrived at CERN on Saturday 2 March by road from Heidelberg. This structure will be part of the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever made.   The first coil casing for the toroidal magnets of Atlas arrives at Building 180. This is the start of an enormous three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. Each of the eight sets of double pancake coils will be housed inside aluminium coil casings, which in turn will be held inside a stainless steel vacuum vessel. A huge construction, the casing that arrived at CERN measures 25 metres in length and 5 metres in width. It weighs 20 tones. And this is just the beginning of the toroid jigsaw: by early April a batch of four double pancake coils, which altogether weighs 65 tones, will arrive from Ansaldo in Italy. The first vacuum vessel will also be arriving from Felguera in Spain this month. It will take about two years for all these 25 m long structures of casings, coils a...

  2. Double Barreled Wet Colostomy: Initial Experience and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Cruz, Luis; Espin-Basany, Eloy; Vallribera-Valls, Francesc; Sanchez-Garcia, Jose; Jimenez-Gomez, Luis Miguel; Marti-Gallostra, Marc; Garza-Maldonado, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pelvic exenteration and multivisceral resection in colorectal have been described as a curative and palliative intervention. Urinary tract reconstruction in a pelvic exenteration is achieved in most cases with an ileal conduit of Bricker, although different urinary reservoirs have been described. Methods. A retrospective and observational study of six patients who underwent a pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a double barreled wet colostomy (DBWC) was done, describing the preoperative diagnosis, the indication for the pelvic exenteration, the complications associated with the procedure, and the followup in a period of 5 years. A literature review of the case series reported of the technique was performed. Results. Six patients had a urinary tract reconstruction with the DBWC technique, 5 male patients and one female patient. Age range was from 20 to 77 years, with a medium age 53.6 years. The most frequent complication presented was a pelvic abscess in 3 patients (42.85%); all complications could be resolved with a conservative treatment. Conclusion. In the group of our patients with pelvic exenteration and urinary tract reconstruction with a DBWC, it is a safe procedure and well tolerated by the patients, and most of the complications can be resolved with conservative treatment. PMID:25574498

  3. Energy Resolution of the Barrel of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Baillon, Paul; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Bialas, Wojciech; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton, David; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Del Re, Daniele; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl, James; Gras, Philippe; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel De Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; Hill, Jack; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, M A; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman, Harvey B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Y; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; Triantis, F A; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The energy resolution of the barrel part of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter has been studied using electrons of 20 to 250 GeV in a test beam. The incident electron's energy was reconstructed by summing the energy measured in arrays of 3x3 or 5x5 channels. There was no significant amount of correlated noise observed within these arrays. For electrons incident at the centre of the studied 3x3 arrays of crystals, the mean stochastic term was measured to be 2.8% and the mean constant term to be 0.3%. The amount of the incident electron's energy which is contained within the array depends on its position of incidence. The variation of the containment with position is corrected for using the distribution of the measured energy within the array. For uniform illumination of a crystal with 120 GeV electrons a resolution of 0.5% was achieved. The energy resolution meets the design goal for the detector.

  4. Cryogenic Characteristics of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Superconducting Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Delruelle, N; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Passardi, Giorgio; Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS, one of the experiments of the LHC accelerator under commissioning at CERN, is equipped with a large superconducting magnet the Barrel Toroid (BT) that has been tested at nominal current (20500 A). The BT is composed of eight race-track superconducting coils (each one weights about 45 tons) forming the biggest air core toroidal magnet ever built. By means of a large throughput centrifugal pump, a forced flow (about 10 liter/second at 4.5 K) provides the indirect cooling of the coils in parallel. The paper describes the results of the measurements carried out on the complete cryogenic system assembled in the ATLAS cavern situated 100 m below the ground level. The measurements include, among other ones, the static heat loads, i.e., with no or constant current in the magnet, and the dynamic ones, since additional heat losses are produced, during the current ramp-up or slow dump, by eddy currents induced on the coil casing.

  5. Some developments in core-barrel vibration diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.; Karlsson, J.; Garis, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    Diagnostics of core-barrel motion, and notably that of beam mode vibrations, has been usually performed by two distinct concepts. One strategy is to perform a qualitative analysis in the time domain, using descriptors such as vibration trajectory, probability distributions etc. This approach is rather realistic in the sense that it allows for general anisotropic pendular vibrations. The other strategy is to use frequency analysis with the goal of quantifying certain vibration properties. However, this second approach could so far handle only isotropic and unidirectional vibrations. In this paper we propose a unification of these two approaches by introducing a model by which general anisotropic vibrations can be quantified in the frequency domain. However, when separating the noise components prior to the frequency analysis, we suggest the use of symmetry properties of the noise in the time domain, based on reactor physics assumptions, as opposed to the earlier methods that use statistical independence of the components. Due to the unified approach, a combination of time and frequency domain analysis methods can be used for presentation and maximum information extraction

  6. Barrel Toroid fully charged to nominal field, and it works!

    CERN Multimedia

    Herman ten Kate

    After a few weeks of testing up to intermediate currents, finally, on Thursday evening November 9, the current in the Barrel Toroid was pushed up to its nominal value of 20500 A and even 500 A beyond this value to prove that we have some margin. It went surprisingly well. Of course, the 8 coils forming the toroid were already tested individually at the surface but still, some surprise may have come from those parts added to the toroid in the cavern for the first time like the 8 cryoring sections linking the coils as well as the valve box at the bottom in sector 13 regulating the helium flow or the current lead cryostat on the top in sector 5. No training quenches, nothing to worry about, and the test was concluded with a fast dump triggered at 00:40 in the very early morning of November 10. (left) The toroid current during the evening and night of November 9. (right) The test crew oscillated between fear and hope while looking at the control panels as the current approached 21kA. Big relief was in the...

  7. Cerebral glucose utilization after vasopressin barrel rotation or bicuculline seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurpel, J.; Dundore, R.; Bryan, R.; Keil, L.; Severs, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    Intraventricular (ivt) arginine vasopressin (AVP) causes a violent motor behavior termed barrel rotation (BR). AVP-BR is affected by visual/vestibular sensory input and may be related to other CNS motor disorders (seizures). Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was compared in SD rats during AVP-BR and bicuculline (BIC) seizures. Three groups were used: saline-ivt; AVP-ivt 0.5 μg; BIC-5.5 mg/kg,sc. 14 C-glucose (40 μCI iv) was injected 15 sec. after ivt-saline or AVP or onset of BIC seizures. Rats were decapitated 10 min. after 14 C-glucose. Brains were removed and dissected into 19 regions which were digested and glucose uptake quantified by liquid scintillation counting. LCGU was significantly increased in all CNS areas during BIC seizures vs controls (21-92%; p < 0.05 ANOVA). LCGU exhibits variable (upward arrow, downward arrow) changes in discrete areas during AVP-BR (p < .05). Glucose uptake increased in: cortex-olfactory (21%), sensory (9%), motor (8%) cerebellum-rt (13%) and 1t (17%) hemispheres, vermis (6%); pyramidal tract (6%); mesencephalon (5%); and pons (8%). Two areas decreased LCGU during AVP-BR: auditory cortex (-8%) and hippocampus (-11%). AVP-BR exhibits distinct changes in LCGU vs BIC seizures

  8. Energy drift in reversible time integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, R I; Perlmutter, M

    2004-01-01

    Energy drift is commonly observed in reversible integrations of systems of molecular dynamics. We show that this drift can be modelled as a diffusion and that the typical energy error after time T is O(√T). (letter to the editor)

  9. TBV 361 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: EMPLACEMENT DRIFT ORIENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.; Kicker, D.C.; Sellers, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this To Be Verified/To Be Determined (TBX) resolution analysis is to release ''To Be Verified'' (TBV)-361 related to the emplacement drift orientation. The system design criterion in ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9) specifies that the emplacement drift orientation relative to the dominant joint orientations should be at least 30 degrees. The specific objectives for this analysis include the following: (1) Collect and evaluate key block data developed for the repository host horizon rock mass. (2) Assess the dominant joint orientations based on available fracture data. (3) Document the maximum block size as a function of drift orientation. (4) Assess the applicability of the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion in the ''Subsurface Facility System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1998a, p.9). (5) Consider the effects of seepage on drift orientation. (6) Verify that the viability assessment (VA) drift orientation complies with the drift orientation/joint orientation offset criterion, or provide justifications and make recommendations for modifying the VA emplacement drift layout. In addition to providing direct support to the System Description Document (SDD), the release of TBV-361 will provide support to the Repository Subsurface Design Department. The results from this activity may also provide data and information needs to support the MGR Requirements Department, the MGR Safety Assurance Department, and the Performance Assessment Organization

  10. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey

    2006-01-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift

  11. Role of drifts in diffusive shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The role played by shock-associated drifts during the diffusive acceleration of charged particles at collisionless MHD shocks is evaluated. In the rest frame of the shock, the total energy gained by a particle is shown to result from two coupled acceleration mechanisms, the usual first-order Fermi mechanism and the drift mechanism. When averaged over a distribution of particles, the ratio of the drift-associated energy gain to the total energy is found to be independent of the total energy at a given theta1 (the angle between the shock normal and the unperturbed upstream magnetic field) in agreement with theoretical predictions. No evidence is found for drift-associated deceleration, suggesting that drifts always augment acceleration. 35 references

  12. Drift reversal capability in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.

    2002-10-01

    The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)

  13. Drift reversal capability in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nakajima, N.; Itoh, S.-I.; Neilson, G.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The maximum-J (J is the second adiabatic invariant) capability, i.e., the drift reversal capability, is examined in quasi-axisymmetric (QAS) stellarators and quasi-poloidally symmetric (QPS) stellarators as a possible mechanism for turbulent transport suppression. Due to the existence of non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field strength in QAS configurations, a local maximum of J is created to cause the drift reversal. The increase of magnetic shear in finite beta equilibria also has favorable effect in realizing the drift reversal. The radial variation of the uniform magnetic field component plays a crucial role for the drift reversal in a QPS configuration. Thus, the drift reversal capability and its external controllability are demonstrated for QAS and QPS stellarators, by which the impact of magnetic configuration on turbulent transport can be studied in experiments. (author)

  14. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Sun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c)

  15. Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilakshi Das

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.

  16. The silicon vertex tracker for star and future applications of silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellwied, Rene

    2001-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) for the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory has recently been completed and installed. First data were taken in July 2001. The SVT is based on a novel semi-conductor technology called Silicon Drift Detectors. 216 large area (6 by 6 cm) Silicon wafers were employed to build a three barrel device capable of vertexing and tracking in a high occupancy environment. Its intrinsic radiation hardness, its operation at room temperature and its excellent position resolution (better than 20 micron) in two dimensions with a one dimensional detector readout, make this technology very robust and inexpensive and thus a viable alternative to CCD, Silicon pixel and Silicon strip detectors in a variety of applications from fundamental research in high-energy and nuclear physics to astrophysics to medical imaging. I will describe the development that led to the STAR-SVT, its performance and possible applications for the near future

  17. Performance of the Drift Chambers of the CMS Experiment in the Measurement of LHC Muons; Prestaciones de las Camaras de Deriva del Experimento CMS en la Deteccion de Muones del LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, D.; Fouz, M. C.

    2011-05-13

    This work deals with the study of the performance of the drift chambers of the CMS Barrel Muon detector operating at the LHC. Using the data obtained with pp collisions during the first months os LHC operation we have studied the drift cell efficiency and position resolution, as well as the effect of the existing background noise. The results confirm the excellent performance of the muon chambers. It is expected that it will improve further as statistics increase, thus allowing a correct calibration and alignment of these chambers. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. A Drift Chamber to Measure Charged Particles at COMPASS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Robert; Compass Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A new drift chamber (DC05) will be constructed to replace two tracking detector stations based on straw tubes, ST02 and ST03 in the COMPASS spectrometer. DC05 uses the designs from DC04, a previous drift chamber designed at CEA-Saclay, France, but adds the addition of more wires for improved acceptance. In addition to more wires DC05 will also change its front end electronics using a new pre-amplifier-discriminator chip (CMAD). DC05 consists of 8 layers of anode planes and 21 layers of G-10 material frames carrying cathode planes and gas windows. The wires are orientated with two layers in the vertical x-direction, two layers in the horizontal y-direction, two layers offset +10 deg of the vertical x-direction, and two layers offset -10 deg of the vertical x-direction. The wires in parallel directions are offset half a pitch to resolve left-right ambiguities. The purpose for different wire orientations is to reconstruct the 3D space particle trajectory to fit a particle track. Each layer of wires is covered on the top and bottom by a cathode plane of carbon coated mylar. All these layers are sandwiched between two steel stiffening frames for support and noise reduction. A future drift chamber, DC06, is also being designed based off of DC05. Research funded by NSF-PHY-12-05-671 Medium Energy Nuclear Physics.

  19. Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers. The differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest drift velocity monitoring results are discussed.

  20. Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers because the drift velocity depends on it. Furthermore the differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest pressure monitoring results are discussed.

  1. A Front-End Readout Architecture for the CMS Barrel Muon Detector: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Marin, J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Pablos, J.L. de; Romero, L.; Willmot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study of a possible architecture for the CMS barrel muon detector readout electronics is presented. some aspects of system reliability are discussed. Values for the required FIFO's to store data during the first level trigger latency are given

  2. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1990-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array

  3. Study and analysis on the flow induced vibration of the core barrel of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weida; Shi Guolin; Jiang Nanyan; Peng YongYong; Zhang Huijun; Wang Yufen; Xie Yongcheng; Guo Chunhua; Shen Qinping

    1989-01-01

    The deduction of the resemblance criterion and the design of the test model by applying flow-solid coupling theory are described. The model analysis of a core barrel both in the air and stationary water were performed in a 1:10 model, thus obtaining the dynamic characteristic. In a 1:5 reactor model with a hydraulic closed loop, the inner structure and support were modeled for performing hydraulic closed loop, the inner structure and support were modeled for performing hydraulic vibration test of the core barrel. The flow induced pulse pressure of the core barrel and corresponding response were obtained by using miniature pressure capsule, strain gauge and accelerometer. Power spectrum, correlation functions, transfer function and amplitudes under different flow velocities were calculated. The hydraulic vibration test shows that the core barrel will be in safety during its 30-year life time

  4. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  5. Calibration of the ATLAS hadronic barrel calorimeter TileCal using 2008, 2009 and 2010 cosmic rays data

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic rays collected in 2008, 2009 and 2010 have been used in the ATLAS experiment to test the calibration of the hadronic barrel calorimeter TileCal. Stable results were obtained for the three periods. The analysis was based on the comparison between experimental and simulated data, and addresses three issues. First, the average non uniformity of the response of the cells within a layer was estimated to be about 2%. Second, the average response of different layers is found to be not intercalibrated, considering the sources of error. The largest difference between the responses of two layers is 4%. Finally, the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at test beams using electrons was found to range between -2% and +2%. The sources of uncertainties in the response measurements are strongly correlated and include the uncertainty in the simulation of the muon response. The overall uncertainty in the energy scale is estimated to be 3%.

  6. Double dissociation of spike timing-dependent potentiation and depression by subunit-preferring NMDA receptor antagonists in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Meredith, Rhiannon M; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio; Mierau, Susanna B; Auberson, Yves P; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-12-01

    Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a strong candidate for an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent form of synaptic plasticity that could underlie the development of receptive field properties in sensory neocortices. Whilst induction of timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP) requires postsynaptic NMDA receptors, timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) requires the activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors at layer 4-to-layer 2/3 synapses in barrel cortex. Here we investigated the developmental profile of t-LTD at layer 4-to-layer 2/3 synapses of mouse barrel cortex and studied their NMDA receptor subunit dependence. Timing-dependent LTD emerged in the first postnatal week, was present during the second week and disappeared in the adult, whereas t-LTP persisted in adulthood. An antagonist at GluN2C/D subunit-containing NMDA receptors blocked t-LTD but not t-LTP. Conversely, a GluN2A subunit-preferring antagonist blocked t-LTP but not t-LTD. The GluN2C/D subunit requirement for t-LTD appears to be synapse specific, as GluN2C/D antagonists did not block t-LTD at horizontal cross-columnar layer 2/3-to-layer 2/3 synapses, which was blocked by a GluN2B antagonist instead. These data demonstrate an NMDA receptor subunit-dependent double dissociation of t-LTD and t-LTP mechanisms at layer 4-to-layer 2/3 synapses, and suggest that t-LTD is mediated by distinct molecular mechanisms at different synapses on the same postsynaptic neuron.

  7. Field investigation of the drift shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Grace W.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Cook, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rockmass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming its existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sandmine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rockmass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and ground

  8. Modeling two-phase flow in barrels of weapons with combined charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša P. Hristov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes occurring during the firing within barrels of weapons with combined charges are described aiming at the improvement of fire power of existing weapons and the design of new ones. The firing process simulation enables the optimization of gunpowders. The analysis of the obtained results helps in choosing the best combination of input-output parameters for the highest muzzle velocity possible while keeping powder gas maximum pressures inside the barrel at the lowest possible level.

  9. The composite barrel of retail prices and its relationship to crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanoff, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper challenges assumptions about the relationship between refinery gate prices, retail prices paid by consumers and crude oil prices. The analysis presented here considers their relationship within the context of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's) composite barrel statistics, which includes taxes and other government policy effects on prices. Speed of adjustment and retail price response to taxes are analysed with respect to crude import prices. OPEC's composite barrel is explained and evaluated. Test results are summarized. (UK)

  10. Criticality safety of storage barrels for enriched uranium fresh fuel at the RB research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    Study on criticality safety of fresh low and high enriched uranium (LEU and HEU) fuel elements in the storage/transport barrels at the RB research reactor is carried out by using the well-known MCNP computer code. It is shown that studied arrays of tightly closed fuel barrels, each entirely loaded with 100 fresh (HEU or LEU) fuel slugs, are far away from criticality, even in cases of an unexpected flooding by light water.(author)

  11. Monitoring of core barrel vibrations in WWER type reactor using out-of-reactor ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.

    1982-01-01

    Vibration of the core barrel is least desirable for safe operation of the PWR reactor. These mechanical vibrations are in correlation with the fluctuations of neutron flux density whose time and frequency analysis serves failure diagnosis. The mathematical model is described of the transfer of mechanical vibrations of the core barrel to neutron noise. Other steps are indicated indispensable for the application of the method of neutron noise analysis for in-service diagnostics of nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  12. Energy calibration of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisenkov, A.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Bashtovoy, N.S.; Bondar, A.E.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Epifanov, D.A.; Epshteyn, L.B.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.

    2017-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. Experiments are carried out with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and end cap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the procedures of the energy calibration of the combined barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector.

  13. First half-barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter successfully asembled

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter has been assembled in the CMS construction hall in Cessy (neighbouring France), called SX5, in October 2001. The picture sequence shows the insertion of the last (the keystone) wedge. It is lifted up to the top of the structure and carefully inserted into the half barrel. Photos 6 and 7 show the HB- in SX5.

  14. Fluid and structural dynamics calculations to determine core barrel loads during blowdown (EV 3,000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    To begin with, the main physical phenomena in connection with blowdown loads on the care barrel and the computer models used are briefly described. These models have also been used in the design of the HTR test care barrel. The fluid dynamics part of the calculations was carried out using the WHAMMOD and DAPSY codes; for the structural dynamics part, the STRUDL/Dynal code was employed. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Functional diversity of supragranular GABAergic neurons in the barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc J Gentet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the neocortex forms a distributed system comprised of several functional areas, its vertical columnar organization is largely conserved across areas and species, suggesting the existence of a canonical neocortical microcircuit. In order to elucidate the principles governing the organization of such a cortical diagram, a detailed understanding of the dynamics binding different types of cortical neurons into a coherent algorithm is essential. Within this complex circuitry, GABAergic interneurons, while forming approximately only 15-20% of all cortical neurons, appear critical in maintaining a dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition. Despite their importance, cortical GABAergic neurons have not been extensively studied in vivo and their precise role in shaping the local microcircuit sensory response still remains to be determined. Their paucity, combined with their molecular, anatomical and physiological diversity, has made it difficult to even establish a consensual nomenclature.However, recent technological advances in microscopy and mouse genetics have fostered a renewed interest in neocortical interneurons by putting them within visible reach of experimenters. The anatomically well-defined whisker-to-barrel pathway of the rodent is particularly amenable to studies attempting to link cortical circuit dynamics to behavior. To each whisker corresponds a discrete cortical unit equivalent to a single column, specialized in the encoding and processing of the sensory information it receives. In this review, we will focus on the functional role that each subtype of supragranular GABAergic neuron embedded within such a single neocortical unit may play in shaping the dynamics of the local circuit during somatosensory integration.

  16. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relativistic electron drift in overdense plasma produced by a superintense femtosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastunkov, V.S.; Krainov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The general peculiarities of electron motion in the skin layer at the irradiation of overdense plasma by a superintense linearly polarized laser pulse of femtosecond duration are considered. The quiver electron energy is assumed to be a relativistic quantity. Relativistic electron drift along the propagation of laser radiation produced by a magnetic part of a laser field remains after the end of the laser pulse, unlike the relativistic drift of a free electron in underdense plasma. As a result, the penetration depth is much larger than the classical skin depth. The conclusion has been made that the drift velocity is a nonrelativistic quantity even at the peak laser intensity of 10 21 W/cm 2 . The time at which an electron penetrates into field-free matter from the skin layer is much less than the pulse duration

  18. Drift-modeling and monitoring comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Hanna, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Congress is looking into the conglomeration of nuclear reactors into energy centers of limited area. Drift from cooling towers can corrode and damage structures in the immediate vicinity of the towers, cause a public nuisance if located near parking lots or high-density traffic areas, and endanger local vegetation. The estimation of salt deposition has relied primarily on predictions from a variety of models, with very few direct measurements. One of the major efforts in our program is to evaluate the assumptions, limitations, and applicabilities of various analytical models for drift deposition prediction. Several drift deposition models are compared using a set of standard input conditions. The predicted maximum drift deposition differs by two orders of magnitude, and the downwind locations of the maximum differ by one order of magnitude. The discrepancies are attributed mainly to different assumptions in the models regarding the initial effective height of the droplets. Current programs in which drift characteristics at the tower mouth and drift deposition downwind of the tower are being measured are summarized. At the present time, drift deposition measurements, sufficiently comprehensive for model verifications, are unavailable. Hopefully, the Chalk Point Program will satisfy this need

  19. Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-01-01

    Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will potentially be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling induced by stress relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux for the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous permeability model on the drift scale that is consistent with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage on detailed degraded-drift profiles, which were obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation, and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than the rockfall volume

  20. Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Theory With Polarization Drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Hahm, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    A set of the electrostatic toroidal gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and the Poisson equation, which explicitly includes the polarization drift, is derived systematically by using Lie-transform method. The polarization drift is introduced in the gyrocenter equations of motion, and the corresponding polarization density is derived. Contrary to the wide-spread expectation, the inclusion of the polarization drift in the gyrocenter equations of motion does not affect the expression for the polarization density significantly. This is due to modification of the gyrocenter phase-space volume caused by the electrostatic potential [T. S. Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)].

  1. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  2. Computer controlled drifting of Si(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Wong, Y.K.; Walton, J.T.; Goulding, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive computer-controlled system for performing the drift process used in fabricating Si(Li) detectors is described. The system employs a small computer to monitor the leakage current, applied voltage and temperature on eight individual drift stations. The associated computer program initializes the drift process, monitors the drift progress and then terminates the drift when an operator set drift time has elapsed. The improved control of the drift with this system has been well demonstrated over the past three years in the fabrication of a variety of Si(Li) detectors. A few representative system responses to detector behavior during the drift process are described

  3. Unintended Positional Drift and Its Potential Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    many users unintentionally move forward while walking in place. We refer to this phenomenon accidental movement as Unintended Positional Drift. The poster presents evidence of the phenomenon's existence and subsequently discusses different design solutions which potentially could circumvent the problem....

  4. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches

  5. Travelling fronts in stochastic Stokes’ drifts

    KAUST Repository

    Blanchet, Adrien; Dolbeault, Jean; Kowalczyk, Michał

    2008-01-01

    By analytical methods we study the large time properties of the solution of a simple one-dimensional model of stochastic Stokes' drift. Semi-explicit formulae allow us to characterize the behaviour of the solutions and compute global quantities

  6. On current fluctuations in near-earth space plasma with lower-hybrid-drift turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Electron and ion current fluctuations caused by lower-hybrid-drift turbulence are estimated within nonlinear theory for the plasma of the ionospheric F-layer, as well as for the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere. They are found to be of the order of 10 -14 - 10 -11 A/m 2 and 10 -13 - 10 -9 A/m 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  7. Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, J.L.V.

    2003-01-01

    A multi-grid part-in-cell algorithm for a shearless slab drift wave model with kinetic electrons is presented. The algorithm, which is based on an exact separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, is used to investigate the presence of strange attractors in drift wave turbulence. Although the simulation model has a large number of degrees of freedom, it is found that the strange attractor is low-dimensional and that it is strongly affected by dissipative (collisional) effects

  8. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  9. Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.

    1980-01-01

    The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to toroidal coupling effects such as ion delB drifts, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein--Berk-type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping

  10. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  11. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  12. Light output optimization for the Cherenkov strips of the Barrel detector of FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovici, M; Gobbi, A; Hildenbrand, K D [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kirejczyk, M; Sikora, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Chelepov, V; Dulin, M; Frolov, S; Judentsov, A; Krylov, V; Nikitin, A; Smolyankin, V; Zhilin, A [Institute for Theoretical and Expermental Physics - ITEP, B. Chermushkinskaya ulitsa 25, RU-117 259 Moskva, (Russian Federation); Mgebrishvili, G; Vasiliev, M [I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Ulitsa Kurchatova 46, RU-123 182 Moskva, (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Available as short communication only. A systematic study on how to increase the number of the photoelectrons (PE) in the phototubes at the end of the bent light guides has been undertaken prior to the final assembly of the Cherenkov strips of the Barrel detector for the 4{pi} facility FOPI at GSI-Darmstadt. This was motivated by the observation that with the mass-produced strips only 0.8 PE were found for cosmic rays incident at the center of the 240 cm long strips, a value too low to ensure a decent detection of even {beta}=1 particles. The method used was based on a careful calibration of the amplitude spectra by means of measuring single-electron peaks in the attached tubes. As the consequence of these studies the wave-length shifter (amino G salt) concentration in the distilled water of strips was optimized and a cell of 1000 mm with a mirror on one side has been used. These changes brought a improvement factor of 9 in the number of PE at 85 cm distance from the light guide. This results led to the decision of changing the former design of the Cherenkov layer. In addition during production of these final modules it has been observed that variances between different strips in terms of the number of PE could be minimized by an outer polishing of the plexiglas cells. Finally, during mounting of the detectors the used phototubes were selected according to their performance in peak to valley ratio of the single electron peaks spectrum. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs.

  13. Drivers of drift sand dynamics; a reconstruction for the Wekeromse Zand, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Sonneveld, Marthijn; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    Inland active drift sand landscapes are regarded as unique ecosystems of great historical and geomorphological value. Recent studies have highlighted the role of multiple factors in the initiation and stabilization of drift sand landscapes. To unravel the importance of different forcings (e.g. agricultural practices, climate) and their interplay, insight in the chronology of drift sand dynamics is essential. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the dynamics of the drift sand landscape of the Wekeromse Zand (central Netherlands) and to develop a conceptual model to understand the processes involved. The Wekeromse Zand study area (370 ha) is located on the border of a central push moraine and is characterised by open active drift sands (14 ha) and vegetated hills and valleys. The surroundings are dominated by modern agricultural practices, and remnants from ancient iron age Celtic Field systems showing that the area has been in agricultural use since at least the Iron Age. For the study area we: i) analysed historical maps going back to the early 19th century, ii) performed a field survey to map the palaeolandscape (before drift sand activation) and iii) employed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of drift sand deposits on 11 samples from two locations to determine the timing of drift sand deposition. Analysis of the available topographic maps showed no substantial aeolean activity of the area outside its morphological boundaries. OSL dating revealed that two drift sand layers were deposited between 1373 and 1462 AD and between 1680 and 1780 AD. A layer with a higher organic matter content was found at one of the sites. This suggests that the Wekeromse Zand has known three relatively stable periods: i) a period between the start of the Holocene to the Late Medieval Period, ii) in between the Medieval climatic optimum and the climatic Maunder minimum, and iii) current situation. Despite the fact that agricultural activities occurred in this area from the

  14. Assembly of a Full-Scale External Tank Barrel Section Using Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chip; Adams, Glynn

    1999-01-01

    A full-scale pathfinder barrel section of the External Tank for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Transport System (Space Shuttle) has been assembled at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) via a collaborative effort between NASA/MSFC and Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems. The barrel section is 27.5 feet in diameter and 15 feet in height. The barrel was assembled using Super-Light-Weight (SLWT), orthogrid, Al-Li 2195 panel sections and a single longeron panel. A vertical weld tool at MSFC was modified to accommodate FSW and used to assemble the barrel. These modifications included the addition of a FSW weld head and new controller hardware and software, the addition of a backing anvil and the replacement of the clamping system with individually actuated clamps. Weld process 4evelopment was initially conducted to optimize the process for the welds required for completing the assembly. The variable thickness welds in the longeron section were conducted via both two-sided welds and with the use of a retractable pin tool. The barrel assembly was completed in October 1998. Details of the vertical weld tool modifications and the assembly process are presented.

  15. Implementation of the Hough transform for 3D recognition of the straight tracks in drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development of the method for 3D reconstruction of the charged-particle straight tracks in the tracking systems consisting of the drift-chamber stereo layers. The method is based on the modified Hough transform with taking into account the measurements of drift distance. The proposed program realization of the method provides the time-consuming optimization of event processing, the stable performance of the algorithm and high efficiency of the track recognition under large track-occupancy of the detector as well as under high level of noisy and dead channels

  16. Implementation of the Hough Transform for 3D Recognition of the Straight Tracks in Drift Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Belkov, A A

    2001-01-01

    This work is devoted to the development of the method for 3D reconstruction of the charged-particle straight tracks in the tracking systems consisting of the drift-chamber stereo layers. The method is based on the modified Hough transform with taking into account the measurements of drift distance. The proposed program realization of the method provides the time-consuming optimization of event processing, the stable performance of algorithm and high efficiency of the track recognition under large track-occupancy of detector as well as under high level of noisy and dead channels.

  17. Astringency, bitterness and color changes in dry red wines before and during oak barrel aging: An updated phenolic perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-30

    To understand effects of using oak barrels on the astringency, bitterness and color of dry red wines, phenolic reactions in wines before and after barrel aging are reviewed in this paper, which has been divided into three sections. The first section includes an introduction to chemical reactivities of grape-derived phenolic compounds, a summary of the phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines before barrel aging, and a discussion of the effects of these reactions on wine astringency, bitterness and color. The second section introduces barrel types that determine the oak barrel constituents in wines (primarily oak aldehydes and ellagitannins) and presents reactions between the oak constituents and grape-derived phenolic compounds that may modulate wine astringency, bitterness and color. The final section illustrates the chemical differences between basic oxidation and over-oxidation in wines, discusses oxygen consumption kinetics in wines during barrel aging by comparing different oxygen consumption kinetics observed previously by others, and speculates on the possible preliminary phenolic reactions that occur in dry red wines during oak barrel aging that soften tannins and stabilize pigments via basic oxidation. Additionally, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) addition during barrel aging and suitability of adopting oak barrels for aging wines are briefly discussed.

  18. Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature

  19. Single nozzle spray drift measurements of drift reducing nozzles at two forward speeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallinga, H.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011‒2012 single nozzle field experiments were carried out to determine the effect of different flat fan spray nozzles of the spray drift reduction classes 50, 75, 90 and 95% on spray drift at two different forward speeds (7.2 km h-1 and 14.4 km h-1). Experiments were performed with a single

  20. Analysis of core and core barrel heat-up under conditions simulating severe reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaiah, S.; Viskanta, R.; Ranganathan, P.; Anand, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a model for estimating the temperature distributions in the reactor core, core barrel, thermal shield and reactor pressure vessel of a PWR during an undercooling transient. A number of numerical calculations simulating the core uncovering of the TMI-2 reactor and the subsequent heat-up of the core have been performed. The results of the calculations show that the exothermic heat release due to Zircaloy oxidation contributes to the sharp heat-up of the core. However, the core barrel temperature rise which is driven by the temperature increase of the edge of the core (e.g., the core baffle) is very modest. The maximum temperature of the core barrel never exceeded 610 K (at a system pressure of 68 bar) after a 75 minute simulation following the start of core uncovering

  1. CHANGES IN VOLATILE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF VUGAVA WINES AGED IN CROATIA OAK BARRELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka HERJAVEC

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Vugava musts were fermented in medium-toasted Croatian barrique barrels (225 L made from Quercus petrea and Q. robur oak wood. The oak species used in this research infl uenced the specifi c change of the aroma structure of Vugava wines. During the age period the increase in the concentration of cis and trans oaklactons, guaiacol, eugenol, furfural and 5-methylfurfural was noted. Wines fermented and aged in Q. petrea barrels have higher concentrations of most volatile phenols compared to wines from Q. robur oak wood. From the organoleptic point of view this study suggested that fermentation and on the lees ageing production method in Croatian oak barrels positively infl uenced the quality of Vugava wines where best results were achieved by use of Q. petrea oak wood.

  2. Early stages in the biogenesis of eukaryotic β-barrel proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jores, Tobias; Rapaport, Doron

    2017-09-01

    The endosymbiotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts harbour, similarly to their prokaryotic progenitors, β-barrel proteins in their outer membrane. These proteins are encoded on nuclear DNA, translated on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into their target organelles by a dedicated machinery. Recent studies have provided insights into the import into the organelles and the membrane insertion of these proteins. Although the cytosolic stages of their biogenesis are less well defined, it is speculated that upon their synthesis, chaperones prevent β-barrel proteins from aggregation and keep them in an import-competent conformation. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge about the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins, focusing on the early stages from the translation on cytosolic ribosomes to the recognition on the surface of the organelle. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Distributed Wireless Monitoring System for Ullage and Temperature in Wine Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqi; Skouroumounis, George K.; Monro, Tanya M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multipurpose and low cost sensor for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature and ullage of wine in barrels in two of the most important stages of winemaking, that being fermentation and maturation. The distributed sensor subsystem is imbedded within the bung of the barrel and runs on battery for a period of at least 12 months and costs around $27 AUD for all parts. In addition, software was designed which allows for the remote transmission and easy visual interpretation of the data for the winemaker. Early warning signals can be sent when the temperature or ullage deviates from a winemakers expectations so remedial action can be taken, such as when topping is required or the movement of the barrels to a cooler cellar location. Such knowledge of a wine’s properties or storage conditions allows for a more precise control of the final wine quality. PMID:26266410

  4. Optical drift effects in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzyński, Mikołaj; Kopiński, Jarosław

    2018-03-01

    We consider the question of determining the optical drift effects in general relativity, i.e. the rate of change of the apparent position, redshift, Jacobi matrix, angular distance and luminosity distance of a distant object as registered by an observer in an arbitrary spacetime. We present a fully relativistic and covariant approach, in which the problem is reduced to a hierarchy of ODE's solved along the line of sight. The 4-velocities and 4-accelerations of the observer and the emitter and the geometry of the spacetime along the line of sight constitute the input data. We build on the standard relativistic geometric optics formalism and extend it to include the time derivatives of the observables. In the process we obtain two general, non-perturbative relations: the first one between the gravitational lensing, represented by the Jacobi matrix, and the apparent position drift, also called the cosmic parallax, and the second one between the apparent position drift and the redshift drift. The applications of the results include the theoretical study of the drift effects of cosmological origin (so-called real-time cosmology) in numerical or exact Universe models.

  5. Drift chamber performance in the field of a superconducting magnet: measurement of the drift angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, G.H.; Sherman, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Thaler, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of the first measurements in a study of drift chamber performance in magnetic fields up to 6 tesla. The angle of the electron drift was measured as a function of electric and magnetic field intensity. It appears that even at the high fields of superconducting magnets (3 to 6 tesla) the drift angle induced by the Lorentz force can be corrected for with tilted electric drift fields and/or the use of Xenon gas. At 3 tesla a drift field tilted at 45 0 with a magnitude of 3.5 kV/cm should restore normal operating conditions. At 4 tesla, a 45 0 tilt field would have a magnitude 5 kV/cm

  6. Spray particle drift mitigation using field corn (Zea mays L.) as a drift barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno C; Butts, Thomas R; Rodrigues, Andre O; Golus, Jeffrey A; Schroeder, Kasey; Kruger, Greg R

    2018-04-24

    Herbicide particle drift reduces application efficacy and can cause severe impacts on nearby vegetation depending on the herbicide mode-of-action, exposure level, and tolerance to the herbicide. A particle drift mitigation effort placing windbreaks or barriers on the field boundaries to reduce off-target movement of spray particles has been utilized in the past. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of field corn (Zea mays L.) at different heights as a particle drift barrier. Applications with a non-air inclusion flat fan nozzle (ER11004) resulted in greater particle drift when compared to an air inclusion nozzle (TTI11004). Eight rows of corn were used as barriers (0.91, 1.22, and 1.98 m height) which reduced the particle drift for both nozzles, especially at shorter downwind distances. Applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers had 1% of the applied rate (D 99 ) predicted to deposit at 14.8 m downwind, whereas this distance was reduced (up to 7-fold) when applications were performed with corn barriers. The combination of corn drift barriers and nozzle selection (TTI11004) provided satisfactory particle drift reduction when the D 99 estimates were compared to applications with the ER11004 nozzle without corn barriers (up to 10-fold difference). The corn drift barriers were effective in reducing particle drift from applications with the ER11004 and the TTI11004 nozzles (Fine and Ultra Coarse spray classifications, respectively). The corn drift barrier had appropriate porosity and width as the airborne spray was captured within its canopy instead of deflecting up and over it. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of the SSTL-300-S1 Composite Imager Barrel Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Chris; Wood, Trevor; Alsami, Sami; Hallett, Ben

    2014-06-01

    The SSTL-300-S1 is the latest in the family of highly capable SSTL-300 platforms, providing high resolution imagery with all the existing mission performance of the heritage platform. In developing the product, SSTL has had to undertake the development of a composite imager barrel assembly, which forms the payload instrument's primary structure. Working to a nominal schedule of 24 months from requirements definition to structural qualification, the barrel's development philosophy has had to carefully balance the interdependent optical, structural and programmatic requirements. This paper provides a brief summary description of that development.

  8. ATLAS Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger robustness study at X5 test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors, as designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small RPC chambers with part of the final trigger electronics are used, while the trigger coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation model. copy 2003 Published by Esevier B.V. 3 Refs.

  9. Application of advanced thermal management technologies to the ATLAS SCT barrel module baseboards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apsimon, R.J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Batchelor, L.E. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Beck, G.A. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Canard, P. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carter, A.A. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.a.carter@qmul.ac.uk; Carter, J.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Davis, V.R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Oliveira, R. de [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gibson, M.D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Hominal, L. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ilie, D.M. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ilie, S.D. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Leboube, C.G. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mistry, J. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Morin, J. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Morris, J.; Nagai, K. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Sexton, I.; Thery, X. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Tyndel, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 OQX (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The paper describes the application of advanced thermal management technologies to the design and production of the barrel module baseboard of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The barrel modules contain silicon microstrip sensors and readout ASICs for tracking charged particles, and the baseboard forms the central element of the module, providing both its necessary thermal management and its mechanical structure. The baseboard requirements and specifications are given, and design and fabrication details are described. The properties of the 3000 baseboards successfully produced for the SCT are summarised.

  10. A study of aging effects of barrel Time-Of-Flight system in the BESIII experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Huan; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Fang, Shuang-Shi; Wu, Zhi; Dai, Hong-Liang; Heng, Yue-Kun; Zhou, Ming; Deng, Zi-Yan; Liu, Huai-Min

    2018-02-01

    The Time-Of-Flight system consisting of plastic scintillation counters plays an important role for particle identification in the BESIII experiment at the BEPCII double ring e+e- collider. Degradation of the detection efficiency of the barrel TOF system has been observed since the start of physical data taking and this effect has triggered intensive and systematic studies about aging effects of the detector. The aging rates of the attenuation lengths and relative gains are obtained based on the data acquired in past several years. This study is essential for ensuring an extended operation of the barrel TOF system in optimal conditions.

  11. The effect of vertical drift on the equatorial F-region stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.; Cragin, B. L.; Dennis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Time-dependent ionospheric model calculations for day-time and night-time solutions are presented. The behavior of the growth rate and ion-electron recombination rate for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the F-region bottomside is examined as a function of the vertical eastward electric field-magnetic field strength drift velocity. It is observed that on the bottomside F-layer the growth rate exceeds the ion-electron recombination rate even without vertical drift; however, an eastward electric field-magnetic field strength drift can produce an increase in the growth rate by an order of magnitude. The calculated data are compared with previous research and good correlation is detected. The formation of bubbles from a seeding mechanism is investigated.

  12. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles in Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2014-09-01

    A deep-water approximation to the Stokes drift velocity profile is explored as an alternative to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profile investigated relies on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profile gives a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The alternative profile comes at no added numerical cost compared to the monochromatic profile.

  13. P-type silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O'Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.

    1995-06-01

    Preliminary results on 16 CM 2 , position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 x l0 6 s -1 is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 μm to 1200 μm. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed

  14. Correcting sample drift using Fourier harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena-González, G; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Guerrero, E; Reyes, D F; Braza, V; Yañez, A; Nuñez-Moraleda, B; González, D; Galindo, P L

    2018-07-01

    During image acquisition of crystalline materials by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, the sample drift could lead to distortions and shears that hinder their quantitative analysis and characterization. In order to measure and correct this effect, several authors have proposed different methodologies making use of series of images. In this work, we introduce a methodology to determine the drift angle via Fourier analysis by using a single image based on the measurements between the angles of the second Fourier harmonics in different quadrants. Two different approaches, that are independent of the angle of acquisition of the image, are evaluated. In addition, our results demonstrate that the determination of the drift angle is more accurate by using the measurements of non-consecutive quadrants when the angle of acquisition is an odd multiple of 45°. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  16. Accurate computer simulation of a drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    A general purpose program for drift chamber studies is described. First the capacitance matrix is calculated using a Green's function technique. The matrix is used in a linear-least-squares fit to choose optimal operating voltages. Next the electric field is computed, and given knowledge of gas parameters and magnetic field environment, a family of electron trajectories is determined. These are finally used to make drift distance vs time curves which may be used directly by a track reconstruction program. Results are compared with data obtained from the cylindrical chamber in the Axial Field Magnet experiment at the CERN ISR

  17. Drift estimation from a simple field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, F. M.; Figueiredo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Given the outcome of a Wiener process, what can be said about the drift and diffusion coefficients? If the process is stationary, these coefficients are related to the mean and variance of the position displacements distribution. However, if either drift or diffusion are time-dependent, very little can be said unless some assumption about that dependency is made. In Bayesian statistics, this should be translated into some specific prior probability. We use Bayes rule to estimate these coefficients from a single trajectory. This defines a simple, and analytically tractable, field theory.

  18. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assiro, R.; Cappelli, L.; Cascella, M.; De Lorenzis, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Ignatov, F.; L'Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A.; Miccoli, A.; Onorato, G.; Perillo, M.; Piacentino, G.; Rella, S.; Rossetti, F.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100–200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50–100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce

  19. Ultra-low mass drift chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiro, R.; Cappelli, L.; Cascella, M.; De Lorenzis, L.; Grancagnolo, F.; Ignatov, F.; L'Erario, A.; Maffezzoli, A.; Miccoli, A.; Onorato, G.; Perillo, M.; Piacentino, G.; Rella, S.; Rossetti, F.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.; Zavarise, G.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel low mass drift chamber concept, developed in order to fulfill the stringent requirements imposed by the experiments for extremely rare processes, which require high resolutions (order of 100-200 keV/c) for particle momenta in a range (50-100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution. We describe a geometry optimization procedure and a new wiring strategy with a feed-through-less wire anchoring system developed and tested on a drift chamber prototype under completion at INFN-Lecce .

  20. Properties of low-pressure drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breskin, A.; Trautner, N.

    1976-01-01

    Drift chambers operated with methylal vapour or ethylene at pressures in the range of 10-110 torr are described. A systematic study of position resolution, pulse height and rise time shows that especially for ethylene they are strongly influenced by electron diffusion. Intrinsic position resolution was found to be at least as good as found at atmospheric pressure. A relative pulse height resolution of 10% was obtained with 5.5 MeV alpha-particles. A simple mathematical model which can describe the processes in the drift chamber is presented. (Auth.)

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  2. Accurate computer simulation of a drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Killian, T J

    1980-01-01

    The author describes a general purpose program for drift chamber studies. First the capacitance matrix is calculated using a Green's function technique. The matrix is used in a linear-least-squares fit to choose optimal operating voltages. Next the electric field is computed, and given knowledge of gas parameters and magnetic field environment, a family of electron trajectories is determined. These are finally used to make drift distance vs time curves which may be used directly by a track reconstruction program. The results are compared with data obtained from the cylindrical chamber in the Axial Field Magnet experiment at the CERN ISR. (1 refs).

  3. Studies of Inner Detector Layouts with 5 Pixel layers for the Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia-Sciveres, M

    2013-01-01

    This note describes a study of Inner Detector layouts for the phase-II upgrade. Starting from the LOI layout the impact of adding a 5th pixel layer, and shortening the pixel and/or SCT barrel layers is studied.

  4. Assembly techniques for ultra-low mass drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assiro, R.; Cascella, M.; Grancagnolo, F.; L'Erario, A.; Miccoli, A.; Rella, S.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.

    2014-01-01

    We presents a novel technique for the fast assembly of next generation ultra low mass drift chambers offering space point resolution of the order of 100 μm and high tolerance to pile-up. The chamber design has been developed keeping in mind the requirements for the search of rare processes: high resolutions (order of 100–200 KeV/c) for particles momenta in a range (50–100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution (e.g., muon and kaon decay experiment such as MEG at PSI and Mu2e and ORKA at Fermilab). We describe a novel wiring strategy enabling the semiautomatic wiring of a complete layer with a high degree of control over wire tension and position. We also present feed-through-less wire anchoring system. These techniques have been already implemented at INFN-Lecce in the construction of a prototype drift chamber to be soon tested with cosmic rays and particle beams

  5. Assembly techniques for ultra-low mass drift chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiro, R.; Cascella, M.; Grancagnolo, F.; L'Erario, A.; Miccoli, A.; Rella, S.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G.

    2014-03-01

    We presents a novel technique for the fast assembly of next generation ultra low mass drift chambers offering space point resolution of the order of 100 μm and high tolerance to pile-up. The chamber design has been developed keeping in mind the requirements for the search of rare processes: high resolutions (order of 100-200 KeV/c) for particles momenta in a range (50-100 MeV/c) totally dominated by the multiple scattering contribution (e.g., muon and kaon decay experiment such as MEG at PSI and Mu2e and ORKA at Fermilab). We describe a novel wiring strategy enabling the semiautomatic wiring of a complete layer with a high degree of control over wire tension and position. We also present feed-through-less wire anchoring system. These techniques have been already implemented at INFN-Lecce in the construction of a prototype drift chamber to be soon tested with cosmic rays and particle beams.

  6. H-mode threshold power scaling and the ∇B drift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Staebler, G.M.

    1997-06-01

    One of the largest influences on the H-mode power threshold (P TH ) is the direction of the ion ∇B drift relative to the X-point location, where factors of 2--3 increase in P TH are observed for the ion ∇B drift away from the X-point. It is proposed that the threshold power scaling observed in single-null configurations with the ion ∇B drift toward the X-point location (P TH ∼ nB, where n is the plasma density, and B is the toroidal field) is due to the scaling of the magnitude of the ∇B drift effect. Hinton and later Hinton and Stebler have modeled this effect as neoclassical cross field fluxes of both heat and particles driven by poloidal temperature gradients on the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL). The ∇B drift effect influences the power threshold by affecting the edge conditions needed for the L-H transition. It is not essential for the L-H transition itself since transitions are observed with either direction of B. Predictions of this model include saturation of the B scaling of P TH at high field, 1/B scaling of P TH with reverse B, and no B scaling of P TH in balanced double-null configurations. This last prediction is consistent with the observed scaling of p TH in double-null plasma sin DIII-D

  7. Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately north–south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 8700–8800 year BP.

  8. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. Each...

  9. Start of Final Assembly of the CMS Barrel Yoke on schedule at P5 the 1st august, 2000. I

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig, CERN/ EP-CMI

    2000-01-01

    The Barrel Yoke and the vacuumtank weigh 6500 tonnes. The barrel Yoke consists of 5 rings eacu one weighing 1200 tonnes. The vacuum tank is a stainless steel structure weighing 270 tonnes (length = 13 m , outer diamter 7.6 m) The final assembly of these items will take approximately 1 year from now on.

  10. Involvement and necessity of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel outer membrane protein assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Henri; Leiser, Owen P.; Bennion, Drew; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Cpx and σE regulons help maintain outer membrane integrity; the Cpx pathway monitors the biogenesis of cell surface structures, such as pili, while the σE pathway monitors the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs). In this study we revealed the importance of the Cpx regulon in the event of β-barrel OMP mis-assembly, by utilizing mutants expressing either a defective β-barrel OMP assembly machinery (Bam) or assembly defective β-barrel OMPs. Analysis of specific mRNAs showed that ΔcpxR bam double mutants failed to induce degP expression beyond the wild type level, despite activation of the σE pathway. The synthetic conditional lethal phenotype of ΔcpxR in mutant Bam or β-barrel OMP backgrounds was reversed by wild type DegP expressed from a heterologous plasmid promoter. Consistent with the involvement of the Cpx regulon in the event of aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, the expression of cpxP, the archetypal member of the cpx regulon, was upregulated in defective Bam backgrounds or in cells expressing a single assembly-defective β-barrel OMP species. Together, these results showed that both the Cpx and σE regulons are required to reduce envelope stress caused by aberrant β-barrel OMP assembly, with the Cpx regulon principally contributing by controlling degP expression. PMID:20487295

  11. A new variable transformation technique for the nonlinear drift vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Kohtaro

    1996-02-01

    The dipole vortex solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation describing the nonlinear drift wave is a stable solitary wave which is called the modon. The profile of the modon depends on the nonlinearity of the ExB drift. In order to investigate the nonlinear drift wave more accurately, the effect of the polarization drift needs to be considered. In case of containing the effect of the polarization drift the profile of the electrostatic potential is distorted in the direction perpendicular to the ExB drift. (author)

  12. Persistence of Functional Sensory Maps in the Absence of Cortical Layers in the Somsatosensory Cortex of Reeler Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Julien; Wagener, Robin J.; M?ck, Martin; Staiger, Jochen F.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, layer IV of the primary somatosensory cortex contains the barrel field, where individual, large facial whiskers are represented as a dense cluster of cells. In the reeler mouse, a model of disturbed cortical development characterized by a loss of cortical lamination, the barrel field exists in a distorted manner. Little is known about the consequences of such a highly disturbed lamination on cortical function in this model. We used in vivo intrinsic signal optical imaging together...

  13. Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Canas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size, the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level.

  14. Inference of core barrel motion from neutron noise spectral density. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.C.; Shahrokhi, F.; Kryter, R.C.

    1977-03-15

    A method was developed for inference of core barrel motion from the following statistical descriptors: cross-power spectral density, autopower spectral density, and amplitude probability density. To quantify the core barrel motion in a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), a scale factor was calculated in both one- and two-dimensional geometries using forward, variational, and perturbation methods of discrete ordinates neutron transport. A procedure for selection of the proper frequency band limits for the statistical descriptors was developed. It was found that although perturbation theory is adequate for the calculation of the scale factor, two-dimensional geometric effects are important enough to rule out the use of a one-dimensional approximation for all but the crudest calculations. It was also found that contributions of gamma rays can be ignored and that the results are relatively insensitive to the cross-section set employed. The proper frequency band for the statistical descriptors is conveniently determined from the coherence and phase information from two ex-core power range neutron monitors positioned diametrically across the reactor vessel. Core barrel motion can then be quantified from the integral of the band-limited cross-power spectral density of two diametrically opposed ex-core monitors or, if the coherence between the pair is greater than or equal to 0.7, from a properly band-limited amplitude probability density function. Wide-band amplitude probability density functions were demonstrated to yield erroneous estimates for the magnitude of core barrel motion.

  15. Cosmic tests and performance of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirkoez, Bilge M.

    2007-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose particle detector for the LHC and will detect proton collisions with center of mass energy of 14TeV. Part of the central inner detector, the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) barrel, is now fully integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel. The SCT module performance has been measured after module production, after macro-assembly of modules onto barrels, after arrival at CERN and again partially after integration with the TRT. The module noise average per channel has been stable and is 4.5x10 -5 , well below the design specification of 5x10 -4 . There is no evidence for common mode noise problems and 99.8% of the 3.2 million channels of the SCT barrels are functional. The cosmics running of the SCT and TRT was the first large scale test of the physics mode of the SCT online software framework. A large sector, 468 SCT modules, has been timed in and read out during the cosmic tests. Tracks have been reconstructed through the SCT and the TRT sectors. Present residuals from tracks (without alignment) are better than the specified building tolerances of the SCT

  16. Learning-Dependent Plasticity of the Barrel Cortex Is Impaired by Restricting GABA-Ergic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszny, Anna; Liguz-Lecznar, Monika; Turzynska, Danuta; Zakrzewska, Renata; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Experience-induced plastic changes in the cerebral cortex are accompanied by alterations in excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Increased excitatory drive, necessary for plasticity, precedes the occurrence of plastic change, while decreased inhibitory signaling often facilitates plasticity. However, an increase of inhibitory interactions was noted in some instances of experience-dependent changes. We previously reported an increase in the number of inhibitory markers in the barrel cortex of mice after fear conditioning engaging vibrissae, observed concurrently with enlargement of the cortical representational area of the row of vibrissae receiving conditioned stimulus (CS). We also observed that an increase of GABA level accompanied the conditioning. Here, to find whether unaltered GABAergic signaling is necessary for learning-dependent rewiring in the murine barrel cortex, we locally decreased GABA production in the barrel cortex or reduced transmission through GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at the time of the conditioning. Injections of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), an inhibitor of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), into the barrel cortex prevented learning-induced enlargement of the conditioned vibrissae representation. A similar effect was observed after injection of gabazine, an antagonist of GABAARs. At the behavioral level, consistent conditioned response (cessation of head movements in response to CS) was impaired. These results show that appropriate functioning of the GABAergic system is required for both manifestation of functional cortical representation plasticity and for the development of a conditioned response.

  17. Tob38, a novel essential component in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins of mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waizenegger, Thomas; Habib, Shukry J; Lech, Maciej; Mokranjac, Dejana; Paschen, Stefan A; Hell, Kai; Neupert, Walter; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-01-01

    Insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane of mitochondria is mediated by the TOB complex. Known constituents of this complex are Tob55 and Mas37. We identified a novel component, Tob38. It is essential for viability of yeast and the function of the TOB complex. Tob38 is exposed on the surface of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It interacts with Mas37 and Tob55 and is associated with Tob55 even in the absence of Mas37. The Tob38–Tob55 core complex binds precursors of β-barrel proteins and facilitates their insertion into the outer membrane. Depletion of Tob38 results in strongly reduced levels of Tob55 and Mas37 and the residual proteins no longer form a complex. Tob38-depleted mitochondria are deficient in the import of β-barrel precursor proteins, but not of other outer membrane proteins or proteins of other mitochondrial subcompartments. We conclude that Tob38 has a crucial function in the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins of mitochondria. PMID:15205677

  18. Experimental study of the single electron response of the DELPHI Barrel RICH MWPC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    1989-01-01

    We present herewith the results of an experimental study of the multiwire proportionnal chambers (MWPC's) used in the Barrel RICH particle identifier of the LEP-DELPHI experiment. Emphasis is given to the problem of detection efficiency and to the measurements of the charge induced by a single photoelectron

  19. Dependence of Oak-Related Volatile Compounds on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Barrel-Aged Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of some of the physicochemical characteristics of wines such as volatile acidity, titratable acidity, pH, free SO2 and alcohol content on the accumulation of oak-related volatile compounds in barrel-aged wines, in order to give more light on the contradictory results found by other authors in this respect. For this, three different single variety wines were aged for twelve months in barrels with the same characteristics (same cooperage, wood origin, toasting level and volume, repeating the experiment in two consecutive years. Our results show that the percentage of wine alcohol and its titratable acidity positively correlated with the final concentration of vanillin and guaiacyl compounds in the oak-matured wines and negatively with the cis- and trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone concentration. Therefore, when studying the effect of oak barrel variables (oak origin and seasoning, size of the barrel, number of uses, etc. on the concentration of oak-related volatile compounds in wine, the effect of the physicochemical variables of the wine, especially titratable acidity and alcohol content, should also be taken into account since the final wine aroma composition will also depend on these characteristics.

  20. 33 CFR 135.103 - Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Levy of Fees § 135.103 Levy and payment of barrel fee on OCS oil. (a) A fee of $.03 per... paragraph (a) of this section applies whenever the unobligated Fund balance is less than $200,000,000. (d...

  1. Stereo: cylindrical drift chamber for muon decay experiments at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.D.; Carlini, R.D.; Cooper, M.D.; Frank, J.S.; Hart, V.E.; Matis, H.S.; Mischke, R.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sennhauser, U.

    1983-01-01

    A stereo, cylindrical drift chamber has been built for use in a search for rare decay modes of the muon at LAMPF. This chamber (part of the Crystal Box detector) has 728 cells on 8 concentric annuli at alternating angles of 10 0 to 16 0 from the chamber axis and with radii from 105 to 220 mm. The basic cell cross section is (9 x 10) mm 2 and the inter-layer spacing is 4.7 mm. Preliminary results show the single-wire efficiencies to be greater than 99%. Based on results obtained from prototype chambers, we hope to achieve 170-μm resolution (including multiple scattering) when TDC offsets and sense-wire locations found in a careful inspection of the endplates are added to the track-finding algorithm

  2. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  3. Resistive drift wave turbulence and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Our efforts for studying the properties of resistive drift wave turbulence by using model mode-coupling equations are shown. It may be related to the edge turbulence and the associated anomalous transport in tokamaks or in stellarator/heliotron. (author)

  4. Effects of Drifting Macroalgae in Eelgrass Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    and physical damage on eelgrass can occur when macroalgae are drifting as bedload. The ballistic effect of moving macroalgae on surface sediment was tested in the field as well as in a series of annular flume experiments, where simultaneous measurements of macroalgae transport and turbidity were measured...

  5. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...

  6. Nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, M.

    1985-01-01

    We study the linear and the nonlinear radial propagation of drift wave energy in an inhomogeneous plasma. The drift mode excited in such a plasma is dispersive in nature. The drift wave energy spreads out symmetrically along the direction of inhomogeneity with a finite group velocity. To study the effect of the nonlinear coupling on the propagation of energy in a collision free plasma, we solve the Hasegawa-Mima equation as a mixed initial boundary-value problem. The solutions of the linearized equation are used to check the reliability of our numerical calculations. Additional checks are also performed on the invariants of the system. Our results reveal that a pulse gets distorted as it propagates through the medium. The peak of the pulse propagates with a finite velocity that depends on the amplitude of the initial pulse. The polarity of propagation depends on the initial parameters of the pulse. We have also studied drift wave propagation in a resistive plasma. The Hasegawa-Wakatani equations are used to investigate this problem

  7. Study and analysis of drift chamber parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Laso, L.

    1988-01-01

    The present work deals mainly with drift chambers. In the first chapter a summary of drift chamber properties is presented. The information has been collected from the extensive bibliography available in this field. A very simple calculation procedure of drift chamber parameters has been developed and is presented in detail in the second chapter. Some prototypes have been made following two geometries (multidrift chamber and Z-chambers). Several installations have been used for test and calibration of these prototypes. A complete description of these installations is given in the third chapter. Cosmic rays, beta particles from a Ru106 radiactive source and a test beam in the WA (West Area) of SPS at CERN have been used for experimental purposes. The analysis and the results are described for the different setups. The experimental measurements have been used to produce a complete cell parametrization (position as function of drift time) and to obtain spatial resolution values (in the range of 200-250 um). Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (Author)

  8. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  9. Learning in the context of distribution drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    Figure 3 shows a heatmap of the pairwise drift in the joint distribution on the Landsat-8 French land usage satellite data. This data represents 10 meter...listed under the List of Publications. 1. White, C., Using Big Data for Smarter Decision Making. 2011, BI Research: Ashland, Or. 2. Cook , S., et al

  10. Comment on the drift mirror instability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2008), 054502/1-054502/2 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : drift mirror instability * linear theory Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008

  11. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  12. Fine structure in fast drift storm bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.; Ellis, G.R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations with high time resolution of fast drift storm (FDS) solar bursts are described. A new variety of FDS bursts characterised by intensity maxima regularly placed in the frequency domain is reported. Possible interpretations of this are mentioned and the implications of the short duration of FDS bursts are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Results from the geological surveys carried out in the Bure laboratory's drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebours, Herve; Righini, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After the government's authorization to build and operate an underground laboratory, Andra started the investigation works in November 99 on the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL site. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is located at the border of the Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine regions, on the township of Bure in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rich rock. At this place, the layer is about 135 m-thick and lies at a depth of 417 m to 552 m. The construction of the underground installations started in August 2000 with the sinking of the main shaft and the first phase of diggings was completed on the 27 April 2006 when it linked up with the south drift of the laboratory. The laboratory consists in two vertical shafts crossing the 505-m thick sedimentary cover and two levels of experimental drifts dug in Callovo-Oxfordian formation. The first experimental drift dug at -445 m with a drill-and-blast method with steps of 2.4 m. The technical and experimental drifts at the main level (-490 m of depth) were dug with a hydraulic stone crusher. The aims of the geological surveys carried out during the drifts digging are to observe the lateral variation of the lithology, if there is one, to confirm the absence of fault and the geometry of the argillites formation. These works should also allow to characterize the natural or inducted fracturing (EDZ - Excavation Damaged Zone) induced by the digging by a sedimentary and structural follow-up. The EDZ characterization has been established from the geological survey of the drift face and sidewalls carried out from 1 to 5 meters in the drifts, and completed by the structural analysis of the cores of the boreholes drilled for the experimentations' equipments. After the safe keeping of the front, the geological team goes down to carry out the survey which consists in a lithologic and sedimentary mapping, a structural survey for the understanding of joints distribution and EDZ characterization, and

  14. Performance analysis for the CALIFA Barrel calorimeter of the R{sup 3}B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Pol, H., E-mail: hector.alvarez@usc.es [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ashwood, N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Aumann, T. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertini, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Cabanelas, P. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Cederkall, J. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cortina-Gil, D.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Duran, I. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fiori, E. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Galaviz, D. [Centro de Fsica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Labiche, M. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nacher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Pietras, B. [Dpt. de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); and others

    2014-12-11

    The CALIFA calorimeter is an advanced detector for gamma rays and light charged particles, accordingly optimized for the demanding requirements of the physics programme proposed for the R{sup 3}B facility at FAIR. The multipurpose character of CALIFA is required to fulfil challenging demands in energy resolution (5–6% at 1 MeV for gamma rays) and efficiency. Charged particles, e.g. protons of energies up to 320 MeV in the Barrel section, should also be identified with an energy resolution better to 1%. CALIFA is divided into two well-separated sections: a “Forward EndCap” and a cylindrical “Barrel” covering an angular range from 43.2° to 140.3°. The Barrel section, based on long CsI(Tl) pyramidal frustum crystals coupled to large area avalanche photodiodes (LAAPDs), attains the requested high efficiency for calorimetric purposes. The construction of the CALIFA Demonstrator, comprising 20% of the total detector, has already been initiated, and commissioning experiments are expected for 2014. The assessment of the capabilities and expected performance of the detector elements is a crucial step in their design, along with the prototypes evaluation. For this purpose, the Barrel geometry has been carefully implemented in the simulation package R3BRoot, including easily variable thicknesses of crystal wrapping and carbon fibre supports. A complete characterization of the calorimeter response (including efficiency, resolution, evaluation of energy and reconstruction losses) under different working conditions, with several physics cases selected to probe the detector performance over a wide range of applications, has been undertaken. Prototypes of different sections of the CALIFA Barrel have been modeled and their responses have been evaluated and compared with the experimental results. The present paper summarizes the outcome of the simulation campaign for the entire Barrel section and for the corresponding prototypes tested at different European installations.

  15. Study on natural convection in core barrel. Experimental and numerical results for band type spacer pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenji; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamide, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    In a fast reactor an Inter-Wrapper Flow (IWF) is one of significant phenomena for decay heat removal under natural circulation condition, when a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) is adopted for decay heat removal system. Cold coolant provided by dipped heat exchangers (DHX) of DRACS can penetrate into the core barrel (region between the subassemblies) and it makes natural convection int he core barrel. Such IWF will depend on a spacer pad geometry of subassemblies. Water experiment, TRIF (Test Rig for Inter-wrapper Flow), was carried out for IWF in a reactor core. The test section modeled a 1/12th sector of the core and upper plenum of reactor vessel. Experimental parameters were the spacer pad geometry and flow path geometries connecting the upper plenum and core barrel. Numerical simulation using AQUA code was also performed to confirm applicability of a simulation method. An experimental series using a button type spacer pad had been carried out. Here a band type spacer pad was examined. Temperatures at subassembly wall were measured with parameter of the flow path geometries; one was a connection pipe between the upper plenum and core barrel and the other was flow hole in core former plates between the outermost subassemblies and the core barrel. It was found that these flow paths were effective to remove heat in the core in case of the band type spacer pad. A general purpose three dimensional analysis code, AQUA, was applied to the experimental analysis. Each subassembly and inter wrapper gap region were modeled by slab mesh geometry. Pressure loss coefficient at the pacer pad was set based on the geometry. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with measured temperature profiles in the core. (author)

  16. Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses

  17. Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii Drift Card Study 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drift cards were be released from Barber's Point, Oahu, approximately once a month during the two year span to get an idea of the distribution of card drift under...

  18. Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...

  19. A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H.O.; Rust, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls. (orig.)

  20. A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H. O.; Rust, D. R.

    1987-03-01

    A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls.

  1. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Bryan

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral

  2. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Bryan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC submodel uses a drift

  3. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.H.Tang

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M and O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M and O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4

  4. Parametric decay of lower hybrid wave into drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, Heiji.

    1976-12-01

    A dispersion relation describing the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into an electrostatic drift wave and a drift Alfven wave is derived for an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Particularly the stimulated scattering of a drift Alfven wave in such a plasma was investigated in detail. The resonance backscattering instability is found to yield the minimum threshold. (auth.)

  5. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Freitas, Luiz P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological disruption and water pollution from urbanization can be reduced if households in urban areas adopt decentralized storm water controls. We study a citywide municipal subsidized rain-barrel program in the third biggest city in the United States, Chicago, to explore what factors influence whether households purchase this sort of green storm water management technology in an urban setting. Specifically, we regress census-tract level data on the number of rain barrels adopted in different parts of the city on socioeconomic variables, data on local flood frequency, and features of the housing stock. We find that rain-barrel purchases are not correlated with local levels of flooding, even though city residents were told by program managers that rain barrels could alleviate local flooding. Instead, rain barrels are heavily concentrated in places with high-income attitudinally green populations. We do find more rain barrels were adopted in places close to rain-barrel distribution points and near sites of hydrological information campaigns; thus, policy makers might increase green-technology adoption in areas where they can do the most good by reducing transaction costs and providing education programs to those areas. Finally, our results indicate that owner occupancy is positively correlated with green-technology adoption. Low-rise rental housing may have inefficiently low levels of adoption, such that city managers might want to develop programs to encourage storm water management investments by landlords who do not live in their own properties.

  6. Effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on phenolic and sensorial profile evolution of an Encruzado white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Muxagata, Sara; Correia, Ana C; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Jordão, António M

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have reported the influence of diverse winemaking technologies in white wine characteristics. However, the impact of the use of different oak wood barrel capacities and utilization time on the evolution of white wine phenolic content and sensorial characteristics are not usually considered. Thus the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on the evolution of phenolic compounds, browning potential index and sensorial profile of an Encruzado white wine. For the 180 aging days considered, the use of new oak wood barrels induced a greater increase in global phenolic composition, including several individual compounds, such as gallic and ellagic acid, independently of the barrel capacity. Tendency for a lesser increase of the browning potential index values was detected for white wines aged in new oak wood barrels. The sensorial profile evolution, showed significant differences only for the aroma descriptors, namely for 'wood aroma' and 'aroma intensity', white wine aged in 225 L new oak wood barrels being the highest scored. The results show that, in general, the use of different capacities and utilization time of oak wood barrels used for white wine aging could play an important role in white wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Large-Scale Production of Monitored Drift Tube Chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F.; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck, S; Richter, R; Zhuravlov, V

    2016-01-01

    Precision drift tube chambers with a sense wire positioning accuracy of better than 20 microns are under construction for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 70% of the 88 large chambers for the outermost layer of the central part of the spectrometer have been assembled. Measurements during chamber construction of the positions of the sense wires and of the sensors for the optical alignment monitoring system demonstrate that the requirements for the mechanical precision of the chambers are fulfilled.

  8. Beam test results of the irradiated Silicon Drift Detector for ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Kushpil, S.; Crescio, E.; Giubellino, P.; Idzik, M.; Kolozhvari, A.; Kushpil, V.; Martinez, M. I.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, A.; Meddi, F.; Nouais, D.; Petracek, V.; Piemonte, C.; Rashevsky, A.; Riccati, L.

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detectors will equip two of the six cylindrical layers of high precision position sensitive detectors in the ITS of the ALICE experiment at LHC. In this paper we report the beam test results of a SDD irradiated with 1 GeV electrons. The aim of this test was to verify the radiation tolerance of the device under an electron fluence equivalent to twice particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation.

  9. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  10. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2010-03-08

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys){sub 3}Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E {center_dot} Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  11. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L.

    2005-01-01

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two (βα) 8 barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys) 3 Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E · Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  12. Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE: a face-to-face double barrel that evolved by gene duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pejchal

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH, both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two (betaalpha(8 barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys(3Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E.Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  13. Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.

    2014-10-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals.

  14. Hole drift mobility in poly(hexylphenylsilane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimi, Y.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    Poly(n-alkylphenylsilane)s in which n-alkyl were changed from methyl to octyl were polymerized. Hole transport properties of poly(alkyllphenylsilane)s were systematically studied by the DC time-of-flight (TOF) technique. While the hole drift mobility of poly(methylphenylsilane) increased monotonously in entire field, those of poly(hexylphenylsilane) and poly(octylphenylsilane) decreased with increase in the field strength. Temperature dependence of hole drift mobility in those polymers was small. On the basis of Baessler's disorder formalism the mobility was analyzed quantitatively to disserve complex contributions of charge transport. The analyzed results indicated that with increase in the length of n-alkyl side-groups, the energetic disorder of hopping sites became smaller and the disorder of distance between hopping sites became larger. These results were supported by the results obtained by UV absorption measurement and positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy measurement. (author)

  15. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete

  16. Clean industrial room for drift tube assembling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Evtukhovich, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volume (∼ 190 m 3 ), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2%). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer. (author)

  17. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  18. Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.

    1992-09-23

    The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.

  19. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  20. The drift-flux correlation package MDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the SONNENBURG drift-flux correlation, developed at GRS/Garching (Germany), a comprehensive drift-flux correlation package (MDS) has been established. Its aim is to support thermal-hydraulic mixture-fluid models, models being used for the simulation of the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic thermal-hydraulic parameters of single- or two-phase fluids flowing along coolant channels of different types (being, e.g., parts of NPP-s, steam generators etc.). The characteristic properties of this package with respect to the behaviour at co- and counter-current flow, its inverse solutions needed for steady state simulations, its behaviour when approaching the lower or upper boundary of a two-phase region, its verification and behaviour with respect to other correlations will be discussed. An adequate driver code, MDSDRI, has been established too, allowing to test the package very thoroughly out of the complex thermal-hydraulic codes. (author)

  1. Ionospheric drift measurements: Skymap points selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Daniel; Boška, Josef; Galkin, I. A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Šauli, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), RS1S90/1-RS1S90/11 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA ČR GA205/06/1267; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC 296; MIERS(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : digisonde drift measurement * plasma drift * radio sounding * ionosphere * Doppler shift * skymap processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2008 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2007RS003633.shtml

  2. Pulsar magnetic alignment. The drifting subpulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    According to Ruderman and Sutherland (Ap.J.;196:51 (1975)) the subpulse drift observed in certain pulsars is a consequence of the circulation around the magnetic axis of electron-positron discharges occurring within an acceleration region near the polar cap. The predicted period of circulation P 3 is of the correct order of magnitude, but the sense of circulation and therefore the direction of subpulse drift is not consistent with indirect evidence, from observed integrated pulse widths, on the variation with pulsar age of the angle between the spin and magnetic axes. It is shown that this problem is resolved by a model of the acceleration electric field based on space charge limited ion flow. (author)

  3. The drift-flux correlation package MDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeld, A. [Bernaysstr. 16A, Munich, F.R. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Based on the SONNENBURG drift-flux correlation, developed at GRS/Garching (Germany), a comprehensive drift-flux correlation package (MDS) has been established. Its aim is to support thermal-hydraulic mixture-fluid models, models being used for the simulation of the steady state and transient behaviour of characteristic thermal-hydraulic parameters of single- or two-phase fluids flowing along coolant channels of different types (being, e.g., parts of NPP-s, steam generators etc.). The characteristic properties of this package with respect to the behaviour at co- and counter-current flow, its inverse solutions needed for steady state simulations, its behaviour when approaching the lower or upper boundary of a two-phase region, its verification and behaviour with respect to other correlations will be discussed. An adequate driver code, MDSDRI, has been established too, allowing to test the package very thoroughly out of the complex thermal-hydraulic codes. (author)

  4. Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling

  5. Analysis of Premature Wear-Out of Aircraft Gun Barrel by Applying a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łęczycki Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Firing from gun armament generates a wide range of physico-chemical phenomena contributing to the degradation of barrel material, e.g. pressure, high temperature, chemically aggressive character of post-detonation gases and friction of a driving band. In this work the technique of thin foils was used in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM to study the influence of physicochemical phenomena on the material microstructure of aircraft gun barrel. A mechanism and reason of premature wear-out of the barrel under consideration was also outlined by utilising light microscopy and hardness measurements.

  6. SiPM photosensors and fast timing readout for the Barrel Time-of-Flight detector in bar PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.

    2018-03-01

    The Barrel Time-of-Flight detector system will be installed in the upcoming bar PANDA experiment at FAIR in Germany. The detector has a barrel shape of phi=0.5 m and 1.8 m long, covering about 5 m2, which corresponds to the laboratory polar angle coverage of 22oPANDA Barrel Time-of-Flight detector are presented. The test shows that the current design fulfils satisfactorily the required timing performance (σt~ 56 ps) and the timing performance depends little on the hit position on the surface.

  7. Cylindrical geometry for proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoulet, B.

    1975-06-01

    For experiments performed around storage rings such as e + e - rings or the ISR pp rings, cylindrical wire chambers are very attractive. They surround the beam pipe completely without any dead region in the azimuth, and fit well with the geometry of events where particles are more or less spherically produced. Unfortunately, cylindrical proportional or drift chambers are difficult to make. Problems are discussed and two approaches to fabricating the cathodes are discussed. (WHK)

  8. Spin-drift transport in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)

    2008-02-07

    We present a study on spin transport in semiconductors under applied electric fields. Our experiments detect photoinjected electron spins and their relaxation during drift transport in intrinsic and moderately n-doped GaAs, based on the extraordinary Hall (eH) effect. For relatively low electric field (E), the optically spin-induced eH effect in n-doped GaAs is found to be enhanced with increasing doping density and not to depend much on E, indicating that a substantial amount of optical spin polarization is preserved during the drift transport in these extrinsic semiconductors. However, when the spin-oriented electrons are injected with a high E, a very significant decrease is observed in the eH voltage (V{sub eH}) due to an increase in the spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. Spin relaxation by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is calculated, and is suggested to be the reason for such a rapid spin relaxation for hot electrons under a high E. However, in an intrinsic GaAs (i-GaAs), a much weaker V{sub eH} is observed and, as the electron spins scattered by holes due to the Coulomb interaction in i-GaAs, the spin relaxation by the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism is considered. Skew scattering and side jump as possible mechanisms of the optically spin-induced transverse Hall currents are discussed. Based on a spin drift-diffusion model, drift and diffusion contributions to the V{sub eH} are examined. The results are also discussed in comparison with theoretical investigations.

  9. Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.

    1979-08-01

    The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to the finite toroidicity, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical Tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein-Berk type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping due to finite toroidicity

  10. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    management Snow surveys Transport analysis Winds -- Speed 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...that about 25% of the estimated snow that the wind transports to Summit each winter is deposited and forms drifts, mostly in close proxim- ity to...the structures. This analysis demonstrates that weather data ( wind speed and direction) and a transport analysis can aid in estimating the vol- ume of

  11. New developments on silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashevsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the project to develop large-area linear drift detectors few prototypes have been designed and produced. the function of these prototypes is to allow the evaluation of the solutions chosen for the geometry of the on-board electrodes and the production process. On these prototypes it is studied the static characteristics and measured time of-flight and charge collection injecting charges with an IR laser source. It is report the results from one of the prototypes

  12. The Absence of Stokes Drift in Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Chafin, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Stokes drift has been as central to the history of wave theory as it has been distressingly absent from experiment. Neither wave tanks nor experiments in open bodies detect this without nearly canceling "eulerian flows." Acoustic waves have an analogous problem that is particularly problematic in the vorticity production at the edges of beams. Here we demonstrate that the explanation for this arises from subtle end-of-packet and wavetrain gradient effects such as microbreaking events and wave...

  13. Continued Drift, but without the Acrimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian L.

    2013-01-01

    If the measure of Barack Obama's success in mending US–European relations is whether the tone has improved, his presidency has been a great success. If the measure of success, however, is halting the drifting apart of policy preferences, the picture looks a lot less rosy. This article argues....... The Obama administration realises that, and by this more limited measure, it has succeeded brilliantly....

  14. Drift bifurcation detection for dissipative solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liehr, A W; Boedeker, H U; Roettger, M C; Frank, T D; Friedrich, R; Purwins, H-G

    2003-01-01

    We report on the experimental detection of a drift bifurcation for dissipative solitons, which we observe in the form of current filaments in a planar semiconductor-gas-discharge system. By introducing a new stochastic data analysis technique we find that due to a change of system parameters the dissipative solitons undergo a transition from purely noise-driven objects with Brownian motion to particles with a dynamically stabilized finite velocity

  15. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  16. Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M and O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used

  17. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  18. Internal Clock Drift Estimation in Computer Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Marouani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most computers have several high-resolution timing sources, from the programmable interrupt timer to the cycle counter. Yet, even at a precision of one cycle in ten millions, clocks may drift significantly in a single second at a clock frequency of several GHz. When tracing the low-level system events in computer clusters, such as packet sending or reception, each computer system records its own events using an internal clock. In order to properly understand the global system behavior and performance, as reported by the events recorded on each computer, it is important to estimate precisely the clock differences and drift between the different computers in the system. This article studies the clock precision and stability of several computer systems, with different architectures. It also studies the typical network delay characteristics, since time synchronization algorithms rely on the exchange of network packets and are dependent on the symmetry of the delays. A very precise clock, based on the atomic time provided by the GPS satellite network, was used as a reference to measure clock drifts and network delays. The results obtained are of immediate use to all applications which depend on computer clocks or network time synchronization accuracy.

  19. Simplified Drift Analysis for Proving Lower Bounds in Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveto, Pietro S.; Witt, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Drift analysis is a powerful tool used to bound the optimization time of evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Various previous works apply a drift theorem going back to Hajek in order to show exponential lower bounds on the optimization time of EAs. However, this drift theorem is tedious to read...... and to apply since it requires two bounds on the moment-generating (exponential) function of the drift. A recent work identifies a specialization of this drift theorem that is much easier to apply. Nevertheless, it is not as simple and not as general as possible. The present paper picks up Hajek’s line...

  20. Estimating induced-activation of SCT barrel-modules in the ATLAS radiation environment.

    CERN Document Server

    Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Mandic, I; Moraes, A

    2002-01-01

    One of the consequences of operating detector systems in the harsh radiation environments of the ATLAS inner-detector will be radioactivation of the components. If the levels of radioactivity and corresponding dose rates are significant, then there will be implications for any access or maintenance operations. Given in this note are predictions for the radioactivation of SCT barrel-modules in the expected radiation environment of the inner-detector, based on both calculations and measurements. It is shown that both neutron-capture and high-energy hadron reactions must be taken into account. The predictions show that, from a radiological point of view, the SCT barrel-modules should not pose any serious problems.