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Sample records for lawrencium compounds

  1. First ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium, element 103

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Tetsuya K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first ionization potential (IP1 of element 103, lawrencium (Lr, has been successfully determined for the first time by using a newly developed method based on a surface ionization process. The measured IP1 value is 4.9630.080.07 eV. This value is the smallest among those of actinide elements and is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15 eV predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations also performed in this work. Our results strongly support that the Lr atom has an electronic configuration of [Rn]7s25f147p11/2, which is influenced by strong relativistic effects. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for studies on atomic properties of heavy elements with atomic number Z > 100. Moreover, the present achievement has triggered a controversy on the position of lutetium (Lu and Lr in the Periodic Table of Elements.

  2. Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T K; Asai, M; Borschevsky, A; Stora, T; Sato, N; Kaneya, Y; Tsukada, K; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eliav, E; Ichikawa, S; Kaldor, U; Kratz, J V; Miyashita, S; Nagame, Y; Ooe, K; Osa, A; Renisch, D; Runke, J; Schädel, M; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Toyoshima, A; Trautmann, N

    2015-04-09

    The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row--including the actinides--even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining the heaviest elements on scales of more than one atom at a time. Here we report that the experimentally obtained IP1 of the heaviest actinide, lawrencium (Lr, atomic number 103), is 4.96(+0.08)(-0.07) electronvolts. The IP1 of Lr was measured with (256)Lr (half-life 27 seconds) using an efficient surface ion-source and a radioisotope detection system coupled to a mass separator. The measured IP1 is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) electronvolts predicted here by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for IP1 measurements of superheavy elements (that is, transactinides) on an atom-at-a-time scale.

  3. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  4. Cold fusion reactions with 48Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Jost, D.T.; Tuerler, A.

    1989-04-01

    Cold fusion reactions with 48 Ca on the targets 208 Pb, 209 Bi, 197 Au, 184 W, 180 Hf are reported. The experiments were performed at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI. The maximum cross sections show a steep descent by about four orders of magnitude when going from 224 Th to 228 U as compound nuclei. Between uranium and einsteinium the cross sections stay rather low and increase by about two orders of magnitude for nobelium. For lawrencium the cross section decrease again. 7 figs., 1 tab., 38 refs

  5. Decay studies of neutron-deficient lawrencium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antalic, S.; Saro, S.; Streicher, B.; Venhart, M.; Hessberger, F.P.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Hofmann, S.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Nishio, K.; Sulignano, B.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive decay of the isotopes 254-256 Lr and their daughter products was investigated by means of α, prompt α-γ and delayed conversion electron-γ coincidence spectroscopy. The isotopes were produced using the reaction 48 Ca+ 209 Bi. (orig.)

  6. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Plaß, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D.

    2013-01-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  7. Status of the lanthanides and actinides in the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    In extended discussions and correspondence with Ekkehard Fluck, the author was made aware of a problem with the Periodic Table, i.e., which element should be shown in the main table as the representative of the lanthanide series and the actinide series. In earlier discussion, he came to the conclusion that lanthanum and actinium are not the elements which should appear, but rather lutetium and lawrencium are more appropriate for inclusion in their place. This paper will attempt to justify the reasons for the above conclusions. 4 refs

  8. High-accuracy coupled cluster calculations of atomic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschevsky, A. [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Auckland, Private Bag 102904, 0745 Auckland (New Zealand); Yakobi, H.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U. [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-01-22

    The four-component Fock-space coupled cluster and intermediate Hamiltonian methods are implemented to evaluate atomic properties. The latter include the spectra of nobelium and lawrencium (elements 102 and 103) in the range 20000-30000 cm{sup −1}, the polarizabilities of elements 112-114 and 118, required for estimating their adsorption enthalpies on surfaces used to separate them in accelerators, and the nuclear quadrupole moments of some heavy atoms. The calculations on superheavy elements are supported by the very good agreement with experiment obtained for the lighter homologues.

  9. High-accuracy coupled cluster calculations of atomic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Yakobi, H.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.

    2015-01-01

    The four-component Fock-space coupled cluster and intermediate Hamiltonian methods are implemented to evaluate atomic properties. The latter include the spectra of nobelium and lawrencium (elements 102 and 103) in the range 20000-30000 cm −1 , the polarizabilities of elements 112-114 and 118, required for estimating their adsorption enthalpies on surfaces used to separate them in accelerators, and the nuclear quadrupole moments of some heavy atoms. The calculations on superheavy elements are supported by the very good agreement with experiment obtained for the lighter homologues

  10. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  11. Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium (element 103)

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T K; Borschevsky, A; Stora, T; Sato, N; Kaneya, Y; Tsukada, K; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eliav, E; Ichikawa, S; Kaldor, U; Kratz, J V; Miyashita, S; Nagame, Y; Ooe, K; Osa, A; Renisch, D; Runke, J; Schädel, M; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Toyoshima, A; Trautmann, N

    2015-01-01

    The chemical properties of an element are primarily governed by the configuration of electrons in the valence shell. Relativistic effects influence the electronic structure of heavy elements in the sixth row of the periodic table, and these effects increase dramatically in the seventh row—including the actinides—even affecting ground-state configurations. Atomic s and p1/2 orbitals are stabilized by relativistic effects, whereas p3/2, d and f orbitals are destabilized, so that ground-state configurations of heavy elements may differ from those of lighter elements in the same group. The first ionization potential (IP1) is a measure of the energy required to remove one valence electron from a neutral atom, and is an atomic property that reflects the outermost electronic configuration. Precise and accurate experimental determination of IP1 gives information on the binding energy of valence electrons, and also, therefore, on the degree of relativistic stabilization. However, such measurements are hampered by ...

  12. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  13. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  14. The formation of lithium diarylargentates from arylsilver compounds and the corresponding aryllithium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenkers, J.; Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1979-01-01

    Diarylsilverlithium compounds of the type Ar2AgLi are formed by treating arylsilver compounds with the corresponding aryllithium compounds. Cryoscopy in benzene shows that the Ar2AgLi compounds are associated into dimers. NMR spectroscopic data indicate that only one type of aryl group is present in

  15. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  16. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  17. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  18. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared to conve......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  19. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  20. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  1. Raman scattering in transition metal compounds: Titanium and compounds of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Ederer, D.L.; Shu, T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The transition metal compounds form a very interesting and important set of materials. The diversity arises from the many states of ionization the transition elements may take when forming compounds. This variety provides ample opportunity for a large class of materials to have a vast range of electronic and magnetic properties. The x-ray spectroscopy of the transition elements is especially interesting because they have unfilled d bands that are at the bottom of the conduction band with atomic like structure. This group embarked on the systematic study of transition metal sulfides and oxides. As an example of the type of spectra observed in some of these compounds they have chosen to showcase the L{sub II, III} emission and Raman scattering in some titanium compounds obtained by photon excitation.

  2. Validation of new superheavy elements and IUPAC-IUPAP joint working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    The great chemist Glenn Seaborg has written a delightful little book “Man-made Transuranium Elements”, published in 1963, in which he points out that: “The former basic criterion for the discovery of a new element – namely, chemical identification and separation from all previously-known elements – had to be changed in the case of lawrencium (element 103). This also may be true for elements beyond lawrencium.” Indeed this is what has happened. The elements with Z ≥ 103 are produced in nuclear reactions and are detected by counters. The detectors have undergone substantial refinement. For example one uses multiwire proportional chambers [for which George Charpak received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Physics] as well as solid state micro-strip detectors. In spite of this remarkable shift from chemistry to physics, the managerial staff of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) does not seem to be aware of what has been going on. The validation of superheavy elements should be done by physicists as the chemists lack the relevant competence as I will discuss here below. This article is about a collaboration between International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and its sister organization International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), to deal with discovery of superheavy elements beyond Z = 112. I spent a great deal of time on this issue. In my opinion, the collaboration turned out to be a failure. For the sake of science, which should be our most important concern (and not politics), the rules for the future collaborations, if any, should be accurately defined and respected. The validation of new elements should be done by people who have the relevant competence – the physicists.

  3. Chemical and nuclear properties of lawrencium (element 103) and hahnium (element 105)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical and nuclear properties of Lr and Ha have been studied, using 3-minute 260 Lr and 35-second 262 Ha. The crystal ionic radius of Lr 3+ was determined by comparing its elution position from a cation-exchange resin column with those of lanthanide elements having known ionic radii. Comparisons are made to the ionic radii of the heavy actinides, Am 3+ through Es 3+ , obtained by x-ray diffraction methods, and to Md 3+ and Fm 3+ which were determined in the same manner as Lr 3+ . The hydration enthalpy of -3622 kJ/mol was calculated from the crystal ionic radius using an empirical form of the Born equation. Comparisons to the spacings between the ionic radii of the heaviest members of the lanthanide series show that the 2Z spacing between Lr 3+ and Md 3+ is anomalously small, as the ionic radius of Lr 3+ of 0.0886 nm is significantly smaller than had been expected. The chemical properties of Ha were determined relative to the lighter homologs in group 5, Nb and Ta. Group 4 and group 5 tracer activities, as well as Ha, were absorbed onto glass surfaces as a first step toward the determination of the chemical properties of Ha. Ha was found to adsorb on surfaces, a chemical property unique to the group 5 elements, and as such demonstrates that Ha has the chemical properties of a group 5 element. A solvent extraction procedure was adapted for use as a micro-scale chemical procedure to examine whether or not Ha displays eka-Ta-like chemical under conditions where Ta will be extracted into the organic phase and Nb will not. Under the conditions of this experiment Ha did not extract, and does not show eka-Ta-like chemical properties

  4. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Pu-erh Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight compounds were isolated from the water extract of Pu-erh tea and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS as gallic acid (1, (+-catechin (2, (−-epicatechin (3, (−-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4, (−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (5, (−-epiafzelechin- 3-O-gallate (6, kaempferol (7, and quercetin (8. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The relative order of DPPH scavenging capacity for these compounds was compound 8 > compound 7 > compound 1 > compound 6 > compound 4 ≈ compound 5 > compound 2 > VC (reference > compound 3, and that of ABTS scavenging capacity was compound 1 > compound 2 > compound 7 ≈ compound 8 > compound 6 > compound 5 > compound 4 > VC (reference > compound 3. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of Pu-erh tea.

  5. Partial purification of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzan, S.; Ghione, S.; Biver, P.; Gazzetti, P.; Montali, U. (C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy))

    1991-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the presence of endogenous digitalis-like compound(s) in human body fluids. In this preliminary report, we describe a study of the partial purification by HPLC of these compounds in the plasma of neonates (who have particularly high concentrations of this substance) and adults. Plasma samples from neonates (cord blood) and adults, lyophilized and extracted with methanol, were applied on a 300 x 3.9 mm C18 Nova Pak column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water (17/17/66 or 14/14/72 by vol) and, after 30 min, with 100% methanol. We assayed eluted fractions for inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake and for digoxin-like immunoreactivity. The elution profile revealed a first peak of inhibitory activity of 86Rb uptake at the beginning of the chromatography; another peak was eluted with the 100% methanol. The two peaks also cross-reacted with antidigoxin antibodies. Because the second peak could possibly reflect the nonspecific interference of various lipophilic compounds, we focused our attention on the first peak. For these fractions dose-response curves for 86Rb uptake and for displacement of digoxin were parallel, respectively, to those of ouabain and digoxin, suggesting similarities of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance to cardiac glycosides. Similar chromatographic profiles were also obtained for plasma from adults, suggesting that the endogenous glycoside-like compound(s) in the neonate may be the same as those in the adult.

  6. First successful ionization of Lr (Z = 103) by a surface-ionization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tetsuya K., E-mail: sato.tetsuya@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Nozomi; Asai, Masato; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Sunao; Schädel, Matthias [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kaneya, Yusuke; Nagame, Yuichiro [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Osa, Akihiko [Department of Research Reactor and Tandem Accelerator, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shin-ichi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Stora, Thierry [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kratz, Jens Volker [Institut für Kernchemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    We have developed a surface ionization ion-source as part of the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) setup, which is coupled to a He/CdI{sub 2} gas-jet transport system to determine the first ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103). The new ion-source is an improved version of the previous source that provided good ionization efficiencies for lanthanides. An additional filament was newly installed to give better control over its operation. We report, here, on the development of the new gas-jet coupled surface ion-source and on the first successful ionization and mass separation of 27-s {sup 256}Lr produced in the {sup 249}Cf + {sup 11}B reaction.

  7. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  8. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  9. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  10. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  11. Structural studies of novel coordination compounds run in the Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipin, M.Yu.; Starikova, Z.A.; Yanovskij, A.I.; Dolgushin, F.M.; Lysenko, K.A.; Khrustalev, V.N.; Vorontsov, I.I.; Korlyukov, A.A.; Andreev, G.B.; Neretin, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    The results of the investigation into structural chemistry of coordination compounds taking place in the X-ray Laboratory of the Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences are given. The review gives an idea on the tendencies to structural researches of complexes of varying categories of coordination compounds, among which are lithium, strontium, cadmium compounds, rare earth compounds, transuranium compounds, transition element compounds, carboranes, fullerenes. An attempt was made to prove the structure and reveal the novel structural and crystallochemical regularities in the studied series of relative compounds. The outlooks for the following progress of studies on this field are determined [ru

  12. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  13. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  14. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  15. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  16. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  17. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  18. Organometallic compounds in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, P. J

    2003-01-01

    ... of Organometallic Species in the Environment 20 1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds in Biological Systems 1.11 G eneral Comments on the Toxicities of Organometallic Compounds 22 1.12 General Considerations on Environmental R eactivity of Organometallic Compounds 24 1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals and M etalloids 25 1.13.1 Introduction 25 1...

  19. Electronic structure, fluorescence and photochemistry of the uranyl ion, and comparison with octahedral uranium (VI), ruthenyl (VI), rhenium (V) and osmium (VI) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, C K [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1977-01-01

    The highly anisotropic uranyl complexes (with very short U-O distances and very long distances to the ligating atoms in the equatorial plane) are compared with trans-dioxo complexes of 4d/sup 2/Ru(VI) and 5d/sup 2/Re(V) and Os(VI). A major difference is the low-lying empty 5f orbitals, and the first excited state is highly oxidizing, and sufficiently long-lived to abstract hydrogen atoms from most organic molecules. It is argued that even the low concentrations of uranyl carbonate present in sea water is excited by solar radiation roughly every 10 minutes. Octahedral U(VI)O/sub 6/ in perovskites and UF/sub 6/ are also discussed, as well as trans-lawrencium chemistry.

  20. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  1. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  2. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  3. The Onium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Slaveykova, Vera; Manev, Stefan; Lazarov, Dobri

    1997-06-01

    The onium salts are of a big interest for theoretical and structural chemistry, and for organic synthesis. Some representatives of the group (e.g. ammonium salts) were known from the oldest times. Many onium salts are met the nature: ammonium salts (either as inorganic salts, and organic derivatives, e.g. aminoacids, salts of biogenic amines and alkaloids, etc.); oxonium salts (plant pigments as anthocyans are organic oxonium compounds), etc. In 1894 C. Hartmann and V. Meyer prepared the first iodonium salts - 4-iododiphenyliodonium hydrogensulfate and diphenyliodonium salts, and suggested the ending -onium for all compounds with properties similar to those of ammonium salts. Nowadays onium compounds of almost all nonmetals are synthesised and studied. A great variety of physical methods: diffraction (e.g. XRD) and spectral methods (IR-, NMR-, and UV-spectra), as well as the chemical properties and methods of preparation of onium salts have been used in determination of the structure of these compounds. The application of different onium salts is immense. Ammonium, phosphonium and sulfonium salts are used as phase-transfer catalysts; diazonium salts - for the preparation of dyes, metalochromic and pH-indicators. All the onium salts and especially diazonium and iodonium salts are very useful reagents in organic synthesis.

  4. Peroxide organometallic compounds and their transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Brilkina, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given experimental works on synthesis and reactions of peroxide organometallic compounds. Reactions have been considered of organometallic compounds with oxygen and organic peroxides which result in formation of both peroxide and non-peroxide products. Possible routes and mechanisms of chemical transformations of peroxide organometallic compounds have been discussed. Reactions of organometallic compounds with oxygen and peroxides have been considered

  5. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  6. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  7. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  8. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  9. New uranium compounds preparation and use as catalyst for hydrogenation of non-saturated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudet, L.; Folcher, G.

    1985-01-01

    Preparation of new organic uranium compounds and their use as catalysts for hydrogenation of non-saturated organic compounds are described. These compounds include Uranium III, a cyclopentadienic group, an alkyl group and an acetylenic derivative C 6 H 5 C triple bonds CR fixed by a π bond. Catalysts can be prepared with depleted uanium for hydrogenation of olefins for example [fr

  10. Analysis of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds as a system of bicomponent chemical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Analogs and prototypes of the compounds supplementing the system of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds by Gorunova are revealed. The investigation of all series of tetraelectron ovalenthol compounds allows one to supplement the variety of known series used for regular tracing and forecasting of compound properties (series of cation and anion substitutions by isonuclear series of the A 4 B 4 , A 3 B 5 , A 1 B 7 type and others compounds. The above series for medium ordinal numbers anti Z equal 10, 14, 18, 23 and 36 permit to illustrate the possibility of existence of such analogs or series, for example for the compounds of the type A 3 -- B 5 :AlN-BP or Z=1(f AlP-ScN-BV (for Z=14), ScP-AlV (for Z=18), GaP-AlAs-YN-BNb ( for Z=23) and YAs-GaNb-InV-ScSb-LaP-AlPr (for Z=36)

  11. Studying the propensity of compounds to supersaturate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmelund, Henrik; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Christensen, Jakob Plum

    2016-01-01

    Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations of supersatura......Supersaturating drug delivery systems can enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drug compounds. Supersaturation of such compounds has been studied in many different ways; however, a more standardized method is required. The rationale of choosing suitable concentrations...... of supersaturation to study has previously been very inconsistent. This makes comparisons between studies and compounds difficult, as the propensity of compounds to supersaturate varies greatly. This study presents a standardized method to study the supersaturation of drug compounds. The method allows, both......, for a ranking of compounds according to their supersaturation propensity and the effectiveness of precipitation inhibitors. The time-concentration profile of supersaturation and precipitation was studied in situ for 4 different concentrations for 6 model compounds (albendazole, aprepitant, danazol, felodipine...

  12. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds

  14. Solid-phase synthesis of compounds of europium and terbium with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds under mechanical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskaya, I.V.; Karasev, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    Effect of solvents and parameters of mechanical treatment on basic regularities of synthesis of rare earth compounds with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds is studied. It is shown that interaction on europium (3) and terbium (3) nitrates with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds leads to formation of compounds of Ln(NO 3 )·2D composition, where Ln=Eu, Tb; D=2,2-dipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline, diphenylguanidine. Effect of conditions of mechanical treatment and different additions on process and yield of products is studied. Compounds prepared are characterized by the methods of chemical element analysis, IR spectroscopy and luminescent spectroscopy [ru

  15. Affixation and compounding in Hakka

    OpenAIRE

    Ungsitipoonporn, Siriopen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present the internal structures of words in the Hakka language. Similar to other languages, affixation and compounding are outstanding in Hakka. In general, prefixes and suffixes are bound morphemes which do not occur independently, but in Hakka they sometimes appear as independent forms. Apart from single words, identifying compound words is of particular interest. Compound nouns can be made up of two or three words (characters) which ...

  16. Compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Hamel, B. C.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Timmermans, J.; Pals, G.; Cobben, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We report two families in which the probands have compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome (MFS). The proband of family I has the R2726W FBN1 mutation associated with isolated skeletal features on one allele and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation on the other allele. The phenotype of the compound-heterozygous

  17. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  18. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  19. A Multiplexed Assay That Monitors Effects of Multiple Compound Treatment Times Reveals Candidate Immune-Enhancing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyan; Henowitz, Liza; Zweifach, Adam

    2018-05-01

    We previously developed a flow cytometry assay that monitored lytic granule exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulated by contacting beads coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. That assay was multiplexed in that responses of cells that did or did not receive the activating stimulus were distinguished via changes in light scatter accompanying binding of cells to beads, allowing us to discriminate compounds that activate responses on their own from compounds that enhance responses in cells that received the activating stimulus, all within a single sample. Here we add a second dimension of multiplexing by developing means to assess in a single sample the effects of treating cells with test compounds for different times. Bar-coding cells before adding them to test wells lets us determine compound treatment time while also monitoring activation status and response amplitude at the point of interrogation. This multiplexed assay is suitable for screening 96-well plates. We used it to screen compounds from the National Cancer Institute, identifying several compounds that enhance anti-LAMP1 responses. Multiple-treatment-time (MTT) screening enabled by bar-coding and read via high-throughput flow cytometry may be a generally useful method for facilitating the discovery of compounds of interest.

  20. Characterization of selected volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl compounds at a roadside monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. F.; Lee, S. C.; Chiu, Gloria M. Y.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PAHs and carbonyl compounds are the major toxic components in Hong Kong. Emissions from motor vehicles have been one of the primary pollution sources in the metropolitan areas throughout Hong Kong for a long time. A 1-yr monitoring program for VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds had been performed at a roadside urban station at Hong Kong Polytechnic University in order to determine the variations and correlations of each selected species (VOCs, PAHs and carbonyl compounds). This study is aimed to analyze toxic volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), two carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), and selective polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program started from 16 April 1999 to 30 March 2000. Ambient VOC concentrations, many of which originate from the same sources as particulate PAHs and carbonyls compounds, show significant quantities of benzene, toluene and xylenes. Correlations and multivariate analysis of selected gaseous and particulate phase organic pollutants were performed. Source identification by principle component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis allowed the identification of four sources (factors) for the roadside monitoring station. Factor 1 represents the effect of diesel vehicle exhaust. Factor 2 shows the contribution of aromatic compounds. Factor 3 explains photochemical products—formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Factor 4 explains the effect of gasoline vehicle exhaust.

  1. Response of Bioluminescent Bacteria to Alkyltin Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    found in the butyltiri series of compounds; tributyltin was (’Stimes more toxic than dibutyltin and (- 50 times more toxic than (mono)butyltin. When...correlations between compounds, tributyltin was -35 tine more Kicrotxit and fish bLoessays for pure toxic than dibutyltin end -750 times More compounds and...the compounds as a decrease in toxicity (5) tributyltin compounds ea -150 tines more and a method to study synergistic andtoxic than trinethyltia

  2. Analysis of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds as a system of bicomponent chemical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Dzhuraev, T.D.

    1985-03-01

    Analogs and prototypes of the compounds supplementing the system of isoelectron isonuclear series of holovalent tetraelectron compounds by Gorunova are revealed. The investigation of all series of tetraelectron ovalenthol compounds allows one to supplement the variety of known series used for regular tracing and forecasting of compound properties (series of cation and anion substitutions by isonuclear series of the A/sup 4/B/sup 4/, A/sup 3/B/sup 5/, A/sup 1/B/sup 7/ type and others compounds. The above series for medium ordinal numbers anti Z equal 10, 14, 18, 23 and 36 permit to illustrate the possibility of existence of such analogs or series, for example for the compounds of the type A/sup 3/-- B/sup 5/:AlN-BP or Z=1(f AlP-ScN-BV (for Z=14), ScP-AlV (for Z=18), GaP-AlAs-YN-BNb (for Z=23) and YAs-GaNb-InV-ScSb-LaP-AlPr (for Z=36).

  3. Chemical compounds in teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viana da Silva Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinone compounds are largely generated at extractive fraction of the woods in a complex and variable biological system. The literature has indications for many segments from food industry to pharmaceutical industry. Within the field of industrial use of wood, they are less desirable since they are treated only as incidental substances in production strings of pulp, paper, charcoal, and sawmill. In spite of its small amount, compared to other chemical compounds called essential, these substances have received special attention from researchers revealing a diverse range of offerings to market products textiles, pharmaceuticals, colorants, and other polymers, for which are being tested and employed. Quinones are found in fungi, lichens, and mostly in higher plants. Tectona grandis, usually called teak, is able to biosynthesize anthraquinones, which is a quinone compound, byproduct of secondary metabolism. This species provides wood that is much prized in the furniture sector and can also be exploited for metabolites to supply the market in quinone compounds and commercial development of new technologies, adding value to the plantations of this species within our country.

  4. Fig volatile compounds--a first comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison-Pigé, Laure; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Greeff, Jaco M; Bessière, Jean-Marie

    2002-09-01

    We analysed the compounds of volatile blends released by receptive figs of twenty Ficus species to attract their specific pollinating wasps. In all, 99 different compounds were identified. The compounds are mainly terpenoids, aliphatic compounds and products from the shikimic acid pathway. In each species blend, there are few major compounds, which are generally common among floral fragrances. Most species blends also include rare compounds, but generally their proportion in the blend is low. A possible basis for species-specificity of Ficus-wasp interactions is discussed in relation to the patterns of volatiles found in this interspecies comparison. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  6. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  7. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  8. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  9. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  10. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  11. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...... perceptions of what is acceptable urban life to the growing cohort of young African households. In addition, there is a need to explore innovative forms of tenure in order to secure the majority of Kumasi's population access to land for housing.......The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  12. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  13. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  14. Resistance to phenicol compounds following adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumet, C; Fourreau, E; Legrandois, P; Maris, P

    2012-07-06

    Bacterial adaptation to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) is mainly documented for benzalkonium chloride (BC) and few data are available for other QACs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of repeated exposure to different quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) on the susceptibility and/or resistance of bacteria to other QACs and antibiotics. Escherichia coli strains (n=10) were adapted by daily exposure to increasingly sub-inhibitory concentrations of a QAC for 7 days. Three QACs were studied. Following adaptation, we found similar levels of reduction in susceptibility to QACs with a mean 3-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to initial MIC values, whatever the QAC used during adaptation. No significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility were observed between the tested QACs. Antibiotic susceptibility was reduced from 3.5- to 7.5-fold for phenicol compounds, β lactams, and quinolones. Increased MIC was associated with a shift in phenotype from susceptible to resistant for phenicol compounds (florfenicol and chloramphenicol) in 90% of E. coli strains. Regardless of the QAC used for adaptation, exposure to gradually increasing concentrations of this type of disinfectant results in reduced susceptibility to QACs and antibiotics as well as cross-resistance to phenicol compounds in E. coli strains. Extensive use of QACs at sub-inhibitory concentrations may lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and may represent a public health risk. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. THE COMPOUND NOUNS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The compound words are all the words that are compound from two or more words and both of them creative the new words with the new meaning. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word-formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation). Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting toget...

  16. Insecticidal Activity of Cyanohydrin and Monoterpenoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Coats

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activities of several cyanohydrins, cyanohydrin esters and monoterpenoid esters (including three monoterpenoid esters of a cyanohydrin were evaluated. Topical toxicity to Musca domestica L. adults was examined, and testing of many compounds at 100 mg/fly resulted in 100% mortality. Topical LD50 values of four compounds for M. domestica were calculated. Testing of many of the reported compounds to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellog resulted in 100% mortality at 10 ppm, and two compounds caused 100% mortality at 1 ppm. Aquatic LC50 values were calculated for five compounds for larvae of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti (L.. Monoterpenoid esters were among the most toxic compounds tested in topical and aquatic bioassays.

  17. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  18. Molecular mechanism of radiosensitization by nitro compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, T.; Wada, T.; Nishimoto, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a molecular mechanism of radiosensitization by electron-affinic nitro compounds is discussed, mainly on the basis of the results of the radiation-induced chemical studies of DNA-related compounds in aqueous solutions. In Section II the general aspects of the radiation chemistry of organic compounds in the absence and presence of oxygen in aqueous solution are shown in order to demonstrate characteristic differences between radiation chemical reactions in hypoxic and oxic cells. The effects of nitro compounds on the radiolysis yields of DNA-related compounds in aqueous solutions are described in Section III. In Section IV the retardation effects of misonidazole on the radiation chemical processes of DNA-related compounds are shown along with the reaction characteristics of misonidazole with hydroxyl radical ( . OH) and hydrated electron (e/sub aq/-bar) produced by the radiolysis of water. The promotion of radiation-induced oxidation of thymine into thymine glycol (TG) by nitro radiosensitizers in deoxygenated solution and the relations between the activity of nitro compound for the thymine glycol formation and the enhancement activity measured in vitro are described in Section V. Finally, the protection against radiation-induced damage of thymine by a sulfhydryl compound of glutathione and the ability of electron-affinic compounds to decompose the intracellular radioprotector are described in Section VI

  19. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Quinoline-Based Hybrid Compounds with Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhamla Nqoro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of quinoline-based compounds for the treatment of malaria infections is hampered by drug resistance. Drug resistance has led to the combination of quinolines with other classes of antimalarials resulting in enhanced therapeutic outcomes. However, the combination of antimalarials is limited by drug-drug interactions. In order to overcome the aforementioned factors, several researchers have reported hybrid compounds prepared by reacting quinoline-based compounds with other compounds via selected functionalities. This review will focus on the currently reported quinoline-based hybrid compounds and their preclinical studies.

  1. Four new compounds from Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Bin-Feng; Yang, Li; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2014-04-01

    Four new compounds, impecylone (1), deacetylimpecyloside (2), seguinoside K 4-methylether (3) and impecylenolide (4), were isolated from Imperata cylindrica along with two known compounds, impecyloside (5) and seguinoside K (6). Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, and the absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. In calcium assay, the result indicated that compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 cannot obviously inhibit the calcium peak value compared with the negative control, and suggested that the four compounds could not have anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Organic mercury compounds have a c-mitotic effect on plant cells that cause polyploidi. Studies were performed on Allium root cells. These investigations involved methyl mercury dicyandiamide, methyl mercury hydroxide, and phenyl mercury hydroxide. The lowest concentration necessary for a cytologically observable effect was about 0.05 ppM Hg for the methyl compounds. For the phenyl compound, the value was lower. Experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. The question was whether the mercury would reach the gonads. Experimental data with mercury treated larvae indicated a chromosome disjunction. Data indicated a preferential segregation at the meiotic division might be involved. Experiments are being performed on mice inbred (CBA) in order to investigate teratogenic effects and dominant lethality caused by organic mercury compounds. The mutagenic effects of these compounds are studied on Neurospora Drosophila. No conclusive data is now available.

  3. Chloric organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moalem, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since many years ago, hazardous and toxic refuses which are results of human activities has been carelessly without any Biological and Engineering facts and knowledge discharged into our land and water. The effects of discharging those materials in environment are different. Some of refuse materials shows short and other has long-time adverse effects in our environment, Among hazardous organic chemical materials, chlorine, consider, to be the main element. Organic materials with chlorine is called chlorine hydrocarbon as a hazardous compound. This paper discuss the hazardous materials especially chloric organic compound and their misuse effects in environment and human being

  4. Radiolysis of other organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of radiolysis of organic halogen, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen (including amines, amides, nitriles et al.) compounds in liquid phase are discussed. Intermediate and stable finish products of radiolysis of the given compounds, properties and radiochemical yields of these products are considered

  5. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...

  6. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  7. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  8. Compound cueing in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  9. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  10. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  11. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  12. Applying Quality by Design Concepts to Pharmacy Compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Compounding of medications is an important part of the practice of the pharmacy profession. Because compounded medications do not have U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, a pharmacist has the responsibility to ensure that compounded medications are of suitable quality, safety, and efficacy. The Federal Government and numerous states have updated their laws and regulations regarding pharmacy compounding as a result of recent quality issues. Compounding pharmacists are expected to follow good preparation prodecures in their compounding practices in much the same way pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to follow Current Good Manufacturing Procedures as detailed in the United States Code of Federal Regulations. Application of Quality by Design concepts to the preparation process for a compounded medication can help in understanding the potential pitfalls and the means to mitigate their impact. The goal is to build quality into the compounding process to ensure that the resultant compounded prescription meets the human or animal patients' requirements.

  13. Neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkas, Adi; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Aschner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Fragrance compounds are chemicals belonging to one of several families, which are used frequently and globally in cosmetics, household products, foods and beverages. A complete list of such compounds is rarely found on the ingredients-list of such products, as "fragrance mixtures" are defined as "trade secrets" and thus protected by law. While some information regarding the general toxicity of some of these compounds is available, their neurotoxicity is known to a lesser extent. Here, we discuss the prevalence and neurotoxicity of fragrance compounds belonging to the three most common groups: phthalates, synthetic musks and chemical sensitizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  15. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  16. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuktarov, Airat R; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  17. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuktarov, Airat R.; Dzhemilev, Usein M.

    2010-09-01

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  18. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuktarov, Airat R; Dzhemilev, Usein M [Institute of Petrochemistry and Catalysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-14

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  19. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  20. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  1. Properties of tritium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovodskij, L.F.; Gaevoj, V.K.; Grishmanovskij, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Ways of tritium preparation and different aspects of its application are considered. Physicochemical properties of this isotope and some compounds of it - tritium oxides, lithium, titanium, zirconium, uranium tritides, tritium organic compounds - are discussed. In particular, diffusion of tritium and its oxide through different materials, tritium oxidation processes, decomposition of tritium-containing compounds under the action of self-radiation are considered. Main radiobiological tritium properties are described

  2. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  3. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  4. Kinetics of molybdenum(6) complexation with o,o'-dihydroxyazo compounds or heterocyclic azo compounds in the presence of hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochelaeva, G.A.; Degtyarev, M.Yu.; Ivanov, V.M.; Prokhorova, G.V.; Figurovskaya, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of complexation in the system molybdenum(6)-azo compound-hydroxylamine was studied. Azo compounds of the types o,o'-dihydroxyazo compounds, such as Lyumogallion IREA and Magneson IREA, and heterocyclic azo compounds, such as 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, were studied. The formation of mixed-ligand complexes with the ratio of component 1 : 1 : 1 was detected. Rate constants, activation energies, and stability constants of the forming compounds were evaluated. It was concluded that the reagents under study are promising for the analytical chemistry of molybdenum [ru

  5. Calorimetric investigations of UPb{sub 3} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Renu, E-mail: arenu@barc.gov.in; Samui, Pradeep; Mukerjee, S.K.

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • First time reporting of enthalpy increment and heat capacity data of UPb{sub 3} compound. • First time reporting of high temperature calorimetric determination of enthalpy of formation of UPb{sub 3} compound. • Miedema model was used to calculate enthalpies of formation of UPb{sub 3} and UPb. • Thermodynamic table of the compound UPb{sub 3} was generated. - Abstract: Interaction of uranium based metallic fuels and lead coolant can lead to formation of intermetallic compounds of U-Pb system. To understand U-Pb interactions, it is important to know thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds present in this system, UPb{sub 3} and UPb. In the present work, enthalpy increment, heat capacity and enthalpy of formation of UPb{sub 3} intermetallic compound were determined. The enthalpy increment was determined by high temperature Calvet calorimeter and heat capacity was determined using DSC. The heat capacity data was used to calculate thermodynamic parameters of the compound as a function of temperature. The enthalpy of formation at 843 K was determined using successive precipitation method, by direct reaction calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation at 843 K, from Pb(l) and U(l), was −28.9 kJ at-mol{sup −1} and after adjusting enthalpy increments of pure elements and compound, the enthalpy of formation of the compound at 298 K, from Pb(s) and U(α) was found to be −20.0 kJ at-mol{sup −1}.

  6. Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds in medicinal plants and characterizations of a selected compound, eucarvone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Yukari; Baba, Yohei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Fujimura, Kaori; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Screening and identification of phytotoxic volatile compounds were performed using 71 medicinal plant species to find new natural compounds, and the characterization of the promising compound was investigated to understand the mode of action. The volatile compounds from Asarum sieboldii Miq. showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the hypocotyl growth of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Great Lakes 366), followed by those from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet and Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) DC.. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) identified four volatile compounds, α-pinene (2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene), β-pinene (6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane), 3-carene (3,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene), and eucarvone (2,6,6-trimethy-2,4-cycloheptadien-1-one), from A. sieboldii, and three volatile compounds, limonene (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene), menthone (5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexan-1-one), and pulegone (5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylidenecyclohexan-1-one), from S. tenuifolia. Among these volatile compounds, eucarvone, menthone, and pulegone exhibited strong inhibitory effects on both the root and shoot growth of lettuce seedlings. Eucarvone-induced growth inhibition was species-selective. Cell death, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation were induced in susceptible finger millet seedlings by eucarvone treatment, whereas this compound (≤158 μM) did not cause the increase of lipid peroxidation and ROS production in tolerant maize. The results of the present study show that eucarvone can have strong phytotoxic activity, which may be due to ROS overproduction and subsequent oxidative damage in finger millet seedlings.

  7. An introduction to the chemistry of complex compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, Aleksander Abramovich; Trimble, R F

    1962-01-01

    An Introduction to the Chemistry of Complex Compounds discusses the fundamental concepts that are essential in understanding the underlying principles of complex compounds. The coverage of the book includes the compounds of the hexa, penta, and tetrammine type; compounds of the tri, dl, monoamine and hexacido types for the coordination number of 6; and complex compounds with a coordination number of 4. The text also covers the effects and chemical properties of complex compounds, such as the nature of the force of complex formation; the mutual effects of coordinated groups; and acid-base prope

  8. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  9. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  10. Nitrogen compounds behavior under irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Takagi, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Tadasu

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate nitrogen compounds behavior in liquid phase under irradiation environments. Nitrogen compounds take a chemical form of ammonium ion under reducing condition by gamma irradiation, whereas ammonium ions are rather stable even under oxidizing conditions. Key reactions were pointed out and their reaction rate constants and activation energies were estimated through computer code simulation. A reaction scheme for nitrogen compounds including protonate reaction was proposed. (author)

  11. Neoclassical compounds and final combining forms in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díaz-Negrillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available English neoclassical compounds rely on a distinct vocabulary stock and present morphological features which raise a number of theoretical questions. Generalisations about neoclassical compounds are also problematic because the output is by no means homogeneous, that is, defining features of neoclassical compounds sometimes co-exist with features that are not prototypical of these formations. The paper looks at neoclassical compounds with a view to exploring patterns of morphological behaviour and development in this class of compounds. The approach is both synchronic and diachronic: it researches whether the morphological behaviour of recently formed compounds is different from that of earlier compounds and, if so, in which respects. This is assessed on data from the BNC with respect to some of the features that are cited in the literature as defining properties of neoclassical compounds, specifically, their internal configuration, the occurrence or not of a linking vowel, and their productivity.

  12. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Drmić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many novel and innovative techniques are nowadays researched and explored in order to replace or improve classical, thermal processing technologies. One of newer technique is technique of minimal food processing, under what we assume ultrasound processing. Ultrasound technology can be very useful for minimal food processing because transmission of acoustic energy through product is fast and complete, which allows reduction in total processing time, and therefore lower energy consumption. Industrial processing is growing more and more waste products, and in desire of preservation of global recourses and energy efficiency, several ways of active compounds extraction techniques are now explored. The goal is to implement novel extraction techniques in food and pharmaceutical industry as well in medicine. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds offers increase in yield, and reduction or total avoiding of solvent usage. Increase in temperature of treatment is controlled and restricted, thereby preserving extracted bioactive compounds. In this paper, several methods of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials are shown. Ultrasound can improve classic mechanisms of extraction, and thereby offer novel possibilities of commercial extraction of desired compounds. Application of sonochemistry (ultrasound chemistry is providing better yield in desired compounds and reduction in treatment time.

  13. Drug-likeness analysis of traditional Chinese medicines: 2. Characterization of scaffold architectures for drug-like compounds, non-drug-like compounds, and natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sheng; Li, Youyong; Wang, Junmei; Xu, Xiaojie; Xu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Lei; Hou, Tingjun

    2013-01-21

    In order to better understand the structural features of natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, the scaffold architectures of drug-like compounds in MACCS-II Drug Data Report (MDDR), non-drug-like compounds in Available Chemical Directory (ACD), and natural compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD) were explored and compared. First, the different scaffolds were extracted from ACD, MDDR and TCMCD by using three scaffold representations, including Murcko frameworks, Scaffold Tree, and ring systems with different complexity and side chains. Then, by examining the accumulative frequency of the scaffolds in each dataset, we observed that the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree offer advantages over the other scaffold architectures to represent the scaffold diversity of the compound libraries. By comparing the similarity of the scaffold architectures presented in MDDR, ACD and TCMCD, structural overlaps were observed not only between MDDR and TCMCD but also between MDDR and ACD. Finally, Tree Maps were used to cluster the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree and visualize the scaffold space of the three datasets. The analysis of the scaffold architectures of MDDR, ACD and TCMCD shows that, on average, drug-like molecules in MDDR have the highest diversity while natural compounds in TCMCD have the highest complexity. According to the Tree Maps, it can be observed that the Level 1 scaffolds present in MDDR have higher diversity than those presented in TCMCD and ACD. However, some representative scaffolds in MDDR with high frequency show structural similarities to those in TCMCD and ACD, suggesting that some scaffolds in TCMCD and ACD may be potentially drug-like fragments for fragment-based and de novo drug design.

  14. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  15. Thermal conductivity of REIn3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha, J

    2006-01-01

    The results of measurements of the thermal conductivity of REIn 3 (RE Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Tm) compounds as a function of the temperature in the interval 4-300 K in the absence and in the presence of an external magnetic field of 8 T are presented. Except for PRIn 3 all the compounds are antiferromagnetic. YIn 3 was also measured as a reference compound. The results were analysed in the paramagnetic phase, where an influence of the crystalline electric field on the thermal conductivity was found. Drastic changes in the thermal conductivity were observed and analysed in the vicinity of the Neel temperature and in the antiferromagnetic phases of the compounds. Below the Neel temperature an additional magnon contribution to the thermal conductivity was separated out

  16. Compound Option Pricing under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the uncertainty of a financial market includes two aspects: risk and vagueness; in this paper, fuzzy sets theory is applied to model the imprecise input parameters (interest rate and volatility. We present the fuzzy price of compound option by fuzzing the interest and volatility in Geske’s compound option pricing formula. For each α, the α-level set of fuzzy prices is obtained according to the fuzzy arithmetics and the definition of fuzzy-valued function. We apply a defuzzification method based on crisp possibilistic mean values of the fuzzy interest rate and fuzzy volatility to obtain the crisp possibilistic mean value of compound option price. Finally, we present a numerical analysis to illustrate the compound option pricing under fuzzy environment.

  17. Structure Modification of an Active Azo-Compound as a Route to New Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Concilio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some novel (phenyl-diazenylphenols 3a–g were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A previously synthesized molecule, active against bacteria and fungi, was used as lead for modifications and optimization of the structure, by introduction/removal or displacement of hydroxyl groups on the azobenzene rings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the consequent changes of the antimicrobial activity and to validate the hypothesis that, for these compounds, a plausible mechanism could involve an interaction with protein receptors, rather than an interaction with membrane. All newly synthesized compounds were analyzed by 1H-NMR, DSC thermal analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of each compound was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Compounds 3b and 3g showed the highest activity against S. aureus and C. albicans, with remarkable MIC values of 10 µg/mL and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Structure-activity relationship studies were capable to rationalize the effect of different substitutions on the phenyl ring of the azobenzene on antimicrobial activity.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  19. Prediction model of biocrude yield and nitrogen heterocyclic compounds analysis by hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lili; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    The model of biocrude yield and the nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in biocrude of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction are two of the most concerned issues in this field at present. This study explored a hydrothermal liquefaction biocrude yield model involved in the interaction among biochemical compounds in microalgae and analysed nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in biocrude. The model compound (castor oil, soya protein and glucose) and Nanochloropsis were liquefied at 280°C for 1h. The products were analyzed by GC-MS, element analysis and FTIR. The results suggested that interactions among different components in microalgae enhanced biocrude yield. The biocrude yield prediction model involved cross-interactions performed more accurate than previous models.When the ratio of protein and carbohydrate around 3, the cross-interaction and nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in biocrude would both reach the highest extent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Separation of compounds differing in isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, R.E.; Brooks, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Compounds differing in isotopic composition are separated by introducing a mixture of the compounds into a chromatographic column containing a lanthanide chelate as a stationary phase and eluting from the column a fraction that is at least enriched with one of the compounds of the mixture. (U.S.)

  1. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  2. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis - Analytical challenges and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Rethemeyer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decades, techniques have become available that allow measurement of isotopic compositions of individual organic compounds (compound-specific isotope measurements). Most often the carbon isotopic composition of these compounds is studied, including stable carbon (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) measurements. While compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements are fairly simple, and well-established techniques are widely available, radiocarbon analysis of specific organic compounds is a more challenging method. Analytical challenges include difficulty obtaining adequate quantities of sample, tedious and complicated laboratory separations, the lack of authentic standards for measuring realistic processing blanks, and large uncertainties in values of Δ14C at small sample sizes. The challenges associated with sample preparation for compound-specific Δ14C measurements will be discussed in this contribution. Several years of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis have revealed that in most natural samples, purified organic compounds consist of heterogeneous mixtures of the same compound. These mixtures could derive from multiple sources, each having a different initial reservoir age but mixed in the same terminal reservoir, from a single source but mixed after deposition, or from a prokaryotic organism using variable carbon sources including mobilization of ancient carbon. These processes not only represent challenges to the interpretation of compound-specific radiocarbon data, but provide unique tools for the understanding of biogeochemical and sedimentological processes influencing the preserved organic geochemical records in marine sediments. We will discuss some examples where compound-specific radiocarbon analysis has provided new insights for the understanding of carbon source utilization and carbon cycling.

  3. Separation of compounds differing in isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, R.E.; Brooks, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Compounds differing in isotopic composition are separated by introducing a mixture of the compounds into a chromatographic column containing a lanthanide chelate as a stationary phase and eluting from the column a fraction which is at least enriched with one of the compounds of the mixture. 17 claims, no drawings

  4. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets are ones often considered non-toxic. Such compounds act variously on ion channels, quorum sensing systems, neurotransmitters, production/release of adhesive, and specific enzymes that regulate energy production or primary metabolism. In contrast, AF compounds with general targets may or may not act through toxic mechanisms. These compounds affect a variety of biological activities including algal photosynthesis, energy production, stress responses, genotoxic damage, immunosuppressed protein expression, oxidation, neurotransmission, surface chemistry, the formation of biofilms, and adhesive production/release. Among all the targets, adhesive production/release is the most common, possibly due to a more extensive research effort in this area. Overall, the specific molecular targets and the molecular mechanisms of most AF compounds have not been identified. Thus, the information available is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the types of molecular targets to be used as sensitive biomarkers for future design and screening of compounds with AF potential. In this review, the relevant advantages and disadvantages of the molecular tools available for studying the molecular targets of AF compounds are highlighted briefly and the molecular mechanisms of the AF compounds, which are largely a source of speculation in the literature, are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  6. Butyl Rubber: Compound Development and Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sloan, James

    2000-01-01

    ...), to develop the standard butyl rubber compound. The strategy of this work was to compound- and compression-mold high-quality, uniform butyl rubber experimental sheets and to evaluate their cure properties, mechanical properties...

  7. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.L.; Hanson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C 1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C 1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C 1 compounds, and new directions in C 1 metabolism. (DT)

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  10. Spin polarization in rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenwijk, F.J. van

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis the results of Moessbauer experiments performed on a series of intermetallic compounds of europium and gadolinium are reported. For each of these compounds the magnetic hyperfine field, the electric field gradient at the nuclear site and the isomer shift were determined. For most of the compounds the magnetic ordering temperature was also measured. For some of the europium compounds (e.g. EuAu 5 , EuAg 5 , and EuCu 5 ) it could be derived from the measurements that the easy direction of magnetization falls along the crystallographic c-axis. In a number of compounds (e.g. EuCu 5 , EuZn 5 , EuAu 2 and GdCu 5 ), the various contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field were disentangled by the investigation of suitable pseudobinary compounds that are dilute in Eu. The neighbour contribution Hsub(N) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature thetasub(p) were compared with each other in terms of the RKKY model for EuCu 5 and GdCu 5 . Since the correspondence was found to be poor it was concluded that the magnetic behaviour in these compounds cannot be described by a simple free electron picture as is the basis for the RKKY model

  11. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  12. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A.

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application. PMID:23060862

  13. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucera, Annalisa; Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo A

    2012-01-01

    In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying, and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables, and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  14. Food applications of natural antimicrobial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Alessandro eDel Nobile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In agreement with the current trend of giving value to natural and renewable resources, the use of natural antimicrobial compounds, particularly in food and biomedical applications, becomes very frequent. The direct addition of natural compounds to food is the most common method of application, even if numerous efforts have been made to find alternative solutions to the aim of avoiding undesirable inactivation. Dipping, spraying and coating treatment of food with active solutions are currently applied to product prior to packaging as valid options. The aim of the current work is to give an overview on the use of natural compounds in food sector. In particular, the review will gather numerous case-studies of meat, fish, dairy products, minimally processed fruit and vegetables and cereal-based products where these compounds found application.

  15. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  16. Multi-Phase Equilibrium and Solubilities of Aromatic Compounds and Inorganic Compounds in Sub- and Supercritical Water: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinli; Ding, Xin; Du, Bowen; Fang, Tao

    2017-11-02

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated. This paper also lists the existing problems of multi-phase equilibria and solubility studies on aromatic compounds and inorganic compounds in sub- and supercritical water.

  17. Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C

    1967-01-01

    Studies on the genetic and developmental effects of organic mercury compounds on lilies, drosophila, and ice were carried out. It was found that chromosomal and developmental abnormalities were correlated with the administration of mercury compounds.

  18. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation. of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference...... compounds, is carried out. Sorption and specific biological degradation processes are integrated with standardised water process models to model the fate of both compounds. Simulated mass flows of the two compounds during one dry weather day and one wet weather day are compared for realistic influent flow...... rate and concentration profiles. The wet weather day induces resuspension of stored sediments, which increases the pollutant load on the downstream system. The potential of the model to elucidate important phenomena related to origin and fate of the model compounds is demonstrated....

  19. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, S. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.huttunen@oulu.fi; Lappalainen, N.M. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland); Turunen, J. [Botany Division, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90 014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A{sub 280-320nm}) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time.

  20. UV-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.; Lappalainen, N.M.; Turunen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UV-B-absorbing compounds of herbarium specimens of 10 subarctic bryophyte species collected during the years 1926-1996 and available at the Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, were studied. We studied whether herbarium specimens reflect changes in the past radiation climate through their methanol-extractable compounds. The order of gametophytes based on the average amount of total compounds (sum of A 280-320nm ) per mass from the lowest to the highest was Polytrichum commune, Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Sphagnum angustifolium, Dicranum scoparium, Funaria hygrometrica, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum warnstorfii, Sphagnum capillifolium and Polytrichastrum alpinum, and the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area correlated with the summertime daily global radiation and latitude. P. alpinum, F. hygrometrica and three Sphagnum species seem to be good indicators for further studies. The amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds revealed no significant trends from the 1920s till the 1990s, with the exception of S. capillifolium, which showed a significant decreasing trend. - UV-B-absorbing compounds in subarctic herbarium bryophytes indicate the radiation climate of the collecting site and time

  1. Degradation of based EPDM dielectric compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galembeck, F.

    1988-01-01

    The stability of an EPDM compound used as power cables insulation was studied under various conditions of thermal stress. Changes in the dielectric and tensile strenght of the samples were found after the aging. Samples of the EPDM compound were analysed by spectroscopic (photoacoustic, IR) methods showing alterations in its components: Pb 3 O 4 is reduced to PbO and exsuded paraffin is oxidized. Methane is prevalent in the gaseous mixture released by the heated compound and analysed by Gas Chromatography. (author) [pt

  2. Compounds in dictionary-based Cross-language information retrieval_revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound words form an important part of natural language. From the cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR point of view it is important that many natural languages are highly productive with compounds, and translation resources cannot include entries for all compounds. Also, compounds are often content bearing words in a sentence. In Swedish, German and Finnish roughly one tenth of the words in a text prepared for information retrieval purposes are compounds. Important research questions concerning compound handling in dictionary-based cross-language information retrieval are 1 compound splitting into components, 2 normalisation of components, 3 translation of components and 4 query structuring for compounds and their components in the target language. The impact of compound processing on the performance of the cross-language information retrieval process is evaluated in this study and the results indicate that the effect is clearly positive.

  3. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  4. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  5. A survey of synthetic and natural phytotoxic compounds and phytoalexins as potential antimalarial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajsa, Joanna; Singh, Kshipra; Nanayakkara, Dhammika; Duke, Stephen Oscar; Rimando, Agnes Mamaril; Evidente, Antonio; Tekwani, Babu Lal

    2007-09-01

    The apicomplexan parasites pathogens such as Plasmodium spp. possess an apicoplast, a plastid organelle similar to those of plants. The apicoplast has some essential plant-like metabolic pathways and processes, making these parasites susceptible to inhibitors of these functions. The main objective of this paper is to determine if phytotoxins with plastid target sites are more likely to be good antiplasmodial compounds than are those with other modes of action. The antiplasmodial activities of some compounds with established phytotoxic action were determined in vitro on a chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (D6, Sierra Leone) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we provide in vitro activities of almost 50 such compounds, as well as a few phytoalexins against P. falciparum. Endothall, anisomycin, and cerulenin had sufficient antiplasmodial action to be considered as new lead antimalarial structures. Some derivatives of fusicoccin possessed markedly improved antiplasmodial action than the parent compound. Our results suggest that phytotoxins with plastid targets may not necessarily be better antiplasmodials than those that act at other molecular sites. The herbicides, phytotoxins and the phytoalexins reported here with significant antiplasmodial activity may be useful probes for identification of new antimalarial drug targets and may also be used as new lead structures for new antiplasmodial drug discovery.

  6. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used to determine compound effects on both neural function and cell health in primary cortical networks grown on mwMEA plates following exposure to ~1100 compounds from EPA’s Phase II ToxCast libraries. On DIV 13, baseline activity (40 min) was recorded prior to exposure to each compound at 40 µM. DMSO and the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (BIC) were included as controls on each mwMEA plate. Changes in spontaneous network activity (mean firing rate; MFR) and cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase; LDH and CellTiter Blue; CTB) were assessed within the same well following compound exposure. Activity calls (“hits”) were established using the 90th and 20th percentiles of the compound-induced change in MFR (medians of triplicates) across all tested compounds; compounds above (top 10% of compounds increasing MFR), and below (bottom 20% of compounds decreasing MFR) these thresholds, respectively were considered hits. MFR was altered beyond one of these thresholds by 322 compounds. Four compound categories accounted for 66% of the hits, including: insecticides (e.g. abamectin, lindane, prallethrin), pharmaceuticals (e.g. haloperidol, reserpine), fungicides (e.g. hexaconazole, fenamidone), and h

  7. Diazo Compounds: Versatile Tools for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Kalie A; Aronoff, Matthew R; Raines, Ronald T

    2016-12-16

    Diazo groups have broad and tunable reactivity. That and other attributes endow diazo compounds with the potential to be valuable reagents for chemical biologists. The presence of diazo groups in natural products underscores their metabolic stability and anticipates their utility in a biological context. The chemoselectivity of diazo groups, even in the presence of azido groups, presents many opportunities. Already, diazo compounds have served as chemical probes and elicited novel modifications of proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we review advances that have facilitated the chemical synthesis of diazo compounds, and we highlight applications of diazo compounds in the detection and modification of biomolecules.

  8. Electronic structure of A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    For the past twenty-five years compounds with the A15 crystal structure have dominated the class of high temperature superconductors. The crystal structure of an A15 compound A 3 B is cubic (space group O/sub h/ 3 ). However, the site symmetry (D/sub 2d/) of the A atoms is much lower than cubic, an unusual occurrence in cubic binary compounds. Variations on this theme have supplied the basis of many theoretical models of the anomalous temperature (T) dependence of normal state properties and the low temperature cubic reversible tetragonal structural transformations which accompany high values of T/sub c/ in A15 compounds. In this paper results of self-consistent pseudopotential band structure calculations are used to assess some important aspects of the unique and unusual behavior in A15 compounds: (1) the role of the B atom in determining the overall electronic structure will be shown to be important; (2) the effect of the low site symmetry of the A atom on the charge density and potential will be assessed; and (3) the bonding will be shown to be metallic-covalent with no significant A-B charge transfer

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  10. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Bewley, Kevin; Watson, Robert J; Vasan, Seshadri S; Ghosh, Chandradhish; Konai, Mohini M; Gausdal, Gro; Lorens, James B; Long, Jason; Barclay, Wendy; Garcia-Dorival, Isabel; Hiscox, Julian; Bosworth, Andrew; Taylor, Irene; Easterbrook, Linda; Pitman, James; Summers, Sian; Chan-Pensley, Jenny; Funnell, Simon; Vipond, Julia; Charlton, Sue; Haldar, Jayanta; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W

    2016-10-27

    In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine). A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna). The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8) were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease.

  11. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D. Dowall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine. A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna. The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8 were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease.

  12. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  13. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  14. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Shamai (Shitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom (s.d.o.f. are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the s.d.o.f. for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable s.d.o.f. is given for the general case.

  15. Compounds interaction on biodegradation of toluene and methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEK) mixtures in a composite bead biofilter was investigated. The biodegradation rate of two compounds in the exponential growth phase and stationary phase for the single compound and two compounds mixing systems was determined.

  16. The Generation of Diazo Compounds in Continuous-Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Katharina J; Koenigs, Rene M

    2018-03-25

    Toxic, cancerogenic and explosive - these attributes are typically associated with diazo compounds. Nonetheless, diazo compounds are nowadays a highly demanded class of reagents for organic synthesis, yet the concerns with regards to safe and scalable transformations of these compounds are still exceptionally high. Lately, the research area of the continuous-flow synthesis of diazo compounds attracted significant interest and a whole variety of protocols for their "on-demand" preparation have been realized to date. This concept article focuses on the recent developments using continuous-flow technologies to access diazo compounds; thus minimizing risks and hazards when working with this particular class of compounds. In this article we discuss these concepts and highlight different pre-requisites to access and to perform downstream functionalization reaction. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Measurement of loss rates of organic compounds in snow using in situ experiments and isotopically labelled compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika von Schneidemesser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular marker compounds are widely used to identify emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic air pollution sources in atmospheric samples and in deposition. Specific organic compounds have been detected in polar regions, but their fate after deposition to snow is poorly characterized. Within this context, a series of exposure experiments were carried out to observe the post-depositional processing of organic compounds under real-world conditions in snow on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet, at the Summit research station. Snow was prepared from water spiked with isotopically labelled organic compounds, representative of typical molecular marker compounds emitted from anthropogenic activities. Reaction rate constants and reaction order were determined based on a decrease in concentration to a stable, non-zero, threshold concentration. Fluoranthene-d10, docosane-d46, hexadecanoic acid-d31, docosanoic acid-d43 and azelaic acid-d14 were estimated to have first order loss rates within surface snow with reaction rate constants of 0.068, 0.040, 0.070, 0.067 and 0.047 h−1, respectively. No loss of heptadecane-d36 was observed. Overall, these results suggest that organic contaminants are archived in polar snow, although significant post-depositional losses of specific organic compounds occur. This has implications for the environmental fate of organic contaminants, as well as for ice-core studies that seek to use organic molecular markers to infer past atmospheric loadings, and source emissions.

  18. Pre-compound emission in low-energy heavy-ion interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sharma Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies have shown the presence of pre-compound emission component in heavy ion reactions at low projectile energy ranging from 4 to 7 MeV/nucleons. In earlier measurements strength of the pre-compound component has been estimated from the difference in forward-backward distributions of emitted particles. Present measurement is a part of an ongoing program on the study of reaction dynamics of heavy ion interactions at low energies aimed at investigating the effect of momentum transfer in compound, precompound, complete and incomplete fusion processes in heavy ion reactions. In the present work on the basis of momentum transfer the measurement of the recoil range distributions of heavy residues has been used to decipher the components of compound and pre-compound emission processes in the fusion of 16O projectile with 159Tb and 169Tm targets. The analysis of recoil range distribution measurements show two distinct linear momentum transfer components corresponding to pre-compound and compound nucleus processes are involved. In order to obtain the mean input angular momentum associated with compound and pre-compound emission processes, an online measurement of the spin distributions of the residues has been performed. The analysis of spin distribution indicate that the mean input angular momentum associated with pre-compound products is found to be relatively lower than that associated with compound nucleus process. The pre-compound components obtained from the present analysis are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of excitation functions.

  19. Pre-compound emission in low-energy heavy-ion interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, Devendra P.; Unnati; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown the presence of pre-compound emission component in heavy ion reactions at low projectile energy ranging from 4 to 7 MeV/nucleons. In earlier measurements strength of the pre-compound component has been estimated from the difference in forward-backward distributions of emitted particles. Present measurement is a part of an ongoing program on the study of reaction dynamics of heavy ion interactions at low energies aimed at investigating the effect of momentum transfer in compound, precompound, complete and incomplete fusion processes in heavy ion reactions. In the present work on the basis of momentum transfer the measurement of the recoil range distributions of heavy residues has been used to decipher the components of compound and pre-compound emission processes in the fusion of 16O projectile with 159Tb and 169Tm targets. The analysis of recoil range distribution measurements show two distinct linear momentum transfer components corresponding to pre-compound and compound nucleus processes are involved. In order to obtain the mean input angular momentum associated with compound and pre-compound emission processes, an online measurement of the spin distributions of the residues has been performed. The analysis of spin distribution indicate that the mean input angular momentum associated with pre-compound products is found to be relatively lower than that associated with compound nucleus process. The pre-compound components obtained from the present analysis are consistent with those obtained from the analysis of excitation functions.

  20. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids from lignin-derived compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Aaron; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Bergeron, Maxime

    2017-09-19

    Methods and compositions are provided for synthesizing ionic liquids from lignin derived compounds comprising: contacting a starting material comprising lignin with a depolymerization agent to depolymerize the lignin and form a mixture of aldehyde containing compounds; contacting the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds with an amine under conditions suitable to convert the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds to a mixture of amine containing compounds; and contacting the mixture of amine containing compounds with an acid under conditions suitable to form an ammonium salt, thereby preparing the ionic liquid.

  1. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  2. Behaviour of mercury compounds in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1944-01-01

    The uses of inorganic compounds of mercury for the control of plant pests is reviewed, and a summary of the relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds concerned is given. On chemical evidence a working hypothesis is propounded showing that all compounds may be expected to decompose into metallic mercury. A pot technique is described by means of which a correlation can be obtained between the effective mercury content of a given soil sample and the rate of growth of wheat seedlings. The mathematical treatment of the results is described, and the validity of the pot technique is verified by statistical analysis of results. Using the pot technqiue it is shown that volatilization losses are insignificant but that mercury is slowly rendered ineffective by the formation of mercuric sulphide. The effect of sulphur-reducing bacteria is considered and the influence of Vibrio desulphuricans on mercury is studied in detail. Experimental evidence obtained by the pot technique is produced to show that mercurous chloride slowly decomposes in the soil giving mercury and mercuric chloride, mercuric chloride rapidly decomposes into mercury and mercurous chloride, and other inorganic compounds decompose directly into mercury. The working hypothesis is substantiated in all major aspects. The uses and properties of the organo-mercury compounds are then discussed. Type compounds selected are ethyl mercury phosphate, phenyl mercury acetate and methoxyethyl mercury acetate. Using the pot technique it is shown that the formation of organo-mercury clays takes place and that these clays decompose giving metallic mercury. A mechanism is suggested.

  3. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  4. Organic compounds in radiation fogs in Davis (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Hannigan, Michael P.; Trenary, Laurie; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    New stainless steel active fogwater collectors were designed and used in Davis (CA, USA) to collect fogwater for the speciation of organic matter. Organic compounds in fog samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Numerous organic compounds, including various alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkanoic acids, have been identified in the fogwater samples. Higher molecular weight (MW) compounds are preferentially associated with an insoluble phase inside the fog drops, whereas lower molecular weight and more polar compounds are found predominantly in the dissolved phase. Concentrations in the dissolved phase were sometimes much higher than estimated by the compounds' aqueous solubilities.

  5. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  6. Evolutionary Structure Prediction of Stoichiometric Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem

    2014-03-01

    In general, for a given ionic compound AmBn\\ at ambient pressure condition, its stoichiometry reflects the valence state ratio between per chemical specie (i.e., the charges for each anion and cation). However, compounds under high pressure exhibit significantly behavior, compared to those analogs at ambient condition. Here we developed a method to solve the crystal structure prediction problem based on the evolutionary algorithms, which can predict both the stable compounds and their crystal structures at arbitrary P,T-conditions, given just the set of chemical elements. By applying this method to a wide range of binary ionic systems (Na-Cl, Mg-O, Xe-O, Cs-F, etc), we discovered a lot of compounds with brand new stoichimetries which can become thermodynamically stable. Further electronic structure analysis on these novel compounds indicates that several factors can contribute to this extraordinary phenomenon: (1) polyatomic anions; (2) free electron localization; (3) emergence of new valence states; (4) metallization. In particular, part of the results have been confirmed by experiment, which warrants that this approach can play a crucial role in new materials design under extreme pressure conditions. This work is funded by DARPA (Grants No. W31P4Q1210008 and W31P4Q1310005), NSF (EAR-1114313 and DMR-1231586).

  7. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  8. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  9. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds

  10. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy in neptunium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Nakada, Masami; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Moessbauer effects are observable in seven elements of actinides from {sup 232}Th to {sup 247}Cm and Moesbauer spectra have been investigated mainly with {sup 237}Np and {sup 238}U for the reasons of availability and cost of materials. This report describes the fundamental characteristics of Moessbauer spectra of {sup 237}Np and the correlation between the isomer shift and the coordination number of Np(V) compounds. The isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds had a tendency to increase as an increase of coordination number and the isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds showed broad distribution as well as those of Np(VI) but {delta} values of the compounds with the same coordination number were distributed in a narrow range. The {delta} values of Np(VI) complexes with O{sub x} donor set suggest that the Np atom in its hydroxide (NpO{sub 2}(OH){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O)might have pentagonal bipyramidal structure and at least, pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal structures might coexist in its acetate and benzoate. Really, such coexistence has been demonstrated in its nitrate, (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O. (M.N.)

  12. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  13. Site preferences of actinide cations in [NZP] compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H. T.; Spearing, D. R.; Smith, D. M.; Hampel, F. G.; Veirs, D. K.; Scheetz, B. E.

    2000-07-01

    Compounds adopting the sodium dizirconium tris(phosphate) (NaZr2(PO4)3) structure type belong to the [NZP] structural family of compounds. [NZP] compounds possess desirable properties that would permit their application as hosts for the actinides. These properties include compositional flexibility (i.e., three structural sites that can accommodate a variety of different cations), high thermal stability, negligible thermal expansion, and resistance to radiation damage. Experimental data indicate that [NZP] compounds resist dissolution and release of constituents over a wide range of experimental conditions. Moreover, [NZP] compounds may be synthesized by both conventional and novel methods and may be heat treated or sintered at modest temperatures (800 °C-1350 °C) in open or restricted systems.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility assessment of compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of Aspergillus fumigatus on chromatographic analysis has led to the isolation of the compound, AF-1 which exhibited a significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic microorganism. The structure of the isolated compound, AF-1 was identified as ...

  15. Biodegradation of NSO-compounds under different redox-conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreborg, S.; Arvin, E.; Broholm, K.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of groundwater microorganisms to degrade selected heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur, or oxygen (NSO-compounds) under four redox-conditions over a period of 846 days. Eight compounds (pyrrole, 1...... anaerobic conditions, even though the microorganisms present in the anaerobic microcosms were active throughout the incubation period. A high variability in the lag period among the NSO-compounds was observed under aerobic conditions. While quinoline, indole, and carbazole were degraded with a lag period...

  16. Thermodynamic stability studies of Ce-Sb compounds with Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Zhang, Jinsuo; Benson, Michael T.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2018-02-01

    Lanthanide fission products can migrate to the fuel periphery and react with cladding, causing fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Adding a fuel additive dopant, such as Sb, can bind lanthanide, such as Ce, into metallic compounds and thus prevent migration. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic stability of Ce-Sb compounds when in contact with the major cladding constituent Fe by conducting diffusion couple tests. Ce-Sb compounds have shown high thermodynamic stability as they did not react with Fe. When Fe-Sb compounds contacted with Ce, Sb was separated out of Fe-Sb compounds and formed the more stable Ce-Sb compounds.

  17. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  18. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  19. Experience with compound words influences their processing: An eye movement investigation with English compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Barbara J

    2016-11-14

    Recording eye movements provides information on the time-course of word recognition during reading. Juhasz and Rayner [Juhasz, B. J., & Rayner, K. (2003). Investigating the effects of a set of intercorrelated variables on eye fixation durations in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 29, 1312-1318] examined the impact of five word recognition variables, including familiarity and age-of-acquisition (AoA), on fixation durations. All variables impacted fixation durations, but the time-course differed. However, the study focused on relatively short, morphologically simple words. Eye movements are also informative for examining the processing of morphologically complex words such as compound words. The present study further examined the time-course of lexical and semantic variables during morphological processing. A total of 120 English compound words that varied in familiarity, AoA, semantic transparency, lexeme meaning dominance, sensory experience rating (SER), and imageability were selected. The impact of these variables on fixation durations was examined when length, word frequency, and lexeme frequencies were controlled in a regression model. The most robust effects were found for familiarity and AoA, indicating that a reader's experience with compound words significantly impacts compound recognition. These results provide insight into semantic processing of morphologically complex words during reading.

  20. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  1. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  2. Organic halogen compounds in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    There are 20 research reports on selected problems concerning the analysis, the occurence, and the behaviour of a wide spectrum of organic halogen compounds. The work was carried out in the framework of the project 'Organic Halogen Compounds in the Environment', financed by the BMFT, between 1975 and 1978. (orig.) [de

  3. Carbohydrate degradation mechanisms and compounds from pretreated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helena

    The formation of inhibitors during pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks is a persistent problem, and notably the compounds that retard enzymatic cellulose conversion represent an obstacle for achieving optimal enzymatic productivity and high glucose yields. Compounds with many chemical...... pretreated wheat straw after enzymatic treatment. It was found that formation of the oligophenolic degradation compounds were common across biomass sources as sugar cane bagasse and oil palm empty fruit bunches. These findings were in line with that the oligophenolic compounds arise from reactions involving...... functionalities are formed during biomass pretreatment, which gives possibilities for various chemical reactions to take place and hence formation of many new potential inhibitor compounds. This somehow overlooked contemplation formed the basis for the main hypothesis investigated in this work: Hypothesis 1...

  4. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  5. Assessment of A Simple Compound-Saving Method To Study Insecticidal Activity of Natural Extracts and Pure Compounds Against Mosquito Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Michaël; Jahn-Oyac, Arnaud; Ferrero, Emma; Issaly, Jean; Eparvier, Véronique; Girod, Romain; Rodrigues, Alice M S; Stien, Didier; Houël, Emeline; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Research on natural insecticides has intensified with the spread of resistance to chemicals among insects, particularly disease vectors. To evaluate compounds, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published standardized procedures. However, those may be excessively compound-consuming when it comes to assessing the activity of natural extracts and pure compounds isolated in limited amount. As part of our work on the discovery of new mosquito larvicides from Amazonian plants, we developed a compound-saving assay in 5-ml glass tubes instead of WHO larval 100-ml cups. Comparing activity of synthetic and natural chemicals validated the glass tube assay. Raw data, lethal doses that kill 50% (LD 50 ) and 90% (LD 90 ) at 24 and 48 h, were highly correlated (0.68 natural extracts and molecules, identifying active compounds using 10 times less material than in the WHO protocol.

  6. Toxicity prediction of compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Chempakam, B

    2010-10-01

    Turmeric belongs to the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Currently, cheminformatics approaches are not employed in any of the spices to study the medicinal properties traditionally attributed to them. The aim of this study is to find the most efficacious molecule which does not have any toxic effects. In the present study, toxicity of 200 chemical compounds from turmeric were predicted (includes bacterial mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenicity and human hepatotoxicity). The study shows out of 200 compounds, 184 compounds were predicted as toxigenic, 136 compounds are mutagenic, 153 compounds are carcinogenic and 64 compounds are hepatotoxic. To cross validate our results, we have chosen the popular curcumin and found that curcumin and its derivatives may cause dose dependent hepatotoxicity. The results of these studies indicate that, in contrast to curcumin, few other compounds in turmeric which are non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-hepatotoxic, and do not have any side-effects. Hence, the cost-effective approach presented in this paper could be used to filter toxic compounds from the drug discovery lifecycle. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protonation sites of aromatic compounds in (+) atmospheric pressure photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Ahmed, Arif [Dept. of Chemistry, Kyungpoo k National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Reaction enthalpy of hydrogen transfer reactions of aromatic compounds has been observed to be greatly affected by the exact location of the protonation site. Therefore, to clearly identify the protonation location, each candidate protonation site for 43 aromatic compounds were theoretically determined and their location was compared with that determined based on experimental MS data. Only the basic nitrogen atom is favorable as a protonation site for pyridine-type aromatic compounds, whereas carbon atoms are preferable for the protonation of pyrrole-type compounds. The most favorable protonation sites for aniline or methylated aniline-type aromatic compounds are either the nitrogen atom in the amine group or the carbon atom at the para-position to the amine group. Like pyrrole-type compounds, aromatic compounds with amine groups also favor protonation at the carbon atom instead of at the nitrogen atom. In addition, hydrocarbons having an anthracene structural motif without heteroatoms produced higher or equal percentages of protonated ions compared to that achieved with molecular ions. The results of this study can be used to improve the analyses of aromatic compounds.

  8. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs

  9. Gel chromatography of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilcek, S.; Machan, V.; Kalincak, M.

    1976-01-01

    The present state of gel chromatography of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds is reviewed. Examples are given of gel chromatography for preparing labelled compounds and for quality control analysis and the development of new types of sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds. The factors which influence the gel chromatography of these compounds are discussed, i.e., the nature of the elution agent, the duration of the contact of the gel and the preparation the gel type, the nature of the labelled compound. The GCS method (gel chromatography scanning) is briefly described. The advantages of gel chromatography as compared with other chromatographic techniques for sup(99m)Tc-labelled compounds are summarized. (author)

  10. Improvements in or relating to compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a dispersible product containing a cerium compound which comprises heating a cerium (IV) oxide hydrate in the presence of a salt to cause deaggregation of aggregated crystallites in the cerium (IV) oxide hydrate and produce a dispersible product containing a cerium compound. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 153.1025 - Motor fuel antiknock compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor fuel antiknock compounds. 153.1025 Section 153... Cargo Procedures § 153.1025 Motor fuel antiknock compounds. (a) No person may load or carry any other cargo in a containment system approved for motor fuel antiknock compounds containing lead alkyls except...

  12. Cannabinoid-like anti-inflammatory compounds from flax fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kulma, Anna; Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Szopa, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Flax is a valuable source of fibers, linseed and oil. The compounds of the latter two products have already been widely examined and have been proven to possess many health-beneficial properties. In the course of analysis of fibers extract from previously generated transgenic plants overproducing phenylpropanoids a new terpenoid compound was discovered.The UV spectra and the retention time in UPLC analysis of this new compound reveal similarity to a cannabinoid-like compound, probably cannabidiol (CBD). This was confirmed by finding two ions at m/z 174.1 and 231.2 in mass spectra analysis. Further confirmation of the nature of the compound was based on a biological activity assay. It was found that the compound affects the expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes in mouse and human fibroblasts and likely the CBD from Cannabis sativa activates the specific peripheral cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) gene expression. Besides fibers, the compound was also found in all other flax tissues. It should be pointed out that the industrial process of fabric production does not affect CBD activity.The presented data suggest for the first time that flax products can be a source of biologically active cannabinoid-like compounds that are able to influence the cell immunological response. These findings might open up many new applications for medical flax products, especially for the fabric as a material for wound dressing with anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  14. Behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyholdt, T.

    1982-01-01

    The retention behaviour of organic sulfur compounds in the reverse-bonded-phase chromatography is characterized by determining the retention indices according to Kovats. The results of these studies show that the solubility of organic compounds in the eluting agent and the molar sorption surfaces of the solutes are the main factors determining the retention behaviour. Knowledge of the retention indices of above-mentioned compounds allows a quick interpretation of chromatograms obtained through a product analysis of γ-irradiated aqueous solutions of organic sulfur compounds. Dithia compounds of the type CH 3 -S-(CH 2 )sub(n)-S-Ch 3 (1 1. 2,4-Dithiapentane (n = 1) however will yield primarily monothio-S-methyl formate as a stable end product. The formation of oxygenic reaction products proceeds via sulfur-centred radical kations. Spin trapping experiments with nitroxyl radicals show that it is possible to trap radiation-chemically produced radicals of sulfurous substrates, but the thus obtained adducts with half-life periods of 4-5 min. cannot be identified by means of NMR, IR or mass spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  15. Cerium compounds in the fashion of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Researchers familiar with the light actinides easily recognize in cerium compounds a microcosm of the rich variety of properties seen in the light actinides. The parallelism seen between comparable cerium and actinide compounds strongly suggests that the same physical models are applicable. The most significant is the relative size of the f-orbital. Localization is generally tighter in Ce compounds than uranium compounds, making Ce roughly analogous to Np through Am. A way to see the actinide parallelism is to compare Hill plots. Compounds in the different regions of the plots (representing different physics) are isostructural compounds with the same companion (B) elements. The most common materials exhibiting a direct f-f interaction are the cubic Laves compounds. Accordingly, we have determined the band structures of CeRu 2 , CeRh 2 , CeIr 2 , CeOs 2 , and CeNi 2 . Compounds illustrative of the interaction of f-orbitals with ligand orbitals are the Cu 3 Au structured materials. Materials calculated in this class are CeRh 3 , CePd 3 , and CeSn 3 - the materials of much interest as mixed valent. Although the focus is on the Ce compounds, calculations performed on uranium isomorphs are used to highlight the interesting physics

  16. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  17. The use of compound topical anesthetics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Neal D

    2007-10-01

    The author reviewed the history of, federal regulations regarding, risks of and adverse drug reactions of five compound topical anesthetics: tetracaine, adrenaline/epinephrine and cocaine (TAC); lidocaine, adrenaline/epinephrine and tetracaine (LET); lidocaine, tetracaine and phenylephrine (TAC 20 percent Alternate); lidocaine, prilocaine and tetracaine (Profound); and lidocaine, prilocaine, tetracaine and phenylephrine with thickeners (Profound PET). The author reviewed clinical trials, case reports, descriptive articles, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations and recent public advisory warnings regarding the federal approval of and risks associated with the use of compound topical anesthetics. Compound topical anesthetics are neither FDA-regulated nor -unregulated. Some compounding pharmacies bypass the new FDA drug approval process, which is based on reliable scientific data and ensures that a marketed drug is safe, effective, properly manufactured and accurately labeled. Two deaths have been attributed to the lay use of compound topical anesthetics. In response, the FDA has announced the strengthening of its efforts against unapproved drug products. Compound topical anesthetics may be an effective alternative to local infiltration for some minimally invasive dental procedures; however, legitimate concerns exist in regard to their safety. Until they become federally regulated, compound topical anesthetics remain unapproved drug products whose benefits may not outweigh their risks for dental patients.

  18. Identification of isomers of organometallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbue, Sona Peter; Cho, Kwang Hwi [Dept. of Bioinformatics and Life Science, School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The yaChI is a newly suggested chemical naming system. However, yaChI is a derivative of the IUPAC InChI with a modified algorithm that includes additional layers of chemical structure information. Consequently, yaChI string contains more structure details while preserving the original structure file information and can distinctively identify very closely related compounds reducing the chances of ambiguity in chemical compound databases as opposed to the general SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey. This study examines the relative performances of yaChI, SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey in duplication check for isomers. For simplicity, a small data set of 28 organometallic compounds (structural isomers of Rh-containing compounds) subdivided into three major groups (A, B, and C) based on the number and the type of ligands attached to the center atom was used to study the performances of each encoding scheme in describing chemical structures. SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey were generated using Openbabel and RDkit, whereas yaChI strings were generated with in-house program. Strings generated from SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey though different, resulted to only three unique chemical identifiers, with each belonging to one group indicating the presence of only three unique compounds in the study data. However, yaChI results depicted that all structures in each group are indeed unique and differ among themselves as well as those from other groups, mapping each structure with a unique identifier given a total number of 28 unique structures in the study data. This high perception of yaChI probe justifies its accuracy and reliability in duplication check among closely related compounds especially structures exhibiting stereo properties.

  19. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskova, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.

    2012-01-01

    Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure...

  20. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.D. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Thompson, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maple, M.B., E-mail: mbmaple@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Quasiparticles in heavy-fermion compounds are much heavier than free electrons. • Superconductivity involves pairing of these massive quasiparticles. • Quasiparticle pairing mediated by magnetic or quadrupolar fluctuations. • We review the properties of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds. - Abstract: Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.

  1. Harmonic force field for nitro compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Edson P; Seminario, Jorge M

    2012-06-01

    Molecular simulations leading to sensors for the detection of explosive compounds require force field parameters that can reproduce the mechanical and vibrational properties of energetic materials. We developed precise harmonic force fields for alanine polypeptides and glycine oligopeptides using the FUERZA procedure that uses the Hessian tensor (obtained from ab initio calculations) to calculate precise parameters. In this work, we used the same procedure to calculate generalized force field parameters of several nitro compounds. We found a linear relationship between force constant and bond distance. The average angle in the nitro compounds was 116°, excluding the 90° angle of the carbon atoms in the octanitrocubane. The calculated parameters permitted the accurate molecular modeling of nitro compounds containing many functional groups. Results were acceptable when compared with others obtained using methods that are specific for one type of molecule, and much better than others obtained using methods that are too general (these ignore the chemical effects of surrounding atoms on the bonding and therefore the bond strength, which affects the mechanical and vibrational properties of the whole molecule).

  2. Teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Pournara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing acknowledgement that teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics is multifaceted and topic specific. Given the paucity of research on the teaching and learning of financial mathematics in general, little can be known about teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest. However, since financial mathematics is a component of the school curriculum in South Africa, and an important element of financial literacy more broadly, attention needs to be given to knowledge for teaching financial mathematics, and compound interest in particular. Drawing from a larger study in which the author taught a financial mathematics course to pre-service secondary mathematics teachers, a theoretical elaboration is provided of the underlying mathematics of compound interest, and connections with the world of banking. Based on findings from the study, two key student errors are identified: the over-generalisation of linear thinking in multiplicative scenarios, and the over-generalisation of reversible operations in percentage-change scenarios. Taken together, teachers’ knowledge of relevant mathematics, of the banking context and of learners’ conceptions will contribute to building a knowledge-base for teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest.

  3. Phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds: synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazeva, I R; Burilov, Alexander R; Pudovik, Michael A; Habicher, Wolf D

    2013-01-01

    Main trends in the development of methods for the synthesis of phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds in the past 15 years are considered. Emphasis is given to reactions producing macrocyclic structures with the participation of a phosphorus atom and other functional groups involved in organophosphorus molecules and to modifications of macrocycles by phosphorus compounds in different valence states. Possibilities of the practical application of phosphorus-containing macrocyclic compounds in difference areas of science and engineering are discussed. The bibliography includes 205 references.

  4. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Qianfeng; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guolin

    2011-05-17

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ) have long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and some Asian countries. The compounds in TSZ responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the osteogenic compounds in TSZ, and to evaluate their antiosteoporotic effects in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were used for bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in UMR-106 cells was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The proliferation of UMR-106 cells was assayed by Alamar-Blue method. Estrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by activation of estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 5×ERE luciferase reporter plasmid. Antiestrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated by activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 6×AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. ALP-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin from the crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. Further study showed that kaempferol and hyperoside significantly increased the ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Astragalin promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells whereas other compounds had no such effect. The isolated compounds showed estrogenic activity but quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin showed more potent ERβ agonist activity. However, compared with their ER agonist activity, only quercetin and kaempferol showed potent ER antagonist activity by activating ERα/β-mediated AP-1 reporter expression. Our findings validated the clinical use of TSZ in

  5. Thin film Heusler compounds manganese nickel gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Catherine Ann

    Multiferroic Heusler compounds Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) have a tetragonal unit cell that can variously be used for magneto-mechanically coupled shape memory ( x=1,2) and spin-mechanical applications (x=0). The first fabrication of fully epitaxial thin films of these and electronically related compounds by sputtering is discussed. Traditional and custom lab characterization of the magnetic and temperature driven multiferroic behavior is augmented by more detailed synchrotron-based high energy photoemission spectroscopic techniques to describe the atomic and electronic structure. Integration of the MnNi2Ga magnetic shape memory compound in microwave patch antennas and active free-standing structures represents a fraction of the available and promising applications for these compounds. Prototype magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated by Mn3Ga electrodes with perpendicular anisotropy for spin torque transfer memory structures. The main body of the work concentrates on the definition and exploration of the material series Mn3--xNi xGa (x=0,1,2) and the relevant multiferroic phenomena exhibited as a function of preparation and external stimuli. Engineering results on each x=0,1,2 are presented with device prototypes where relevant. In the appendices the process of the materials design undertaken with the goal of developing new ternary intermetallics with enhanced properties is presented with a full exploration of the road from band structure calculations to device implementation. Cobalt based compounds in single crystal and nanoparticle form are fabricated with an eye to developing the production methods for new cobalt- and iron-based magnetic shape memory compounds for device applications in different forms. Mn2CoSn, a compound isolectronic and with similar atomic ordering to Mn2NiGa is experimentally determined to be a nearly half-metallic ferromagnet in contrast to the metallic ferrimagnetism in the parent compound. High energy photoemission spectroscopy is shown to

  6. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  7. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    In certain countries, closed expatriate compounds have developed.  They serve to provide resident expatriates and accompanying family members with a comfortable and safe environment. Unfortunately, not much is known about compound life since associated empirical research is scarce. Through...... ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...... and the expatriates had the same working hours in the same subsidiary. Results show that a Danish national group was established and maintained. This in-group dominated life in the compound and at work it may have contributed to the perceptual bias and discriminatory behaviour demonstrated by the Danish expatriates...

  8. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  10. Mutagenesis of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1974-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of 41 metal compounds was examined by applying the Rec-assay method with Bacillus subtilis H17 (rec/sup +/) and M45 (rec/sup -/) strains. Among these compounds, Na/sub 2/HAsO/sub 4/, CdCl/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, CH/sub 3/HgCl, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/HgCl, CH/sub 3/COOHgC/sub 6/H/sub 5/, MnCl/sub 2/, MnNO/sub 3/, MnSO/sub 4/, Mn(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ and KMoO/sub 4/ showed positive results. The reactions of K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ were especially strong in the assay. Therefore, mutation induction to reversion (try/sup +/) and streptomycin resistance (SM/sup r/) of E. coli B/r WP2 try/sup -/ (hcl/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/) by the two compounds were examined by the following two experimental procedures. Stationary phase bacteria were exposed to the compounds at high concentrations (6.9 x 10/sup -3/ approx. 3.44 x 10/sup -2/M) in M9 buffer for 15 min at 37/sup -/ with shaking. After incubation at 37/sup 0/ for 48 h visible colonies on the plates were scored. Bacteria in M9 buffer were plated in media supplemented with low concentrations (1.7 x 10/sup -5/ approx. 3.4 x 10/sup -5/M) of the compounds. K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ increased the mutation rate of SM/sup r/ and try/sup +/ in both strains treated with either procedure. No marked differences in mutation rate were found between hcr/sup +/ and hcr/sup -/. After treatment with high concentrations of compounds one can imagine that a peroxidation state produced by these peroxides in the media might affect the killing and mutation induction. These results suggest the possibility that the mutagenesis of the metals relate to their atomic values, rather than the peroxidation state as far as these two compounds are concerned.

  11. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying; He, Hongping; Schulz, Stefan; Liu, Xin; Fusetani, Nobushino; Xiong, Hairong; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared

  12. THE CONTRAST OF THE COMPOUND WORDS BETWEEN ENGLISH AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word-formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation). Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting together old words. In other words, compound, compounding or word-compounding occurs when a person attaches two or more words together to make th...

  13. A bitumen compound for pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanadzava, K.; Simagata, R.

    1982-08-17

    A bitumen compound is proposed which is produced through addition of finely ground coal ash to a bituminous material and subsequent homogenization of the mixture. The following may be used as the bituminous material: solid petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 10 to 150), soft petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 150 to 500), a semioxidized bitumen, a mixture of semioxidized and directly distilled bitumen, bitumen diluted by a petroleum distillate, bituminous mixtures which include rubber, tar, synthetic resins and so on. It is best to use wastes from central thermal electric power plants (TETs), which operate on coal, with a great content of oxides of aluminum, iron and calcium, as the coal ash. The ash is added to the bitumen in a volume of 10 to 40 percent. The compound may include a surfactant (PAV), dispersers, additives which increase the stability to layering and others. The compound is marked by increased resistance to softening in the summer, reduced brittleness at low temperatures and good adhesion to a filler.

  14. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  15. Chemistry and technology of boron and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigach, A.F.; Parfenov, B.P.; Svitsyn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of research dealing with development of technologies of boron trichloride, boron hydride, aminoderivative boron hydrides, metal borohydrides, carboranes, carborane-containing polymers, carried out at the institute of organoelemental compounds, are presented. Physicochemical properties of the compounds have been studied and analytical methods have been developed. Data on toxicity and fire hazard of boron compounds are provided

  16. Radiation curable compounds for use in coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, C.B.; McMullen, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation curable compounds are disclosed which are derived from the reaction of a siloxy-containing carbinol, a polyisocyanate and polyfunctional compound having hydroxy and acrylic functional groups. The compounds have high cure rates, are compatible with other components of radiation curable, film forming compositions and impart good slip and other properties to cured film coatings. (author)

  17. Cerium compounds in the fashion of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Researchers familiar with the light actinides easily recognize in cerium compounds a microcosm of the rich variety of properties seen in the light actinides. The parallelism seen between comparable cerium and actinide compounds strongly suggests that the same physical models are applicable. The most significant is the relative size of the f-orbital. Localization is generally tighter in Ce compounds than uranium compounds, making Ce roughly analogous to Np through Am. A way to see the actinide parallelism is to compare Hill plots. Compounds in the different regions of the plots (representing different physics) are isostructural compounds with the same companion (B) elements. The most common materials expected to exhibit direct f-f interaction are the cubic Laves compounds. Accordingly, we have determined the band structures of CeRu 2 , CeRh 2 , CeIr 2 , and CeNi 2 . Surprisingly, it was found that an f-d interaction overshadows any direct f-f interaction in these systems. Compounds illustrative of the interaction of f-orbitals with ''ligand'' orbitals are the Cu 3 Au structured materials. Materials calculated in this class are CeRh 3 , CePd 3 , and CeSn 3 - the materials of much interest as ''mixed valent''. Although the focus is on the Ce compounds, calculations performed on uranium isomorphs are used to highlight the interesting physics. (orig.)

  18. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  19. Prediction of the transition energies of atomic No and Lr by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.; Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Measurements of the spectroscopic properties of the superheavy elements present a serious challenge to the experimentalist. Their short lifetimes and the low quantities of their production necessitate reliable prediction of transition energies to avoid the need for broad wavelength scans and to assist in identifying the lines. Thus, reliable high-accuracy calculations are necessary prior and parallel to experimental research. Nobelium and Lawrencium are at present the two most likely candidates for spectroscopic measurements, with the first experiments planned at GSI, Darmstadt. The intermediate Hamiltonian (IH) coupled cluster method is applied to the ionization potentials, electron affinities, and excitation energies of atomic nobelium and lawrencium. Large basis sets are used (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i). All levels of a particular atom are obtained simultaneously by diagonalizing the IH matrix. The matrix elements correspond to all excitations from correlated occupied orbitals to virtual orbitals in a large P space, and are 'dressed' by folding in excitations to higher virtual orbitals (Q space) at the coupled cluster singles-and-doubles level. Lamb-shift corrections are included. The same approach was applied to the lighter homologues of Lr and No, lutetium and ytterbium, for which many transition energies are experimentally known, in order to assess the accuracy of the calculation. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm -1 , and the error limits for Lr are therefore put at 700 cm -1 . Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20,000-30,000 cm -1 , are 7p → 8s at 20,100 cm -1 and 7p →p 7d at 28,100 cm -1 . In case of Yb, the calculated ionization potential was within 20 cm -1 of the experiment, and the average error of the 20 lowest calculated excitations was about 300 cm -1 . Hence, the error limits of nobelium are set to 800 cm -1

  20. Application of Transforms in a Compound Demands Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound distribution is of interest for the study of inventoryproblem, since it provides a more flexible description ofthe stochastic properties of the system compared to many otherapproaches such as renewal processes. However, due to the difficultiesof obtaining analytical results for the compound distribution,such a type of study is usually limited to searching for agood approximation for replacing the complex model. This paperinvestigates the possibility to extend a previous stochastic inventorymodel to cover a compound demand process. Transformmethods again play an imp01tant role in the analysis forcapturing the stochastic prope1ties of the compound distribution.

  1. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  2. Synthesis, Properties Characterization and Applications of Various Organobismuth Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Luan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Organobismuth chemistry was emphasized in this review article due to the low price, low toxicity and low radioactivity characteristics of bismuth. As an environmentally-friendly class of organometallic compounds, different types of organobismuth compounds have been used in organic synthesis, catalysis, materials, etc. The synthesis and property characterization of many organobismuth compounds had been summarized. This review article also presented a survey of various applications of organobismuth compounds in organic transformations, as reagents or catalysts. The reactivity, reaction pathways and mechanisms of reactions with organobismuths were discussed. Less common and limiting aspects of organobismuth compounds were also briefly mentioned.

  3. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  4. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  5. Arsenic compounds in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessler, W.; Irgolic, K.J.; Kuehnelt, D.; Schlagenhaufen, C. [Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Maher, W. [CRC for Freshwater Ecology, University of Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen ACT. 2616 (Australia); Kaise, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, School of Life Science, University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachijoji, Tokyo 192-03 (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A three-organism food chain within a rock pool at Rosedale, NSW, Australia, was investigated with respect to arsenic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography - hydraulic high pressure nebulization - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-HHPN-ICP-MS). Total arsenic concentration was determined in the seaweed Hormosira banksii (27.2 {mu}g/g dry mass), in the gastropod Austrocochlea constricta (74.4 {mu}g/g dry mass), which consumes the seaweed, and in the gastropod Morula marginalba (233 {mu}g/g dry mass), which eats Austrocochlea constricta. The major arsenic compounds in the seaweed were (2`R)-dimethyl[1-O-(2`,3`-dihydroxypropyl)-5-deoxy-{beta}-d-ribofuranos-5-yl]arsine oxide and an unidentified compound. The herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta transformed most of the arsenic taken up with the seaweed to arsenobetaine. Traces of arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenocholine, the tetramethylarsonium cation, and several unknown arsenic compounds were detected. Arsenobetaine accounted for 95% of the arsenic in the carnivorous gastropod Morula marginalba. In Morula marginalba the concentration of arsenocholine was higher, and the concentrations of the minor arsenic compounds lower than in the herbivorous gastropod Austrocochlea constricta. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  6. In vitro disposition profiling of heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keemink, Janneke; Wuyts, Benjamin; Nicolaï, Johan; Jonghe, Steven De; Stella, Alessandro; Herdewijn, Piet; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Compound libraries that are screened for biological activity commonly contain heterocycles. Besides potency, drug-like properties need to be evaluated to ensure in vivo efficacy of test compounds. In this context, we determined hepatic and intestinal disposition profiles for 17 heterocyclic compounds. All studied compounds showed rapid uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes, whereas metabolism was poor and the rate-limiting step in hepatic elimination. In vitro assays demonstrated a relatively low solubility and high intestinal permeability. Based on these in vitro data, heterocycles were categorized in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) to predict disposition characteristics before clinical data are available. Our findings emphasized the importance to use hepatocytes in addition to microsomes to study metabolism, since the latter lack non-microsomal enzymes and cellular context. Moreover, intracellular exposure should be considered to gain insight in the relevant fraction of the compound available at the enzymatic site. Finally, the study reveals discrepancies associated with the classification of heterocycles in BCS versus BDDCS. These probably originate from the binary character of both systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Superconductivity in Ti3P-type compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.O.; Hein, R.A.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A study of 12 intermetallic A 3 B compounds which crsytallize in the tetragonal Ti 3 P-type structure has revealed five new superconductors with transition temperatures below 1 K: Zr 3 Si, Zr 3 Ge, Zr 3 P, V 3 P, and Nb 3 Ge (extrapolated from the alloy series Nb-Ge-As). In addition, two compounds, Zr 3 Sb and Ta 3 Ge, having the Ni 3 P structure type are found to be superconducting below 1 K. Within the Ti 3 P-type compounds, those with the lighter ''B'' elements in a given column of the Periodic Table have the higher transition temperatures. Critical-magnetic-field and electrical-resistivity data are reported for the superconducting Ti 2 P-type compound Nb 3 P, which permit one to estimate the Ginzburg-Landau kappa parameter and the electronic-specific-heat coefficient γ. The kappa value of 8.4 indicates that this material is type II, and the γ value of 1.3 mJ/mole K 2 for Nb 3 P is probably related to its low transition temperature relative to many A15 compounds

  8. Air sparging of organic compounds in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils and aquifers containing organic compounds have been traditionally treated by excavation and disposal of the soil and/or pumping and treating the groundwater. These remedial options are often not practical or cost effective solutions. A more favorable alternative for removal of the adsorbed/dissolved organic compounds would be an in situ technology. Air sparging will remove volatile organic compounds from both the adsorbed and dissolved phases in the saturated zone. This technology effectively creates a crude air stripper below the aquifer where the soil acts as the ''packing''. The air stream that contacts dissolved/adsorbed phase organics in the aquifer induces volatilization. A case history illustrates the effectiveness of air sparging as a remedial technology for addressing organic compounds in soil and groundwater. The site is an operating heavy equipment manufacturing facility in central Florida. The soil and groundwater below a large building at the facility was found to contain primarily diesel type petroleum hydrocarbons during removal of underground storage tanks. The organic compounds identified in the groundwater were Benzene, Xylenes, Ethylbenzene and Toluenes (BTEX), Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and naphthalenes in concentrations related to diesel fuel

  9. Pyridine group assisted addition of diazo-compounds to imines in the 3-CC reaction of 2-aminopyridines, aldehydes, and diazo-compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, Anton V; Helan, Victoria; Wink, Donald J; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-02-15

    A novel three-component coupling (3-CC) reaction of 2-aminoazines, aromatic aldehydes, and diazo-compounds producing polyfunctional β-amino-α-diazo-compounds has been developed. The reaction features an unprecedented heterocycle-assisted addition of a diazo-compound to an imine. The obtained diazoesters were efficiently converted into valuable heterocycles as well as β-amino acid derivatives.

  10. Analyzing compound and project progress through multi-objective-based compound quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissink, J Willem M; Degorce, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Compound-quality scoring methods designed to evaluate multiple drug properties concurrently are useful to analyze and prioritize output from drug-design efforts. However, formalized multiparameter optimization approaches are not widely used in drug design. We rank molecules synthesized in drug-discovery projects using simple and aggregated desirability functions reflecting medicinal chemistry 'rules'. Our quality score deals transparently with missing data, a key requirement in drug-hunting projects where data availability is often limited. We further estimate confidence in the interpretation of such a compound-quality measure. Scores and associated confidences provide systematic insight in the quality of emerging chemical equity. Tracking quality of synthetic output over time yields valuable insight into the progress of drug-design teams, with potential applications in risk and resource management of a drug portfolio.

  11. Molecular basis of biodegradation of chloroaromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangodkar, U M.X.; Aldrich, T L; Haugland, R A; Johnson, J; Rothmel, R K; Chakrabarty, A M [Illinois Univ., Chicago (USA). Coll. of Medicine; Chapman, P J [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (USA). Microbial Ecology and Biotechnology

    1989-01-01

    Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons are widely used in industry and agriculture, and comprise the bulk of environmental pollutants. Although simple aromatic compounds are biodegradable by a variety of degradative pathways, their halogenated counterparts are more resistant to bacterial attack and often necessitate evolution of novel pathways. An understanding of such evolutionary processes is essential for developing genetically improved strains capable of mineralizing highly chlorinated compounds. This article provides an overview of the genetic aspects of dissimilation of chloroaromatic compounds and discusses the potential of gene manipulation to promote enhanced evolution of the degradation pathways. (orig.).

  12. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  13. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  14. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  15. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1...

  16. Perfluorinated Compounds: Emerging POPs with Potential Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, an...

  17. Intercalated compounds of niobium and tantalum dicalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypych, F.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of niobium and tantalum lamellar compounds and its intercalated derivatives is described. The intercalated compounds with lithium, with alkaline metal and with metals of the first-row transition are studied, characterized by X-ray diffraction. (C.G.C.) [pt

  18. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan; Chi, Qijin; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Qu, Di; Molin, Soren; Ulstrup, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.

  19. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiqiang [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan; Chi, Qijin [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Mortensen, Ninell P. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Qu, Di [Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Institutes of Biomedical Science, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032 (China); Molin, Soren [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ulstrup, Jens, E-mail: ju@kemi.dtu.dk [Department of Chemistry, Building 207, NanoDTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.

  20. [Research and development on efficacy of Chinese herbal compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Lin, Cheng-Ren

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy not only is summarized by clinical effect of Chinese herbal compound on theory of traditional Chinese medicine, but also is manifested to clinical effect by interaction of many intricate chemical substances. The efficacy of Chinese herbal compound is current research focus in field of traditional Chinese medicine. By currently knowing in different aspects which included the progression in efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, symptomatic efficacy of Chinese herbal compound, the relationship between the efficacy and pharmacologic effect of Chinese herbal compound, the efficacy related pharmacodynamic substance and the evaluation of efficacy, it had been summarized mainly problems and methods in research and development process of the efficacy of Chinese herbal compound in this paper. Paper also elucidated problems that need to pay attention in research of efficacy in order to provide references for clinical and experimental studies of efficacy in Chinese herbal compound, boost research and development level of new traditional Chinese drug and facilitate modernization of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. [Study on artificial compound feed for Buthus martensii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cai; Shen, Xue-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Han, Xiu-Kun

    2014-03-01

    To solve the problem that the single feed causing malnutrition, extension of the life cycle and low survival rates of Buthus martensii. By using Minitab (R) 15.1.1.0.0., 7 different kinds of compound feed were designed, including minced meat mud (pork,chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin as raw material. Different proportions of compound feed that taking the yellow mealworm as main component had a significant effect on the growth, mortality and birth number of Buthus martensii. Compound feed 5 significantly reduced mortality of youth scorpion. The compound feed 4 was the best in improving the weight of scorpion larvae and youth scorpion, and the farrowing number of mother scorpion. Other indicators were also good. Proportions in meatmud (pork, chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin was 30.00%, 25.00%, 20.08%, 15.58%, 8.08% and 1.25%, respectively. The growth of Buthus martensii is significantly influenced by the type of feed. In the production of compound feed, the yellow mealworm with compound feed 4 can be popularized.

  2. Perfluorinated Compounds as Test Media for Porous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodt, Juliana I; Filiz, Volkan; Shishatskiy, Sergey

    2017-09-05

    We suggest a failure-free method of porous membranes characterization that gives the researcher the opportunity to compare and characterize properties of any porous membrane. This proposal is supported by an investigation of eight membranes made of different organic and inorganic materials, with nine different perfluorinated compounds. It was found that aromatic compounds, perfluorobenzene, and perfluorotoluene, used in the current study show properties different from other perfluorinated aliphatics. They demonstrate extreme deviation from the general sequence indicating the existence of π-π-interaction on the pore wall. The divergence of the flow for cyclic compounds from ideal e.g., linear compounds can be an indication of the pore dimension.

  3. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR

    1990-01-01

    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  4. Pyridine Group-Assisted Addition of Diazo-Compounds to Imines in the 3-CC Reaction of 2-Aminopyridines, Aldehydes, and Diazo-Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, Anton V.; Helan, Victoria; Wink, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel three-component (3-CC) coupling reaction of 2-aminoazines, aromatic aldehydes and diazo-compounds producing polyfunctional β-amino-α-diazo-compounds has been developed. The reaction features an unprecedented heterocycle-assisted addition of a diazo-compound to an imine. The obtained diazoesters were efficiently converted into valuable heterocycles, as well as to β-amino acid derivatives. PMID:23373731

  5. Analytic Methods Used in Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical testing will no doubt become a more important part of pharmaceutical compounding as the public and regulatory agencies demand increasing documentation of the quality of compounded preparations. Compounding pharmacists must decide what types of testing and what amount of testing to include in their quality-control programs, and whether testing should be done in-house or outsourced. Like pharmaceutical compounding, analytical testing should be performed only by those who are appropriately trained and qualified. This article discusses the analytical methods that are used in quality control in a compounding pharmacy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  6. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  7. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ( 13 C-labelled PCB congeners, 13 C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D 9 -clenbuterol, D 3 -clenbuterol, D 3 -zeramol and D 3 -dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG)

  8. Introduction to Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    A quality-based program is vital in every compounding pharmacy to ensure that each preparation is compounded properly and is stable for its expected duration of use. This article discusses quality control, quality assurance, continuous quality improvement, and also describes the components of an in-house (in-pharmacy) quality program, as well as the role of outside laboratories. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any insertion

  10. Preparation and properties of compound Arnebiae radix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to prepare a compound Arnebiae radix microemulsion gel for transdermal delivery system and evaluate its characteristics. Materials and Methods: Based on ... previous used formulations. Keywords: Compound Arnebiae radix oil, microemulsion gel, pseudo-ternary phase diagram, characterization ...

  11. Extraction, Isolation And Characterization Of Bioactive Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the ... The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic ...

  12. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  13. Enthalpies of vaporization of organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.T.; Sevast'yanov, V.G.; Mitin, V.A.; Krasnodubskaya, S.V.; Zakharov, L.N.; Domrachev, G.A.; AN SSSR, Gor'kij. Inst. Khimii)

    1987-01-01

    A possibility to use the method of additive schemes for the calculation of vaporizaton enthalpies of uranium organometallic compounds is discussed while comparing the values obtained using the method with experimental data. The possibility of apriori evaluation of evaporation enthalpy values of different uranium compounds using the method of additive schemes and structural characteristics of molecules, such as the sum of ligand solid angles, is shown

  14. New heterocyclic compounds: Synthesis and antitrypanosomal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomel, S; Dubar, F; Forge, D; Loiseau, P M; Biot, C

    2015-08-15

    Three new series of quinoline, quinolone, and benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. In the quinoline series, the metallo antimalarial drug candidate (ferroquine, FQ) and its ruthenium analogue (ruthenoquine, RQ, compound 13) showed the highest in vitro activities with IC50 values around 0.1 μM. Unfortunately, both compounds failed to cure Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected mice in vivo. The other heterocyclic compounds were active in vitro with IC50 values varying from 0.8 to 34 μM. One of the most interesting results was a fluoroquinolone derivative (compound 2) that was able to offer a survival time of 8 days after a treatment at the single dose of 100 μmol/kg by intraperitoneal route. Although no clear-cut structure-activity relationships emerged, further pharmacomodulations are worth to be developed in this series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organolead compounds shown to be genetically active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlberg, J; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether alkyllead compounds would cause a genetic effect similar to that caused by alkyl mercury compounds. Experiments were conducted on Allium cepa (onion) in order to determine the effect of lead compounds on the spindle fiber mechanism. Results indicate that disturbances of the spindle fiber mechanism occur even at very low concentrations. The lowest concentration at which such effects are observed seems to be between 10/sup -6/ and 10/sup -7/ M for the organic compounds. Although no effect can be observed on the spindle fibers at lower dosages, the mitotic index is changed even at a dose of 10/sup -7/ M with dimethyllead. A preliminary experiment was made on Drosophila with triethyllead in order to investigate whether the effects which were observed on mitoses in Allium would also be observed in a meiotic cell system in an animal.

  16. Identification of nonvolatile compounds in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathoni, A.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (clove) are native to Indonesia and have been widely used in food industry due to their flavor. Nonvolatile compounds contribute to flavor, mainly in their taste. Currently, there is very little information available about nonvolatile compounds in clove. Identification of nonvolatile compounds is important to improve clove's value. Compound extraction was conducted by maceration in ethanol. Fractionations of the extract were performed by using gravity column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS was operated in negative mode with 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by fragment analysis and compared to references. Several compounds had been identified and characterized asquinic acid, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, isobiflorin, biflorin, ellagic acid, hydroxygallic acid, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, dimethoxyluteolin, and rhamnetin. These compounds had two main flavor perceptions, i.e. astringent, and bitter.

  17. Structure and properties of intermetallic ternary rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The so called material science is an always growing field in modern research. For the development of new materials not only the experimental characterization but also theoretical calculation of the electronic structure plays an important role. A class of compounds that has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years is known as REME compounds. These compounds are often referred to with RE designating rare earth, actinide or an element from group 1-4, M representing a late transition metal from groups 8-12, and E belonging to groups 13-15. There are more than 2000 compounds with 1:1:1 stoichiometry belonging to this class of compounds and they offer a broad variety of different structure types. Although many REME compounds are know to exist, mainly only structure and magnetism has been determined for these compounds. In particular, in the field of electronic and transport properties relatively few efforts have been made. The main focus in this study is on compounds crystallizing in MgAgAs and LiGaGe structure. Both structures can only be found among 18 valence electron compounds. The f electrons are localized and therefor not count as valence electrons. A special focus here was also on the magnetoresistance effects and spintronic properties found among the REME compounds. An examination of the following compounds was made: GdAuE (E=In,Cd,Mg), GdPdSb, GdNiSb, REAuSn (RE=Gd,Er,Tm) and RENiBi (RE=Pr,Sm,Gd-Tm,Lu). The experimental results were compared with theoretic band structure calculations. The first half metallic ferromagnet with LiGaGe structure (GdPdSb) was found. All semiconducting REME compounds with MgAgAs structure show giant magnetoresistance (GMR) at low temperatures. The GMR is related to a metal-insulator transition, and the value of the GMR depends on the value of the spin-orbit coupling. Inhomogeneous DyNiBi samples show a small positive MR at low temperature that depends on the amount of metallic impurities. At higher fields the samples show a

  18. Structure and properties of intermetallic ternary rare earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, Frederick

    2008-12-17

    The so called material science is an always growing field in modern research. For the development of new materials not only the experimental characterization but also theoretical calculation of the electronic structure plays an important role. A class of compounds that has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years is known as REME compounds. These compounds are often referred to with RE designating rare earth, actinide or an element from group 1-4, M representing a late transition metal from groups 8-12, and E belonging to groups 13-15. There are more than 2000 compounds with 1:1:1 stoichiometry belonging to this class of compounds and they offer a broad variety of different structure types. Although many REME compounds are know to exist, mainly only structure and magnetism has been determined for these compounds. In particular, in the field of electronic and transport properties relatively few efforts have been made. The main focus in this study is on compounds crystallizing in MgAgAs and LiGaGe structure. Both structures can only be found among 18 valence electron compounds. The f electrons are localized and therefor not count as valence electrons. A special focus here was also on the magnetoresistance effects and spintronic properties found among the REME compounds. An examination of the following compounds was made: GdAuE (E=In,Cd,Mg), GdPdSb, GdNiSb, REAuSn (RE=Gd,Er,Tm) and RENiBi (RE=Pr,Sm,Gd-Tm,Lu). The experimental results were compared with theoretic band structure calculations. The first half metallic ferromagnet with LiGaGe structure (GdPdSb) was found. All semiconducting REME compounds with MgAgAs structure show giant magnetoresistance (GMR) at low temperatures. The GMR is related to a metal-insulator transition, and the value of the GMR depends on the value of the spin-orbit coupling. Inhomogeneous DyNiBi samples show a small positive MR at low temperature that depends on the amount of metallic impurities. At higher fields the samples show a

  19. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain

  20. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  1. Special Heusler compounds for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, B.

    2007-07-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of Heusler compounds in a wide range of spintronic applications. Using electronic structure calculations it is possible to design compounds for specific applications. Examples for GMR and TMR applications, for spin injection into semiconductors, and for spin torque transfer applications will be shown. After a detailed introduction about spintronics and related materials chapter 5 reports about the investigation of new half-metallic compounds where the Fermi energy is tuned in the middle of the gap to result in more stable compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The bulk properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si with the Fe concentration ranging from x=0 to 1 are reported and the results suggest that the best candidate for applications may be found at an iron concentration of about 50%. Due to the effect that in the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si series the transition metal carrying the localized moment is exchanged and this might lead to unexpected effects on the magnetic properties if the samples are not completely homogeneous chapter 6 reports about the optimization of the Heusler compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} with varying Si concentration are reported. From the combination of experimental (better order for high Si content) and theoretical findings (robust gap at x=0.5) it is concluded that a compound with an intermediate Si concentration close to x=0.5-0.7 would be best suited for spintronic applications, especially for GMR and TMR applications. In chapter 7 the detailed investigation of compounds for spin injection into semiconductors is reported. It is shown that the diluted magnetic semiconductors based on CoTiSb with a very low lattice mismatch among each other are interesting materials for spintronics applications like Spin-LEDs or other spin injection devices. Chapter 8 refers

  2. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  3. Diazo compounds in continuous-flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Simon T R; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Diazo compounds are very versatile reagents in organic chemistry and meet the challenge of selective assembly of structurally complex molecules. Their leaving group is dinitrogen; therefore, they are very clean and atom-efficient reagents. However, diazo compounds are potentially explosive and extremely difficult to handle on an industrial scale. In this review, it is discussed how continuous flow technology can help to make these powerful reagents accessible on large scale. Microstructured devices can improve heat transfer greatly and help with the handling of dangerous reagents safely. The in situ formation and subsequent consumption of diazo compounds are discussed along with advances in handling diazomethane and ethyl diazoacetate. The potential large-scale applications of a given methodology is emphasized. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sulfamides in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazieva, Galina A; Kravchenko, Angelina N; Lebedev, Oleg V

    2000-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the structures and physicochemical properties of sulfamides and ureas has been performed. New procedures for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containing the sulfamide fragment are surveyed and the properties of the resulting compounds are described. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  5. Compound sums and their applications in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); B. Tarigan

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCompound sums arise frequently in insurance (total claim size in a portfolio) and in accountancy (total error amount in audit populations). As the normal approximation for compound sums usually performs very badly, one may look for better methods for approximating the distribution of a

  6. Improved quality control of carbon-14 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Fuchs, P.; Standtke, K.

    1997-01-01

    IUT Ltd is a producer of carbon-14 labelled organic compounds like benzene, methanol, phenol, formaldehyde, Na-acetates and also special ordered compounds. The quality control of these compounds is carried out by means of HPLC and GC-MS due to chemical purity. Molar activity was determined by Liquid Scintillation Counting and HPLC being equipped by a radioactivity detector. Unfortunately the accuracy of the activity determination was arrived only ±4% relatively. This error is too high because of the large dilution factors. In respect of the IUT accreditation as an analytical laboratory in Germany the accuracy had to be improved remarkably. Therefore the GC-MS-determination of molar activities of labelled compounds is used as the 14 C-labelled compound. A special evaluation code is used to determine the enrichment values relative to the unlabelled molecules. Taking into account the results of GC-MS the accuracy of molar activity determination is improved to ±2%. The spectra evaluation is demonstrated and some examples are discussed

  7. Effect of training data size and noise level on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong

    2011-05-01

    Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased noise levels arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and noise level on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high noise levels in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/noise levels were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher noise data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower noise lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial level of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher noise training data.

  8. Stress-enhanced lithiation in MAX compounds for battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-07-31

    Li-ion batteries are well-established energy storage systems. Upon lithiation conventional group IVA compound anodes undergo large volume expansion and thus suffer from stress-induced performance degradation. Instead of the emerging MXene anodes fabricated by an expensive and difficult-to-control etching technique, we study the feasibility of utilizing the parent MAX compounds. We reveal that M2AC (M=Ti, V and A=Si, S) compounds repel lithiation at ambient conditions, while structural stress turns out to support lithiation, in contrast to group IVA compounds. For V2SC the Li diffusion barrier is found to be lower than reported for group IVA compound anodes, reflecting potential to achieve fast charge/discharge.

  9. Stress-enhanced lithiation in MAX compounds for battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie; Chroneos, Alexander; Wang, Lei; Rao, Feng; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are well-established energy storage systems. Upon lithiation conventional group IVA compound anodes undergo large volume expansion and thus suffer from stress-induced performance degradation. Instead of the emerging MXene anodes fabricated by an expensive and difficult-to-control etching technique, we study the feasibility of utilizing the parent MAX compounds. We reveal that M2AC (M=Ti, V and A=Si, S) compounds repel lithiation at ambient conditions, while structural stress turns out to support lithiation, in contrast to group IVA compounds. For V2SC the Li diffusion barrier is found to be lower than reported for group IVA compound anodes, reflecting potential to achieve fast charge/discharge.

  10. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  11. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.; Cahn, R.; Cederstrom, B.; Danielsson, M.; Vestlund, J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point

  12. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  13. Gas chromatographic isolation technique for compound-specific radiocarbon analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Kumamoto, Y.; Shibata, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Morita, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We present here a gas chromatographic isolation technique for the compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of biomarkers from the marine sediments. The biomarkers of fatty acids, hydrocarbon and sterols were isolated with enough amount for radiocarbon analysis using a preparative capillary gas chromatograph (PCGC) system. The PCGC systems used here is composed of an HP 6890 GC with FID, a cooled injection system (CIS, Gerstel, Germany), a zero-dead-volume effluent splitter, and a cryogenic preparative collection device (PFC, Gerstel). For AMS analysis, we need to separate and recover sufficient quantity of target individual compounds (>50 μgC). Yields of target compounds from C 14 n-alkanes to C 40 to C 30 n-alkanes and approximately that of 80% for higher molecular weights compounds more than C 30 n-alkanes. Compound specific radiocarbon analysis of organic compounds, as well as compound-specific stable isotope analysis, provide valuable information on the origins and carbon cycling in marine system. Above PCGC conditions, we applied compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to the marine sediments from western north Pacific, which showed the possibility of a useful chronology tool for estimating the age of sediment using organic matter in paleoceanographic study, in the area where enough amounts of planktonic foraminifera for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are difficult to obtain due to dissolution of calcium carbonate. (author)

  14. Structure-based virtual screening and characterization of a novel IL-6 antagonistic compound from synthetic compound database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang,1,* Chunxia Qiao,1,* He Xiao,1 Zhou Lin,1 Yan Li,1 Jiyan Zhang,1 Beifen Shen,1 Tinghuan Fu,2 Jiannan Feng1 1Department of Molecular Immunology, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, 2First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: According to the three-dimensional (3D complex structure of (hIL-6·hIL-6R·gp 1302 and the binding orientation of hIL-6, three compounds with high affinity to hIL-6R and bioactivity to block hIL-6 in vitro were screened theoretically from the chemical databases, including 3D-Available Chemicals Directory (ACD and MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR, by means of the computer-guided virtual screening method. Using distance geometry, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics trajectory analysis methods, the binding mode and binding energy of the three compounds were evaluated theoretically. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis demonstrated that all the three compounds could block IL-6 binding to IL-6R specifically. However, only compound 1 could effectively antagonize the function of hIL-6 and inhibit the proliferation of XG-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no cytotoxicity to SP2/0 or L929 cells. These data demonstrated that the compound 1 could be a promising candidate of hIL-6 antagonist. Keywords: virtual screening, structural optimization, human interlukin-6, small molecular antagonist, XG-7 cells, apoptosis

  15. Surface microlayer enrichment of volatile organic compounds and semi-volatile organic compounds in drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Zhou, Wen; Yu, Ya-juan; Zhang, Ai-qian; Han, Shuo-kui; Wang, Lian-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Enrichment of volatile organic compounds(VOC) and semi-volatility organic compounds(SVOC) in surface microlayer(SM) of three drinking water sources were studied. The enrichment factor(EFs) were 0.67 to 13.37 and 0.16 to 136, respectively. The results showed some VOC and most SVOC could enrich in SM. Some EFs of SVOC was quite high. Suspension and temperature could affect EFs of SVOC, slim wind and water movement do not destroy enrichment of organic in SM.

  16. SuperNatural: a searchable database of available natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Mathias; Fullbeck, Melanie; Neumann, Stefanie; Preissner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Although tremendous effort has been put into synthetic libraries, most drugs on the market are still natural compounds or derivatives thereof. There are encyclopaedias of natural compounds, but the availability of these compounds is often unclear and catalogues from numerous suppliers have to be checked. To overcome these problems we have compiled a database of approximately 50,000 natural compounds from different suppliers. To enable efficient identification of the desired compounds, we have implemented substructure searches with typical templates. Starting points for in silico screenings are about 2500 well-known and classified natural compounds from a compendium that we have added. Possible medical applications can be ascertained via automatic searches for similar drugs in a free conformational drug database containing WHO indications. Furthermore, we have computed about three million conformers, which are deployed to account for the flexibilities of the compounds when the 3D superposition algorithm that we have developed is used. The SuperNatural Database is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural. Viewing requires the free Chime-plugin from MDL (Chime) or Java2 Runtime Environment (MView), which is also necessary for using Marvin application for chemical drawing.

  17. Processing and properties of PCL/cotton linter compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Elieber Barros; Franca, Danyelle Campos; Morais, Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Araujo, Edcleide Maria [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Rosa, Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais, Joao Paulo Saraiva [Embrapa Tropical Agroindustia, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Wellen, Renate Maria Ramos, E-mail: wellen.renate@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiaba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. Adding cotton linter to PCL did not change its crystalline character as showed by XRD; however an increase in degree of crystallinity was observed by means of DSC. From mechanical tests in tension was observed an increase in ductility of PCL, and from mechanical tests in flexion an increase in elastic modulus upon addition of cotton linter, whereas impact strength presented lower values for PCL/cotton linter and PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. SEM images showed that PCL presents plastic fracture and cotton linter has an interlacing fibril structure with high L/D ratio, which are in agreement with matrix/fibril morphology observed for PCL/cotton linter compounds. PCL/cotton linter compounds made in this work cost less than neat PCL matrix and presented improved properties making feasible its commercial use. (author)

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-6 - Motor fuel antiknock compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor fuel antiknock compounds. 151.50-6 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-6 Motor fuel antiknock compounds. When transporting motor fuel antiknock compounds containing tetraethyl lead and...

  19. Acute organophosphorus compound poisoning in cattle: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an acute organophosphorus compound, GOLDFLEECE poisoning involving 39 cattle at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi is reported. The animals were overexposed to the compound following routine tick spray. Within 15 minutes after the spray of the compound, 26 animals were recumbent showing ...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of volatile technetium compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Bradley C.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99 is an important fission (T 1/2 = 2.13.105 y) product of the nuclear industry. Technetium in its highest oxidation state (VII) is highly mobile and can represent a threat to the environment. There are over 55 million gallons of high level mixed waste located at the Hanford site. Waste tanks at the Hanford site contain Tc that could potentially leak, and in the context of management of technetium, a glass waste form was proposed to counteract the issue. In the process of synthesizing melt glass between the temperatures of 600°C and 1100°C, volatile technetium compounds were observed in the reaction tube. These compounds displayed characteristic colors based upon the reaction environments of either breathing air or nitrogen gas. A breathing air atmosphere produces a red compound that adheres to the walls of the reaction tube. An atmosphere of nitrogen gas produces a white compound that was observed on the walls of the reaction tube. (author)

  1. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects.

  2. Immobilization of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Compounds: A Synthetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Lindhorst, Anja C; Groche, Florian J; Kühn, Fritz E

    2017-02-08

    Over the course of the past 15 years the success story of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds in organic, inorganic, and organometallic chemistry has been extended to another dimension. The immobilization of NHC compounds, undergoing continuous diversification, broadens their range of applications and leads to new solutions for challenges in catalytic and synthetic chemistry. This review intends to present a synthetic toolkit for the immobilization of NHC compounds, giving the reader an overview on synthetic techniques and strategies available in the literature. By individually summarizing and assessing the synthetic steps of the immobilization process, a comprehensive picture of the strategies and methodologies for the immobilization of NHC compounds is presented. Furthermore, the characterization of supported NHC compounds is discussed in detail in order to set up necessary criteria for an in-depth analysis of the immobilized derivatives. Finally, the catalytic applications of immobilized NHC compounds are briefly reviewed to illustrate the practical use of this technique for a broad variety of reaction types.

  3. A fluorescence-based rapid screening assay for cytotoxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Jessica; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Estrada, Abril; Martinez, Luis E.; Garza, Kristine; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple fluorescence-based assay was developed for the rapid screening of potential cytotoxic compounds generated by combinatorial chemistry. The assay is based on detection of nuclear green fluorescent protein (GFP) staining of a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) carrying an integrated histone H2B-GFP fusion gene. Addition of a cytotoxic compound to the HeLa-GFP cells results in the eventual degradation of DNA and loss of the GFP nuclear fluorescence. Using this assay, we screened 11 distinct quinone derivatives and found that several of these compounds were cytotoxic. These compounds are structurally related to plumbagin an apoptosis-inducing naphthoquinone isolated from Black Walnut. In order to determine the mechanism by which cell death was induced, we performed additional experiments with the most cytotoxic quinones. These compounds were found to induce morphological changes (blebbing and nuclear condensation) consistent with induction of apoptosis. Additional tests revealed that the cytotoxic compounds induce both necrotic and apoptotic modes of death

  4. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  5. Compound sawtooth study in ohmically heated TFTR plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; McGuire, K.; Colchin, D.

    1985-09-01

    Compound sawtooth activity has been observed in ohmically heated, high current, high density TFTR plasmas. Commonly called ''double sawteeth,'' such sequences consist of a repetitive series of subordinate relaxations followed by a main relaxation with a different inversion radius. The period of such compound sawteeth can be as long as 100 msec. In other cases, however, no compound sawteeth or bursts of them can be observed in discharges with essentially the same parameters

  6. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  7. Compound and Geometry-Dependent Pre-Compound Models to Calculate the Nuclear Data for Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Compound and geometry-dependent pre-compound nuclear reactions are very useful concepts of nuclear theory to calculate cross sections of neutrons of around 14 MeV and below scattered by nuclei of material of installations producing energy of nuclear fusion. If these concepts are used to discuss and improve the experimental data they have to be completed by DWBA-type contributions to the small-step region of the incident neutron which can account for the angular distribution of the scattered neutron because there is the difficulty to separate experimentally the incoming from the scattered beam. The angle integrated cross-section in this region can be shown to be accounted for the surface dependent components of Blanns geometry-dependent precompound mechanism of the statistical state density and level density contributions of the compound and precompound components beeing calculated according to the recent developments of Anzaldo using the analytic number theory. The experimental data have been taken from the results of Hermsdorf, Meister, Sassonov, Seeliger, Seidel, Shahin and of A.Takahashi

  8. Cytotoxic Compounds from Aloe megalacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negera Abdissa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Aloe megalacantha led to the isolation of four new natural products—1,8-dimethoxynepodinol (1, aloesaponarin III (2, 10-O-methylchrysalodin (3 and methyl-26-O-feruloyl-oxyhexacosanate (4—along with ten known compounds. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR, mass spectrometric analyses and comparison with literature data. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and some of them exhibited good activity, with aloesaponarin II (IC50 = 0.98 µM being the most active compound.

  9. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...

  10. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds Pt.1. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    A simple method allowing the preparation of 82 Br labelled organic bromine compounds from olefins with chemical and radiochemical yields between 75 and 95% and the specific activities required, is described [fr

  11. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... 199 active compounds, followed by methanol (189) and hexane (73). This difference is apparently not related to the sectional division of the species (Carr, 1988). Comparison of eluent systems. Lastly we determined which TLC solvent system separa- ted the highest number of active compounds (Table 27).

  12. Structure of inorganic phosphorus-nitrogen tetrahedral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitola, A.; Ronis, J.; Avotins, V.; Millers, T.

    1997-01-01

    The structure analysis of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds has shown the possibility of the P(O,N) 4 tetrahedra to form various kinds of structures. The wide spectrum of the properties determined by the diversity of structures marks the considerable promise to the future application of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds

  13. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  14. Pericocins A-D, New Bioactive Compounds from Periconia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Hua; Xiao, Gao-Keng; Chen, Guo-Dong; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Hu, Dan; Lian, Yun-Yang; Lin, Feng; Guo, Liang-Dong; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2015-12-01

    One new dihydroisocoumarin, pericocin A (1), one new chromone, pericocin B (2), and two new α-pyrone derivatives, pericocins C-D (3-4), together with two known compounds, 3-(2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)propanoic acid (5) and (E)-3-(2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)acrylic acid (6), were isolated from the culture of the endolichenic fungus Periconia sp.. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. All these compounds are derived from the polyketone biosynthetic pathway. Compound 1 was obtained as a mixture of enantiomers. The antimicrobial activity of compounds 1-5 was tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. Compounds 1-5 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against A. niger and weak activity against C. albicans.

  15. Antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory compounds from Vitex agnus-castus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, M Iqbal; Jalil, Saima; Nawaz, Sarfraz Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh

    2009-09-01

    Several secondary metabolites, artemetin (1), casticin (2), 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxy flavon (3), penduletin (4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (6), methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (7), 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzoic acid (8), vanillic acid (9) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10) were isolated from a folkloric medicinal plant, Vitex agnus-castus. The structures of compounds 1-10 were identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 3-10 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These compounds were screened for their antiinflammatory and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities. Compounds 6, 7 and 10 were found to have significant antiinflammatory activity in a cell-based contemporary assay, whereas compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a potent lipoxygenase inhibition.

  16. Effects of uranium compounds on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, B.M. de

    1982-12-01

    The following uranium compounds were topically applied to the dorsal skin of 35 day-old Wistar rats (60 g, male): uranium dioxide, uranyl nitrate, uranyl acetate, ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium diuranate. Percutaneous absorption was mediated with the aid of a vehicle and known quantities of various particle-sized batches of uranium compounds were directly implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours after implantation. Subcutaneous tissue and muscle underneath the implantation site were anlaysed by light and electron microscopy. A Cameca 322 X-ray microanalyzer was used to analyze uranium traces in calcified tissue (bones and teeth) and kidneys. A steady loss in body weight was observed in animals given high concentration of uranyl nitrate and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. All animals died five days after the onset of the experiment due to renal failure. Slightly soluble compounds, ammonium diuranate and uranyl acetate, caused only a slight decrease in body weight. Uranium dioxide, the most insoluble compound used, induced only a transitory slight body weight decrease. Histopathological study revealed damages to the tissues of topicated skin, hair follicles and adnexal glands. High concentration of uranium was indicated in bone, teeth and kidneys by X-ray scanning

  17. Spontaneous magnetoelastic effects in gadolinium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbaum, A.; Rotter, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster is a short summary of a recently published handbook chapter, where the spontaneous magnetoelastic effects in Gd compounds are reviewed showing that the strain dependence of the magnetic exchange interactions leads to significant effects. These effects are equal in magnitude to well established single ion contributions in other rare earth compounds with non vanishing orbital momentum (coming from the strain dependence of the crystal field). In some cases the exchange contribution can produce giant magnetostriction (GMS) or induce structural phase transitions. In order to extract the influence of the Gd- Gd exchange interactions, we consider only Gd compounds with partner elements showing no or only weak induced magnetic moments. The current status of the theory is presented and compared to measurements performed by temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and results of dilatometric measurements. (author)

  18. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  19. Modern materials based on refractory compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosolapova, T.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the existing methods for synthesizing powders of binary refractory compounds and high-productivity techniques which hold promise as regards the manufacture of highly disperse and pure powders. Plasmochemical synthesis is shown to be an effective method for obtaining practically all carbides, nitrides and borides. A description is given of three main methods for obtaining single crystals of refractory compounds (TiN, TiC, ZrC, ZrB 2 , NbC) fairly perfect in structure and composition. These processes include deposition from vapour-gas phase, melting in arc plasma and crystallization from solutions in metallic melts. The advantages have been shown of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory compounds, ensuring the manufacture of products, close in composition to stoichiometric ones simultaneously with forming of items. Mechanical, thermal, abrasive, and resistive characteristics of the above materials are presented

  20. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Benedicte Nielsen

    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds...... derives from a verb, while the second mostly represents its direct object: thus English pickpocket. Most English examples are functionally agent–nouns, referring to the agent of the implied verbal act. Nevertheless, they lack a suffix indicating this. By contrast, the more prolific type of compound agent....... It contains a cursory discussion of Homeric Greek, Indo–Iranian and Germanic representatives. This comparative perspective on the morphology of the type is continued in chapters 3–5 on Latin and Romance. An important conclusion, and an answer to one of the most–discussed questions in the debate...

  1. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  2. Flavor and taste compounds analysis in Chinese solid fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 82 kinds of volatile compounds were identified, including alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, alkynes and benzenes. The subtle aroma of the soy sauce seemed to depend not only on particular key compounds but also on a “critical balance” or a “weighted concentration

  3. Total Synthesis of Marine Cyclic Enol-Phosphotriester Salinipostin Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingliang; Wei, Xianfeng; Liu, Xuemeng; Dong, Xueyang; Yu, Rilei; Wan, Shengbiao; Jiang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Due to their structural diversity and variety of biological activities, marine natural products have been the subject of extensive study. These compounds, especially phospholipid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, have a wide range of pharmacological applications, including embedded DNA and central nervous system, anti-tumor, anti-virus, anti-parasite, anti-bacterial, and antithrombotic effects. Unfortunately, the insufficient drug sources have limited the development of these compounds. In this study, we isolated salinpostin compounds from a fermentation solution of marine-derived Salinospora sp., which has a common bicyclic enol-phosphotriester core framework, as well as potent and selective antimalarial activities against P. falciparum with EC50 = 50 nmol L-1. The chemical synthesis of these compounds in greater quantities is necessary for their use in bioactivity studies. Thus we explored a short route with high yields and mild reaction conditions, which can generate combinatorial libraries for drug discovery and lead optimization. We developed a new total synthesis method for six cyclic enol-phosphotriester salinipotin compounds and their diastereomers. For the total synthesis of cyclipostin P, we prepared cyclic enol-phosphotriester salinipostin compounds in 10 steps from a readily accessible starting material, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and obtained an overall yield of 1.29%. We fully characterized these compounds by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon-13 NMR (13C-NMR), and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analyses, and found they coincide absolutely with the same compounds reported previously.

  4. Tritium labeling of simple 7-membered ring compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, J.; Peng, C.T.; Yang, Z.C.

    1990-01-01

    Seven-membered ring compounds, from cycloheptane to complex ring structures containing heteroatoms, substituents and fused phenyl rings, were labeled with tritium, using activated and adsorbed tritium. The 7-membered ring structures are generally stable towards reactions with tritium, which allows compounds like 1-benzosuberone, 1-aza-2-methoxy-1-cycloheptane, iminostilbene and clozapine to be labeled to reasonably high specific activities. The best method varies greatly from compound to compound. By optimizing the labeling conditions and use of efficient support exceptionally good results can be obtained. The Pd-on-alumina support gives consistently higher specific activity and less radioimpurity than other supports. Even molecules containing carbon-halogen bond and hydrogen bound to nitrogen can usually be labeled with tritium at stable positions and without dehalogenation. (author)

  5. Endocannabinoids, Related Compounds and Their Metabolic Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Fezza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators able to bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, the primary molecular targets responsible for the pharmacological effects of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These bioactive lipids belong mainly to two classes of compounds: N-acylethanolamines and acylesters, being N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, respectively, their main representatives. During the last twenty years, an ever growing number of fatty acid derivatives (endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds have been discovered and their activities biological is the subject of intense investigations. Here, the most recent advances, from a therapeutic point of view, on endocannabinoids, related compounds, and their metabolic routes will be reviewed.

  6. Two new compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong-Hua; Bai, Xue; Feng, Tao; Dong, Ze-Jun; Li, Zheng-Hui; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2016-01-01

    One new lignan, fructusol A (1), and one new thiazine derivative, 2-hydroxy-xanthiazone (2), along with eight known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Xanthium strumarium. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Meanwhile, compounds 1-3 were tested for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) in vitro. No one showed obvious inhibitions (MIC90 > 128 μg/ml).

  7. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  8. Compound transstyloid, transscaphoid, perilunate fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound fracture dislocations of proximal carpal bones are very rare. We report a 26-year-old male, Defense personnel by profession, who sustained a compound Gustilo Anderson type IIIA transstyloid, transscaphoid, perilunate dislocation. The patient underwent primary proximal row carpectomy and stabilization with uni-planar, uni-lateral external fixator, and K-Wires. On follow-up after a year, the patient had almost negligible range of motion around wrist without any significant discomfort.

  9. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  10. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boosting compound-protein interaction prediction by deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai; Shao, Mingyu; Wang, Yang; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2016-11-01

    The identification of interactions between compounds and proteins plays an important role in network pharmacology and drug discovery. However, experimentally identifying compound-protein interactions (CPIs) is generally expensive and time-consuming, computational approaches are thus introduced. Among these, machine-learning based methods have achieved a considerable success. However, due to the nonlinear and imbalanced nature of biological data, many machine learning approaches have their own limitations. Recently, deep learning techniques show advantages over many state-of-the-art machine learning methods in some applications. In this study, we aim at improving the performance of CPI prediction based on deep learning, and propose a method called DL-CPI (the abbreviation of Deep Learning for Compound-Protein Interactions prediction), which employs deep neural network (DNN) to effectively learn the representations of compound-protein pairs. Extensive experiments show that DL-CPI can learn useful features of compound-protein pairs by a layerwise abstraction, and thus achieves better prediction performance than existing methods on both balanced and imbalanced datasets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperon compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-11-01

    The formation of various hypernuclei from K - absorption at rest is discussed from the viewpoints of compound decay of highly excited hypernuclei in contrast to the direct reaction mechanism. Recent (stopped K - , π) experiments at KEK as well as old data of emulsion and bubble chamber experiments are discussed. Some future direction of hypernuclear spectroscopy is suggested. (author)

  13. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flavonoid compound was identified as quercetin by 1H-. NMR and ESI-MS ... phenolic compounds were isolated, and their .... scored under a fluorescence microscope (Carl. Zeiss .... Antioxidant Properties of Sarcopyramis bodinieri.

  14. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the main food sources and factors of variation, besides methods for the identification and quantification commonly used to analyze these compounds. Moreover, the role of phenolic compounds in scavenging oxidative stress and the techniques of in vitro antioxidant evaluation are discussed. In vivo studies to evaluate the biological effects of these compounds and their impact on chronic disease prevention are presented as well. Finally, it was discussed the role of these compounds on the sensory quality of foods.

  15. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  16. Studies about behavior of microbial degradation of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Makiko

    2003-02-01

    Some of TRU waste include organic compounds, thus these organic compounds might be nutrients for microbial growth at disposal site. This disposal system might be exposed to high alkali condition by cement compounds as engineering barrier material. In the former experimental studies, it has been supposed that microbial exist under pH = 12 and the microbial activity acclimated to high alkali condition are able to degrade asphalt under anaerobic condition. Microbes are called extremophile that exist in cruel habitat as high alkali or reductive condition. We know less information about the activity of extremophile, though any recent studies reveal them. In this study, the first investigation is metabolic pathway as microbial activity, the second is microbial degradation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic condition, and the third is microbial activity under high alkali. Microbial metabolic pathway consist of two systems that fulfill their function each other. One system is to generate energy for microbial activities and the other is to convert substances for syntheses of organisms' structure materials. As these systems are based on redox reaction between substances, it is made chart of the microbial activity region using pH, Eh, and depth as parameter, There is much report that microbe is able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic or molecular O 2 utilizing condition. For degradation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic condition, supplying electron acceptor is required. Co-metabolism and microbial consortia has important role, too. Alcalophile has individual transporting system depending Na + and acidic compounds contained in cell wall. Generating energy is key for survival and growth under high alkali condition. Co-metabolism and microbial consortia are effective for microbial degradation of aromatic compounds under high alkali and reductive condition, and utilizable electron acceptor and degradable organic compounds are required for keeping microbial activity and

  17. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  18. Trace organic compounds in wet atmospheric deposition: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Johnson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the occurrence of organic compounds in wet atmospheric deposition is given. Multiplicity of sources and problems associated with source identification are discussed. Available literature is reviewed by using citations from Chemical Abstracts and Water Resources Abstracts through June 1985 and includes reports published through December 1984 that summarize current knowledge. Approaches to the chemical determination of organic compounds in precipitation are examined in addition to aspects of sampling protocols. Best methods for sample collection and preparation for instrumental analysis continue to be discussed among various investigators. Automatic wet-deposition-only devices for collection and extraction are preferred. Classes of organic compounds that have been identified in precipitation include a spectrum of compounds with differing properties of acidity or basicity, polarity, and water solubility. Those compounds that have been reported in rainfall, snowfall, and ice include hydrocarbons (both aromatic and nonaromatic), chlorinated derivatives of these hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds (both acidic and nonacidic), and carboxylic acids and esters. Formic and acetic are the most abundant organic acids present. Cloudwater, fogwater, and mist also have been collected and analyzed for organic composition.

  19. A systematic summary of natural compounds in Radix Glycyrrhizae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accumulate data from studies on the compounds identified from Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC, and then systematically summarize and classify these compounds according to their structural characteristics. Methods: Five databases (CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data, CBM, and Pubmed were used to search for studies on the chemical structure of compounds from GC. The retrieval time of the respective databases was from their inception to March 2016. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the papers were carefully screened, and the data were extracted. Results: A total of 653 compounds from GC were collated from 252 articles, including flavonols (n = 201 belonging to 10 subgroups, terpenes and saponins (n = 167, coumarins (n = 30 belonging to 3 subgroups, aliphatics (n = 206, aromatics (n = 35, and others (n = 14. The flavones, represented by liquiritin and liquiritigenin, were the most reported compounds isolated from GC, followed by terpenes and saponins such as glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. Conclusion: The more than 600 natural compounds in GC may be responsible for GC’s anti-inflammatory, phlegm-expelling, cough- and pain-relieving activities.

  20. Rare earth intermetallic compounds produced by a reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A reduction-diffusion process is given for producing novel rare earth intermetallic compounds, such as cobalt--rare earth intermetallic compounds, especially compounds useful in preparing permanent magnets. A particulate mixture of rare earth metal halide, cobalt and calcium hydride is heated to effect reduction of the rare earth metal halide and to diffuse the resulting rare earth metal into the cobalt to form the intermetallic compound

  1. Decomposition of the compound Atwood machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Coelho, R.

    2017-11-01

    Non-standard solving strategies for the compound Atwood machine problem have been proposed. The present strategy is based on a very simple idea. Taking an Atwood machine and replacing one of its bodies by another Atwood machine, we have a compound machine. As this operation can be repeated, we can construct any compound Atwood machine. This rule of construction is transferred to a mathematical model, whereby the equations of motion are obtained. The only difference between the machine and its model is that instead of pulleys and bodies, we have reference frames that move solidarily with these objects. This model provides us with the accelerations in the non-inertial frames of the bodies, which we will use to obtain the equations of motion. This approach to the problem will be justified by the Lagrange method and exemplified by machines with six and eight bodies.

  2. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  3. Catalytic applications of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C.J.; England, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This article examines the potential uses of niobium, and its compounds, as catalysts in chemical processing. The word potential is deliberately chosen because in 1978 none of the world's twenty-five major catalysts (1) contained niobium. On the other hand, catalysts containing molybdenum and vanadium, neighbors of niobium in the periodic table, realized over 80 x 10 6 of sales in that same year. At the same time many of the patents for niobium catalysts cover applications in which niobium improves the activity of, or substitutes for, molybdenum based compounds. With favorable cost differentials and improvements in understanding, niobium may be able to replace molybdenum in some its traditional uses

  4. Synthesis, biological activity and computational studies of novel azo-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, J.; Murtaza, S.; Mughal, E.U.; Sadiq, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the present protocol, we report the synthesis and characterization of some novel azo-compounds starting from 4-methoxyaniline and 4-aminophenazone, which were diazotized at low temperature. 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminobenzoic acid, benzamide, 4-aminobenzoic acid, resorcinol, o-bromonitrobenzene and 2-nitroaniline were used as active aromatic coupling compounds for the second step. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their potential antibacterial activities by using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Shigellasonnei, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains. They were also subjected to antioxidant activities by using DPPH method. Results revealed that the compounds of 4-methoxyaniline and 4-aminophenazone showed good antibacterial activity against all strains, where as some azo-compounds have moderate to good antioxidant activities. Furthermore, these compounds were studied by computational analysis. (author)

  5. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  6. N-nitroso compounds in the air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, D.H.; Edwards, G.S.; Krull, I.S.; Wolf, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement and chemistry of N-nitroso compounds, most of which are known carcinogens, in the air are discussed. Methods for the analysis of N-nitroso compounds in the ambient air usually employ a nitrosamine-specific detector, coupled to a gas chromatograph or a high-pressure liquid chromatograph, with structural confirmation by high-resolution mass spectroscopy and extensive artifact experiments required. Airborne N-nitrosamines have been detected at significant trace levels near leather tanneries, rocket fuel plants, tire factories, tobacco smoke, amine factories, cooking vapors and in the ambient air. Nitrosation of amines has been demonstrated with nitrogen oxides, certain C-nitro compounds and nitrous acid, and tertiary amines, tertiary amine oxides and primary amines have been nitrosated

  7. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, G. V.; Kopchuk, D. S.; Kovalev, I. S.; Nosova, E. V.; Rusinov, V. L.; Chupakhin, O. N.

    2014-09-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references.

  8. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyryanov, G V; Kopchuk, D S; Rusinov, V L; Chupakhin, O N; Kovalev, I S; Nosova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references

  9. Chemical Reductive Transformations of Synthetic Organic Compounds. Probe Compound Studies and Mechanistic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peyton, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) can be used to selectively remove DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene) from a complex waste stream by adding a precursor compound such as ethanol, which forms a reducing radical upon reaction with hydroxyl radical...

  10. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  11. Ultratrace analysis for organolead compounds in Greenland snow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobinski, R.; Szpunar-Lobinska, J.; Adams, F.C.

    1994-01-01

    The degradation products of tetraalkyllead compounds used as antiknock additives are unique indicators of automotive environmental pollution by lead. Recent dramatic improvements in species-specific ultrasensitive analytical procedures enabled the identification and quantification of organolead compounds in ancient Greenland snow which is considered as the archives of northern hemispheric pollution records. Organolead species determined in fresh and ancient polar snow demonstrate unambiguously the global range of petrol-related pollution not only with ionic Pb 2+ but also with more toxic metalloorganic compounds. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs

  12. Lichens as source of versatile bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović, T.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lichens represent unique symbiosis of fungi (mycobionts and algae (photobionts. Living in extreme conditions they developed various compounds to survive. Many of these original compounds have proven biological activities (antibiotic, antimycotic, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, etc . This paper is synthesis of currently known data about lichens extracts and their potential use in pharmaceutics and medicine.

  13. Oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds over Ti-containing mesoporous molecular sieves prepared by using a fluorosilicon compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Cho, Chin-Soo; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong

    2010-05-01

    Titanium containing mesoporous molecular sieve (Ti-MMS) catalysts were studied for the oxidative desulfurization of refractory sulfur compounds. Ti-MMS catalysts were synthesized from fluorosilicon compounds and Ti with the hydrolysis reaction of H2SiF6 in an ammonia-surfactant mixed solution. The solid products were characterized by XRD, XRF, nitrogen adsorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy. Effects of Ti loading and oxidant/sulfur mole ratio, and sulfur species on ODS activity were investigated.

  14. On some derived compounds of fluorides of Cerium III or IV: defined compounds and non stoichiometric phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, Jean-Pierre

    1968-01-01

    This research study addresses the study of rare earth fluorides. It reports the preparation and study of new fluoro-cerates (IV) in order to complete the set of already known compounds (ammonium fluoro-cerate, and alkaline earth compounds), the study of binary CeF 3 binary systems, monovalent and divalent fluorides, and CeF 3 -NF 2 -N'F ternary systems, and the study of non stoichiometric phases in CeF 3 oxides, sulphides and selenides [fr

  15. INFLUENCE OF INORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON THE PROCESS OF PHOTOCATALYSIS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase in concentration of organic micropollutants in the water environment influences the development of methods for their effective elimination from various matrices released into aquatic ecosystems. One of widely described in literature processes for the decomposition of hardly-biodegradable pollutants is the process of heterogeneous photocatalysis. The paper presents the influence of inorganic substances on the decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, industrial admixtures - octylphenol and pharmaceutical compounds - diclofenac in the photocatalysis process conducted in the presence of TiO2. It has been shown that the presence of Cl- ions did not affect the photochemical reaction of the micropollutant decomposition. Whereas, the presence of CO3(2-, SO4(2- and HPO4(2- ions inhibited the decolonization of octylphenol and diclofenac, while the degradation efficiency of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene was reduced only by the presence of CO3(2- and HCO3- anions. The photooxidation of micropollutants in solutions containing Al(3+ oraz Fe(3+ cations proceeded with a much lower efficiency than that for solution without inorganic compounds. The analysis of the kinetics of the photocatalytic decomposition of selected micropollutants show a decrease in the reaction rate constant and an increase in their half-life due to the blocking of theactive semiconductor centers by inorganic compounds. In addition,the toxicological analysis inducated the generation of micropollutant oxidation by-products, which aggravate the quality of treated aqueous solutions.

  16. Chemoenzymatic approaches to obtain chiral-centered selenium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondani, Patricia B.; Guilmoto, Nathalie M. A. F.; Dudek, Hanna M.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Andrade, Leandro H.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of chiral-centered selenium compounds is presented. Enantioselective oxidations of these organoselenium compounds were performed using a wide range of biocatalysts, including Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, oxidoreductases-containing Aspergillus terreus and lipase (Cal-B) in the

  17. Isolation of volatile compounds of Aloe excelsa (Berger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Industrial and pharmacological applications of volatile and non-volatile compounds isolated ... Three commercially important compounds, namely: phenylacetonitrile, carvone and limonene were identified using gas ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  19. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P

    2015-08-10

    Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Preparation and properties of organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, H.A.; Noltes, J.G.

    Organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds of the types R2SbCl2Acac, R4SbAcac, PhSbCl3Acac and Cl4SbAcac have been synthesized. The compounds are monomeric in solution. IR and PMR data of these compounds, which contain a chelated Acac ligand have been discussed. Ph2SbCl2Acac shows abnormal

  1. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogerson, Kirsten; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Barupal, Dinesh K; Fiehn, Oliver

    2011-08-04

    Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase) is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity) from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species). Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http://vocbinbase.fiehnlab.ucdavis.edu). The Bin

  2. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barupal Dinesh K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species. Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  3. their use as Accelerator in Curing Process of Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. taghvaee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In some special cases, rubber compounds with high amounts of unsaturated elastomer are recommended with organic sulfur donors instead of mineral sulfurs. In this condition, activated sulfur is produced in situ and curingprocess is facilitated without accelerators. Organic sulfur donor compounds have low thermal stability and in the vulcanization temperature produce free and activated sulfurs. The advantages of these compounds are:1. High effectiveness of curing agent in low quantities in rubber compounds manufacturing.2. Producing activated sulfurs in controlled condition and avoiding the over curing of rubber compounds.In this report the novel synthesis of some derivatives of diamino-disulfides which can be applied as sulfur donors in vulcanization of special rubber compounds is introduced. The key process is reaction of sulfurmonochloride with amines in petroleum ether as solvent in low temperature. Dithio-dimorpholine(DTDM, dithio-dipipyridyl (DTDP, dithio-bis dibutylamine (DTBDB and dithio-bisdiisopropyl amine (DTBDI were prepared according to this method. All products thus obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. The effects of accelerating and sulfur donoring of all prepared agents were detected in rubber compounds with natural and synthetic rubber bases. All physical, chemical, reological and mechanical properties of rubber compounds based on prepared sulfur donors were characterized.

  4. Aroma volatile compounds from two fresh pineapple varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg(-1) and 380.66 μg·kg(-1) in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  5. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bin Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6 were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 µg·kg−1 and 380.66 µg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthiopropanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple.

  6. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  7. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg−1 and 380.66 μg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple. PMID:22837701

  8. The in situ generation and reactive quench of diazonium compounds in the synthesis of azo compounds in microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwi, Faith M; Watts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a micro-fluidic optimized process for the continuous flow synthesis of azo compounds is presented. The continuous flow synthesis of Sudan II azo dye was used as a model reaction for the study. At found optimal azo coupling reaction temperature and pH an investigation of the optimum flow rates of the reactants for the diazotization and azo coupling reactions in Little Things Factory-MS microreactors was performed. A conversion of 98% was achieved in approximately 2.4 minutes and a small library of azo compounds was thus generated under these reaction conditions from couplers with aminated or hydroxylated aromatic systems. The scaled up synthesis of these compounds in PTFE tubing (i.d. 1.5 mm) was also investigated, where good reaction conversions ranging between 66-91% were attained.

  9. Algae form brominated organic compounds in surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetteroth, A; Putschew, A; Jekel, M [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Monitoring of organic halogen compounds, measured as adsorbable organic bromine (AOBr) revealed seasonal high concentrations of organic bromine compounds in a surface water (Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany). Usually, in late summer, concentrations are up to five times higher than during the rest of the year. The AOBr of the lake inflows (throughout the year less then 6 {mu}g/L) were always lower then those in the lake, which indicates a production of AOBr in the lake. A correlation of the AOBr and chlorophyll-a concentration (1) in the lake provides first evidence for the influence of phototrophic organisms. The knowledge of the natural production of organohalogens is relatively recent. Up to now there are more then 3800 identified natural organohalogen compounds that have been detected in marine plants, animals, and bacteria and also in terrestrial plants, fungi, lichen, bacteria, insects, some higher animals, and humans. Halogenated organic compounds are commonly considered to be of anthropogenic origin; derived from e.g. pharmaceuticals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, flame retardants, intermediates in organic synthesis and solvents. Additionally they are also produced as by-products during industrial processes and by waste water and drinking water disinfection. Organohalogen compounds may be toxic, persistent and/or carcinogenic. In order to understand the source and environmental relevance of naturally produced organobromine compounds in surface waters, the mechanism of the formation was investigated using batch tests with lake water and algae cultures.

  10. Compound heterozygous ASPM mutations in Pakistani MCPH families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Farooq; Mahmood Baig, Shahid; Hansen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by reduced head circumference (50% of all reported families. In spite of the high frequency of MCPH in Pakistan only one case of compound heterozygosity for mutations in ASPM has been reported yet. In this large MCPH study we...... confirmed compound heterozygosity in two and homozygous mutations in 20 families, respectively, showing that up to 10% of families with MCPH caused by ASPM are compound heterozygous. In total we identified 16 different nonsense or frameshift mutations of which 12 were novel thereby increasing the number...... of mutations in ASPM significantly from 35 to 47. We found no correlation between the severity of the condition and the site of truncation. We suggest that the high frequency of compound heterozygosity observed in this study is taken into consideration as part of future genetic testing and counseling...

  11. Photometabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, C.; Ramana, C. V.; Rao, P. Raghuveer

    1994-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11 (ATCC 51186; DSM 7375) isolated from a pond of chemical industry effluent could anaerobically photometabolize heterocyclic aromatic compounds belonging to the pyridine and pyrazine groups only after a period of adaptation on pyrazinoic acid of 5 to 6 weeks. Growth on heterocyclic compounds was light dependent. The effects of various concentrations of heterocyclic compounds on growth suggest that higher concentrations of these compounds inhibit growth and are toxic. PMID:16349307

  12. Phenolic Compounds from Belamcanda chinensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ying Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new sucrose derivatives, namely, belamcanosides A (1 and B (2, together with five other known compounds (3−7, were isolated from the seeds of Belamcanda chinensis (L. DC. Their structures were identified based on spectroscopic data. Especially, the absolute configurations of fructose and glucose residues in 1 and 2 were assigned by acid hydrolysis, followed by derivatization and gas chromatography (GC analysis. Among the known compounds, (−-hopeaphenol (3, (+-syringaresinol (4, and quercetin (5, were isolated from B. chinensis for the first time. In addition, biological evaluation of 1 and 2 against cholesterol synthesis and metabolism at the gene level was carried out. The results showed that compounds 1 and 2 could regulate the expression of cholesterol synthesis and metabolism-associated genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR, squalene epoxidase (SQLE, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, and sortilin (SORT1 genes in HepG2 cells.

  13. Synthesis of some Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from 2-Chloro-N-p-Tolylacetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Gh Shaaban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research includes preparation of (2-chloro-N-p-tolylacetamide (1 from the reaction of (p-aminotoluene with chloro acetyl chloride. Compound (1 reacted with thiosemi carbazide and gave compound (2, and when compound (1 reacted with semicarbazide gave compound (3. While when compound (1 reacted with thiourea it produced compound (4. Compounds (2-4 when reacted with appropriate aromatic aldehydes or ketones produced Shiff bass (5-16, which in turn reacted with chloro acetyl chloride in the present of tri ethyl amine and dioxin gave β-lactam derivatives (14-22. The structures of these compounds were characterized from their melting points, FT-IR, and NMR.

  14. Effective anti-leishmanial activity of minimalist squaramide-based compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Clotilde; Ximenis, Marta; Ramirez-Macías, Inmaculada; Rotger, Carmen; Urbanova, Kristina; Olmo, Francisco; Martín-Escolano, Rubén; Rosales, María José; Cañas, Rocio; Gutierrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Costa, Antonio; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of N,N'-Squaramides derivatives, compounds that feature both hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups and are capable of multiple interactions with complementary sites, against Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani a series of 18compounds was prepared and assayed on extracellular and intracellular parasite forms. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed on J774.2 macrophage cells using meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) as the reference drug. Changes in metabolite excretion by 1 H-NMR and the ultrastructural alterations occurring in the parasites treated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), was analyzed. Compounds 1, 7, 11, 14 and 17 were the more active and less toxic. Infection rates showed that the order of effectiveness was 17 > 11 > 14 > 7 for both L. infantum and L. braziliensis and in the same way, the compound 1 for L. donovani. All these compounds have altered the typical structure of the promastigotes, glycosomes and mitochondria. These severe modifications by the compounds are the ultimate reasons for the alterations observed in the excretion products. The Squaramide 17 (3-(butylamino)-4-((3-(dimetilamino)propyl)(methyl)amino)cyclobut-3-en-1,2-dione) was clearly the most efficient of all compounds. The data appear to confirm that the severe modifications generated in organelles such as glycosomes or mitochondria by the compounds are the ultimate reasons for the alterations observed in the excretion products of all species. The activity, stability, low cost of starting materials, and straightforward synthesis make amino squaramides appropriate molecules for the development of an affordable anti-leishmanial agent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Synergy Maps: exploring compound combinations using network-based visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard; Guha, Rajarshi; Korcsmaros, Tamás; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of super-additivity of biological response to compounds applied jointly, termed synergy, has the potential to provide many therapeutic benefits. Therefore, high throughput screening of compound combinations has recently received a great deal of attention. Large compound libraries and the feasibility of all-pairs screening can easily generate large, information-rich datasets. Previously, these datasets have been visualized using either a heat-map or a network approach-however these visualizations only partially represent the information encoded in the dataset. A new visualization technique for pairwise combination screening data, termed "Synergy Maps", is presented. In a Synergy Map, information about the synergistic interactions of compounds is integrated with information about their properties (chemical structure, physicochemical properties, bioactivity profiles) to produce a single visualization. As a result the relationships between compound and combination properties may be investigated simultaneously, and thus may afford insight into the synergy observed in the screen. An interactive web app implementation, available at http://richlewis42.github.io/synergy-maps, has been developed for public use, which may find use in navigating and filtering larger scale combination datasets. This tool is applied to a recent all-pairs dataset of anti-malarials, tested against Plasmodium falciparum, and a preliminary analysis is given as an example, illustrating the disproportionate synergism of histone deacetylase inhibitors previously described in literature, as well as suggesting new hypotheses for future investigation. Synergy Maps improve the state of the art in compound combination visualization, by simultaneously representing individual compound properties and their interactions. The web-based tool allows straightforward exploration of combination data, and easier identification of correlations between compound properties and interactions.

  16. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  17. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Liriope muscari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five phenolic compounds, namely N-trans-coumaroyltyramine (1, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (2, N-trans-feruloyloctopamine (3, 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4 and (3S3,5,4′-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylhomoisoflavanone (5, were isolated from the fibrous roots of Liriope muscari (Liliaceae. Compounds 2–5 were isolated for the first time from the Liriope genus. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The structure-activity relationships of compounds 1–3 are discussed.

  18. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  19. A review of phenolic compounds in oil-bearing plants: Distribution, identification and occurrence of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi A; Almajwal, Ali; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Johargy, Ayman; Alli, Inteaz

    2017-03-01

    Over the last two decades, separation, identification and measurement of the total and individual content of phenolic compounds has been widely investigated. Recently, the presence of a wide range of phenolic compounds in oil-bearing plants has been shown to contribute to their therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypo-lipidemic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Phenolics in oil-bearing plants are now recognized as important minor food components due to several organoleptic and health properties, and they are used as food or sources of food ingredients. Variations in the content of phenolics in oil-bearing plants have largely been attributed to several factors, including the cultivation, time of harvest and soil types. A number of authors have suggested that the presence phenolics in extracted proteins, carbohydrates and oils may contribute to objectionable off flavors The objective of this study was to review the distribution, identification and occurrence of free and bound phenolic compounds in oil-bearing plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antileishmanial compounds from Cordia fragrantissima collected in Burma (Myanmar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kanami; Kawano, Marii; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Ooi, Takashi; Satake, Motoyoshi; Agatsuma, Yutaka; Kusumi, Takenori; Sekita, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    A methanol extract of the wood of Cordia fragrantissima, collected in Burma (Myanmar), was found to exhibit significant activity against Leishmania major. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using several chromatographic techniques afforded three new compounds (1-3) and five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were revealed on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Interestingly, the new compounds, despite the presence of asymmetric carbons, were found to be racemates. The activities of the isolates from C. fragrantissima and several derivatives were evaluated against the promastigote forms of Leishmania major, L. panamensis, and L. guyanensis.

  1. Two new compounds from the flowers of Rhododendron molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Bao, Guan-Hu; Wang, Li-Quan; Qin, Guo-Wei

    2013-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Rhododendron molle. Compounds were isolated by repeated chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Structures were elucidated based on spectral techniques, mainly 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometric analyses. Two compounds (1 and 2) were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified as two new compounds: 2α, 10α-epoxy-3β, 5β, 6β, 14β, 16α-hexahydroxy-grayanane and benzyl 2, 6-dihydroxybenzoate-6-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New Approach for Fractioning Metal Compounds Studies in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Tatiana; Motuzova, Galina; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Bauer, Tatiana; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Nevidomskaya, Dina; Kalinitchenko, Valeriy

    2016-04-01

    A combined approach for fractioning metal compounds in soils on the basis of sequential (Tessier, 1979) and parallel extractions (1 N NH4Ac, pH 8; 1% EDTA in NH4Ac; and 1N HCl) is proposed. Metal compounds in sequential and parallel extracts are grouped according to the strength of their bonds with soil components. A given group includes metal compounds with similar strengths of bonds and, hence, with similar migration capacities. The groups of firmly and loosely bound metal compounds can be distinguished. This approach has been used to assess the group composition of Zn, Cu, and Pb compounds in an ordinary chernozem and its changes upon the soil contamination with metals. Contamination of an ordinary chernozem from Rostov oblast with heavy metals caused a disturbance of the natural ratios between the metal compounds. In the natural soil, firmly bound metals predominate (88-95%of the total content), which is mainly caused by the fixation of metals in lattices of silicate minerals (56-83%of the total content). The mobility of the metals in the natural soil is low (5-12%) and is mainly related to metal compounds loosely bound with the soil carbonates. Upon the soil contamination with metals (application rates of 100-300 mg/kg), the content of all the metal compounds increases, but the ratio between them shifts towards a higher portion of the potentially mobile metal compounds (up to 30-40% of the bulk contents of the metals). Organic substances and non-silicate Fe, Al, and Mn minerals become the main carriers of the firmly and loosely bound metals. The strengths of their bonds with Cu, Pb, and Zn differ. Lead in the studied chernozems is mainly fixed in a loosely bound form with organic matter, whereas copper and zinc are fixed both by the organic matter and by the non-silicate Fe, Al, and Mn compounds. Firm fixation of the applied Cu and Pb is mainly ensured by the soil organic matter and non-silicate minerals, whereas firm fixation of Zn is mainly due to non

  3. Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang ( Koompassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang ( Koompassia excelsa ) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. ... Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted ...

  4. Oxygen stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariel, M.P.; Malekzadeh, M.; Pickus, M.R.

    1975-10-01

    A new, oxygen-stabilized intermetallic compound was identified in sintered, pre-alloyed rare-earth iron powder samples. Its composition corresponds to formula R 12 Fe 32 O 2 and its crystal structure belongs to space group Im3m. The presence of these compounds was observed, so far, in several R--Fe--O systems, with R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y

  5. Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Curved and Compound Twills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei-zhen; WANG Fu-mei; WANG Shan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new arithmetic using matrix left-shift functions for the quicker generation of curved and compound twills is introduced in this paper. A matrix model for the generation of regular, curved and compound twill structures is established and its computing simulation realization are elaborated. Examples of the algorithm applying in the simulation and the automatic generation of curved and compound twills in fabric CAD are obtained.

  6. HS-SPME optimization and extraction of volatile compounds from soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp with emphasis on their characteristic impact compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leticia de SANTANA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma and taste are decisive factors in the selection of any food. The aim of this study was to extract the volatile compounds present in soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp by Solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/ PDMS, CAR/PDMS and PDMS/DVB. An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were adsorption temperature, ionic strength and pulp concentration. The separation of volatiles was performed in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar while volatile compounds were identified by analysis in high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the capture of about 40 compounds. The CAR/PDMS fiber was more efficient for the capture of esters and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber for terpenes. The optimum conditions for capture of higher number of volatiles for polar column were 45 °C for extraction, 15% of ionic strength and 50% of pulp concentration which resulted in separation of 87 compounds. Among the principal character impact compounds from soursop are (E-2-hexenoate, methyl hexenoate and linalool.

  7. Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Nominal compound acquisition in 10 languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dressler, Wolfgang U.; Kilani-Schoch, Marianne; Ketrez, Nihan

    phases which usually differ among the participants in tests and are limited to single morphological patterns, whereas our study shows that first compound patterns emerge simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously with first inflection and derivation patterns. Finally it will be discussed whether and to which...... degree findings of test results from single languages are supported or not by our typological comparison of longitudinal studies. Examples are inversion of compound constituents [5], postulated non-occurrence of “regular” inflection of left-hand constituents [6], status of interfixes (linking elements...

  9. Compounds in different aphasia categories: a study on picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Carlo; De Pellegrin, Serena; Battel, Irene; Garzon, Martina; Meneghello, Francesca; Chiarelli, Valentina

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the production of compounds in Italian-speaking patients affected by different aphasia categories (i.e., Broca's, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasia) in a confrontation naming task. Questions of theoretical interest concerning the processing of compounds within the framework of the "lemma theory" as well as the role of morphological productivity in compound processing are addressed. Results indicate that all persons with aphasia retain knowledge of the morphological status of words, even when they fail to retrieve the corresponding phonological form (the "compound effect"). A difference was found among aphasia categories in the type of errors produced (omission vs. substitution) and in the position (first or second) of these errors within the compound words. In Broca's aphasia, the first component is omitted more frequently than the second one, but only in verb-noun compounds. Anomic and Wernicke's aphasia, unlike in Broca's aphasia, seem to retain sensitivity to morphological productivity.

  10. MnFe(PGe) compounds: Preparation, structural evolution, and magnetocaloric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ming; Zhang Hong-Guo; Zhang Jiu-Xing; Liu Dan-Min

    2015-01-01

    The interdependences of preparation conditions, magnetic and crystal structures, and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of the MnFePGe-based compounds are reviewed. Based upon those findings, a new method for the evaluation of the MCE in these compounds, based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), is proposed. The MnFePGe-based compounds are a group of magnetic refrigerants with giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE), and as such, have drawn tremendous attention, especially due to their many advantages for practical applications. Structural evolution and phase transformation in the compounds as functions of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field are reported. Influences of preparation conditions upon the homogeneity of the compounds’ chemical composition and microstructure, both of which play a key role in the MCE and thermal hysteresis of the compounds, are introduced. Lastly, the origin of the “virgin effect” in the MnFePGe-based compounds is discussed. (paper)

  11. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Tripolar Mesoionic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Shuki, Araki; Jiro, Mizuya; Naomitsu, Aoyama; Yasuo, Butsugan

    1995-01-01

    Tripolar mesoionic compounds have been synthesized by the reaction of (1,3-diphenyltetrazol-5-ylio)cyclopentadienide (or -indenide) with the dicationic ether salts derived from mesoionic olates and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride. The structures of the newly prepared mesoionic systems are discussed on the basis of spectroscopic analysis; it is shown that the tripolar [tetrazolium-cyclopentadienide (or indenide)-tetrazolium] canonical structure contributes significantly to the ground state ...

  13. Cyanobacteria as a Source for Novel Anti-Leukemic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humisto, Anu; Herfindal, Lars; Jokela, Jouni; Karkman, Antti; Bjørnstad, Ronja; Choudhury, Romi R; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an inspiring source of bioactive secondary metabolites. These bioactive agents are a diverse group of compounds which are varying in their bioactive targets, the mechanisms of action, and chemical structures. Cyanobacteria from various environments, especially marine benthic cyanobacteria, are found to be rich sources for the search for novel bioactive compounds. Several compounds with anticancer activities have been discovered from cyanobacteria and some of these have succeeded to enter the clinical trials. Varying anticancer agents are needed to overcome increasing challenges in cancer treatments. Different search methods are used to reveal anticancer compounds from natural products, but cell based methods are the most common. Cyanobacterial bioactive compounds as agents against acute myeloid leukemia are not well studied. Here we examined our new results combined with previous studies of anti-leukemic compounds from cyanobacteria with emphasis to reveal common features in strains producing such activity. We report that cyanobacteria harbor specific anti-leukemic compounds since several studied strains induced apoptosis against AML cells but were inactive against non-malignant cells like hepatocytes. We noted that particularly benthic strains from the Baltic Sea, such as Anabaena sp., were especially potential AML apoptosis inducers. Taken together, this review and re-analysis of data demonstrates the power of maintaining large culture collections for the search for novel bioactivities, and also how anti-AML activity in cyanobacteria can be revealed by relatively simple and low-cost assays.

  14. The Stability of Bioactive Compounds in Spaceflight Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    The status and stability of bioactive compounds in the processed and shelf-stable spaceflight food system have not previously been investigated though the presence of such compounds in aged space foods could have health significance for crews on long duration exploration missions. Over forty foods - either existing International Space Station (ISS) food provisioning items, newly developed foods for spaceflight, or commercially-available ready-to-eat foods - that were predicted to have a relatively high concentrations of one or more bioactive compounds (lycopene, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, sterols, and/or flavonoids) were selected for the study. Food samples were sent overnight to the Food Composition Laboratory of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR) for bioactive compound analysis. Three packages of each product were blended together for the analysis to reduce package-to-package variability. All ISS food items and commercial foods were analyzed initially and after 12 and 24 months of 21degC storage. Food development occurred in a staggered fashion, so data collection for the newly developed foods continues. Lastly, sensory evaluation and additional temperature storage data (4degC, 35degC) for select foods were collected to establish additional stability parameters. Efficacious concentrations of lycopene, lutein, and omega-3 fatty acids were measured in limited spaceflight foods; two grams of sterols a day may be difficult to achieve with the current space diet. Total polyphenol delivery appears stable and adequate, but individual phenolic compounds vary in stability and were not specifically evaluated in this study. The data suggests that some bioactive compounds, like lycopene and lutein, degrade and then plateau at some equilibrium concentration. The anthocyanin stability appears to be related to storage temperature and food matrix, and lutein stability in leafy vegetables may be impacted by storage temperature

  15. Readily-accessible oxidation of d0 organozirconium compounds: The electronic structure of (η5-C5H5)3ZrX compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.J.; Bursten, B.E.; Rhodes, L.F.; Morris, D.E.; Rogers, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to obtain a comparison between organotransition metal and organoactinide complexes, a series of Cp 3 ZrX compounds have been synthesized. A single crystal X-ray crystallographic study of Cp 3 ZrCl reveals that all three Cp ligands are bound in an η 5 fashion. Electrochemical investigations of this series show a first oxidation of these d 0 compounds approximately one volt less positive than the d 0 Cp 2 ZrX 2 compounds and approximately one-half volt less positive than the d 0 f 0 Cp 3 ThCl compound. These results will be presented along with a discussion of the electronic structure of this series, as determined by Xα-SW and Fenske-Hall calculations

  16. Co-cultivation of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum stimulates the production of cytostatic compound(s) with immunotoxic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttinen, Piia; Pelkonen, Jukka; Huttunen, Kati; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2006-01-01

    We have recently shown that the actinobacterium Streptomyces californicus and the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum originating from moisture damaged buildings possess both immunotoxic and immunostimulatory characteristics, which are synergistically potentiated by microbial interaction. In the search for the causative agent(s) behind the immunotoxicity, the cytostatic effects of the co-cultivated spores of S. californicus and S. chartarum were compared to those caused by widely used cytostatic agents produced by streptomycetes. The RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to four doses of doxorubicin (DOX), actinomycin D (AMD), mitomycin C (MMC) or phleomycin (PHLEO) for 24 h. Kinetics of the spores of the co-cultivated and the separately cultivated microbes (1 x 10 6 spores/ml) was compared to DOX (0.15 μM). Apoptotic responses were analyzed by measuring DNA content and mitochondria membrane depolarization with flow cytometer, and by the fluorometric caspase-3 assay. The present data indicate that interactions during co-cultivation of S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulate the production of an unidentified cytostatic compound(s) capable of inducing mitochondria mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S-G 2 /M. The spores of co-cultivated microbes caused a 4-fold collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and an almost 6-fold caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation when compared to control. Similar responses were induced by DNA cleaving compounds, especially DOX and AMD, at the relatively low concentrations, but not the spores of the same microbes when they were grown separately. These data suggest that when growing in the same habitat, interactions between S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulates the production of an unknown cytostatic compound(s) which evoke immunotoxic effects similar to those by chemotherapeutic drugs

  17. Towards radiation detected resonance ionization spectroscopy on transfermium elements in a buffer gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautenschlaeger, Felix; Walther, Thomas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Block, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hessberger, Fritz-Peter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The study of the atomic structure of transfermium elements like nobelium (No) and lawrencium (Lr) via Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RADRIS) is one of the most fascinating disciplines of modern atomic physics. It allows the determination of relativistic effects at the heaviest elements and provides a critical test of theoretical predictions. For these transfermium elements no experimental data on atomic level schemes are available at present. First experiments on {sup 254}No were performed in 2007, in which a buffer gas cell with an overall efficiency of 1%. In this experiment the evaporation temperature of nobelium was determined for the first time. To increase the efficiency of the buffer gas cell, off-line measurements have been performed with nat. ytterbium, the chemical homologue of nobelium. Also on-line experiments during a parasitic beam-time in 2012 provided an insight into the critical parameters of our setup. The results of the off-line and on-line measurements are briefly summarized in this talk.

  18. The hydration enthalpies of Md3+ and Lr3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruechle, W.; Schaedel, M.; Scherer, U.W.; Kratz, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Lawrencium (3-min 260 Lr) and lighter actinides were produced in the bombardement of a 249 Bk target with 18 O ions and loaded onto a cation exchange column in 0.05 M α-hydroxy-isobutyrate solution at pH = 4.85 together with the radioactive lanthanide tracers 166 Ho, 171 Er, and 171 Tm. In elutions with 0.12 M α-hydroxy-isobutyrate solution (pH = 4.85) trivalent Lr was eluted exactly together with the Er tracer and Md close to Ho. Lr elutes much later than expected based on the known elution positions of the lighter actinides and the expected analogy to the elution positions of the homologous lanthanides. From the measured elution positions, ionic radii were calculated for Lr 3+ and Md 3+ . Semiempirical models allow the calculation of the heat of hydration from the ionic radii, resulting in ΔH hyd ≅ - 3654 kJ/mol for Md 3+ and ΔH hyd ≅ - 3689 kJ/mol for Lr 3+ . (orig.)

  19. Compound Decomposition in Dutch Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses compound splitting for Dutch in the context of broadcast news transcription. Language models were created using original text versions and text versions that were decomposed using a data-driven compound splitting algorithm. Language model performances were compared in terms of

  20. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  1. Fungicidal compounds from a marine Ascidian-associated fungus Trichoderma harzianum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; Vuppala, S.; DeSouza, L.

    . Of the five isolated secondary metabolites, compounds 2 and 5 are being reported here for the first time from T. harzianum. Compounds 1 and 4 inhibited the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii causing sclerotium wilt or rot disease in tropical plants. Compound 2 and 5...

  2. The in situ generation and reactive quench of diazonium compounds in the synthesis of azo compounds in microreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith M. Akwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a micro-fluidic optimized process for the continuous flow synthesis of azo compounds is presented. The continuous flow synthesis of Sudan II azo dye was used as a model reaction for the study. At found optimal azo coupling reaction temperature and pH an investigation of the optimum flow rates of the reactants for the diazotization and azo coupling reactions in Little Things Factory-MS microreactors was performed. A conversion of 98% was achieved in approximately 2.4 minutes and a small library of azo compounds was thus generated under these reaction conditions from couplers with aminated or hydroxylated aromatic systems. The scaled up synthesis of these compounds in PTFE tubing (i.d. 1.5 mm was also investigated, where good reaction conversions ranging between 66–91% were attained.

  3. Conditional Stability of Solitary-Wave Solutions for Generalized Compound KdV Equation and Generalized Compound KdV-Burgers Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiguo; Dong Chunyan; Fan Engui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss conditional stability of solitary-wave solutions in the sense of Liapunov for the generalized compound KdV equation and the generalized compound KdV-Burgers equations. Linear stability of the exact solitary-wave solutions is proved for the above two types of equations when the small disturbance of travelling wave form satisfies some special conditions.

  4. Novel strategies for microdose studies using non-radiolabeled compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2011-06-19

    Microdose studies using non-radiolabeled compounds enable assessment of the clinical pharmacokinetics of drug candidates in humans without the need to synthesize radiolabeled compounds. We have demonstrated that the quantification limits of many drugs measured by LC-MS/MS are low enough to allow estimation of their pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of a microdose. Our previous microdose studies with LC-MS/MS demonstrated the linear pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine between microdoses and therapeutic doses. We also obtained time profiles of plasma concentrations of nicardipine and its multiple metabolites following administration of a microdose. A significant advantage of using non-radiolabeled compounds is the ability to perform cassette microdose studies. By administering multiple drug candidates to the same subject, we can select compounds with appropriate pharmacokinetic properties simultaneously. We can also clarify major factors dominating the pharmacokinetics of drug candidates by cocktail microdosing of the test compounds and probe substrates with or without specific inhibitors for enzymes/transporters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, I; Ivanko, S [Vysoka Skola Polnohospodarska, Nitra (Czechoslovakia)

    1976-01-01

    /sup 32/P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of /sup 32/P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of /sup 32/P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The /sup 32/P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time.

  6. Magnetic and superconducting order in some random pseudobinary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.C.M. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a study on the magnetic and superconducting ordering phenomena in some random pseudobinary compounds. In the investigations ternary systems are utilised in which two of the elements form a binary intermetallic compound, e.g. PdH, GdCu and YCo 2 . A third element is then randomly substituted into one of the sublattices without changing the basic intermetallic compound structure. In chapter II a study is presented on the Kondo effect and spin-glass freezing of the magnetic impurities Cr, Mn, and Fe in superconducting palladium hydride. Chapter III contains a study on crystal structure transformations and magnetic ordering phenomena in GdCusub(1-x)Gasub(x) and related pseudobinary compounds. In Chapter IV experiments on the magnetic properties and the electrical resistivity of the transition metal Laves phase compounds Y(Cosub(1-x)Fesub(x)) 2 , Y(Irsub(1-x)Fesub(x)) 2 and Hf(Cosub(1-x)Fesub(x)) 2 are described. (Auth.)

  7. Exploring Marine Cyanobacteria for Lead Compounds of Pharmaceutical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Uzair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ocean, which is called the “mother of origin of life,” is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes used as food by humans. They are excellent source of vitamins and proteins vital for life. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, arthritis, and so forth, while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, and so forth. They produce a large variety of bioactive compounds, including substances with anticancer and antiviral activity, UV protectants, specific inhibitors of enzymes, and potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many cyanobacteria produce compounds with potent biological activities. This paper aims to showcase the structural diversity of marine cyanobacterial secondary metabolites with a comprehensive coverage of alkaloids and other applications of cyanobacteria.

  8. Phosphate incorporation in organic compounds in roots of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, I.; Ivanko, S.

    1976-01-01

    32 P incorporation and metabolism was investigated for short exposure times of 1 sec, 10 sec and 1, 10, 30 and 120 min. By stepwise extraction with a methanol-chloroform-formic acid-water mixture, various fractions of P compounds were obtained. Low-molecular acid-soluble P compounds were separated by one-dimensional paper chromatography. Of the total amount of 32 P absorbed by the roots of maize in the form of phosphate ions during the short incubation time of 1 sec, more than 33% was incorporated into organic compounds. With increasing incubation time, the proportion of 32 P in low-molecular organic compounds increased with the decreasing proportion of inorganic phosphorus. In the 1 sec, exposure incorporation was found in 3 low-molecular organic compounds only, namely ATP, ADP and diphosphoglyceric acid. The 32 P incorporation into ATP and ADP, in contrast with incorporation into diphosphoglyceric acid, increased markedly with increased exposure time. (author)

  9. The reactions of anthronylidene carbene with some heterocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divisia, Bernadette

    1970-01-01

    The action of the anthronylidene carbene, generated by photochemical decomposition of 9-diazo 10-anthron, on four heterocyclic compounds (furan, thiophene, 1-methyl-pyrrole and 2,5-dihydrofuran) has been examined. Two classical carbene reactions have been observed: the addition on double bond (furan, thiophene, 1-methylpyrrole) and hydrogen atom abstraction of the heterocyclic compound (2,5-dihydrofuran). In the case of furan and thiophene, the cyclo-propanic compound resulting from the addition is spontaneously transformed into an ethylenic derivative by valence isomerization. The furan derivative undergoes a cis-trans isomerization, while the thiophene one undergoes an extra carbene attack. In the case of 1-methylpyrrole, the corresponding cyclo-propanic compound undergoes a ring cleavage, followed by a hydrogen atom migration leading to the formation of a substituted anthron. Only an allylic hydrogen atom selective abstraction of heterocyclic compound takes place in the reaction of anthronylidene carbene with 2,5-dihydrofuran. The asymmetrical coupling of radicals so obtained yields the corresponding substituted anthron. (author) [fr

  10. Microstructure and tribological properties of Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chun; Zhou, Jiansong; Yu, Youjun; Wang, Lingqian; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ti–Cu coating has been synthesized on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding. ► Microstructure and tribological properties of Ti–Cu coating were analyzed. ► The prepared Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating has excellent wear resistance. -- Abstract: Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating has been in situ synthesized successfully on pure Ti substrate by laser cladding using copper powder as the precursor. It has been found that the prepared coating mainly contains of TiCu, TiCu 3 , Ti 3 Cu, and Ti phases. The transmission electron microscopy results conform further the existence of Ti–Cu intermetallic compound in the fabricated coating. Tribological properties of the prepared Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating were systematically evaluated. It was found that normal loads and sliding speeds have a strong influence on the friction coefficient and wear rate of Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating. Namely, the friction coefficient of the Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating decreased with increasing normal load and sliding speed. The wear rate of the Ti–Cu intermetallic compound coating decreased rapidly with increasing sliding speed, while the wear rate increased as the normal load increased.

  11. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activities of compounds from twigs of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huynh Nguyen Khanh; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Rho, Seong Soo; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sui; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Min, Byung Sun

    2017-07-01

    Five new compounds, 10-oxomornigrol F (1), (7″R)-(-)-6-(7″-hydroxy-3″,8″-dimethyl-2″,8″-octadien-1″-yl)apigenin (2), ramumorin A (3), ramumorin B (4), and (4S,7S,8R)-trihydroxyoctadeca-5Z-enoic acid (5), together with 31 known compounds (6-36), were isolated from the twigs of Morus alba (Moraceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were established using spectroscopic analyses, 1D and 2D NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and Mosher's methods. The anti-inflammatory activities of the compounds were evaluated by investigating their ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1, 2, 13, 17, 19, 25-28, and 32 showed inhibitory effects with IC 50 values ranging from 2.2 to 5.3μg/mL. Compounds 1, 2, 17, 25, and 32 reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pretreating the cells with compound 1, 17, and 32 significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Spatial Angular Compounding for Elastography without the Incompressibility Assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Min; Varghese, Tomy

    2005-01-01

    Spatial-angular compounding is a new technique that enables the reduction of noise artifacts in ultrasound elastography. Previous results using spatial angular compounding, however, were based on the use of the tissue incompressibility assumption. Compounded elastograms were obtained from a spatially-weighted average of local strain estimated from radiofrequency echo signals acquired at different insonification angles. In this paper, we present a new method for reducing the noise artifacts in...

  14. Certification, Accreditation, and Credentialing for 503A Compounding Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Jon; McCrory, Gary; Kraemer, Cheri; Jensen, Brenda; Allen, Loyd V

    2018-01-01

    The terms certification, accreditation, and credentialing are often used interchangeably when they apply to compounding-pharmacy qualifications, but they are not synonymous. The reasons for obtaining each, the requirements for each, and the benefits of each differ. Achieving such distinctions can negatively or positively affect the status of a pharmacy among peers and prescribers as well as a pharmacy's relationships with third-party payors. Changes in the third-party payor industry evolve constantly and, we suggest, will continue to do so. Compounding pharmacists must be aware of those changes to help ensure success in a highly competitive marketplace. To our knowledge at the time of this writing, there is no certification program for compounding pharmacists, although pharmacy technicians can achieve certification and may be required to do so by the state in which they practice (a topic beyond the scope of this article). For that reason, we primarily address accreditation and credentialing for 503A compounding pharmacies. In this article, the evolution of the third-party payment system for compounds is reviewed; the definitions of certification, accreditation, and credentialing are examined; and the benefits and recognition of obtaining accredited or credentialed status are discussed. Suggestions for selecting an appropriate agency that offers accreditation or credentialing, preparing for and undergoing an onsite survey, responding to findings, and maintaining a pharmacy practice that enables a successful survey outcome are presented. The personal experience of author CK during accreditation and credentialing is discussed, as is the role of a consultant (author BJ) in helping compounders prepare for the survey process. A list of agencies that offer accreditation and credentialing for compounding pharmacies is included for easy reference. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  15. X-ray electron investigation of technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, V.N.; Kryuchkov, S.V.; Kuzina, A.F.; Kulakov, V.M.; Pirozhkov, S.V.; Spitsyn, V.I.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)

    1982-01-01

    Investigation results of a number of technetium compounds using the method of X-ray electron spectroscopy have been presented for the first time. Calculation of effective charge for compounds without Tc-Tc bond and cluster complexes with strong Tc-Tc bond is made. Strong interdependence of effective charge and properties of technetium clusters is shown. Binding energies for certain cluster complexes of technetium with halides are given

  16. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  17. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Nitrogen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E

    1952-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of published data on chemical analysis of atmospheric precipitation to discuss different cycles proposed for inorganic compounds in atmospheric precipitation and, finally, to assess the importance of these compounds from different points of view. Investigations of rainwater with a view to determine atmospheric pollution in industrial areas are mentioned incidentally but no results are detailed.

  18. Small-Molecule Compounds Exhibiting Target-Mediated Drug Disposition (TMDD): A Minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinearities are commonplace in pharmacokinetics, and 1 special source is the saturable binding of the drug to a high-affinity, low-capacity target, a phenomenon known as target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD). Compared with large-molecule compounds undergoing TMDD, which has been well recognized due to its high prevalence, TMDD in small-molecule compounds is more counterintuitive and has not been well appreciated. With more and more potent small-molecule drugs acting on highly specific targets being developed as well as increasingly sensitive analytical techniques becoming available, many small-molecule compounds have recently been reported to have nonlinear pharmacokinetics imparted by TMDD. To expand our current knowledge of TMDD in small-molecule compounds and increase the awareness of this clinically important phenomenon, this minireview provides an overview of the small-molecule compounds that demonstrate nonlinear pharmacokinetics imparted by TMDD. The present review also summarizes the general features of TMDD in small-molecule compounds and highlights the differences between TMDD in small-molecule compounds and large-molecule compounds. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Evaluation of radiolabeled ruthenium compounds as tumor-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.; Rasey, J.S.; Clarke, M.H.; Dowling, M.

    1979-01-01

    This work introduces a new class of radiopharmaceuticals based on ruthenium-97. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97, the high chemical reactivity of Ru, the potential antitumor activity of several Ru coordination compounds, and BLIP production of Ru-97, provide a unique combination for the application of this isotope in nuclear oncology. A systematic study was undertaken on the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a number of ruthenium-labeled compounds. In a variety of animal tumor models, several compounds show considerable promise as tumor-localizing agents when compared to gallium-67 citrate. The compounds studied (with Ru in different oxidation states) include ionic Ru, a number of hydrophilic and lipophilic chelates, and various ammine derivatives

  20. Modern spectrometric methods for the analysis of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Wagenaars, G.N.; Jacobs, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    A proper analysis of chemical compounds should give information about the chemical identity (not only the structure but also enantiomeric form), the chemical purity and chemical composition (e.g. giving information about counter-ions, solvents of crystallization). For labelled compounds information is also needed about isotopic purity (defined as the % of isotope present in the compound), the position/distribution of the isotope in the molecule and degree of labelling/specific activity. In the past ten years the possibilities for spectrometric analyses of labelled compounds have increased enormously and this chapter will give an overview of these methods with the exception of (radio)chromatography that will be dealt with in another chapter. (author)

  1. Energy gap formation mechanism through the interference phenomena of electrons in face-centered cubic elements and compounds with the emphasis on half-Heusler and Heusler compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, U.; Sato, H.

    2018-05-01

    Many face-centred cubic elements and compounds with the number of atoms per unit cell N equal to 8, 12 and 16 are known to be stabilised by forming either a band gap or a pseudogap at the Fermi level. They are conveniently expressed as cF8, cF12 and cF16, respectively, in the Pearson symbol. From the cF8 family, we worked on three tetravalent elements C (diamond), Si and Ge, SZn-type AsGa compound and NaCl-type compounds like BiLu, AsSc, etc. From the cF12 family, more than 80 compounds were selected, with a particular emphasis on ABC- and half-Heusler-type ternary equiatomic compounds. Among cF16 compounds, both the Heusler compounds ABC2 and Zintl compounds were studied. We revealed that, regardless of whether or not the transition metal (TM) and/or rare-earth (RE) elements are involved as constituent elements, the energy gap formation mechanism for cF8, cF12 and cF16 compounds can be universally discussed in terms of interference phenomenon of itinerant electrons with set of reciprocal lattice planes with ? = 8, 11 and 12, where ? refers to square of the critical reciprocal of lattice vector of an fcc lattice. The number of itinerant electrons per unit cell, e/uc, for all these band gap/pseudogap-bearing compounds is found to fall on a universal line called "3/2-power law" when plotted against ? on a logarithmic scale. This proves the validity of the fulfilment of the interference condition ? in conformity with other pseudogap compounds with different crystal symmetries and different sizes of the unit cell reported in literature.

  2. Computer modeling the boron compound factor in normal brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Huiskamp, R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Griebenow, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The macroscopic distribution of borocaptate sodium (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) in normal tissues has been determined and can be accurately predicted from the blood concentration. The compound para-borono-phenylalanine (p-BPA) has also been studied in dogs and normal tissue distribution has been determined. The total physical dose required to reach a biological isoeffect appears to increase directly as the proportion of boron capture dose increases. This effect, together with knowledge of the macrodistribution, led to estimates of the influence of the microdistribution of the BSH compound. This paper reports a computer model that was used to predict the compound factor for BSH and p-BPA and, hence, the equivalent radiation in normal tissues. The compound factor would need to be calculated for other compounds with different distributions. This information is needed to design appropriate normal tissue tolerance studies for different organ systems and/or different boron compounds

  3. Intracellular and extracellular radiosensitization of Serratia marcescens by bipyridinium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Patel, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    The one-electron reduced form of the bipyridinium compounds benzylviologen and methylviologen have been found to diffuse across the cytoplasmic membrane of Serratia marcescens cells. Subsequent reoxidation of the viologens to the dicationic form traps the compound inside the cells. Cells at a density of 4 x 10 9 ml -1 took up approximately half of the compound when incubated with an initial extracellular concentration of 200μM of either reduced viologen. The degree of radiosensitization in anoxia afforded by the compounds parallels the rise in internal concentration and reaches a maximum enhancement ratio of 2.0 +- 0.1 for both compounds. This level in sensitization is similar to that found when the compounds are external to the cell. No additivity in sensitization is found when the viologens are both internal and external to the cells at the time of irradiation suggesting that the same target site is sensitized. This site is probably some membrane-associated structure

  4. Magnetic behaviour of new Ce compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Mallik, R [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1996-07-01

    We report initial results of our investigation on the magnetic behaviour of some new Ce compounds. The compounds, CeIr{sub 2}B{sub 2}C and CeIr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, do not appear to exhibit bulk magnetic ordering down to 2 K. The alloys, Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Ce{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}In, order magnetically below 4 and 6 K, respectively, and a marginal change in the Pd(Cu)/In composition does not significantly influence the ordering temperatures. (orig.).

  5. Fragrance compounds and amphiphilic association structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, S E

    1998-05-01

    Fragrance formulations have traditionally been based on alcohol as the solvent, but the recent legal restrictions on volatile organic solvents have prompted the industry to change to aqueous solubilized systems. The article reviews the fundamental factors in the application of such systems evaluating the influence by different amphiphilic association structures on the vapor pressure of fragrance compounds. This information is subsequently used to estimate the variation of fragrance compound vapor pressures during evaporation. The results reveal that the vapor pressure versus time variation is improved compared to solvent-based formulations.

  6. Five new compounds from the fungus Ganoderma petchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Feng; Guo, Ping-Xia; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    The fungal species of the genus Ganoderma attracted great interest in the last decades. Our recent investigation on Ganoderma petchii afforded five new compounds, (-)-petchioics A and B (1 and 2), petchiates A and B (3 and 4), petchine (5), and a known compound. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by computational methods. Biological activities of these isolates towards human cancer cells, COX-1/2, and influenza virus were evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  8. [Exposure to metal compounds in occupational galvanic processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgiewicz, Jolanta; Domański, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Occupational galvanic processes are provided in more than 600 small and medium enterprises in Poland. Workers who deal with galvanic coating are exposed to heavy metal compounds: tin, silver, copper and zinc. Some of them are carcinogenic, for example, hexavalent chromium compounds, nickel and cadmium compounds. Research covered several tens of workstations involved in chrome, nickel, zinc, tin, silver, copper and cadmium plating. Compounds of metals present in the air were determined: Cr, Ni, Cd, Sn, Ag--by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ET-AAS) and Zn--by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization (F-AAS). The biggest metal concentrations--of silver and copper--were found at workstations of copper, brass, cadmium, nickel and chrome plating, conducted at the same time. Significant concentrations of copper were found at workstations of maintenance bathing and neutralizing of sewage. The concentrations of metals did not exceed Polish MAC values. MAC values were not exceeded for carcinogenic chromium(VI), nickel or cadmium, either. In galvanic processes there was no hazard related to single metals or their compounds, even carcinogenic ones. Combined exposure indicators for metals at each workstation did not exceed 1, either. However, if there are even small quantities of carcinogenic agents, health results should always be taken into consideration.

  9. Sorption of Heterocyclic Organic Compounds to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzelder, Florian; Funck, Matin; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2018-01-16

    Sorption is an important natural and technical process. Sorption coefficients are typically determined in batch experiments, but this may be challenging for weakly sorbing compounds. An alternative method enabling analysis of those compounds is column chromatography. A column packed with the sorbent is used and sorption data are determined by relating sorbate retention to that of a nonretarded tracer. In this study, column chromatography was applied for the first time to study sorption of previously hardly investigated heterocyclic organic compounds to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Sorption data for these compounds are very limited in literature, and weak sorption is expected from predictions. Deuterium oxide was used as nonretarded tracer. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Freundlich model and data showed reasonable agreement with predicted values. Sorption was exothermic and physisorption was observed. H-bonding may contribute to overall sorption, which is supported by reduced sorption with increasing ionic strength due to blocking of functional groups. Lowering pH reduced sorption of ionizable compounds, due to electrostatic repulsion at pH 3 where sorbent as well as sorbates were positively charged. Overall, column chromatography was successfully used to study sorption of heterocyclic compounds to MWCNTs and could be applied for other carbon-based sorbents.

  10. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers

  11. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part B--Nitrogen-, Sulfur-, and Oxygen-Containing Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-07-01

    Present study focused on the biodegradation of various heterocyclic nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (NSO) compounds using naphthalene-enriched culture. Target compounds in the study were pyridine, quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran. Screening studies were carried out using different microbial consortia enriched with specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and NSO compounds. Among different microbial consortia, naphthalene-enriched culture was the most efficient consortium based on high substrate degradation rate. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order pyridine > quinoline > benzofuran > benzothiophene. Benzothiophene and benzofuran were found to be highly recalcitrant pollutants. Benzothiophene could not be biodegraded when concentration was above 50 mg/l. It was observed that 2-(1H)-quinolinone, benzothiophene-2-one, and benzofuran-2,3-dione were formed as metabolic intermediates during biodegradation of quinoline, benzothiophene, and benzofuran, respectively. Quinoline-N and pyridine-N were transformed into free ammonium ions during the biodegradation process. Biodegradation pathways for various NSO compounds are proposed. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate single substrate biodegradation kinetics satisfactorily. Benzothiophene and benzofuran biodegradation kinetics, in presence of acetone, was simulated using a generalized multi-substrate model.

  12. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  13. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  14. Transformations in refractory compounds, caused by high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajnulin, Yu.G.; Alyamovskij, S.I.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the effect of high pressures and temperatures on structural features of refractory carbides, nitrides and monooxides of transition metals. The results are discussed on the basis of one component of the theory on daltonides and bertollides by N.S. Kurnakov - the theory of imaginary compounds, developed by G.B. Bokij. Several new ideas, resulting from this consideration, are formulated, It is shown that at high pressures and temperatures it is possible to obtain new electron modifications of compounds and to expand sufficiently the region of the existance of variable composition phases. The concept on imaginary compounds is shown to be true. A supposition is made on realization of numerous imaginary compounds at high pressures and temperatures. Other ways of production of imaginary compounds are recommended

  15. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1983-09-20

    A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

  16. The mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 directly activates neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compound 48/80 is widely used in animal and tissue models as a "selective" mast cell activator. With this study we demonstrate that compound 48/80 also directly activates enteric neurons and visceral afferents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used in vivo recordings from extrinsic intestinal afferents together with Ca(++ imaging from primary cultures of DRG and nodose neurons. Enteric neuronal activation was examined by Ca(++ and voltage sensitive dye imaging in isolated gut preparations and primary cultures of enteric neurons. Intraluminal application of compound 48/80 evoked marked afferent firing which desensitized on subsequent administration. In egg albumen-sensitized animals, intraluminal antigen evoked a similar pattern of afferent activation which also desensitized on subsequent exposure to antigen. In cross-desensitization experiments prior administration of compound 48/80 failed to influence the mast cell mediated response. Application of 1 and 10 µg/ml compound 48/80 evoked spike discharge and Ca(++ transients in enteric neurons. The same nerve activating effect was observed in primary cultures of DRG and nodose ganglion cells. Enteric neuron cultures were devoid of mast cells confirmed by negative staining for c-kit or toluidine blue. In addition, in cultured enteric neurons the excitatory action of compound 48/80 was preserved in the presence of histamine H(1 and H(2 antagonists. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn attenuated compound 48/80 and nicotine evoked Ca(++ transients in mast cell-free enteric neuron cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed direct excitatory action of compound 48/80 on enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Therefore, functional changes measured in tissue or animal models may involve a mast cell independent effect of compound 48/80 and cromolyn.

  17. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  18. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  19. The isolation of antiprotozoal compounds from Libyan propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siheri, Weam; Igoli, John O; Gray, Alexander I; Nasciemento, Ticiano G; Zhang, Tong; Fearnley, James; Clements, Carol J; Carter, Katharine C; Carruthers, John; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Watson, David G

    2014-12-01

    Propolis is increasingly being explored as a source of biologically active compounds. Until now, there has been no study of Libyan propolis. Two samples were collected in North East Libya and tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei. Extracts from both samples had quite high activity. One of the samples was fractionated and yielded a number of active fractions. Three of the active fractions contained single compounds, which were found to be 13-epitorulosal, acetyl-13-epi-cupressic acid and 13-epi-cupressic acid, which have been described before in Mediterranean propolis. Two of the compounds had a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 1.56 µg/mL against T. brucei. The active fractions were also tested against macrophages infected with Leishmania donovani, and again moderate to strong activity was observed with the compounds having IC50 values in the range 5.1-21.9 µg/mL. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Utilization and Costs of Compounded Medications for Commercially Insured Patients, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Timothy; Fontane, Patrick; Iyengar, Reethi; Henderson, Rochelle

    2016-02-01

    Although compounding has a long-standing tradition in clinical practice, insurers and pharmacy benefit managers have instituted policies to decrease claims for compounded medications, citing questions about their safety, efficacy, high costs, and lack of FDA approval. There are no reliable published data on the extent of compounding by community pharmacists nor on the fraction of patients who use compounded medications. Prior research suggests that compounded medications represent a relatively small proportion of prescription medications, but those surveys were limited by small sample sizes, subjective data collection methods, and low response rates. To determine the number of claims for compounded medications on a per user per year (PUPY) basis and the average ingredient cost of these claims among commercially insured patients in the United States for 2012 and 2013. This study used prescription claims data from a nationally representative sample of commercially insured members whose pharmacy benefits were managed by a large pharmacy benefit management company. A retrospective claims analysis was conducted from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2013. Annualized prevalence, cost, and utilization estimates were drawn from the data. All prescription claims were adjusted to 30-day equivalents. Data-mining techniques (association rule mining) were employed in order to identify the most commonly combined ingredients in compounded medications. The prevalence of compound users was 1.1% (245,285) of eligible members in 2012 and 1.4% (323,501) in 2013, an increase of 27.3%. Approximately 66% of compound users were female, and the average age of a compound user was approximately 42 years throughout the study period. The geographic distribution of compound user prevalence was consistent across the United States. Compound users' prescription claims increased 36.6% from 2012 to 2013, from approximately 7.1 million to approximately 9.7 million prescriptions. The number of

  1. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillous, A.

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the ν (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm -1 . The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [fr

  2. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  3. SEURAT-1 liver gold reference compounds: a mechanism-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Paul; Schwarz, Michael; Landesmann, Brigitte; Maggioni, Silvia; Goumenou, Marina; Bower, David; Leonard, Martin O; Wiseman, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of alternative methods to replace animal testing for the prediction of repeat dose chemical toxicity. To address this need, the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe have jointly funded a research program for 'Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing.' The goal of this program was the development of in vitro cellular systems and associated computational capabilities for the prediction of hepatic, cardiac, renal, neuronal, muscle, and skin toxicities. An essential component of this effort is the choice of appropriate reference compounds that can be used in the development and validation of assays. In this review, we focus on the selection of reference compounds for liver pathologies in the broad categories of cytotoxicity and lipid disorders. Mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are considered under the category of cytotoxicity, while steatosis, cholestasis, and phospholipidosis are considered under the category of lipid dysregulation. We focused on four compound classes capable of initiating such events, i.e., chemically reactive compounds, compounds with specific cellular targets, compounds that modulate lipid regulatory networks, and compounds that disrupt the plasma membrane. We describe the molecular mechanisms of these compounds and the cellular response networks which they elicit. This information will be helpful to both improve our understanding of mode of action and help in the selection of appropriate mechanistic biomarkers, allowing us to progress the development of animal-free models with improved predictivity to the human situation.

  4. Core-level XPS studies of Ce and La intermetallic compounds and their implications for the 4f levels of Ce compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiburg, C.; Fuggle, J.C.; Hillebrecht, F.U.; Zolnierek, Z.; Laesser, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 3d core hole X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of approximately 30 intermetallic compounds of La and Ce are reported. Transitions to final states with approximately f 0 , f 1 and f 2 character are observed in some Ce compounds (f 0 and f 1 for La compounds). The results are discussed in terms of the current ideas of the influence of f-counts and f-levels hybridization on core level lineshapes. We cannot find an explanatoin of the observed spectra consisted with the ''promotial model'' where the 4f-count varies and 4f electron was thought to be entirely promoted to the Ce 5d6s valence bands in some compounds. There may be some small charge transfer from the f level, however. In conjunction with ideas on screening processes in XPS the observed lineshapes suggest coupling of the 4f electrons to other states is strongest in those compounds previously thought to have f 0 character. This coupling increases despite a large increase in the Ce-Ce distance when Ce is diluted with Ni or Pd. Thus it cannot be due to direct f-f interaction and must be attributed to coupling with the other valence electrons; possibly those centred on the partner sites. (orig./EZ) [de

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  6. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  8. Compounds formed by treatment of corn (Zea mays) with nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M C; Hansen, T J; Tannenbaum, S R

    1980-01-01

    Nitrohexane has been identified as a major product formed following treatment of corn (Zea mays) with nitrous acid. Preliminary evidence suggests that another compound isolated from the nitrosated corn is an unsaturated nitrolic acid. As an aid to the analysis of N-nitro compounds, we have characterized the response of a chemiluminescence detector (Thermal Energy Analyzer) as a function of pyrolysis chamber temperature for several nitrosamines and for an aliphatic C-nitroso compound, an aromatic C-nitro compound, a nitramine and an alkyl nitrite. The response-temperature profiles are valuable in distinguishing among the various compounds and in optimizing the sensitivity of the detector for use in chromatography. Other tests, including photolysis and stability toward nitrite-scavenging reagents, further aid in distinguishing among the various compounds.

  9. Diazo Compounds: Versatile Tools for Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mix, Kalie A.; Aronoff, Matthew R.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Diazo groups have broad and tunable reactivity. That and other attributes endow diazo compounds with the potential to be valuable reagents for chemical biologists. The presence of diazo groups in natural products underscores their metabolic stability and anticipates their utility in a biological context. The chemoselectivity of diazo groups, even in the presence of azido groups, presents many opportunities. Already, diazo compounds have served as chemical probes and elicited novel modificatio...

  10. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Antioxidant evaluation of heterocyclic compounds by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godevac, Dejan; Tesević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Stanković, Miroslava

    2013-03-01

    This article summarizes the results of using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay to evaluate the antioxidant potential of heterocyclic compounds. Most studies were carried out with naturally occurring heterocyclic compounds such as plant polyphenols: flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, and ellagitannins, or plant derived products (juices, extracts, supplements) rich in bioactive heterocyclic compounds. There are also some studies dealing with synthetic heterocyclic antioxidants. CBMN assay is an in vitro study that has been used to evaluate antioxidant and protective effects of heterocyclic compounds on induced chromosome aberration in human lymphocytes.

  12. New coordination compounds of Cr(III) used in leather tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela; Apostolescu, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Some new coordination compounds of Cr(III) using as ligand N-hydroxy - succinimide, were obtained and studied. The combination ratio, central atom: ligand were 1:1; 1:2 and 1:3. The new complex compounds were studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy, conductance and pH measurements. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability constants were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions.

  13. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in

  14. Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the Maillard reaction for food quality and focuses on flavour compound formation. The most important classes of Maillard flavour compounds are indicated and it is shown where they are formed in the Maillard reaction. Some emphasis is given on the kinetics of

  15. The role of within-compound associations in learning about absent cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Miller, Ralph R

    2011-05-01

    When two cues are reinforced together (in compound), most associative models assume that animals learn an associative network that includes direct cue-outcome associations and a within-compound association. All models of associative learning subscribe to the importance of cue-outcome associations, but most models assume that within-compound associations are irrelevant to each cue's subsequent behavioral control. In the present article, we present an extension of Van Hamme and Wasserman's (Learning and Motivation 25:127-151, 1994) model of retrospective revaluation based on learning about absent cues that are retrieved through within-compound associations. The model was compared with a model lacking retrieval through within-compound associations. Simulations showed that within-compound associations are necessary for the model to explain higher-order retrospective revaluation and the observed greater retrospective revaluation after partial reinforcement than after continuous reinforcement alone. These simulations suggest that the associability of an absent stimulus is determined by the extent to which the stimulus is activated through the within-compound association.

  16. Flavonoid Compounds from the Bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinton Sianturi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three flavonoid compounds, kaempferol (1, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-α-L-rhamnoside (3, were isolated from the bark of Aglaia eximia (Meliaceae. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were identified with spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT 135°, HMQC, HMBC, 1H-1H-COSY NMR, and MS, as well as a compared with previously reported spectra data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Compounds 1–3 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 murine leukemia cells with IC50 values of 1.22, 42.92, and >100 mg/mL, respectively

  17. Coordination compounds of thorium(4) containing tris(dimethylamino)-phosphinoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopenko, V.V.; Klunnik, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Compounds including tris(dimethylamino)-phosphinoxide of the following composition: [ThX 4 (HMPA) 4 ] and [ThX 2 (HMPA) 4 ](BPh 4 ) 2 , where X=NCSe, N(CN) 2 =, C(CN) 3 , ONC(CN) 2 -, [C(CN) 2 C(O)NH 2 ], BPh 4 =[B(C 6 H 5 ) 4 ] - , and HMPA=OP[N(CN 3 ) 2 ] 3 are prepared by interactions of thoriUm chloride with different pseudohalogenides and sodium tetraphenylborate. Some properties of the above compoUnds are studied. Using the IR spectroscopy, the way of coordinating these compounds is determined; the X-ray crystal analysis has determined isostrUcture of compounds: [Th(NCX) 4 (HMPA) 4 ] and [ThX 2 (HMPA) 4 ](BPh 4 ) 2 , where X is Se, S

  18. Corrosion inhibition of aluminum 6063 using some pharmaceutical compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, A.S.; Al-Sarawy, A.A.; Ahmed, F.Sh.; El-Abbasy, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of some pharmaceutical compounds on aluminum 6063 in 0.5 mol l -1 H 3 PO 4 has been studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. Results showed that the inhibition occurs through adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of first group pharmaceutical compounds on the metal surface is found to obey Frumkin's adsorption isotherm, but the adsorption of second group pharmaceutical compounds is found to obey Temkin's adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters for adsorption process were determined. Galvanostatic polarization studies showed that first and second groups' pharmaceutical compounds are mixed-type inhibitors and the results obtained from the two techniques are in good agreement

  19. Aerobic biodegradation of organotin compounds in activated sludge batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasinakis, Athanasios S. [Department of Environmental Studies, Water and Air Quality Laboratory, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81 100 (Greece)]. E-mail: astas@env.aegean.gr; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografou, Athens 157 71 (Greece); Nikolaou, Anastasia [Department of Environmental Studies, Water and Air Quality Laboratory, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81 100 (Greece); Kantifes, Andreas [Department of Environmental Studies, Water and Air Quality Laboratory, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene 81 100 (Greece)

    2005-04-01

    The biodegradation behavior of four organotin (OT) compounds, namely tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT), was studied in lab-scale activated sludge batch reactors. The activated sludge was spiked with the OT compounds at a level of 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} as Sn. Determination of the OT compounds by GC-FPD after ethylation in the dissolved and particulate phase revealed that 24 h after the start of the experiments, almost the total of OT compounds has been removed from the dissolved phase and is associated with the suspended solids. Calculation of mass balance in batch reactors showed that OT compounds biodegradation was performed via a sequential dealkylation process. Removals due to biodegradation were differentiated according to the parent compound. In experiments with non-acclimatized biomass, a percentage of 27.1, 8.3, 73.8 and 51.3 was still present as TBT, DBT, MBT and TPhT, respectively, at the end of the experiment (18th day). Half-lives (t{sub 1/2}) of 10.2 and 5.1 days were calculated for TBT and DBT, respectively, whereas apparent t{sub 1/2} values could not be determined for MBT and TPhT (t{sub 1/2} > 18 days). The capacity of activated sludge to biodegrade OT compounds in the absence of supplemental substrate indicated that these compounds can be metabolized as single sources of carbon and energy in activated sludge systems. Excluding TBT, the presence of low concentrations of supplemental substrate did not affect the biodegradation potential of activated sludge. The acclimatization of biomass on OT compounds enhanced significantly biodegradation, resulting in significant decreases of half-lives of OT compounds. As a result in the presence of acclimatized biomass, half-lives of 1.4, 3.6, 9.8 and 5.0 days were calculated for TBT, DBT, MBT and TPhT, respectively. - The fate of organotins is assessed in activated sludge systems.

  20. Aerobic biodegradation of organotin compounds in activated sludge batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Nikolaou, Anastasia; Kantifes, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The biodegradation behavior of four organotin (OT) compounds, namely tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT), was studied in lab-scale activated sludge batch reactors. The activated sludge was spiked with the OT compounds at a level of 100 μg l -1 as Sn. Determination of the OT compounds by GC-FPD after ethylation in the dissolved and particulate phase revealed that 24 h after the start of the experiments, almost the total of OT compounds has been removed from the dissolved phase and is associated with the suspended solids. Calculation of mass balance in batch reactors showed that OT compounds biodegradation was performed via a sequential dealkylation process. Removals due to biodegradation were differentiated according to the parent compound. In experiments with non-acclimatized biomass, a percentage of 27.1, 8.3, 73.8 and 51.3 was still present as TBT, DBT, MBT and TPhT, respectively, at the end of the experiment (18th day). Half-lives (t 1/2 ) of 10.2 and 5.1 days were calculated for TBT and DBT, respectively, whereas apparent t 1/2 values could not be determined for MBT and TPhT (t 1/2 > 18 days). The capacity of activated sludge to biodegrade OT compounds in the absence of supplemental substrate indicated that these compounds can be metabolized as single sources of carbon and energy in activated sludge systems. Excluding TBT, the presence of low concentrations of supplemental substrate did not affect the biodegradation potential of activated sludge. The acclimatization of biomass on OT compounds enhanced significantly biodegradation, resulting in significant decreases of half-lives of OT compounds. As a result in the presence of acclimatized biomass, half-lives of 1.4, 3.6, 9.8 and 5.0 days were calculated for TBT, DBT, MBT and TPhT, respectively. - The fate of organotins is assessed in activated sludge systems

  1. Possible explosive compounds in the Savannah River Site waste tank farm facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a comparison of the known constituents in high-level nuclear waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and explosive compounds reported in the literature, only two classes of explosive compounds (metal NO x compounds and organic compounds) were identified as requiring further work to determine if they exist in the waste, and if so, in what quantities. Of the fourteen classes of explosive compounds identified as conceivably being present in tank farm operations, nine classes (metal fulminates, metal azides, halogen compounds, metal-amine complexes, nitrate/oxalate mixtures, metal oxalates, metal oxohalogenates, metal cyanides/cyanates, and peroxides) are not a hazard because these classes of compounds cannot be formed or accumulated in sufficient quantity, or they are not reactive at the conditions which exist in the tank farm facilities. Three of the classes (flammable gases, metal nitrides, and ammonia compounds and derivatives) are known to have the potential to build up to concentrations at which an observable reaction might occur. Controls have been in place for some time to limit the formation or control the concentration of these classes of compounds. A comprehensive list of conceivable explosive compounds is provided in Appendix 3

  2. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boopathy, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-06-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

  3. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO 2 . Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions

  4. Influence of organic nitro-compounds and of surface active compounds on the inverse voltametric determination of cadmium, lead and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahdat, F; Neeb, R

    1983-12-01

    The influence of surface active agents and of organic nitro-compounds alone and in combination on the potentiometric stripping analysis and anodic-stripping differential-pulse-polarography of Cd, Pb and Cu is investigated. In some cases PSA offers advantages for the determination of these elements in the presence of organic nitro-compounds in comparison with differential pulse-polarography.

  5. Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At the Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds there were sessions on facilitated transport, analytical applications, organic synthesis and reactions, phase transfer catalysis, and metal complexation. Abstracts of the individual presentations are included

  6. Industrial uses of boron compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, H [Eurotungstene; Thevenot, F

    1978-06-01

    A review includes a section on the use in the chemical industry of some transition-metal borides as heterogeneous catalysts in the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of organic compounds and in fuel cells.

  7. Crystallochemistry of rhenium compounds with metal-metal bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koz'min, P.A.; Surazhskaya, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented including a brief description of atomic structure of 59 coordination rhenium compounds with metal-metal bond. The most important bond lengths and valent angles are presented for each compound. The dependence of rhenium-rhenium bond length on its multiplicity is discussed and possible causes of deviations from this dependence (namely, axial ligand presence, steric repulsion of ligands) are considered. On the basis of qualitative comparison of electronegativity of ligands in dimer compounds with quarternary bond of rhenium-rhenium a supposition is made on the influence of formal charge of atomic group and summary electro-negativity of ligands on the possibility of the metal-metal bond formation

  8. Intermetallic compound development for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    lntermetallic compounds have been vigorously researched for the past twenty years. As a result of these studies the fundamental behaviour of a number of transition metal aluminides and suicides is now well understood, and a number of alloys with commercially acceptable properties have been developed. Future challenges for these alloys, for example Ni 3 AI, TiAI and Fe 3 AI, are focused on the development of large-scale production routes. However, there remain a number of other intermetallic compounds, such as Laves phases, which exhibit some promising properties, but little is presently known about their intrinsic behaviour. For compounds such as these more fundamental studies are required

  9. Radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Tao; Pan, Changduo

    2016-02-07

    Heterocyclic compounds are widely present in natural products, pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules. Thus, organic and pharmaceutical chemists have been making extensive efforts to construct those heterocyclic frameworks through developing versatile and efficient synthetic strategies. The direct C-H functionalization via the radical pathway has emerged as a promising and dramatic approach towards heterocycles with high atom- and step-economy. Heterocyclic compounds such as coumarins, furans, benzofurans, xanthones, benzothiazoles, indoles, indolines, oxindoles, quinolines, isoquinolines, quinoxaline, and phenanthridines have been successfully synthesized by C-H functionalization through the radical pathway. In this review, recent advances on radical C-H functionalization to construct heterocyclic compounds are highlighted with discussions.

  10. Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1975-01-01

    Environmental contaminations by certain metal compounds are bringing about serious problems to human health, including genetic hazards. It has been reported that some compounds of iron, manganese and mercury induce point mutations in microorganisms. Also it has been observed that those of aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead and tellurium cause chromosome aberrations in plants, insects and cultured human cells. The mechanism of mutation induction by these metals remains, however, still obscure. For screening of chemical mutagens, Kada et al, recently developed a simple and efficient method named rec-assay by observing differential growth sensitivities to drugs in wild and recombination-deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis. When a chemical is more inhibitory for Rec/sup -/ than for Rec/sup +/ cells, it is reasonable to suspect mutagenicity based on its DNA-damaging capacity. In the present report, 56 metal compounds were tested by the rec-assay. Compounds showing positive results in the assay such as potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/), ammonium molybdate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 6/Mo/sub 7/O/sub 24/) and sodium arsenite (NaAsO/sub 2/) were then examined as to their capacities to induce reversions in E. coli Trp/sup -/ strains possessing different DNA repair pathways. 11 references, 3 tables.

  11. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the possibilities of 3 H NMR in the characterisation of 3 H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author)

  12. Fire and explosion hazards of refractory compound powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivtsov, V.A.; Kostina, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    Data on fire and explosion hazards of refractory compound powders (HfC, ZrC,LaB 6 , ZrN, etc.) are presented. It is shown that refractory compounds can be fire- and exposion hazardous in various degrees. Qualitative and quantitative estimations of one of fire-hazard characteristics - smoldering temperature - are presented

  13. Compound presentation in labour: highlighting the importance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the occurrence of compound presentation in labour, as an obstetric emergency. Background: Compound presentation is a rare obstetric event, defined as the presentation of the hand or foot alongside the head or breech. It places both mother and baby at severe risk. The presence of skilled attendants ...

  14. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From the -hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica root bark were isolated eight compounds (1-8) which were identified on the basis of both spectroscopic and physical data as well as comparison with already published results. The crude extracts and isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro ...

  15. New heterocyclic compounds from Ranunculus ternatus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zi-Ming; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Yang, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Five new heterocyclic compounds, 5-α-d-fructofuranosylmethyl-furfural (1), 5-β-d-fructofuranosylmethyl-furfural (2), 5-β-d-fructopyranosylmethyl-furfural (3), 4-(2-((2S-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)methyl)-5-formyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)butanoic acid (4), and 3S,4S-4,5,8-trihydroxy-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)isochroman-1-one (5), were obtained from the root of Ranunculus ternatus Thunb., which is a traditional Chinese anti-tuberculosis medicine. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR data, and the comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Notably, compounds 1-3 are rarely occurring furfural fructosides in natural sources. These heterocyclic compounds could be further studied for the synthetic chemists and pharmacologists due to the source and structural properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  17. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  18. Effect of volatile compounds on excimer laser power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Stewart D; Hovanesian, John A; Maloney, Robert K

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether vapors from perfume, hairspray, oil-based paint, or water-based paint affect excimer laser beam power delivery at the corneal surface. We measured the power delivery of an Apex Plus laser before, during, and after exposure to vapors from the following volatile compounds: three types of perfume, hair spray, an oil-based paint, and a water-based paint. A digital calorimeter was used to measure the steady-state beam power of the laser during laser discharge at the corneal plane. Multiple trials were run with each compound, and the change in laser energy over time was examined to determine if any of the compounds caused degradation of the laser optics. The presence of a volatile compound in the room caused no change in mean laser energy in comparison to before and after the compound was present. However, perfumes caused a progressive decline in laser beam power throughout the trials. Controlling for this progressive decline, there was no significant difference from perfume to perfume. None of the compounds tested caused a decline in laser beam power while present in the room. However, the presence of any perfume caused a deterioration in beam power over time, suggesting a degradation of the laser optics for all perfumes. Laser centers should consider advising their patients and staff to not wear perfumes in the laser suite.

  19. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  20. Neolignan and phenylpropanoid compounds from the fruits of Illicium simonsii Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Peng-Yu; Chen, Ming-Hua; Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Feng, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Dan-Yang

    2018-01-04

    One new sesqui-neolignan compound, namely, sesqui-illisimonan A (1), one new neolignan, illisimonan A (2), and one new phenylpropanoid compound, illisimoid A (3) were isolated from the fruits of Illicium simonsii Maxim. The structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic, including NMR, circular dichroism and calculated electronic circular dichroism methods. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1-3 were also evaluated. Vitamin E was selected as the positive control (IC 50  = 49.73 ± 0.88 μM). Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited in vitro antioxidant activity with an IC 50 value of 55.76 ± 1.30 and 59.36 ± 0.50 μM, respectively. However, the compound 3 didn't show obvious antioxidant activity.

  1. Two new POMOF compounds constructed from polyoxoanions, metals and organic ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-Na; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Cui, Xiao-Bing

    2018-03-01

    Two new POMOF compounds, namely [PMo12V2O42][Cu3(4,4'-bpy)3]·(DABCO) (1) and [PMo10V4O42][Cu2(4,4'-bpy)2][Cu(phen)2]2 (2) (DABCO = triethylenediamine, bpy = bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XRD, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal structure analyses reveal that compounds 1 and 2 exhibit novel 2-D layered framework structures constructed from bi-capped Keggin molybdenum-vanadium polyoxoanions, metals and organic ligands, respectively. The main difference of the two compounds is that compound 2 contains both Cu2+ and Cu+ complexes. In addition, we also investigate the catalytic properties of the two compounds, both compound 1 and 2 are excellent catalysts for the epoxidation of styrene.

  2. Erupted Compound Odontomas: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Tejasvi M.L.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumors in which odontogenic differentiation is fully expressed are the odontomas. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than a true neoplasm. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp tissue. It is most commonly associated with the eruption of the teeth. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In exceptional cases, the odontoma erupts in to the mouth. Nine cases of erupted compound odontomas are reported in the English literature, and the present paper reports another case of an erupted compound odontoma in a 22-year-old female patient.

  3. Organic compounds in the Murchison meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Impressive supporting evidence for the concept of the chemical evolution of life has appeared in the discovery of biologically important compounds in extraterrestrial samples. The approaches pursued to detect extraterrestrial organic compounds include the study of interstellar space by radioastronomy, the evaluation of the Apollo lunar samples, and the analysis of meteorites, both ancient and recent. It has been found that the clouds of gas in the interstellar medium contain a wide variety of molecules, most of which are organic in nature. The carbonaceous chondrites contain polymeric organic matter. Amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite.

  4. Oligosilanylated Antimony Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zitz, Rainer; Gatterer, Karl; Reinhold, Crispin R. W.; M?ller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By reactions of magnesium oligosilanides with SbCl3, a number of oligosilanylated antimony compounds were obtained. When oligosilanyl dianions were used, either the expected cyclic disilylated halostibine was obtained or alternatively the formation of a distibine was observed. Deliberate formation of the distibine from the disilylated halostibine was achieved by reductive coupling with C8K. Computational studies of Sb?Sb bond energies, barriers of pyramidal inversion at Sb, and the conformati...

  5. Treating contaminated organic compounds using the DETOX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsberry, K.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste matrices containing organic compounds, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. This paper describes the results of bench-scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for designing a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent reaction rate orders for organic compounds and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on solution composition and the contact area were measured for vacuum pump oil, scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. Reaction rate was superior in chloride-based solutions and was proportional to the contact area above about 20 g/kg loading of organic material. Oxidations in 4-L volume, mixed bench-top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 0.999999+ g/g for common organic compounds. Reaction rates achieved in the mixed bench-top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10 to 100+ g of organic material per L-hr. Results are also presented on the solvation efficiency of DETOX for mercury, cerium, and neodymium, and for removal/destruction of organic compounds sorbed on vermiculite. The next stage of development will be converting the bench-top unit to continuous processing

  6. Radiation curable hydantoin diacrylate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, R.; DiPrima, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The diacrylate compounds are liquid at room temperature, easily processable as adhesives, casting and laminating resins and when cured possess excellent resistance to water. These compositions are easily cured exposure to ionizing radiations

  7. Measurement of lead compound in stack gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y; Hori, M; Tanikawa, N

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and particle-size distribution of lead compounds in the exhaust gas from various stationary sources are examined. The stationary sources concern lead production from battery scraps, lead smelting of cable mold, steel production from iron scraps, plastic combustion furnace, and a heavy oil boiler. A lead concentration of 0.2-100 mg/cu m in exhaust gas is detected. Furthermore, exhaust gas lead compounds are affected by the raw materials used.

  8. Organic astatine compounds, their preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasaros, L; Berei, K

    1985-01-01

    Aromatic astatine compounds of possible medical application were prepared by high energy substitutions, by astatine-halogen, and by electrophil astatine-hydrogen substitutions at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches, Dubna. Physico-chemical properties of organic astatine compounds such as boiling point and evaporation heat, and the refraction and dissociation energy of carbon-astatine bonds were determined experimentally by gas chromatography. The results are compared with extrapolated data. (V.N.). 41 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tables.

  9. Evolution of interstellar organic compounds under asteroidal hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Remusat, L.

    2018-05-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CC) contain a diversity of organic compounds. No definitive evidence for a genetic relationship between these complex organic molecules and the simple organic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) has yet been reported. One of the many difficulties arises from the transformations of organic compounds during accretion and hydrothermal alteration on asteroids. Here, we report results of hydrothermal alteration experiments conducted on a common constituent of interstellar ice analogs, Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT - C6H12N4). We submitted HMT to asteroidal hydrothermal conditions at 150 °C, for various durations (up to 31 days) and under alkaline pH. Organic products were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Results show that, within a few days, HMT has evolved into (1) a very diverse suite of soluble compounds dominated by N-bearing aromatic compounds (> 150 species after 31 days), including for instance formamide, pyridine, pyrrole and their polymers (2) an aromatic and N-rich insoluble material that forms after only 7 days of experiment and then remains stable through time. The reaction pathways leading to the soluble compounds likely include HMT dissociation, formose and Maillard-type reactions, e.g. reactions of sugar derivatives with amines. The present study demonstrates that, if interstellar organic compounds such as HMT had been accreted by chondrite parent bodies, they would have undergone chemical transformations during hydrothermal alteration, potentially leading to the formation of high molecular weight insoluble organic molecules. Some of the diversity of soluble and insoluble organic compounds found in CC may thus result from asteroidal hydrothermal alteration.

  10. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  11. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  12. Low-temperature field evaporation of Nb3Sn compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Kutsenko, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation results on field evaporation of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound wth A15 lattice are presented. Compound evaporation is shown to proceed in two stages. Evaporation field and ionic composition of evaporating material are determined. It is found out that in strong electric fields compound surface represents niobium skeleton, wich does not form regular image. Comparison of ion-microscopic and calculated images formed by low-temperature field evaporation indicates to possibility of sample surface reconstruction after preferable tin evaporation

  13. Quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of European pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pear fruits are an important source of plant secondary metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the individual phenolic compounds and some quality characteristics of the flesh and peel of the fruit in four pear ...

  14. Olefination of carbonyl compounds: modern and classical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotchenko, V N; Nenajdenko, Valentine G; Balenkova, Elizabeth S [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shastin, Aleksey V [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-31

    The published data on the methods for alkene synthesis by olefination of carbonyl compounds are generalised and systematised. The main attention is given to the use of transition metals and organoelement compounds. The review covers the data on both classical and newly developed methods that are little known to chemists at large.

  15. Olefination of carbonyl compounds: modern and classical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchenko, V. N.; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Balenkova, Elizabeth S.; Shastin, Aleksey V.

    2004-10-01

    The published data on the methods for alkene synthesis by olefination of carbonyl compounds are generalised and systematised. The main attention is given to the use of transition metals and organoelement compounds. The review covers the data on both classical and newly developed methods that are little known to chemists at large.

  16. Small molecule n-(alpha-peroxy) indole compounds and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo; Lai, Zhiping; Pan, Yupeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to novel N-(α-peroxy)indole compounds of Formula I and methods for use. (I) The N-(α-peroxy)indole compounds described herein are useful for treating or preventing parasitic infections, bacterial infections, and cancer in subjects. The methods include administering an N-(α-peroxy)indole compound as described herein to a subject. Also described herein are methods for synthesizing N-(α-peroxy )indole compounds.

  17. Small molecule n-(alpha-peroxy) carbazole compounds and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo; Lai, Zhiping; Pan, Yupeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to novel N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compounds of Formula I and methods for use. (I) The N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compounds described herein are useful for treating or preventing parasitic infections, bacterial infections, and cancer in subjects. The methods include administering an N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compound as described herein to a subject. Also described herein are methods for synthesizing N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compounds.

  18. Small molecule n-(alpha-peroxy) indole compounds and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2017-11-16

    The invention relates to novel N-(α-peroxy)indole compounds of Formula I and methods for use. (I) The N-(α-peroxy)indole compounds described herein are useful for treating or preventing parasitic infections, bacterial infections, and cancer in subjects. The methods include administering an N-(α-peroxy)indole compound as described herein to a subject. Also described herein are methods for synthesizing N-(α-peroxy )indole compounds.

  19. Small molecule n-(alpha-peroxy) carbazole compounds and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2017-11-16

    The invention relates to novel N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compounds of Formula I and methods for use. (I) The N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compounds described herein are useful for treating or preventing parasitic infections, bacterial infections, and cancer in subjects. The methods include administering an N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compound as described herein to a subject. Also described herein are methods for synthesizing N-(α-peroxy)carbazole compounds.

  20. Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Delgado Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents. Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

  1. Thermal decomposition of zirconium compounds with some aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel, A V; Malinko, L A; Karlysheva, K F; Sheka, I A; Shchepak, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1980-02-01

    By the thermogravimetry method investigated are processes of thermal decomposition of different zirconium compounds with mandelic, parabromomandelic, salicylic and sulphosalicylic acids. For identification of decomposition products the specimens have been kept at the temperature of effects up to the constant weight. Taken are IR-spectra, rentgenoarams, carried out is elementary analysis of decomposition products. It is stated that thermal decomposition of the investigated compounds passes in stages; the final product of thermolysis is ZrO/sub 2/. Nonhydrolized compounds are stable at heating in the air up to 200-265 deg. Hydroxy compounds begin to decompose at lower temperature (80-100 deg).

  2. APPROACH ON INTELLIGENT OPTIMIZATION DESIGN BASED ON COMPOUND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianchu; Zhou Ji; Yu Jun

    2003-01-01

    A concept of an intelligent optimal design approach is proposed, which is organized by a kind of compound knowledge model. The compound knowledge consists of modularized quantitative knowledge, inclusive experience knowledge and case-based sample knowledge. By using this compound knowledge model, the abundant quantity information of mathematical programming and the symbolic knowledge of artificial intelligence can be united together in this model. The intelligent optimal design model based on such a compound knowledge and the automatically generated decomposition principles based on it are also presented. Practically, it is applied to the production planning, process schedule and optimization of production process of a refining & chemical work and a great profit is achieved. Specially, the methods and principles are adaptable not only to continuous process industry, but also to discrete manufacturing one.

  3. Compound Half-Backed Weave Design For Digital Jacquard Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jiu

    2017-12-01

    Based on layered-combination design mode and compound structure, this paper presents a design method, named compound half-backed weave in order to achieve innovating weave structure and surface effect of fabric. This design method includes primary weaves chosen, half-backed technical points set up and half-backed weave databases established. The fabric produced using compound half-backed weave designed by this method can exhibit a unique half-backed effect that only half of the threads on the fabric surface remain in a state of being covered by adjacent wefts. Compound half-backed weave can not only meets the design need of jacquard fabric with different digital images and effectively improves the efficiency of structural design, but also puts forward new theory and method for innovative design of digital jacquard fabric.

  4. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals.

  5. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  6. Occurrence of cyanazine compounds in groundwater: Degradates more prevalent than the parent compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, D.W.; Thurman, E.M.; Linhart, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    A recently developed analytical method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the occurrence of cyanazine and its degradates cyanazine acid (CAC), cyanazine amide (CAM), deethylcyanazine (DEC), and deethylcyanazine acid (DCAC) in groundwater. This research represents some of the earliest data on the occurrence of cyanazine degradates in groundwater. Although cyanazine was infrequently detected in the 64 wells across Iowa sampled in 1999, cyanazine degradates were commonly found during this study. The most frequently detected cyanazine compound was DCAC (32.8%) followed by CAC (29.7%), CAM (17.2%), DEC (3.1%), and cyanazine (3.1%). The frequency of detection for cyanazine or one or more of its degradates (CYTOT) was more than 12-fold over that of cyanazine alone (39.1% for CYTOT versus 3.1% for cyanazine). Of the total measured concentration of cyanazine, only 0.2% was derived from its parent compound - with DCAC (74.1%) and CAC (18.4%) comprising 92.5% of this total. Thus, although DCAC and CAC had similar frequencies of detection, DCAC was generally present in higher concentrations. No concentrations of cyanazine compounds for this study exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of human health. Only cyanazine, however, has such a criteria established. Nevertheless, because these cyanazine degradates are still chlorinated, they may have similar toxicity as their parent compound - similar to what has been found with the chlorinated degradates of atrazine. Thus, the results of this study documented that data on the degradates for cyanazine are critical for understanding its fate and transport in the hydrologic system. Furthermore, the prevalence of the chlorinated degradates of cyanazine found in groundwater suggests that to accurately determine the overall effect on human health and the environment from cyanazine its degradates should also be considered. In addition, because CYTOT was found in 57.6% of the samples collected

  7. Beyond dichotomies : on the nature and classification of compound verbs in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of compound verbs in English poses numerous problems, among which even their recognition as compounds on grounds of their derivation. Resulting from at least three different word-formation patterns, compound verbs constitute a heterogeneous class of complex lexemes. Their status as actual compound lexemes invites the differentiation between compounding as a word-formation process and compounds as a special class of lexemes. Even within the latter, compound verbs display marked properties at least in relation to the inability of standard classifications of compounds to capture and compromise their lexical uniformity and their heterogeneous origin. The adoption of a position in which it is argued that compound verbs in English constitute a constructional idiom and the application of scalar analytical notions which combine word-formationist and lexical-semantic accounts cast in the general framework of the cognitive linguistic enterprise yield informative generalizations concerning the linguistic and conceptual properties of compound verbs in English. In view of Radden and Dirven's (2007: 41-46 claim that we do not need "more than two basic types of conceptual units things and relations" in order to establish linguistically relevant conceptual distinctions, compound verbs pose a problem for neat dichotomous treatment as they very often both conceptually and in terms of form include a "thing" (e.g. to flat-hunt, to house-sit, to fellow-feel, to case-harden, etc. and thus come closer to a "situation" than to a "relation". Exactly because of the fact that compound verbs profile/perspectivize "situations" as "relations", they function as special construal mechanisms and as such do not fit the subordinate/coordinate distinction, because they name situations. In view of the above the paper treats compound verbs as a constructional idiom whose analysis necessitates the recognition of the role of conceptual conversion mechanisms, scalar

  8. Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, C.M.; Xu Li; Eglinton, T.I.; Boon, J.P.; Faulkner, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    New developments in molecular-level 14 C analysis techniques enable clues about natural versus commercial synthesis of trace organic contaminants. - Some halogenated organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been suggested to have natural sources but separating these compounds from their commercially synthesized counterparts is difficult. Molecular-level 14 C analysis may be beneficial since most synthetic compounds are manufactured from petrochemicals ( 14 C-free) and natural compounds should have 'modern' or 'contemporary' 14 C levels. As a baseline study, we measured, for the first time, the 14 C abundance in commercial PCB and PBDE mixtures, a number of organochlorine pesticides, as well as one natural product 2-(3', 5'-dibromo-2'-methoxyphenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole. The latter compound was isolated from a marine sponge and is similar in structure to a PBDE. All of the synthetic compounds were 14 C-free except for the pesticide toxaphene, which had a modern 14 C abundance, as did the brominated natural compound. The result for toxaphene was not surprising since it was commercially synthesized by the chlorination of camphene derived from pine trees. These results suggest that measuring the 14 C content of halogenated organic compounds may be quite useful in establishing whether organic compounds encountered in the environment have natural or synthetic origins (or both) provided that any synthetic counterparts derive from petrochemical feedstock

  9. Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications of Cell Death Induction by Indole Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aamir; Sakr, Wael A.; Rahman, KM Wahidur

    2011-01-01

    Indole compounds, obtained from cruciferous vegetables, are well-known for their anti-cancer properties. In particular, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been widely investigated for their effectiveness against a number of human cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. These compounds are effective inducers of apoptosis and the accumulating evidence documenting their ability to modulate multiple cellular signaling pathways is a testimony to their pleiotropic behavior. Here we attempt to update current understanding on the various mechanisms that are responsible for the apoptosis-inducing effects by these compounds. The significance of apoptosis-induction as a desirable attribute of anti-cancer agents such as indole compounds cannot be overstated. However, an equally intriguing property of these compounds is their ability to sensitize cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Such chemosensitizing effects of indole compounds can potentially have major clinical implications because these non-toxic compounds can reduce the toxicity and drug-resistance associated with available chemotherapies. Combinational therapy is increasingly being realized to be better than single agent therapy and, through this review article, we aim to provide a rationale behind combination of natural compounds such as indoles with conventional therapeutics

  10. Process for the manufacture of a superconductor with an intermetallic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, M.

    1980-01-01

    A superconductor with a superconducting intermetallic compound consisting of at least two elements can be manufactured by producing a conductor preproduct with a first component containing one element of the compound and a second component consisting of a carrier metal and the remaining element or elements of the alloy containing the compound, and by heat treating the conductor preproduct, so that the compound is formed by the reaction of the element of the first compound with the remaining element or elements of the second compound. In such a superconductor, one tries to increase the effective current density and critical current. The invention states that the heat treatment should be carried out in a hydrogen atmosphere. Superconductors produced by this process can be used for superconductor devices whose magnetic fields have a flux density above 10 Tesla. (orig.) [de

  11. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of tritium in the production of selfluminous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Heung Suk; Ahn, Doh Heui; Baek, Seung Woo; Koo, Je Hyoo; Kook, Il Hyun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, Kwang Lak

    1994-12-01

    In a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, about one MCi of tritium is produced annually. Tritium is a very useful resource as an essential material for selfluminous compounds. In this report, in order to manufacture selfluminous compounds by using the tritium in Wolsung nuclear power plant, the pretreatment technology of materials and the coating technology of selfluminous compounds was investigated and its raw cost was estimated. It was confirmed that tritium can be used as a very useful industrial material. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 35 refs. (Author)

  13. Radiation effects on n-hexane-urea inclusion compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Nobuaki; Ozasa, Senichi; Ichikawa, Takahisa

    1987-01-01

    n-hexane-urea inclusion compounds were γ-irradiated at room temperature and dimers from n-hexane were found to form. Additive effects of 1-hexene, 1-chloropentane, and n-hexylamine to the formation of the dimers have been studied. For the comparison liquid n-hexane systems were also γ-irradiated under the same conditions. The radiation-induced reactions in the inclusion compounds are discussed together with the reactions in the liquid n-hexane systems. The dimers from n-hexane in the inclusion compounds are presumably formed by dimerization of hexyl radicals; the hexyl radicals are possibly produced by hydrogen abstraction of hydrogen atom and/or urea radicals from n-hexane included in urea. (author)

  14. Biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothawornkitkul, Jullada; Taylor, Jane E; Paul, Nigel D; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds produced by plants are involved in plant growth, development, reproduction and defence. They also function as communication media within plant communities, between plants and between plants and insects. Because of the high chemical reactivity of many of these compounds, coupled with their large mass emission rates from vegetation into the atmosphere, they have significant effects on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Hence, biogenic volatile organic compounds mediate the relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Alteration of this relationship by anthropogenically driven changes to the environment, including global climate change, may perturb these interactions and may lead to adverse and hard-to-predict consequences for the Earth system.

  15. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  16. New compounds as potential radio diagnosticians Alzheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Marrero, S.; Sablón Carrazana, M.; Bencomo Martinez, A.; Merceron Martínez, D.; Jimenez Martín, J.; Pérez Perera, R.; Díaz García, O.; Rodríguez Tanty, Ch.; Prats Capote, A.; Perera Pintado, A; Fernández Maza, L.; Balcerzyk, M; Fernández Gómez, I.; Parrado Gallego, Á; León Chaviano, S.; Acosta Medina, E.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in Cuba and all over the World. According to demographic trends it has been called the epidemic of the century. It is characterized by the presence of neuropathological brain deposits: senile plaques, formed by neurofibrillary tangles (NT) and deposits of β-amyloid protein (Aß). Aß plaques could appear even 20 years before the establishment of first clinical symptoms of the disease. The aim of this study was to synthesize new naphthalene derivatives, feasible to be labeled with radionuclides emitters of either gamma radiation or positrons. These labeled compounds should be able to cross blood–brain barrier (BBB) in healthy and AD transgenic animals. As a result of this work, several synthetic precursors were synthesized, which were labeled with iodine-131, carbon-11 and fluorine-18 with a satisfactory radiochemical purity. The corresponding non-radioactive control compounds were also synthesized.In in vitro and in silico studies, obtained compounds showed affinity for the β-amyloid protein. According to SPECT and PET-CT images in healthy laboratory animals, obtained labeled compounds crossed BBB in a bi-directional way without any sign of brain uptake.Furthermore, evaluation of the biodistribution of the [ 18 F] -2- (3-fluoropropyl) -6-methoxynaphthalene ([[ 18 F] Amyloid® was performed in healthy animals.[[ 18 F]Amylovis crossed blood brain barrier. Renal and hepatic pathways were the main excretion routes. On the other hand, in transgenic mice with AD, its uptake and its retention time were higher in comparison with healthy mice. Immunohistochemistry and Congo red staining of control and transgenic mice brain slices were performed to identify β-amyloid plaques.Conclusions: Obtained compounds were able to bi-directionally cross BBB.[[ 18 F]Amylovis® could be a promising PET radiotracer for amyloid plaques visualization. (author)

  17. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  18. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  19. Recovery of wine volatile compounds during the vinification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Gómez-Plaza

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available During the fermentation of grape sugars there is a formation of CO2, which escapes along with other volatile compounds being formed during the fermentation. To determine these lost main compounds, we placed an experimental system in a winery, which consisted in a cold trap connected to the exit of the fermentation tanks.

  20. Solubility of carbon monoxide in bio-oil compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Le Nedelec, Tom; Guerrero-Amaya, Hernando; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Richon, Dominique; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO solubility was measured in four bio-oil compounds using static-analytic VLE equipment. • A comparison on the performance of different EoS (PC-SAFT, SRK and PR) was made. • Modelling of polar compounds with Polar PC-SAFT was tested. • Polar PC-SAFT is not needed for weakly polar compounds (μ < 1.0 D). - Abstract: The solubility of carbon monoxide is measured in four different bio-oil compounds (furan, diacetyl, 2-methylfuran, and trans-crotonaldehyde) at temperatures (273.15, 283.15, 298.15, and 323.15 K) and pressures up to 8 MPa using a static-analytical VLE measurement method. The equipment was validated by measuring the solubility of CO 2 in methanol at 298.15 K and pressures (P = 2.9–5.7 MPa). The results were compared with the abundantly available literature values. PC-SAFT, Polar PC-SAFT (PPC-SAFT), and Cubic (SRK, PR) EoS, part of commercial process simulator Aspen Plus V. 8.6, are used here for modelling purpose. The pure component parameters needed for PC-SAFT and PPC-SAFT EoS models, are regressed using the experimental liquid density and vapour pressure data of the pure components. It was observed that furan, 2-methylfuran and diacetyl, having weak dipole moments (μ < 1.0 D), could be modelled reasonably well without the addition of polar contribution using conventional PC-SAFT, while it is recommended to use PPC-SAFT for the description of a polar compound like trans-crotonaldehyde (μ ∼ 3.67 D). It was observed that SRK and PR EoS have similar predictive ability in comparison to PC-SAFT for a mixture of CO with weakly polar compounds in this study. A comparison between the performances of EoS models was made in two ways: first by setting the binary interaction parameter k ij to zero, and second by adjusting a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter (k ij ). All the models perform with comparable accuracy with adjusted binary interaction parameters. However, due to the large differences between the chemical and